Sunteți pe pagina 1din 106

INTEGRALES POR SUSTITUCIONES TRIGONOMETRICAS

Erving Quintero Gil Ing. Electromecnico Bucaramanga Colombia 2008


quintere@hotmail.com quintere@gmail.com quintere2006@yahoo.com

RESUMEN METODO DE SUSTITUCIN TRIGONOMETRICA


Un buen numero de integrales que contienen polinomios de segundo grado, se pueden transformar a integrales directas o inmediatas si se utilizan sustituciones de variables que contienen funciones trigonometricas que transforman la expresin en una identidad trigonomtrica

a2 + x2

x = a tg z x2 = a2 tg2 z

a2 - x2

x = a sen z x2 = a2 sen2 z

Reemplazando a2 + x2 = a2 + (a2 tg2 z ) a2 + x2 = {a2 + a2 tg2 z} a2 + x2 = { a2 (1 + tg2 z )} a2 + x2 = a2 (sec2 z ) x2 - a2 x = a sec z x2 = a2 sec2 z

Reemplazando a2 - x2 = a2 - (a2 sen2 z ) a2 - x2 = {a2 - a2 sen2 z} a2 - x2 = { a2 (1 - sen2 z )} a2 - x2 = a2 (cos2 z )

Reemplazando x2 - a2 = (a2 sec2 z ) a2 x2 - a2 = { a2 sec2 z - a2 } x2 - a2 = { a2 (sec2 z -1 )} x2 - a2 = a2 (tg2 z )

TABLA DE INTEGRALES
du = u + c a du = a u + c donde a es una constante u n +1 u n du = + c n -1 n +1 du = Ln u + c u au a u du = + c donde a. > 0 y a 1 Ln a u u e du = e + c sen u du = - cos u + c cos u du = sen u + c

2 sec u du = tg u + c 2 csc u du = - ctg u + c


sec u tg u du = sec u + c csc u ctg u du = - csc u + c

tg u du = Ln sec u ctg u du = Ln sen u

+c +c +c

sec u du = Ln sec u + tg u

csc u du = Ln csc u - ctg u

+ c = Ln tg

1 u +c 2

Las siguientes integrales se pueden usar para resolver en forma directa, adems se pueden demostrar dx 1 x arc tg + c = 2 + x2 a a a
dy 1 a+x = Ln +c 2 - x2 2 a a-x a

Ln +c 2 2= 2a x+a x -a
x = arc sen + c a a2 - x2 dx
dx x2 - a2 dx = Ln x + x 2 - a 2 + c

dx

x-a

x x2 - a2

1 x arc sec + c donde a > 0 a a


a2 + x2 + x + C1

2 2 a + x dx =

a2 x 2 Ln a + x2 + 2 2

2 2 x a dx =

x a2 x2 - a2 + Ln 2 2

x2 - a2 + x

+ C1

2 2 a -x =
dx x x2 + a2

a2 x x 2 a x2 + c arc sen + 2 a 2
= 1 x2 + a2 - a Ln +c a x

x = a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz = 2 x2 + a2
dx x2 a2 - x2 = a2 - x2 +c a2 x

x 2 dx

2 2 + a 2 - a Ln x 2 + a 2 + x x 2

+ c1

a2 - x2 dx = 2 x

a2 - x2 x - arc sen +c x a

x 2 dx a2 x2 32

x a2 - x2

- arc sen

x +c a

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral


dx a2 + x2 = 1 x arc tg + c a a

dx 2 + x2 a dx a2 + x2 = a sec 2 z dz a 2 sec 2 z
1 dz a

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

a sec 2 z dz a 2 sec 2 z

x = a tg z x2 = a2 tg2 z

1 1 1 dz = dz = (z ) + c a a a

si x = a tg z dx = a sec 2 z dz

a + x2

a 2 + x 2 = a 2 + a 2 tg 2 z

Reemplazando

x z
a

1 = (z ) + c a a2 + x2 dx

a 2 + x 2 = a 2 1 + tg 2 z a 2 + x 2 = a 2 sec 2 z
si x = a tg z tg z =
x z = arc tg a

dx 1 x = arc tg + c 2 + x2 a a a

x a

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

dx = a2 - x2
dx a2 -x2 = a cos z dz a 2 cos 2 z

a2 - x2

x = a sen z

(x )2 = a 2 sen 2 z dz
Si x = a sen z dx = a cos z dz
a 2 - (x )2 = a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z a 2 - x 2 = a 2 (1 - sen 2 z ) a 2 - x 2 = a 2 (cos 2 z )

Simplificando dx dz 1 1 1 dz = sec z dz = = a cos z a cos z a a2 - x2 Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
Reemplazando

si x = a sen z sen z =

x a

1 1 sec z dz = Ln sec z + tg z + c a a
1 1 sec z dz = Ln a a a a2 - x2 + x a2 - x2 +c

si cos z =
tg z =

a2 - x2 sec z = a
x a2 - x2

a a2 - x2

1 1 sec z dz = Ln a a

a+x a2 - x2

+c

(a + x )2 (a + x )(a + x ) + c 1 1 1 Ln Ln +c= sec z dz = 2 2a a a (2) a2 x2 2 a x2 Cancelando trminos semejantes

a z
a2 - x2

(a + x )(a + x ) + c = 1 Ln a + x + c 1 Ln (a x )(a + x ) 2a 2a a-x

dx a2 - x2

1 a+x Ln +c 2a a-x

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

dx x2 - a2 dx

x2 - a2

a sec z tg z dz a 2 tg 2 z

x2 -a2

x = a sec z

x 2 = a 2 sec 2 z

sec z dz 1 1 1 = dz a tg z a cos z tg z
1 1 1 1 cos z ctg z dz = dz a cos z a cos z sen z 1 1 1 dz = csc z dz a sen z a

Si x = a sec z dx = a sec z tg z dz
x 2 - a 2 = a 2 sec 2 z - a 2

x 2 - a 2 = a 2 (sec 2 z - 1) x 2 - a 2 = a 2 (tg 2 z )

si x = a sec z sec z =
x z = arc sec a

x a

Tabla de integrales

csc z dz = ln csc z - ctg z + c

si sec z =
si tg z =

x a cos z = a x
x2 -a2 a x2 -a2 x cot z = a x2 -a2 x x2 -a2

1 1 csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c a a


Reemplazando
1 1 Ln csc z - ctg z + c = Ln a a x x2 -a2 a x2 -a2 +c

si sen z =

csc z =

1 Ln a

x -a x2 -a2

+c =

1 Ln 2a

(x - a )2
2 2 x -a

+c

x
x2 - a2

(x - a )(x a ) + c 1 Ln 2a x2 -a2

(x - a )(x a ) + c 1 Ln (x - a )(x + a ) 2a

z a

Cancelando trminos semejantes


1 x-a Ln +c 2a x+a

1 x-a dx Ln = +c 2 - a 2 2a x+a x

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral


x = arc sen + c a a2 - x2 dx

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

dx a2 - x2

a cos z dz a cos z

x 2 = a 2 sen 2 z

Si x = a sen z dx = a cos z dz
a2 - x2 =
a2 - x2 =

a cos z dz = dz a cos z

a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z
a 2 1 - sen 2 z a 2 cos 2 z

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

a2 - x2 =

dz = z + c
Reemplazando
x z + c = arc sen + c a

a 2 - x 2 = a cos z
si x = a sen z sen z = x z = arc sen a x a

x = arc sen + c a a2 - x2
dx

tg z =

x a2 - x2

a z
a2 - x2

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

dx x2 - a2
dx x2 - a2 = a sec z tg z dz (a tg z )

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z

x = a sec z
x 2 = a 2 sec 2 z
si x = a sec z dx = a sec z tg z dz

sec z dz =

Tabla de integrales

x2 - a2 =

a 2 sec 2 z - a 2

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
Reemplazando

x2 - a2 = x2 - a2 =

a 2 (sec 2 z - 1) a 2 (tg 2 z )

sec z dz = Ln sec z + tg z + c

x 2 - a 2 = a tg z

sec z dz = Ln

x x2 - a2 + +c a a
x + x2 - a2 a

sec z =

x a

cos z =

a x

sec z dz = Ln

+c

2 2 sec z dz = Ln x + x - a

- Ln a + c

x z

Cancelando trminos semejantes Pero c1 = - Ln a + c

x2 - a2

2 2 sec z dz = Ln x + x - a

+ c1

dx 2 2 2 2 = Ln x + x a + c x -a

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

dx x x2 - a2 dx

1 x arc sec + c donde a > 0 a a

x2 -a2 dx = a sec z tg z dz 1 = dz (a sec z ) a tg z a

x 2 a 2 x = a sec z x 2 = a 2 sec 2 z

x x2 - a2

Si x = a sec z dx = a sec z tg z dz

1 dz = a
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

x2 -a2 =

a 2 sec 2 z - a 2

x2 - a2 =
x2 - a2 =

a 2 sec 2 z - 1
a 2 tg 2 z

1 1 dz = (z ) + c a a
Reemplazando
1 (z ) + c = 1 arc sec x + c a a a
dx x x2 - a2 = 1 x arc sec + c a a

x 2 - a 2 = a tg z
si x = a sec z sec z = x a

x z = arc sec a

x
x2 - a2

z a

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

2 2 a + x dx
2 2 dx = a sec z a sec 2 z dz = a 2 sec 3 z dz a +x

a2 + x2
x = a tg z x 2 = a 2 tg 2 z

x = a tg z

a 2 sec 3 z dz =
Se resuelve la integral a 2 sec 3 z dz por partes

si x = a tg z dx = a sec 2 z dz a2 + x2 = a2 + x2 = a 2 + a 2 tg 2 z a 2 (1 + tg 2 z )

u dv = u * v - v du

a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

dv = sec2 z

a 2 + x 2 = a 2 sec 2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

a 2 + x 2 = a sec z

u dv = u * v - v du
a 2 sec 2 z * sec z dz = a 2 [sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] a 2 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1


a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz
a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - a 2 sec 3 z dz + a 2 sec z dz

Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes


a 2 sec 3 z dz + a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z + a 2 sec z dz 2a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z + a 2 sec z dz

Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2

10

a 2 sec 3 z dz =

a2 a2 sec z * tg z + sec z dz 2 2

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
si x = a tg z tg z =
a 2 sec 3 z dz =
a

a2 a2 Ln sec z + tg z + c sec z * tg z + 2 2

x a

cos z =

a a2 + x2

2 2 2 + x 2 dx = a sec z * tg z + a Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2
a 2 a2 + x2 2 a x a2 * a + 2 Ln a2 + x2 x + +c a a

a 2 + x 2 = a sec z
a2 + x2 a

2 2 a + x dx =

sec z =

2 2 a + x dx =

a2 x a2 + x2 2 a2

a2 + 2 Ln

a2 + x2 + x a a2 + x2 + x a

+c

2 + x 2 dx = 1 x a 2 + x 2 2

a2 Ln + 2

+c

Propiedad de los logaritmos


2 2 a + x dx = 1 x a2 + x2 2 a2 + Ln 2 a2 + x2 + x a2 Ln a + c 2

a2 + x2

a2 C1 = Ln a + c 2

z
a

2 2 + x 2 dx = x a 2 + x 2 + a Ln 2 2

a2 + x2 + x

+ C1

11

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

2 2 dx x -a 2 2 2 2 x - a dx = a tg z (a sec z tg z dz ) = a sec z tg z dz
a 2 tg 2 z sec z dz =
Identidades trigonometricas
x2 - a2 x = a sec z

x = a sec z x 2 = a 2 sec 2 z
si x = a sec z dx = a sec z tg z dz
x2 - a2 = a 2 sec 2 z - a 2

tg 2 z = sec 2 z - 1
a 2 tg 2 z sec z dz = a 2 sec 2 z 1 sec z dz a 2 sec 2 z 1 sec z dz = a 2 sec 2 z sec z dz - a 2 sec z dz

x2 - a2 =

a 2 (sec 2 z - 1)

x 2 - a 2 = a 2 tg 2 z

a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =
Se resuelve la integral a 2 sec 3 z dz por partes

x 2 - a 2 = a tg z

u dv = u * v - v du

a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

u dv = u * v - v du
a 2 sec 2 z * sec z dz = a 2 [sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] a 2 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1


a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz

12

a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - a 2 sec 3 z dz + a 2 sec z dz

Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes


a 2 sec 3 z dz + a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z + a 2 sec z dz 2a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z + a 2 sec z dz

Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2

a 2 sec 3 z dz =

a2 a2 sec z * tg z + sec z dz 2 2

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
Regresando a la integral inicial despus de resolver a 2 sec 3 z dz por partes. a2 a2 2 a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz = sec z * tg z + sec z dz - a sec z dz 2 2 a2 a2 2 sec z * tg z + sec z dz - a sec z dz 2 2 Se reducen trminos semejantes
a2 2 sec z * tg z a2 2 sec z dz

x = a sec z
si x = a sec z sec z = a x x a

cos z =

x 2 - a 2 = a tg z
x2 a2 a

tg z =

aplicando la tabla de integrales a2 a2 sec z * tg z Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2 Reemplazando


2 2 x - a dz = a2 a2 sec z * tg z Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2
a2 x x2 -a2 +c - 2 Ln a + a

x z
a

x2 a2

a2 x x2 -a2 * x 2 - a 2 dz = a 2 a

2 2 x - a dz =

a2 x x2 - a2 2 a2

x + x2 - a2 a2 +c Ln 2 a

2 2 x - a dz =

x + x2 -a2 x a2 Ln x2 -a2 +c a 2 2

13

Propiedad de los logaritmos


x

2 2 2 - a 2 dz = x x 2 - a 2 - a Ln x + x 2 - a 2 + a Ln a + c 2 2 2

Pero:
C1 = a2 Ln a + c 2

2 2 x a dx =

x a2 x2 - a2 + Ln 2 2

x2 - a2 + x

+ C1

14

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral 2 2 a - x dx


a

2 - x 2 dx = a cos z * (a cos z dz ) = a 2 cos 2 z dz


a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica

cos 2 z =

1 (1 + cos2z ) 2
2 1 (1 + cos 2 z ) dz = a (1 + cos 2 z ) dz 2 2

x 2 = a 2 sen 2 z

Si x = asen z dx = a cos z dz
a 2 cos 2 z dz = a 2

a2 - x2 = a2 - x2 = a2 - x2 =

a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z a 2 1 - sen 2 a 2 cos 2 z z

a2 a2 dz + cos 2z dz 2 2
a2 a2 1 z + sen 2z + c 2 2 2
a2 a2 z + sen 2z + c 4 2

a 2 - x 2 = a cos z
si x = a sen z sen z = x z = arc sen a x a
a2 - x2 a

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica

sen 2 z = 2 sen z cos z


a2 a2 a2 a2 (2 sen z cos z ) + c z + z + sen 2z + c = 4 4 2 2

cos z =

tg z =

x a2 - x2

Reemplazando a2 a2 x a2 - x2 x arc sec + * 2 2 a a a


a2 x a2 x* arc sec + 2 a 2 a2 - x2 a2


a2 2 arc sec x 1 + x a2 - x2 a 2 +c

a z
a2 x2

+c =

2 2 a -x =

a2 x x arc sen + a2 x2 + c 2 a 2

15

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

dx x x2 + a2
dx x x2 + a2 = a sec 2 z dz a tg z (a sec z )

x2 + a2
x = a tg z x2 = a2 tg2 z

x = a tg z

1 sec z dz tg z a
1 dz 1 cos z 1 1 = dz sen z a a sen z cos z

si x = a tg z dx = a sec 2 z dz
x 2 + a 2 = a 2 tg 2 z + a 2 x 2 + a 2 = a 2 tg 2 z + 1 x 2 + a 2 = a 2 sec 2 z

1 csc z dz a
Tabla de integrales

csc z dz = ln csc z - ctg z + c

x 2 + a 2 = a sec z
si x = a tg z tg z = x a

1 1 csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c a a


Reemplazando
1 1 Ln csc z - ctg z + c = Ln a a x2 + a2 a +c x x

csc z =

x2 + a2 x

ctg z =

a x

x2 + a 2

1 x2 + a2 - a = Ln +c x 2 + a2 a x x dx

z
a

16

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

x 2 dx x2 + a2 a 2 tg 2 z a sec 2 z dz = a sec z 2 + a2 x x 2 dx

x2 + a2
x = a tg z
x2 = a2 tg2 z

x = a tg z

a 2 tg 2 z sec z dz

si x = a tg z dx = a sec 2 z dz
x 2 + a 2 = a 2 tg 2 z + a 2 x 2 + a 2 = a 2 tg 2 z + 1 x 2 + a 2 = a 2 sec 2 z x 2 + a 2 = a sec z

Identidad trigonometrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

a 2 tg 2 z sec z dz = a 2 sec 2 z - 1 (sec z dz )


a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz

x 2 dx x2 + a2

= a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz

si

x = a tg z tg z =

x a

Esta solucin se resuelve primero la integral a 2 sec 3 z dz por partes y despus la otra integral

u dv = u * v - v du

a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec 2 z * sec z dz


Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

u dv = u * v - v du
a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec 2 z * sec z dz = a 2 [sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ]

a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz


Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 2 z - 1 * sec z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz

17

a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z - a 2 sec 3 z dz + a 2 sec z dz


ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y reduciendo trminos semejantes

a 2 sec 3 z dz + a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z + a 2 sec z dz 2a 2 sec 3 z dz = a 2 sec z * tg z + a 2 sec z dz


Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2 se obtiene la primera parte de la solucin

a 2 sec 3 z dz =

a2 a2 sec z * tg z + sec z dz 2 2

si

x = a tg z tg z =

x a

cos z =
La integral inicial es :

x2 + a2
a x

x2 + a2 sec z = a

x 2 dx x2 + a2

ctg z =

= a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz

Se reemplaza en la integral inicial y se sigue resolviendo la integral

a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =

a2 a2 2 sec z * tg z + sec z dz - a sec z dz 2 2

Reduciendo trminos semejantes

a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =
Tabla de integrales

a2 1 sec z * tg z - a 2 sec z dz + c 2 2

x2 + a2 x z
a

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
2 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz = a sec z * tg z a 2
Reemplazando

a2 Ln sec z + tg z + c 2

a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =
a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =

a2 a2 sec z * tg z Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2
x a2 x2 + a2 x * Ln + +c a 2 a a

a2 x2 + a2 2 a

18

a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =

a2 x x2 + a2 2 a2

a2 x2 + a2 + x Ln a 2

+c

a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =

x 2

x2 + a2 -

a2 x2 + a2 + x Ln 2 a

+c

x 2 dx x2 + a2

= a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz =

x 2

x2 + a2 -

a2 Ln x 2 + a 2 + x 2

a2 Ln a + c 2

Pero: C1 =
x 2 dx x2 + a2

1 2 a Ln a + c 2
= a 2 sec 3 z dz - a 2 sec z dz = x 2 x2 + a2 a2 Ln x 2 + a 2 + x 2 + c1

19

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

dx x2 a2 - x2
dx x2 a2 - x2 = a cos z dz a 2 sen 2 z (a cos z )

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

x = a sen z
x 2 = a 2 sen 2 z

a 2 sen 2 z
1 a2

dz

si x = a sen z dx = a cos z dz
a2 - x2 = a2 - x2 = a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z a 2 1 - sen 2 z a 2 cos 2 z

2 csc z dz

Tabla de integrales
2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c
a2 - x2 =

a 2 - x 2 = a cos z

1 1 2 ctg z + c csc z dz = 2 2 a a
Reemplazando

si x = a sen z sen z =
tg z = x a2 - x2 ctg z =

x a
a2 x2 x

1 1 (ctg z) + c = ( a2 a2
dx

a2 - x2 x

) +c

x2 a2 - x2

= -

a2 - x2 +c a2 x

x z a2 - x2

20

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral


a2 - x2 dx x2
(a cos z) (a cos z dz ) a 2 - x 2 dx = 2 x a 2 sen 2 z

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
x = a sen z
x 2 = a 2 sen 2 z

a 2 cos 2 z dz a 2 sen 2 z

si x = a sen z dx = a cos z dz
a2 - x2 = a2 - x2 = a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z a 2 1 - sen 2 z
a 2 cos 2 z

