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0 Documentation

Copyright (c) 2000-2006 S. Pagliarulo

To properly view this document in Notepad, maximize the Notepad window and

make sure a fixed-width font such as Courier is selected. To print this

document, open it in Notepad or any other word processor and select Print from

the File menu.

INSTALLATION

directory of your choosing. QuickPi has no special operating system

dependencies and makes no changes to the Windows registry. QuickPi is

intended for use on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems running a Pentium 4 or

newer processor. The 64-bit (x64) version of QuickPi requires an AMD

processor with AMD64 instruction set or Intel processor with EM64T support

running an x64 edition of Windows.

DISTRIBUTION NOTES

The files that comprise the QPI40.ZIP file including the QPI v4.0 executable

are freely available for distribution. If you plan to distribute QuickPi to

friends, associates or online, you must distribute the entire file set as

originally received. Do not distribute individual files.

-----------------

QUICKPI OVERVIEW

program is one of the fastest available on the Windows platform. In addition

to its speed, QuickPi offers 6 different methods for computing Pi and can also

compute other constants such as e and the square root of 2 with equal

precision and speed.

USAGE INFORMATION

QuickPi is a command line program and as such you will need to start a Command

Prompt window to use it. Refer to your Windows help guide for information on

how to start a Command Prompt window.

Once a Command Prompt window has been started, be sure the QuickPi application

QPI.EXE (or QPI64.EXE) is located in your system path. If it's not, then

change the current working directory to that chosen when the program was first

installed. Again, refer to your Windows help guide for information on PATHs

and the CHDIR command.

Entering QPI on the command line without any parameters will produce the

following information:

Freely distributable, email: s_pagliarulo@hotmail.com

Information in square brackets [] is optional. Items separated by a vertical

bar | indicate an either-or choice. The k, m and g suffix following "digits",

allows you to specify either kilo (1,024), mega (1,048,576) or giga

(1,073,741,824) digits respectively. Other suffixes include th, mi, and bi

for a thousand (1,000), million (1,000,000) or billion (1,000,000,000) digits

respectively. For example, to specify 2,048 digits of pi, enter:

qpi 2k

qpi 1mi

The output will be sent to the console screen. To save the output to a text

file, simply specify a destination file name following the digits

specification:

This will save the output to the file "pi.txt" as well as providing progress

information to the console screen. Note, the output of QuickPi 4.0 can also

be "routed" with the > operator as with previous versions of QuickPi. In this

case however, no progress information will be provided to the console screen.

Entering QPI on the command line with the -h option will produce the following

additional information:

-OPTIONS-

-agm[1|2|3] AGM methods (1,2,3) -catalan Catalan's constant

-borwein Borweins' quartic -exp natural log base, e

-chudnovsky Chudnovskys' method -gamma Euler's constant

-ramanujan Ramanujan's method -ln2/ln10 natural log of 2 and 10

-machin Machin's arctan formula -phi golden mean

-stormer Stormer arctan formula -sqrt2 -2 Pythagoras' constant

-zeta3 Apery's constant

-OUTPUT FORMAT-

-fancy:dpc,dpr, dpc - digits per column [default=10]

dpb,bs,dc, dpr - digits per row [default=50]

fl dpb - digits per block [default=500]

bs - block spacing [default=1]

dc - digit counting (none,row,block) [default=row]

fl - flags (noindent,indent) [default=noindent]

-COMPUTATION-

-formula[n] use alternate formula (1-n) for computation

-inverse compute multiplicative inverse

-MEMORY MANAGEMENT-

-mem:size set upper memory limit (affects performance)

-swap:path specify the location of swap files

-noswap disable swap file creation

-MISCELLANEOUS-

-train train program for optimal performance

-binary compress output and create binary file

-stats output computation statistics only (suppress digit data)

-checksum include checksum of computation result

-save save options as default values

-license display software license information

exist, using two letters will generally differentiate the options.

OPTION DESCRIPTIONS

-agm[1|2|3]

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pi using one of the AGM (Arithmetic-

Geometric-Mean) formulas first discovered by Gauss and Legendre and later

independently by Brent and Salamin. QuickPi actually uses optimized algorithm

variants of these formulas.

supplied by Carey Bloodworth. The author thanks Carey for his contribution.