2 ctg z dz
Identidad trigonometrica ctg2 z = csc2 z - 1

a2 - x2 =

2 2 ctg z dz = csc z - 1 dz 2 2 csc z - 1 dz = csc z dz - dz


Tabla de integrales
2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c

a 2 - x 2 = a cos z

si x = a sen z sen z =
x z = arc sen a
tg z = x a2 - x2

x a

ctg z =

a2 x2 x

Reemplazando
csc

2 z dz - dz = - ctg z

-z +c

a2 - x2 dx = x2

a2 - x2 x - arc sen + c x a

a
x z a2 - x2

21

Encuentre una formula directa para la aplicacin de la siguiente integral

x 2 dx a 2 x 2
x 2 dx

32

a 2 - x 2

32

x = a sen z

a 2 sen 2 z (a cos z dz ) sen 2 z dz = = 32 a 3 cos 3 z cos 2 z a 2 x 2

x 2 = a 2 sen 2 z

2 tg z dz
Identidad trigonometrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

si x = a sen z dx = a cos z dz
a 2 - x 2
a 2 - x 2

32

= a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z
= a 2 1 - sen 2 z

32

32

32

2 2 2 tg z dz = sec z - 1 dz = sec z dz - dz Tabla de integrales

Tabla de integrales

2 sec z dz = tg z + c dz = z + c

32 a 2 - x 2 = a 2 cos 2 z 32 a 2 - x 2 = a 3 cos 3 z x si x = a sen z sen z = a

32

2 sec z dz - dz = tg z - z + c
Reemplazando x x - arc sen + c tg z - z + c = a a2 - x2
x 2 dx a2 x2 32 = x a2 - x2 - arc sen x +c a

z = arc sen
tg z = x

x a

a2 - x2

z
a2 - x2

22

INTEGRALES POR SUSTITUCIONES TRIGONOMETRICAS


Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 1

dx x2 4 - x2
dx x2 4 - x2 = 2 cos z dz 4 sen 2 z (2 cos z )

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

4 - x2 = 22 - x 2

22 - x 2 x = 2 sen z

1 dz 4 sen 2 z
1 1 1 2 dz = csc z dz 4 sen 2 z 4

x = 2 sen z x 2 = 4 sen 2 z si x = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz 4- x2 = 4- x2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z 4 1 - sen 2 z 4 cos 2 z

Tabla de integrales
2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c

4 - x2 = 1 1 2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c 4 4

4 - x 2 = 2 cos z
si x = 2 sen z sen z = tg z = x 4 - x2 ctg z = x 2 4 x2 x

Reemplazando

1 1 4 - x2 (ctg z) + c = - ( ) +c 4 4 x
dx = 4 - x2 +c 4x

x2 4 - x2

2 z

4 - x2

23

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 2


4 - x 2 dx x2
a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z 4 - x2 =
22 - x 2

22 - x 2
x = 2 sen z

4 - x 2 dx 2 cos z (2 cos z dz ) = x2 4 sen 2 z cos 2 z dz sen 2 z 2 ctg z dz


Identidad trigonomtrica ctg2 z = csc2 z - 1

x = 2 sen z
x 2 = 4 sen 2 z si x = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz 4- x2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z

4 - x2 =
4- x2 =

4 1 - sen 2 z
4 cos 2 z

2 2 ctg z dz = csc z - 1 dz 2 2 csc z - 1 dz = csc z dz - 1dz


Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c
2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c

4 - x 2 = 2 cos z si x = 2 sen z sen z = x 2 x x z = arc sen sen z = 2 2

2 csc z dz - 1dz = - ctg z - z + c


Reemplazando 4 - x2 - ctg z - z + c = - x
4 - x 2 dx 4 - x2 = - x x2

tg z =

x 4 - x2

ctg z =

4 x2 x

x - arc sen 2 + c
- arc sen x + c 2

2 z

4 - x2

24

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 3

dx x x2 + 4
dx x x2 + 4 = 2 sec 2 z dz 2 tg z (2 sec z )

x2 + a2

x = a tg z

x 2 + 4 = x 2 + 2 2 x = 2 tg z

x = 2 tg z x2 = 4 tg2 z
si x = 2 tg z dx = 2 sec 2 z dz

1 sec z dz 2 tg z 1 dz 1 cos z sen z 2 cos z 1 1 dz 2 sen z 1 csc z dz 2


Tabla de integrales

x 2 + 4 = 4 tg 2 z + 4 x 2 + 4 = 4 tg 2 z + 1 x 2 + 4 = 4 sec 2 z
x 2 + 4 = 2 sec z si
csc z =

x = 2 tg z tg z =
x2 + 4 x

x 2
2 x

ctg z =

csc z dz = ln csc z - ctg z + c


1 1 csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c 2 2

4 + x2
x z

Reemplazando
1 Ln csc z - ctg z + c = 2 1 Ln 2 x2 + 4 2 - +c x x

dx x x2 + 4

x2 + 4 - 2 1 Ln +c x 2

25

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 4

x 2 dx x2 + 6
x 2 dx x2 + 6 6 tg 2 z 6 sec 2 z dz = 6 sec z

x2 + a2

x = a tg z

x2 + 6 = x2 +

( 6 )2

x = 6 tg z

x = 6 tg z
x2 = 6 tg2 z
si x = 6 tg z dx = 6 sec 2 z dz

6 tg 2 z sec z dz

Identidad trigonometrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

x 2 + 6 = 6 tg 2 z + 6
x 2 + 6 = 6 tg 2 z + 1 x 2 + 6 = 6 sec 2 z x2 + 6 =
si

6 tg 2 z sec z dz = 6 sec 2 z - 1 (sec z dz )


6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz

Tabla de integrales

6 sec z
x 6

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
x = 6 tg z tg z = x 2 dx x2 + 6

= 6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz

Se resuelve primero la integral 6 sec 3 z dz por partes

u dv = u * v - v du

6 sec 3 z dz = 6 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

6 sec 2 z * sec z dz = 6[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] 6[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] = 6 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz
Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

6 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z sec z dz = 6 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz


26

6 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz = 6 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz 6 sec 3 z dz = 6 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz 6 sec 3 z dz = 6 sec z * tg z - 6 sec 3 z dz + 6 sec z dz
ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y reduciendo trminos semejantes

6 sec 3 z dz + 6 sec 3 z dz = 6 sec z * tg z + 6 sec z dz 12 sec 3 z dz = 6 sec z * tg z + 6 sec z dz


Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2

6 sec 3 z dz = 3sec z * tg z + 3 sec z dz


Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c

6 sec 3 z dz = 3sec z * tg z + 3 Ln sec z + tg z + c


La integral inicial es :

x 2 dx x2 + 6

= 6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz

6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = 3 sec z * tg z + 3 Ln sec z + tg z - 6 sec z dz 6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = 3 sec z * tg z + 3 Ln sec z + tg z - 6 Ln sec z + tg z + c 6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = 3 sec z * tg z - 3 Ln sec z + tg z + c
si x = 6 tg z tg z =
6 x2 + 6 6 x

x 6
6

x2 + 6
x z

cos z = ctg z =

sec z =

x2 + 6

6
Reemplazando

6 sec 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = 3 sec z * tg z - 3 Ln sec z + tg z + c


27

2 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = 3 x + 6 6 sec 6

x2 + 6 x x + +c * - 3 Ln 6 6 6 x2 + 6 + x - 3 Ln 6 +c

2 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = 3 x x + 6 6 sec 6 2 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = x x + 6 6 sec 2 x 2 dx

x2 + 6 + x - 3 Ln 6

+c

2 3 z dz - 6 sec z dz = x x + 6 = 6 sec 2 x2 + 6

x2 + 6 + x - 3 Ln 6

+c

x x2 + 6 = 2 x2 + 6 x 2 dx

x2 + 6 + x - 3 Ln 6

+c

28

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 5

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z
x 2 - 25 = x 2 - 5 2 x = 5 sec z

x x 2 25 x x 2 25

dx dx = 5 sec z (5 sec z tg z dz) 5 tg z

x = 5 sec z
X2 = 25 sec2 z

5 sec 2 z dz =
Tabla de integrales

si x = 5 sec z dx = 5 sec z tg z dz
x 2 - 25 = x 2 - 25 = 25 sec 2 z - 25 25 (sec 2 z - 1)

2 sec z dz = tg z + c

x 2 - 25 =

25 (tg 2 z )

5 sec 2 z dz = 5 tg z + c
Reemplazando x 25 +c 5 (tg z ) + c = 5 5

x 2 - 25 = 5 tg z
si x = 5 sec z sec z = x 5

5 (tg z ) + c =
x x 2 25

x 25 + c

si sec z =

dx = ( x 2 - 25 ) + c

x 5 cos z = 5 x 2 - 25 x sen z = x 2 - 25 x tg z = 5

x z

x 2 - 25

29

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 6 dx 3 2 + x2 2


dx 2 sec 2 z dz = 3 2 2 sec 3 z 2 + x2 2

a 2 + x 2

32

x = a tg z

3 3 2 + x 2 2 = 2 2 + x 2 2 x = 2 tg z

( )

x = 2 tg z x 2 = 2 tg 2 z
si x = 2 tg z dx = 2 sec 2 z dz 3 3 2 + x 2 2 = 2 2 + 2 tg 2 z 2 3 3 2 + x 2 2 = 2 + 2 tg 2 z 2 3 3 2 + x 2 2 = 21 + tg 2 z 2

1 1 dz 2 sec 1 cos z dz 2 1 sen z + c 2

( )

Reemplazando
1 1 x (sen z) + c = 2 2 2 2+x

+c +c

dx 3 2 + x2 2

x 2 2 + x2

2 + x2

x z
2

3 3 2 + x 2 2 = 2 sec 2 z 2 3 32 2 + x 2 2 = [2 ]3 2 * sec 2 z 3 2 + x 2 2 = 2 2 * sec 3 z x si x = 2 tg z tg z = 2 x sen z = 2 + x2

sen z =

x 2 + x2

30

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 7

dx 4x 2 9 dx 32

x2 - a2
4 x 2 - 9

32

x = a sec z
4x 2 9 = - 4 4 32

32

3 sec z tg z dz = 2 32 27 tg 3 z 4x 2 9 1 1 sec z dz 1 cos z = dz 18 tg 2 z 18 sen 2 z


cos 2 z

4x 2 - 9

32

2 3 = x 2 - 2

32 x =

3 sec z 2

3 sec z 2 9 x 2 = sec 2 z 4 x=

1 cos z 18 sen 2 z 1 cos z 1 * dz 18 sen z sen z 1 ctg z csc z dz 18


Solucin por cambio de variable u = csc z du = - csc z ctg z dz
1 1 u+c du = 18 18

si x =

3 3 sec z dx = sec z tg z dz 2 2
32

4x 2 - 9

32 9 = 4 sec 2 z - 9 4 32 32 4x 2 - 9 = 9 sec 2 z - 9 32 32 4x 2 - 9 = (9 ) sec 2 z - 1