Specifying -agm2 causes QuickPi to use an optimized formula by Takuya Ooura

which is part of his FFT software package and can be found on his website (1).

Specifying -agm3 causes QuickPi to use an original un-optimized Brent-Salamin

formula.

The AGM formulas are iterations that are quadratic in nature (the number of

digits doubling with each iteration). To compute a million digits of Pi, the

AGM typically uses 19 iterations.

-borwein

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pi using a quartic iteration discovered

by Jonathan and Peter Borwein. A quartic iteration quadruples the number of

digits at each iteration (at the cost of more operations per iteration). To

compute two million digits of Pi, the Borwein quartic formula only requires 10

iterations.

-chudnovsky

This is the default option for QuickPi when no other options are specified.

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pi using a Ramanujan series formula

discovered by David and Gregory Chudnovsky. This formula provides

approximately 14 correct digits per term. This is currently QuickPi's fastest

method for computing Pi.

-ramanujan

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pi using one of the many series formulas

discovered by Srinivasa Ramanujan. The particular formula used by QuickPi

provides approximately 8 digits per term and runs predictably slower than the

series by the Chudnovsky brothers.

-machin

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pi using the arctangent formula

discovered by John Machin in 1706. Machin's refinement on the

Gregory/Leibniz series yielded a formula with a significantly greater rate of

convergence: pi/4 = 4 arctan(1/5) - arctan(1/239)

-stormer

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pi using an arctangent formula

discovered by F.C.W. Stormer in 1896. This is one of the same formulas used

by Yasumasa Kanada of the University of Tokyo (2) and his team to compute Pi

to a record 1 trillion digits: pi/4 = 44 arctan(1/57) + 7 arctan(1/239) - 12

arctan(1/682) + 24 arctan(1/12943)

-exp -e

This option causes QuickPi to compute the natural logarithmic base, e. The

constant e = exp(1) is defined as: 1 + 1/1! + 1/2! + 1/3! + ...

-catalan

This option causes QuickPi to compute Catalan's constant. Catalan is defined

by the following series: 1/1^2 - 1/3^2 + 1/5^2 - 1/7^2 + 1/9^2 - ... and is

usually denoted as K, G or sometimes C. QuickPi uses a faster series by

Alexandru Lupas for this computation.

-gamma

This option causes QuickPi to compute Euler's constant (or Mascheroni's

constant) and is defined as the limit of: 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + 1/5 + ... +

1/n - ln(n). The constant is usually denoted by the lower-case Greek letter

Gamma. QuickPi uses a faster method due to Brent and McMillan for this

computation.

-ln2

This option causes QuickPi to compute the natural log of 2. Ln2 is the

solution to the equation: e^x = 2.

-ln10

This option causes QuickPi to compute the natural log of 10. Ln10 is the

solution to the equation: e^x = 10.

-phi

This option causes QuickPi to compute the Golden Mean. Also known as the

Golden Ratio or the Golden Section, it is usually represented by the Greek

letter Phi. QuickPi uses Newton's iteration for computing Phi (see -sqrt2).

The formula for Phi is: (1 + sqrt(5)) / 2.

-sqrt2 -2

This option causes QuickPi to compute Pythagoras' constant, the square root of

2. QuickPi uses Newton's iteration for computing the square root of 2. With

an initial estimate (x) for the square root of 2, Newton's iteration converges

quadratically using the sequence: x = (x/2 + 1/x).

-zeta3

This option causes QuickPi to compute Apery's constant, Zeta(3). Zeta(3) is

defined by the formula: 1 + 1/2^3 + 1/3^3 + 1/4^3 + ... QuickPi uses a faster

series discovered by Amdeberhan and Zeilberger for this computation.

-fancy:

This option allows the formatted output of QuickPi to be customized. The

default format is 10 digits per column, 50 digits per row and 500 digits per

block. Blocks are separated by 1 blank line, digits are counted after each

row and lines are not indented. Specifying each (in order) as follows can

change these parameters:

-fancy:dpc,dpr,dpb,bs,dc,fl

For example, the following parameters cause QuickPi to output 5 digits per

column, 50 digits per row, 1000 digits per block with lines indented. Note

that any missing parameters remain unchanged.