4x 2 - 9 4x 2 - 9 4x 2 - 9 32 32 32 = (9 ) tg 2 z 32 32

= 3 2 3 2 tg 2 = 33 tg 3 z

Reemplazando
1 1 - u + c = - csc z + c 18 18

Reemplazando

4x 2 - 9
sec z =

32

= 27 tg 3 z
cos z = 3 2x sen z = 4x 2 - 9 2x

1 1 2x +c - csc z + c = 18 18 2 4x - 9 1 2x x +c= - 1 +c 18 9 2 -9 2 -9 4x 4x

2x 3

csc z =

2x 4x 2 9

dx 4x 2 9 32

= -

x 9 4x 2 - 9

+c

2x z

4x2 - 9
3
31

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 8

dw w2 w2 -7

w 2 - a 2 w = a sec z
w2 -7 = w2 - 7

dw w2 w2 -7

7 sec z tg z dz 7 sec 2 z 7 tg z

w2 - 7

w = 7 sec z

1 1 dz 7 sec z 1 cos z dz 7 1 sen z + c 7


Reemplazando

w = 7 sec z w 2 = 7 sec 2 z

si w = 7 sec z dw = 7 sec z tg z dz
w2 -7 = w2 -7 = 7 sec 2 z - 7 7 sec 2 z - 1

1 1 w2 - 7 (sen z) + c = ( ) + c 7 7 w

w2 -7 =
w2 - 7 = 7

7 tg 2 z
tg z

dw w2 w2 -7

w2 -7 = +c 7w

si w = 7 sec z sec z =

w 7 w2 -7 w

cos z =
w z

7 w

sen z =

w2 - 7

32

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 9

sec 2 x dx 32 4 - tg 2 x
sec 2 x dx 2 cos z dz = 32 8 cos 3 z 4 - tg 2 x

a 2 - tg 2 x
4 - tg 2 x

32

tg x = a sen z
32

32

= (2)2 - tg 2 x

(2)2 - tg 2

32

tg x = 2 sen

tg x = 2 sen z tg 2 x = 4 sen 2 z
si tg x = 2 sen z sec 2 x dx = 2 cos z dz 32 32 4 - tg 2 x = 4 - 4 sen 2 z
4 - tg 2 x 4 - tg 2 x

1 1 dz 4 cos 2 z
1 2 sec z dz 4

Tabla de integrales Tabla de integrales

32

2 sec z dz = tg z + c

= (4)1 - sen 2 z

32

1 1 2 sec z dz = tg z + c 4 4
Reemplazando
1 1 (tg z) + c = ( 4 4

32 = (4) cos 2 z 32 32 4 - tg 2 x = 2 2 * cos 3 z 32 4 - tg 2 x 4 - tg 2 x 32 = 2 3 cos 3 z

tgx
4 - tg 2 x

) +c

32

tgx sec 2 x dx = +c 32 4 - tg 2 x 4 4 - tg 2 x

= 8 cos 3 z

si tg x = 2 sen z sen z =
tg z = tg x 4 - tg 2 x

tg x 2

2
z

tg x

4 - tg 2 x

33

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 10

(z 2 - 6z + 18)3 2
dz z 2 - 6z + 18 32 =

dz

z2 +a2

32

z = a tg

dz

(z - 6z + 9 + 9)3 2

3 3 2 + 9 2 = (z 3)2 + 3 2 2 z - 3 = 3 tg ( z 3)

dz (z - 3)2 + 9 32

z - 3 = 3 tg

(z - 3)2 = 9 tg 2
si z - 3 = 3 tg dz = 3 sec 2 d
3 3 (z - 3)2 + 9 2 = 9 tg 2 + 9 2 (z - 3)2 + 9 32 = 9 tg 2 + 1 32

Reemplazando

dz (z - 3)2 + 9 32

3 sec 2 d 27 sec 3

1 1 d 9 sec 1 cos d 9

[(z - 3)2 + 9]3 2 = [9 (sec 2 ) ]3 2


(z - 3)2 + 9 (z - 3)2 + 9 32 = [9 ]3 2 sec 3 32 = 729 sec 3

Tabla de integrales Tabla de integrales

cos d = sen + c

1 1 cos d = sen + c 9 9
Reemplazando 1 1 z-3 +c sen + c = 9 9 2 z - 6z + 18

(z - 3)2 + 9
si
sen =

32

= 27 sec 3
z -3 3

z - 3 = 3 tg tg =
z 3 z 2 - 6z + 18

dz z 2 - 6z + 18 32

z -3 9 z 2 - 6z + 18

+c

z 2 - 6z + 18

z-3

34

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 11

Ln 3 w dw w Ln 2 w - 4

u2 - a2

u = a sec

Ln 2 w - 4 = Ln 2 w - 2 2 Ln w = 2 sec

Ln 3 w dw w Ln 2 w - 4

Ln 3 w Ln 2 w - 4

dw w

Ln w = 2 sec (Ln w )2 = 4 sec 2

(Ln w )3 = 8 sec 3
si Ln w = 2 sec 1 dw = 2 sec tg d w

Reemplazando

Ln 3 w Ln 2 w - 4

8 sec 3 z (2 sec z tg z dz ) dw = w 2 tg

Ln 2 w - 4 = 4 sec 2 - 4 Ln 2 w - 4 = 4 (sec 2 - 1) Ln 2 w - 4 = 4 (tg 2 ) Ln 2 w - 4 = 2 tg si cos = Ln w = 2 sec sec = 2 Ln w Ln 2 w - 4 2 Ln w 2

8 se 4 c d = 8 sec 2 * sec 2 d
Identidad trigonometrica tg2 z + 1 = sec2 z

Reemplazando
8 sec 2 * sec 2 d = 8 tg 2 + 1 * sec 2 d 8 tg 2 sec 2 d + 8 sec 2 d

Solucin por cambio de variable x = tg x2 = tg2


dx = sec 2 dz

tg =

Reemplazando

Ln w 2 sec 2 d + 8 sec 2 d = 8 x 2 dx + 8 dx Ln 2 w - 4 8 tg 8 3 8 x 2 dx + 8 dx = x + 8 x + c 3 2 3 2 2 8 (tg )3 + 8(tg ) + c = 8 Ln w 4 + 8 Ln w 4 + c 3 3 2 2 3 2 2w 4 2 w 4 * Ln 2 w 4 Ln Ln 2 8 + 8 Ln w 4 + c = 8 + 4 Ln 2 w 4 + c 3 3 2 3 8 (2)

35

1 2 2 2 Ln w 4 * Ln w 4 + 4 Ln w 4 + c = 3
Factorizando trminos semejantes Ln 2 w 4 + 4 + c Ln 2 w - 4 * 3 Resolviendo trminos semejantes

Ln 2 w 4 + 12 Ln 2 w - 4 * 3

Ln 2 w 4 * Ln 2 w 4 + 12 Ln 2 w 4 * Ln 2 w + 8 +c = +c= +c 3 3

Ln 3 w dw w Ln 2 w 4

Ln 2 w 4 * Ln 2 w + 8 +c = 3

36

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 18

dx 16 + x 2
dx 16 + x 2 32

32

32 a2 + x2 x = a tg z 32 32 16 + x 2 = (4)2 + x 2 x = 4 tg z

4 sec 2 z dz 64 sec 3 z

x = 4 tg z x 2 = 16 tg 2 z
si x = 4 tg z dx = 4 sec 2 z dz 16 + x 2 16 + x 2 16 + x 2 16 + x 2 32 = 16 + 16 tg 2 z 32

1 1 1 dz = cos d 16 sec 16

Tabla de integrales Tabla de integrales

cos d = sen + c

32 32 = 16 1 + tg 2 z
32 = 16 sec 2 z = 4 2 32 32

1 1 sen z + c cos z dz = 16 16

Reemplazando
1 1 x (sen z) + c = 16 16 2 16 + x

32

+c +c

* sec 2

32

dx 16 + x 2 32

x 16 16 + x 2

16 + x 2

32

= 4 3 sec 3 z = 64 sec 3 z

si
sen z =

x = 4 tg z tg z =
x 16 + x 2

x 4

16 + x 2 z 4

37

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 20

dx 4x - x 2
dx 4x - x 2 = dx x 2 - 4x

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
4 - (x - 2)2 = 2 2 - (x - 2)2

x - 2 = 2 sen z

se suma 4 y se resta 4

(x - 2)2 =

4 sen 2 z

dx - x 2 - 4x + 4 - 4

si x - 2 = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz
4 - (x - 2 )2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z
4 - (x - 2 )2 = 4 (1 - sen 2 z )

Ordenando para formar una diferencia de cuadrados

dx - x 2 - 4x + 4 - 4

dx x 2 - 4x + 4 4

4 - (x - 2)2 = 4 (cos 2 z )
4 - (x - 2 )2 = 2 cos z

dx - [x - 2]2 - 4

dx 4 - (x - 2 )2

si x - 2 = 2 sen z sen z =
x-2 z = arc sen 2

x-2 2

reemplazando

dx 4 - (x - 2)2

2 cos z dz 2 cos z

2 cos z dz = dz 2 cos z
x-2 +c 2

2
x-2

z
4 (x 2 )2

dz = z + c = arc sen

x -2 = arc sen +c 2 2 4x - x

dx

38

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 21

dx 5 - 4x - x 2 dx 32

a 2 - x 2

32

x = a sen z
32 x + 2 = 3 sen z

5 - 4x - x 2

32

dx - x 2 + 4x - 5 32

3 2 (x + 2 )2

se suma 4 y se resta 4 para formar una diferencia de cuadrados

x + 2 = 3 sen z (x + 2)2 = 9 sen 2 z

dx - x 2 + 4x + 4 - 5 - 4
dx 2 [x + 2] 9 32

32

dx - [x + 2]2 - 5 - 4
dx

si x + 2 = 3 sen z dx = 3 cos z dz
9 (x + 2)2 9 (x + 2 )2
9 (x + 2 )2 9 (x + 2 )2

32
32 = 9 - 9 sen 2 z = 91 sen 2 32

9 - [x + 2]2

32

32

32

Reemplazando

32

dx

[9 - [x + 2]]3 2

3 cos z dz 27 cos 3

= 9 cos 2 z

32

32

1 1 dz 9 cos 2 z

= (9 )3 2 cos 2 z

32

1 2 sec z dz 9

Tabla de integrales

= 27 cos 3 z x+2 si x + 2 = 3 sen z sen z = 3 x+2 tg z = 9 - (x + 2 )2 9 (x + 2 )2

32

2 sec z dz = tg z + c

1 1 2 sec z dz = tg z + c 9 9
1 = tg z + c 32 9 5 - 4x - x 2 dx 1 x+2 = ( )+c 32 9 5 - 4x - x 2 9 - (x + 2 )2 dx

x+2

z
9 ( x + 2 )2

39

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 22

dx x x4 - 4

x 3 dx x 3 dx = x3 x x 4 - 4 x4 x4 - 4

Cambio de variable u =x -4 u +4=x


x 3 dx
2 4 2 4

u2 +a2
3

u = a tg z u = 2 tg z

2 u du = 4x dx u du = x 3 dx 2

u 2 + 4 = u 2 + 22

u du u du 2 = = u 2 + 4 * u 2 2 u 2 + 4 * u x4 x4 - 4 1 du 2 2 u + 4

u = 2 tg z u2 = 4 tg2 z

si u = 2 tg z du = 2 sec 2 z dz
u 2 + 4 = 4 tg 2 z + 4

1 2 sec 2 z dz 2 4 sec 2 z

u 2 + 4 = 4 (tg 2 z + 1) u 2 + 4 = 4 (sec 2 z )
si u = 2 tg z tg z = x4 -4 u = 2 2

1 dz 4
4 x 4 1 1 1 dz = z + c = arc tg +c 4 4 4 2

si u 2 = x 4 - 4 u = x 4 - 4
x4 -4 u z = arc tg = arc tg 2 2

dx x x4 - 4

x4 -4 1 arc tg +c 4 2

x4 - 4

z
2

40

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 23

dx x2 x2 + 9

dx x2 x2 +9

3 sec 2 z dz 9 tg 2 z * (3 sec z )

x2 + a2

x = a tg z

x2 + 9 =
x = 3 tg z

x 2 + 3 2 x = 3 tg z

1 sec z dz 9 tg 2 z
1 1 cos z dz 9 sen 2 z cos 2 z

x 2 = 9 tg 2 z

si x = 3 tg z dx = 3 sec 2 z dz
x 2 + 9 = 9 tg 2 z + 9 x 2 + 9 = 9 (tg 2 z + 1) x 2 + 9 = 9 (sec 2 z) x 2 + 9 = 3 sec z si x = 3 tg z tg z = x 3 x2 + 9 x

1 cos z dz 9 sen 2 z

u = sen z du = cos z dz u2 = sen2 z


Reemplazando
1 cos z dz 1 du 1 2 = = u du 9 sen 2 z 9 u 2 9 1 1 1 -2 +c u -1 + c = du = u 9u 9 (- 1) 9

sen z =

x x2 + 9

csc z =

Reemplazando

1 1 1 +c= + c = - * csc z + c 9u 9(sen z ) 9


x2 + 9
x2 + 9 +c x

1 x2 + 9 1 1 - csc z + c = - +c = 9 9 x 9 dx x2 x2 +9 1 9
x2 + 9 +c x

z
3

= -

41

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 24

x2 4 - x2
x 2 dx 4- x2

dx
a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

4 sen 2 z (2 cos z dz ) (2 cos z )

4- x2 =

22 - x 2

2 2 4 sen z dz = 4 sen z dz
Identidades trigonometricas
1 - cos 2z = sen 2 z 2

22 - x 2

x = 2 sen z

x = 2 sen z x 2 = 4 sen 2 z si x = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz


4- x2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z

1 - cos 2z 4 sen 2 z dz = 4 dz 2

4 - x2 =

4 (1 - cos 2z ) dz = [2( 1 dz - cos 2z dz )] 2

4 1 - sen 2

4 - x2 =

2 dz - 2 cos 2z dz
1 2z - 2 sen 2z + c 2

4 cos 2 z

4 - x 2 = 2 cos z

si x = 2 sen z sen z =
x z = arc sen 2

Identidades trigonometricas

x 2

sen 2z = 2 sen z * cos z


1 2z - 2 sen 2z + c = 2 z - ( sen z * cos z ) + c 2
Reemplazando
2 x x 4 - x 2 z - ( sen z * cos z ) + c = 2 arc sen - * 2 2 2
x 2 arc sen 2 x - * 2 4 - x2 2 x + c = 2 arc sen 2

si 4 - x 2 = 2 cos z cos z =

+c

4 - x2 2

2
z

x 4 - x2 - 4

4 - x2

x 2 arc sen 2 x2

x 4-x2 - 4

x 1 2 + c = 2 arc sen 2 - 4 x 4 - x +c

+c

x 1 dx = 2 arc sen - x 4 - x 2 2 4 4-x2

42

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 25

dx x2 - 4
dx x x2 - 4 = 2 sec z tg z dz (2 sec z )(2 tg z )

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z
x2 - 4 = x 2 - 22

1 dz 2
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

x 2 - 22

x = 2 sec z

x = 2 sec z x 2 = 4 sec 2 z

si x = 2 sec z dx = 2 sec z tg z dz

x2 - 4 =
x dx x2 - 4 = 1 dz 2

4 sec 2 z - 4

x2 - 4 = x2 - 4 =

4 (sec 2 z - 1) 4 (tg 2 z )

1 (z ) + c 2

x 2 - 4 = 2 tg z
x

dx x2 - 4

1 x arc sec + c 2 2

x = 2 sec z sec z =
z = arc sec

x 2

x 2

x z 2

x2 - 4

43

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 28

dw w 2 - 4 32

w2 -a2
w 2 - 4

32

x = a sec z
32

32

dw w 2 - 4 32

2 sec z tg z dz 8 tg 3 z

= w 2 - 22

w 2 - 22

32

w = 2 sec z

1 sec z dz 4 tg 2 z
1 1 ( sec z ) 1 cos z 1 cos z dz = dz = dz 4 4 sen 2 z 4 sen 2 z tg 2 z cos 2 z

w = 2 sec z w 2 = 4 sec 2 z

si w = 2 sec z dw = 2 sec z tg z dz
w 2 - 4

32 32

= 4 sec 2 z - 4

32 32

1 cos z 1 1 * dz = ctg z * csc z dz 4 sen z sen z 4


Tabla de integrales

w 2 - 4
w 2 - 4

= 4 (sec 2 z - 1)

csc z ctg z dz = - csc z + c


1 1 ctg z * csc z dz = csc z + c 4 4
dw w 2 - 4 32 = 1 1 w csc z + c = - +c 4 4 2 -4 w

= 4 (tg 2 z) 32 32 w 2 - 4 tg 3 z = 22 w 2 - 4 32 = 2 3 tg 3 z = 8 tg 3 z

32

32

w = 2 sec z sec z =
z = arc sec
sen z =

w 2

w 2
w w2 - 4

w2 - 4 csc z = w

dw w 2 - 4 32

= -

1 w +c 4 w2 -4

w z 2

w2 - 4

44

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 29

e t dt 32 e 2t + 8e t + 7 t dt e

e t dt e 2t + 8e t + 16 + 7 - 16
32

32

2 e t + 4 - 32 t + 4 = 3 sec e

e t + 4 = 3 sec

e 2t + 8e t + 16 + 7 16 t dt e

2 e t + 4 = 9 sec 2 si e t + 4 = 3 sec e t dt = 3 sec tg d


3 32 2 t 2 e + 4 9 = 9 sec 2 9 3 32 2 t 2 e + 4 9 = 9 (sec 2 1)
2 t e + 4 9 2 t e + 4 9
32

2 t e + 4 + 7 16 t dt e
2 t e + 4 9 32

32

= 9 (tg 2
32

32

Reemplazando
3 sec tg d 1 1 = = sec d 32 9 tg 2 27 tg 3 2 t e + 4 9 1 1 1 1 cos 2 * ctg 2 d = * d 9 cos 9 cos sen 2 e t dt

= [9] 32

32

tg 3

2 t e + 4 9
(z - 3)2 + 9
si

= 27 tg 3

32

1 cos 1 1 cos d = * d 2 9 sen sen 9 sen

= 27 sec 3
et + 4 3

1 cot * csc d = 9 Tabla de integrales

e t + 4 = 3 sec sec =

csc ctg d = - csc + c


1 1 1 et + 4 cot * csc d = - csc + c = 9 9 9 2 e t + 4 9

2 et + 4 - 9 sen = t +4 e
csc = et + 4 et + 4 2 -9

et + 4

z 3

e t + 4

-9

45

Ejercicios 7.3 Pag 571 Leythold Problema # 30

16 - e 2x dx ex
16 - e 2x dx e x * 16 - e 2x dx = ex ex * ex

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
16 - e 2x =
42 - ex

42 - ex

16 - e 2x e x dx e x * 16 - e 2x dx = 2x e ex * ex

e x = 4 sen z

16 - e 2x e x dx = (4 cos z )(4 cos z dz ) e 2x 16 2 sen 2 z

e x = 4 sen z e 2x = 16 sen 2 z si e x = 4 sen z e x dx = 4 cos z dz


16 - e 2x = 16 - 16 sen 2 z

(4 cos z )(4

cos z dz ) cos 2 z dz = = ctg 2 z dz 2 sen 2 z 2z 16 sen

Identidades trigonometricas

16 - e 2x =

16 (1 - sen 2 z )

cot 2 z = csc 2 z - 1

16 - e 2x =

16 (cos 2 z )

2 2 2 ctg z dz = csc z - 1 dz = csc z dz - dz 2 z dz - dz = - ctg z - z + c csc

16 - e 2x = 4 cos z

si e x = 4 sen z sen z =

ex 4

16 - e 2x 16 - e 2x dx = - ctg z - z + c = - ex ex 16 - e 2x 16 - e 2x dx = - ex ex

ex - arc sen 4 +c

+c

ex z = arc sen 4

ex - arc sen 4

si 16 - e 2x = 4 cos z cos z =
ctg z = 16 - e 2x ex

16 - e 2x 4

z
16 - e 2 x

ex

46

Ejercicio # 2 Pag 270 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

x 2 dx x2 - 4
x 2 dx x2 - 4 4 sec 2 z 2 sec z tg z dz (2 tg z )

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z
x2 - 4 = x 2 - 22 x 2 - 22
x = 2 sec z

4 sec 3 z dz =
Se resuelve la integral

u dv = u * v - v du

4 sec 3 z dz por partes

x = 2 sec z x 2 = 4 sec 2 z

si x = 2 sec z dx = 2 sec z tg z dz
x2 - 4 = x2 - 4 = x2 - 4 = 4 sec 2 z - 4 4 (sec 2 z - 1) 4 (tg 2 z )

4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec 2 z * sec z dz


Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

4 sec 2 z * sec z dz = 4[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ]

x 2 - 4 = 2 tg z

4[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] = 4 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz


Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

4 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz

4 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz

4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz 4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - 4 sec 3 z dz + 4 sec z dz


Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes

4 sec 3 z dz + 4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z + 4 sec z dz 8 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z + 4 sec z dz


Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2

4 sec 3 z dz = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 sec z dz

47

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
4 sec 3 z dz = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 Ln sec z + tg z + c x 2 dx x2 - 4
x 2 dx

x = 2 sec z

si x = 2 sec z sec z = cos z = 2 x x2 - 4 2

x 2

= 2 sec z * tg z + 2 Ln sec z + tg z + c
x2 - 4 +c 2

2 x x x -4 = 2 * + 2 Ln 2 + 2 2 x2 - 4

tg z =

x 2 dx

2 x + x2 - 4 x x -4 + 2 Ln +c = 2 2 2 -4 x 2 x x -4 2 = + 2 Ln x + x - 4 - 2 Ln 2 + c 2 x2 - 4 x 2 dx

x z 2

x2 - 4

Pero: C1 = - 2 Ln 4 + c
2 x x -4 2 = + 2 Ln x + x - 4 + c 2 x2 - 4 x 2 dx

48

Ejercicio # 3 Pag 270 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM


9 - 4 x 2 dx x

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
9 - 4x 2 = 9 - 4x 2 = 2 9 4x 2 3 = - x2 4 4 2 3 2 2 - x2 x = 3 sen z 2

9 - 4x 2 dx = x

3 3 cos z cos z dz 2 3 sen z 2

Identidad trigonomtrica Cos 2 z = 1 - sen2 z


1 - sen 2 cos 2 z 3 dz = 3 sen z sen z z dz

3 9 x = sen z x 2 = sen 2 z 2 4 3 3 si x = sen z dx = cos z dz 2 2


9 - 4x 2 = 9 9 - 4 sen 2 z 4 9 - 9 sen 2 z 91 - sen 2 9 cos 2 z z

3 3 cos z cos z dz cos 2 z 2 =3 dz 3 sen z sen z 2 1 - sen 2 3 sen z z 1 sen 2 z dz dz = 3 sen z sen z

9 - 4x 2 = 9 - 4x 2 =

3 [csc z - sen z ] dz 3 csc z dz - 3 sen z dz


Tabla de integrales

9 - 4x 2 =

9 - 4x 2 = 3 cos z si x = 3 2x sen z sen z = 3 2

csc dz = Ln csc z - cot z + c

sen dz = - cos z + c
si

3 csc z dz - 3 sen z dz = 3 Ln csc z - cot z - 3 (- cos z ) + c 3 csc z dz - 3 sen z dz = 3 Ln csc z - cot z + 3 cos z + c

9 - 4x 2 = 3 cos z cos z = 2x 9 - 4x 2 3 2x ctg z =

tg z = csc z =

9 - 4x 2 3 2 9 - 4x 2x

9 - 4 x 2 dx = 3 Ln csc z - cot z + 3cos z + c x


9 - 4 x 2 dx 3 9 - 4x 2 9 - 4x 2 = 3 Ln + 3 x 2x 2x 3 +c

3 z
9 - 4x 2

2x

9 - 4 x 2 dx 3 9 - 4x 2 = 3 Ln + 9 - 4x 2 + c x 2x

49

Ejercicio # 4 Pag 270 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx x 9 + 4x 2 3 sec 2 z dz dx a2 + x2 2 = 3 x 9 + 4x 2 tg z * (3 sec z ) 9 + 4x 2 = 2 1 sec z dz 3 tg z 9 + 4x 2 =

x = a tg z

9 4x 2 + 4 4
3 2

1 1 cos z dz 3 sen z cos z 1 1 dz 3 sen z

+ x2 x =

3 tg z 2

x=

3 tg z 2 9 x 2 = tg 2 z 4 3 3 tg z dx = sec 2 z dz 2 2 9 9 + 4x 2 = 9 + 4 tg 2 z 4

1 csc z dz 3
Tabla de integrales

si x =

csc dz = Ln csc z - cot z + c

9 + 4x 2 = 9 + 9 tg 2 z 9 + 4x 2 = 91 + tg 2 z 9 + 4x 2 = 9 sec 2 z

1 = csc z dz 3 x 9 + 4x 2 dx x 9 + 4x 2
=

dx

9 + 4x 2 = 3 sec z
si si x= 3 2x tg z tg z = 2 3 9 + 4x 2 3

1 Ln csc z - cot z + c 3

Reemplazando

9 + 4x 2 = 3 sec z sec z =
tg z = 2x 3 ctg z = 3 2x 9 + 4x 2

dx x 9 + 4x 2

1 Ln 3

9 + 4x 2 3 +c 2x 2x

si

1 = Ln 3 x 9 + 4x 2

dx

9 + 4x 2 - 3 2x

csc z =
+c

2x 9 + 4x 2

2x

z 3

50

Resolver

dx 1 - 4x 2

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

1 cos z dz dx = 2 1 1 - 4x 2 cos z 2

2 1 4x 1 - 4x 2 = - 4 4

dz
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

2 1 1 1 - 4x 2 = - x 2 x = sen z 2 2 1 x = sen z 2 1 x 2 = sen 2 z 4


si x = 1 1 sen z dx = cos z dz 2 2
1 1 - sen 2 z 4 4

dx 1 - 4x 2 dx 1 - 4x 2

= dz

=z +c

1 - x2 = 4

Reemplazando

1 - x2 = 4
1 - x2 = 4

1 1 - sen 2 z 4
1 2 cos z 4

dx 1 - 4x 2

= arc sen (2 x ) + c

1 1 - x 2 = cos z 4 2
si x = 1 sen z 2 z = arc sen (2x )

1 z
1 - 4x 2

2x

51

Resolver

dx 4x x 2 - 16 dx 4x x 2 - 16

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z
=
4 sec z tg z dz 4 (4 sec z )(4 tg z )

x 2 - 16 = x 2 - 42

x 2 - 42
x = 4 sec z

1 dz 16
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

x = 4 sec z x 2 = 16 sec 2 z
si x = 4 sec z dx = 4 sec z tg z dz

x 2 - 16 =
x 2 - 16 =

16 sec 2 z - 16
16 (sec 2 z - 1) 16 (tg 2 z )

dx 4x x 2 - 16 dx 4x x 2 - 16

1 dz 16 1 (z ) + c 16

x 2 - 16 =

x 2 - 16 = 4 tg z x = 4 sec z sec z = x 4

4x

dx x 2 - 16

1 x arc sec + c 16 4

z = arc sec

x 4

x z 2

x2 - 4

52

Resolver

9 - x 2 dx x2 9 - x 2 dx 3 cos z (3 cos z dz ) = x2 9 sen 2 z

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
9 - x2 = 32 - x 2 32 - x 2
x = 3 sen z

cos 2 z dz sen 2 z

x = 3 sen z x 2 = 9 sen 2 z

si x = 3 sen z dx = 3 cos z dz
9 - x2 = 9 - x2 = 9 - x2 = 9 - 9 sen 2 z 9 1 - sen 2 9 cos 2 z z

2 ctg z dz
Identidad trigonomtrica ctg2 z = csc2 z - 1
ctg

2 z dz = csc 2 z - 1 dz 2 z - 1 dz = csc 2 z dz - 1dz

csc

9 - x 2 = 3 cos z
si x = 3 sen z sen z = x 3 x x sen z = z = arc sen 3 3

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c 2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c

2 csc z dz - 1dz = - ctg z - z + c

tg z =

x 9 - x2

ctg z =

9 x2 x

Reemplazando 9 - x2 - ctg z - z + c = - x

x - arc sen 3 + c - arc sen x + c 3

9 - x 2 dx 9 - x2 = - x x2

3 z
9 - x2

53

Resolver 2 x + 5 dx

x2 + a2

x = a tg z

2 2 x + 5 dx = 5 sec z 5 sec z dz

x2 + 5 = x2 + x = 5 tg z x 2 = 5 tg 2 z

( 5 )2

x = 5 tg z

3 5 sec z dz
Se resuelve la integral 5 sec 3 z dz por partes

u dv = u * v - v du

si x = 5 tg z dx = 5 sec 2 z dz x2 + 5 = x2 + 5 = 5 tg 2 z + 5 5 (tg 2 z + 1)

5 sec 3 z dz = 5 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

5 sec 2 z * sec z dz = 5[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] 5[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] = 5sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

x 2 + 5 = 5 sec 2 z x2 + 5 = 5 sec z

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1


5sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz = 5sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz

5sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz


5 sec 3 z dz = 5sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz 5 sec 3 z dz = 5 sec z * tg z - 5 sec 3 z dz + 5 sec z dz

Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes


5 sec 3 z dz + 5 sec 3 z dz = 5 sec z * tg z + 5 sec z dz 10 sec 3 z dz = 5 sec z * tg z + 5 sec z dz

Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2


5 sec 3 z dz = 5 5 sec z * tg z + sec z dz 2 2

54

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
5 sec 3 z dz = 5 5 sec z * tg z + Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2

x = 5 tg z
si x = 5 tg z tg z = x 5

5 5 2 x + 5 dx = sec z * tg z + Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2
5 x2 + 5 x 5 + Ln * 2 5 5 2
x2 +5 5

2 cos z = x
x 5

x 2 + 5 dx =

+c

tg z =

x2 - 4 2
5 sec z

x2 + 5 =
+c

x 2 + 5 dx =

5 x x2 + 5 5 + 2 Ln 2 5

x2 +5 + x 5

sec z =

x2 + 5 5

2 x + 5 dx =

1 5 x x 2 + 5 + Ln 2 2

x2 + 5 + x 5

+c

Propiedad de los logaritmos

x 2 + 5 dx =

5 1 x x 2 + 5 + Ln 2 2

x2 +5 + x

5 Ln 2

5 +c

C1 = -

5 Ln 2

5 +c

x2 + 5
x2 +5 + x + C1

x 2 + 5 dx =

5 1 x x 2 + 5 + Ln 2 2

z
5

55

Resolver

dx x3 x 2 9 dx x3 x 2 9 (3 sec z tg z dz) 27 sec 3 z * 3 tg z

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z
=

x2 -9 =

x 2 - 3 2 x = 3 sec z

1 1 dz 2 = cos z dz 2 z 27 27 sec

x = 3 sec z X2 = 9 sec2 z
X3 = 27 sec3 z

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica

si x = 3 sec z dx = 3 sec z tg z dz

cos 2 z =

1 (1 + cos2z ) 2

x2 -9 =
x2 -9 = x2 -9 =

9 sec 2 z - 9
9 (sec 2 z - 1) 9 (tg 2 z )

1 1 1 2 cos z dz = (1 + cos 2 z ) dz 27 27 2 1 (1 + cos 2 z dz ) 54 1 1 dz + cos 2z dz 54 54