-fancy:5,50,1000,,,indent

There are two other valid parameters for this option. They are -fancy:default

and -fancy:raw. The first causes the QuickPi to revert to its original

default parameters and the second causes QuickPi to produce unformatted

output. Unformatted output is simply a stream of digits without spaces or

line termination.

-formula[n]

This option enables QuickPi to use an alternate formula for a computation.

Specifying -formula1 causes QuickPi to use its primary (default) formula and

specifying -formula2 thru -formula9 causes QuickPi to use an alternate

(generally slower) formula. Alternate formulas are useful to verify the

correctness of a computation. The following constants have alternate

formulas:

-catalan -formula2

-exp -formula2

-ln2/ln10 -formula2

-phi -formula2

-sqrt2 -formula2

-zeta3 -formula2

-inverse

This option causes QuickPi to compute the multiplicative inverse or reciprocal

result. This option is not available for all constants.

-mem:size

This option sets the upper limit of memory use for QuickPi. The size

parameter may be followed by an m to indicate megabytes (1048576 bytes). The

smallest value that can be specified is 32 megabytes, smaller values are

ignored. When the upper limit of memory is reached, QuickPi will reduce its

memory consumption and may swap memory to disk unless the creation of swap

files is disabled (see -noswap option). Note, very large computations may

still push QuickPi over the specified memory limit.

-swap:path

Normally, QuickPi creates swap files in the current directory. This option

causes QuickPi to use the specified path as the location for creating swap

files. A drive letter may be included as part of the path. The path must

already exist. Swap files are placed in the current working directory if a

path is not specified.

-noswap

This option prevents QuickPi from creating swap files when running low on

memory.

-train

This option causes QuickPi to train or configure itself for a specific

computer environment. Once trained, QuickPi will usually run faster than its

default configuration. Training will normally take several minutes to

complete. Training information is saved to a QPI.INI file located in the same

directory as QPI.EXE. QuickPi will then read the training information the

next time it's run. It is recommended that all Windows applications be closed

and any background tasks (including screensavers) be disabled prior to

initiating training.

-binary

This option causes QuickPi to write its output as a compressed binary file.

Compressed files are generally 1/2 to 1/3 the size of QuickPi's normal output.

A secondary reader program QRD (included) is required to view compressed

binary files. The QuickPi Reader program is described below.

-stats

This option causes QuickPi to output computation statistics only and suppress

the output of digit data. This can be useful when only the statistics of a

computation are desired for comparison purposes.

-checksum

This option will cause QuickPi to calculate and display a checksum for a

computation result. A checksum can be useful to validate a result without

having to perform a digit by digit comparison.

-save

This option causes QuickPi to save the settings of the above specified options

to a QPI.INI file located in the same directory as QPI.EXE. The next time

QuickPi is started; it will automatically read the QPI.INI file and default to

the saved options. This is particularly useful for the -fancy option and its

various parameters.

-license

This option displays the QuickPi license information.

----------------

READER OVERVIEW

and output it in a variety of customizable formats. Using the Reader allows

you to quickly output all or part of a QuickPi result without having to re-run

a (perhaps lengthy) QuickPi computation. In addition, compressed binary files

are up to 1/2 to 1/3 the size of QuickPi's normal output; saving a significant

amount of disk space if result files are archived.

USAGE INFORMATION

The QuickPi Reader is a command line program and as such you will need to

start a Command Prompt window to use it. Refer to your Windows help guide for

information on how to start a Command Prompt window.

Once a Command Prompt window has been started, be sure the Reader program

QRD.EXE (or QRD64.EXE) is located in your system path. If it's not, then

change the current working directory to that chosen when the program was first

installed. Again, refer to your Windows help guide for information on PATHs

and the CHDIR command.

Entering QRD on the command line without any parameters will produce the

following information:

Freely distributable, email: s_pagliarulo@hotmail.com

Information in square brackets [] is optional. Items separated by a vertical

bar | indicate an either-or choice. For example, to view the compressed

binary file "pi.bin" created by QuickPi, enter:

qrd pi.bin

The output will be sent to the console screen. To save the output to a text

file, simply specify a destination file name after the source file name:

Entering QRD on the command line with the -h option will produce the following

additional information:

options:

-nostats output digit data only

start - start of range (1-)

end - end of range (1-)

-skip:count,step skip over output

count - output [count] digits

step - every [step] digits

dpb,bs,dc, dpc - digits per column

fl dpr - digits per row

dpb - digits per block

bs - block spacing

dc - digit counting (none,row,block)

fl - flags (noindent,indent)

-square compute square

-license display software license information

exist, using two letters will generally differentiate the options.

OPTION DESCRIPTIONS

-stats

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to output computation statistics only

and suppress the output of digit data. This option can be used to obtain a

summary of a compressed binary file's contents.

-nostats

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to suppress the output of computation

statistics that normally precede the digit data. This option should be used

when only digit data is desired.

-range:

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to limit the range of digits output. A

starting point, an ending point, or both starting and ending points can be

entered, separated by a dash. Multiple ranges can be specified by separating

them with a comma or by entering multiple -range options from the command

line. For example, the following parameters will output the first and last

100 digits of 20k computed digits:

-range:1-100,20381-20480

-skip:

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to skip across the full range of

computed digits and to only occasionally output a specified number of them.

The first parameter specifies the number of digits to output. The second

parameter specifies the skip amount. For example, the following parameters:

-skip:100,10000

cause the QuickPi Reader to produce the following output with 20k computed

digits of Pi:

3.

1415926535 8979323846 2643383279 5028841971 6939937510 : 50

5820974944 5923078164 0628620899 8628034825 3421170679 : 100

4434803966 4205579829 3680435220 2770984294 2325330225 : 10100

6508209642 7348414695 7263978842 5600845312 1406593580 : 20100

-fancy:

This option allows the formatted output of the QuickPi Reader to be

customized. The default format is saved as part of the compressed binary file

created by QuickPi. Unless changed when using QuickPi, the default format is

10 digits per column, 50 digits per row and 500 digits per block. Blocks are

separated by 1 blank line, digits are counted after each row and lines are not

indented. Specifying each (in order) as follows can change these parameters:

-fancy:dpc,dpr,dpb,bs,dc,fl

For example, the following parameters cause QuickPi Reader to output 5 digits

per column, 50 digits per row, 1000 digits per block with lines indented.

Note that any missing parameters remain unchanged.

-fancy:5,50,1000,,,indent

There are two other valid parameters for this option. They are -fancy:default

and -fancy:raw. The first causes the QuickPi Reader to revert to its original

default parameters and the second causes the QuickPi Reader to produce

unformatted output. Unformatted output is simply a stream of digits without

spaces or line termination.

-inverse

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to compute and output the multiplicative

inverse or reciprocal of a result.

-square

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to compute and output the square of a

result.

-binary

This option causes the QuickPi Reader to write its output as a compressed

binary file. This option is useful when combined with the -inverse or -square

options.

-license

This option displays the QuickPi Reader license information.

-------------------

PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

The upper limit for the 32-bit version of QuickPi is 1 billion digits. The 64-

bit version has been successfully tested with over 100 billion digits and has

a theoretical upper limit of 500 billion digits. The exact upper limit

depends on several factors including but not limited to the amount of memory

and disk space available. Each new release of QuickPi should continue to

perform faster and with higher precision.

The author and the contributors to this work disclaim all warranties as to

this software, whether express or implied, including without limitation any

implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose,

functionality or data integrity or protection.

In no event shall the author, nor the contributors be liable for any direct,

indirect, incidental, consequential, special or punitive damages which may

result from the use of this software, including loss or interruption of

business, accidental loss of data, or damage to computer equipment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My thanks and appreciation to all the Beta testers who have assisted with the

testing of this version over the past few months. With the benefit of their

help, QuickPi has become a far superior program. A special thanks to Shigeru

Kondo for his extra dedication, enthusiasm, helpful feedback and suggestions.

Pagliarulo. Steve can be contacted via email at: s_pagliarulo@hotmail.com

WEBSITES DEDICATED TO PI

Xavier Gourdon: http://numbers.computation.free.fr/Constants/constants.html

jasonp's home page: http://www.boo.net/~jasonp/

Shigeru's pi world: http://ja0hxv.calico.jp/pai/estart.html

-------------------

(1) Takuya Ooura maintains a website dedicated to Pi and the AGM at:

http://momonga.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~ooura/pi_fft.html

http://www.super-computing.org

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