1 1 1 z + sen 2z + c 54 54 2

x 2 - 9 = 3 tg z si x = 3 sec z sec z = x 3

x z = arc sec 3 x 3 si sec z = cos z = 3 x

1 1 z+ sen 2z + c 54 108
Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica

si 3 tg z = x 2 - 9 tg z =

x2 - 9 3

sen 2 z = 2 sen z cos z


x
1 1 1 1 (2 sen z cos z ) z+ sen 2z + c = z+ 54 54 108 108
Reemplazando
2 1 x 1 x - 9 3 arc sec + * 54 x x 3 54 1 x 1 3 x2 -9 arc sec + +c 54 3 54 x2
dx x3

x2 - 9

z
3

1 x 1 = arc sec + 54 3 18 x2 -9

x2 -9 +c x2

56

Resolver dx x 2 + 25

dx 5 sec 2 z dz = x 2 + 25 25 sec 2 z

x2 + a2 x = a tg z x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 5 2 x = 5 tg z
x = 5 tg z x2 = 25 tg2 z

1 dz 5 1 1 dz = (z ) + c 5 5
Reemplazando

si x = 5 tg z dx = 5 sec 2 z dz x 2 + 25 = 25 tg 2 z + 25 x 2 + 25 = 25 (tg 2 z + 1) x 2 + 25 = 25 ( sec 2 z ) si x = 5 tg z tg z =


x z = arc tg 5

dx 1 = (z ) + c 5 x 2 + 25 dx 1 x arc tg + c = 5 5 x 2 + 25

x 5

x 2 + 25

x z
5

57

Resolver

x2 9 - x2
x2 9 - x2

dx

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
9 - x2 = 32 - x 2
x = 3 sen z

dx =

9 sen 2 z (3 cos z dz ) (3 cos z )

32 - x 2

2 9 sen z dz
2 2 9 sen z dz = 9 sen z dz
Identidades trigonometricas

x = 3 sen z x 2 = 9 sen 2 z si x = 3 sen z dx = 3 cos z dz


9 - x2 = 9 - x2 = 9 - x2 = 9 - 9 sen 2 z 9 1 - sen 2 z 9 cos 2 z

1 - cos 2z = sen 2 z 2
1 - cos 2z 9 sen 2 z dz = 9 dz 2

9 - x 2 = 3 cos z si x = 3 sen z sen z = x 3

9 9 (1 - cos 2z ) dz = ( 1 dz - cos 2z dz ) 2 2
9 9 dz - cos 2z dz 2 2

x z = arc sen 3 si 9 - x 2 = 3 cos z cos z = 9 - x2 3

9 91 z - sen 2z + c 2 22

Identidades trigonometricas

sen 2z = 2 sen z * cos z


9 91 9 9 z - sen 2z + c = z - (2 sen z * cos z ) + c 2 22 2 4
Reemplazando

z 9 - x2

9 9 9 9 z - (2 sen z * cos z ) + c = z - (sen z * cos z ) + c 2 4 2 2


9 9 9 x 9 x z - ( sen z * cos z ) + c = arc sen - * 2 2 2 3 2 3 9-x2 3

58

9 x 9 x arc sen - * 2 3 2 3

9-x2 3

+c =

2 9 x 9 x 9-x arc sen - 2 9 3 2

+c

2 9 x 9x 9-x arc sen - 2 9 3 2

9 x 1 2 + c = 2 arc sen 3 - 2 x 9 - x + c

x2 9 - x2

dx =

9 x 1 arc sen - x 9 - x 2 + c 2 3 2

59

Resolver

2 1 - t dt 2 1 t dt = cos z * (cos z dz )

a 2 - t 2 t = a sen z

1- t2

t = 1 sen z

2 cos z dz
Identidades trigonometricas

t = sen z t 2 = sen 2 z
si t = sen z dt = cos z dz

1 + cos 2z = cos 2 z 2 1 + cos 2z 2 dz cos z dz = 2


1 1 1 (1 + cos 2z ) dz = 1 dz + cos 2z dz 2 2 2

1- t2 = 1- t2 =

1 - sen 2 z

cos 2 z

1 - t 2 = cos z

t = sen z z = arc sen t

1 11 z + sen 2z + c 2 22 1 1 z + (sen 2z) + c 2 4


Identidades trigonometricas

1 z 1- t2

sen 2z = 2 sen z * cos z


1 1 1 1 z + ( sen 2z ) + c = z + (2 sen z * cos z ) + c 2 4 2 4
Reemplazando

1 1 (2 sen z * cos z ) + c = z + 2 4 1 1 ( sen z * cos z ) + c = z + 2 2

1 1 (sen z * cos z ) + c z + 2 2 1 (arc sen (t )) + 1 t * 1 - t 2 + c 2 2

60

Resolver dx x2 4 + x2
dx x2 4 + x2 = 2 sec 2 z dz 4 tg 2 z (2 sec z )

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

4 + x 2 = 2 2 + x 2 x = 2 tg z x = 2 tg z x 2 = 4 tg 2 z si x = 2 tg z dx = 2 sec 2 z dz 4 + x 2 = 4 (1 + tg 2 z ) 4 + x 2 = 4 (sec 2 z) 4 + x 2 = 2 sec z


si x = 2 tg z tg z = x 2

1 sec z dz 4 tg 2 z

1 1 cos z dz 4 sen 2 z cos 2 z

1 cos z dz 4 sen 2 z

u = sen z du = cos z dz u2 = sen2 z


Reemplazando 1 cos z dz 1 du = 4 sen 2 z 4 u 2

sen z =

x 4 + x2

1 du 1 - 2 = u du 4 u2 4
1 1 u -1 + c = +c 4 (- 1) 4u

4 + x2

z
2

Reemplazando 1 1 +c= +c 4u 4(sen z )

1 1 +c= 4(sen z ) x 4 2 4+x


dx 4+ x2


+c = 4 + x2 +c 4x

x2

x 4 2 4+x

61

Resolver dx 3x 2 + 2 x + 4 Se debe completar el cuadrado dx dx = 2 + 2x + 4 2 + 2x + 4 3x 3x 3 3


1 dx 3 3x 2 1 4 +2 x+ 3 3 3 1 dx 3 2 1 4 x + 2x + 3 3 1 dx 3 2 1 1 1 4 x + 3 2x + 9 9 + 3
1 dx 3 2 1 1 1 4 x + 2x + + 3 9 9 3 1 dx 3 2 x + 1 1 + 12 9 9 3 1 dx 3 2 x + 1 + 11 9 3

x2 + a 2

x = a tg

2 2 2 x + 1 + 11 = x + 1 + 11 9 9 3 3 1 11 x + = tg 3 9

1 x + 3

11 2 tg 9

1 11 11 si x + = tg dx = sec 2 d 3 9 9
2 x + 1 + 11 = 11 tg 2 + 11 3 9 9 9 2 x + 1 + 11 = 11 (tg 2 + 1) 3 9 9 2 x + 1 + 11 = 11 (sec 2 3 9 9 )

1 11 tg tg = x + = 3 9

x+

1 3 11 9

1 x + 1 x + 1 3 x + 1 3 3 3 3= tg = = = 11 11 11 11 9 3 9 3x + 1 3x + 1 si tg = = arc tg 11 11 x+

Reemplazando
1 dx 3 2 x + 1 3 11 11 2 sec d 1 1 9 1 9 = = d = * 11 3 11 3 3 11 sec 2 + 9 9 9 11 3 d = 1 * 9 11 d = 11 d = 11 + c 11 3 3 *11 11 11 9

3x + 1 11 11 1 dx +c = arc tg = +c 2 11 11 3 11 11 1 x + + 9 3

62

# 48 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx 1 - x2 dx 1 - x2 = cos z dz cos z

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
1 - x2 x = sen z x 2 = sen 2 z
Si x = sen z dx = cos z dz

x = 1 sen z

dz
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

1- x2 = 1- x 2 =

1 - sen 2 z cos 2 z

dz = z + c
Reemplazando
z + c = arc sen (x ) + c

1 - x 2 = cos z

si x = sen z z = arc sen (x )


tg z = x 1- x2

1 z
1- x 2

63

# 49 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx = 1+ x2

dx 1+ x2

sec 2 z dz = dz 2z sec

dz = (z ) + c
Reemplazando

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

1 + x 2 x = 1 tg z
x = tg z x2 = tg2 z

dx 1+ x2

(z ) + c

si x = a tg z dx = sec 2 z dz

dx 1+ x2

= arc tg x + c

1 + x 2 = 1 + tg 2 z 1 + x 2 = sec 2 z si x = tg z z = arc tg x

1 + x2

x z 1

64

# 50 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx x x 2 -1 dx sec z tg z dz = (sec z ) tg z
x 2 a 2 x = a sec z

x x 2 -1 dz = z + c

x 2 - 1 x = 1 sec z
X2 = sec2 z Si x = sec z dx = sec z tg z dz
x 2 -1 = sec 2 z - 1

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

dz = z + c

x 2 -1 =

tg 2 z

Reemplazando dz = z + c = arc sec x + c

x 2 - 1 = tg z

si x = sec z cos =

dx = arc sec x + c 2 -1 x x

1 x

z = arc sec x

x z 1

x2 -1

65

# 51 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx 4 - x2 dx 4 - x2 = 2 cos z dz (2 cos z )

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
4 - x 2 x = 2 sen z
x = 2 sen z x 2 = 4 sen 2 z
si x = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz

dz = z + c

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

4 - x2 =

4 - 4 sen 2 z

Reemplazando

4 - x2 =

4 1 - sen 2
4 cos 2 z

dz = z + c = arc sen
dx 4 - x2 = arc sen

x +c 2

4 - x2 =

x +c 2

4 - x 2 = 2 cos z

si x = 2 sen z sen z = x 2

x 2

z = arc sen

x z
4 - x2

66

# 52 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx = 9 + x2

dx 9 + x2

3 sec 2 z dz 1 = dz 2z 3 9 sec

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

1 1 dz = ( z ) + c 3 3
Reemplazando

9 + x 2 = 3 2 + x 2 x = 3 tg z
x = 3 tg z x2 = 9 tg2 z

dx 1+ x2

1 (z ) + c 3

si x = 3 tg z dx = 3 sec 2 z dz 9 + x 2 = 9 + 9 tg 2 z 9 + x 2 = 9 (1 + tg 2 z)
9 + x 2 = 9 sec 2 z

dx 9 + x2

1 x arc tg + c 3 3

9 + x2

si

x = 3 tg z tg z =

x 3

x z 3

z = arc tg

x 3

67

# 53 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx 25 - 16x 2

5 cos z dz dx = 4 (5 cos z ) 25 - 16x 2

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
25 - 16x 2 = 5 2 - (4x )2 4x = 5 sen z
4x = 5 sen z (4x )2 = 25 sen 2 z si 4x = 5 sen z 4 dx = 5 cos z dz 5 dx = cos z dz 4
25 - (4x )2 =
25 - (4x )2 =

1 dz 4
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

1 4x +c dz = z + c = arc sen 4 5
dx 25 - 16x 2 1 4x arc sen +c 4 5

25 - 25 sen 2 z
25 1 - sen 2 z

25 - (4x )2 =

25 cos 2 z

25 - 16x 2 = 5 cos z

si 4x = 5 sen z sen z = z = arc sen


5

4x 5

4x 5

4x z
25 - 16x 2

68

# 54 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx = 4 x2 + 9

3 sec 2 z dz 3 dx 2 = = dz 2z 2 +9 18 9 sec 4x

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

1 1 dz = ( z ) + c 6 6
Reemplazando

4 x 2 + 9 = (2x )2 + 3 2 2x = 3 tg z
2x = 3 tg z (2x)2 = 9 tg2 z

dx 1 (z ) + c = 2 +9 6 4x

si 2x = 3 tg z 2 dx = 3 sec 2 z dz dx = 3 sec 2 z dz 2 9

dx = 2 +9 4x

1 2x arc tg +c 6 3

(2x )2 + 9 = 9 tg 2 z + (2x )2 + 9

= 9 (tg 2 z + 1)

4x 2 + 9 2x z 3

(2x )2 + 9
si

= 9 (sec 2 z) 2x 3

2x = 3 tg z tg z =
z = arc tg

2x 3

69

# 55 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM


dx x 4x 2 - 9

3 sec z tg z dz dx = 2 3 x 4x 2 - 9 sec z * 3 tg z 2
1 1 dz = z + c 3 3

x 2 a 2 x = a sec z

4x 2 - 9 =

(2x )2 - 32

2x = 3 sec z

(2X)2 = 9 sec2 z Si 2x = 3sec z 2 dx = 3sec z tg z dz

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

3 sec z 2 3 dx = sec z tg z dz 2 x=
4x 2 - 9 =
4x 2 - 9 =
4x 2 - 9 =

1 1 dz = z + c 3 3
Reemplazando
1 1 1 2x +c dz = z + c = arc sec 3 3 3 3

9 sec 2 z - 9
9(sec 2 z - 1)
9 tg 2 z

4x 2 - 9 = 3 tg z

dx 1 2x = +c arc sec 3 3 2 -9 x 4x

si x =

3 2x sec z sec = 2 3

z = arc sec

2x 3

2x z 3

4x 2 - 9

70

# 56 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

x 2 dx 1- x6
x 2 dx 1- x6 1 cos z dz 3 = ( cos z )
a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
1- x6 = 12 - x 3 2

x 3 = 1 sen z

1 dz 3
Reemplazando 1 1 1 3 dz = z + c = arc sen x + c 3 3 3

x 3 = sen z

si x 3 = sen z 3 x 2 dx = cos z dz

1 x 2 dx = cos z dz 3
1- x3

( )2
2

1 - (sen z )2
1 - sen 2 z

X z

1- x3 1- x3 1- x3

1- x6

2 2

cos 2 z

= cos z

si x 3 = sen z z = arc sen x 3

71

# 57 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM x dx = 4 x +3


3 sec 2 z dz 3 2 = dz 2z 6 3 sec

x dx = x4 +3

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

3 3 (z ) + c dz = 6 6
Reemplazando

2 x4 + 3 = x2 + 2 = 3 tg z x

( 3 )2

x 2 = 3 tg z

x dx = x4 + 3

3 (z ) + c 6

si x 2 = 3 tg z 2 x dx = 3 sec 2 z dz x dx = 3 sec 2 z dz 2

x dx = 4 x +3

3 x2 3 arc tg 3 6

+c

2 x4 + 3 = x2 +

( 3 )2 = [ 3 tg z]2 + 3

x 4 + 3 = 3 tg 2 z + 3 x 4 + 3 = 3 (tg 2 z + 1) 3 x 4 + 3 = 3 sec 2 z

X2 z
3 + x4 si x 2 = 3 tg z tg z = x2 3 x2 * 3 3* 3 3 x2 3 = =

x2 3

z = arc tg

z = arc tg

z = arc tg

72

# 58 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx x x 4 -1

Se multiplica por 2x (2x ) dx = dx 2x dx = (2x ) x x 4 - 1 2x 2 x 4 - 1 x x 4 -1

x 2 x 4 -1 1 1 dz = z + c 2 2

1 2

2 x dx

1 sec z tg z dz = 2 (sec z ) tg z

x 2 a 2 x = a sec z x4 -1

x2

- 1 x 2 = 1 sec z

X2 = sec z Si x2 = sec z 2 x dx = sec z tg z dz


2 x 2 -1 = 2 x 2 -1 = x 4 - 1 = tg z

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

(sec z )2
tg 2 z

-1

Reemplazando 1 1 1 2 dz = z + c = arc sec x + c 2 2 2

dx 1 = arc sec x 2 + c 2 x x 4 -1

si x 2 = sec z cos =

1 x2

z = arc sec x 2

X2
x 4 -1

z 1

73

# 59 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx 4 - (x + 2)2 dx 4 - (x + 2 )2 = 2 cos z dz (2 cos z )

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
4 - (x + 2 )2 = 2 2 - (x + 2 )2 x + 2 = 2 sen z

dz = z + c
Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

x + 2 = 2 sen z (x + 2)2 = 4 sen 2 z si x + 2 = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz


4 - (x + 2 )2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z

Reemplazando

4 - (x + 2 )2 =

4 (1 - sen 2 z)
4 cos 2 z

dz = z + c = arc sen
dx 4 - (x + 2)2

x+2 +c 2
x+2 +c 2
si

4 - (x + 2 )2 =

4 - (x + 2 )2 = 2 cos z
x + 2 = 2 sen z sen z = x+2 2

= arc sen

z = arc sen
2

x+2 2

X+2 z
4 - (x + 2 )2

74

# 60 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx = x + e- x e

Se multiplica por ex e x dx dx e x dx e x dx = = = x e x * e x + e- x e 2x + e 0 e 2x + 1 e + e-x

e x dx sec 2 z dz = = dz 2 sec 2 z ex +1

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

dz = (z ) + c
Reemplazando

2 e x + 1 e x = 1 tg z
ex = tg z

=z+c x x e +e

dx

(ex)2 = tg2 z

si e x = tg z e x dx = sec 2 z dz

= arc tg e x + c x -x e +e

dx

2 e x + 1 = (tg z )2 + 1

2 e x + 1 = tg 2 z + 1
2 e x + 1 = sec 2 z

e 2x + 1

si

e x = tg z z = arc tg e x

ex z 1

75

# 62 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

sec x tg x dx = 9 + 4sec 2 x
dx

3 sec 2 z dz 3 2 = = dz 2 x 9 sec 2 z 18 9 + 4 sec

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

1 1 dz = (z ) + c 6 6
1 (z ) + c = 1 arc tg 2 sec x + c 6 6 3

9 + 4 sec 2 x = (3)2 + (2 sec x )2 2 sec x = 3 tg z


2 secx = 3 tg z (2sec x)2 = 9 tg2 z

si 2 sec x = 3 tg z 2 sec x tg x dx = 3 sec 2 z dz

sec x tg x dx =

3 sec 2 z dz 2

9 + (2 sec x )2 = 9 + 9 tg 2 z
4 sec 2 x + 9

2 secx z 3

9 + (2 sec x )2 = 9 (1 + tg 2 z ) 9 + (2 sec x )2 = 9 (sec 2 z )

si

2 secx = 3 tg z tg z =

2 secx 3

z = arc tg

2 secx 3

76

# 63 Pg. 246 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

(x + 3) dx
1- x2

(x + 3) dx
1- x2

(x + 3) cos z dz = (x + 3) dz = ( cos z )

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
1 - x 2 x = 1 sen z
x = sen z x 2 = sen 2 z

(sen z + 3) dz = sen z dz + 3 dz = - cos z + 3z + c


Ordenando 3z-cos z +c Reemplazando

si x = sen z dx = cos z dz

1- x2 =
1- x 2 = 1- x 2 =

1 - (sen z )2
1 - sen 2 z cos 2 z

(x + 3) dz dz
1- x2

= 3z - cos z + c = 3 arc sen x 3 - 1 - x 2 + c

1 - x 2 = cos z
si x = sen z

z = arc sen x 3

X z

cos z = 1 - x 2

1- x2

77

# 64 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

(2x - 7 ) dx =
x2 + 9

(2x - 7 ) dx = (2x - 7 ) * 3sec 2 z dz = 3 (2x - 7 ) dz


x2 + 9 9 sec 2 z 9

a2 + x2

x = a tg z

1 1 1 (2x - 7 ) dz = 2x dz - 7 dz 3 3 3
Reemplazando el valor de x 7 7 1 1 2 2 x dz - 7 dz = 3 tg z dz - dz = 2 tg z dz - dz 3 3 3 3 3

x 2 + 9 = (x )2 + 3 2 x = 3 tg z
x = 3 tg z (x)2 = 9 tg2 z

7 2 tg z dz - dz = 3

si x = 3 tg z dx = 3 sec 2 z dz

(x )2 + 9 = 9 tg 2 z +
dz = z + c

Tabla de integrales

tg z dz = Ln sec z + c

(x )2 + 9 (x )2 + 9

= 9 (tg 2 z + 1) = 9 (sec 2 z) x2 + 9 x2 + 9 sec z = 9 9 x2 + 9 3 x = 3 tg z tg z = z = arc tg x 3 x 3

7 7 2 tg z dz - dz = 2 Ln sec z z + c 3 3
Reemplazando

sec 2 z =

2 Ln sec z

7 z + c = 2 Ln 3
2

x2 + 9 7 x arctg + c 3 3 3

sec z =

2 x +9 2 Ln 2 2 (3)

si
7 x x2 + 9 7 x arctg + c = Ln arctg + c 9 3 3 3 3

Ln x 2 + 9 - Ln 9 -

7 x arctg + c 3 3

pero: Ln 9 + c = C1 Reemplazando x 7 Ln x 2 + 9 - arctg + C1 3 3

x2 + 9

x z 3

78

# 65 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

= 2 y + 10 y + 30
Se completa el cuadrado, se adiciona 25 y se le resta 25 dy dy dy = = 2 2 + 2(5) y + 25 + 30 - 25 2 y + 10 y + 30 y y + 10y + 25 + 30 25 dy dy = y 2 + 10y + 25 + 5 ( y + 5 )2 + 5 dy 5 5 sec 2 z dz = = dz 5 ( y + 5 )2 + 5 5 sec 2 z y 2 + a 2 y = a tg z

dy

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

( y + 5 )2 + 5 = ( y + 5 ) 2 + (
y + 5 = 5 tg z (y + 5) 2 = 5 tg 2 z

)2

y + 5 = 5 tg z

5 5 z+c dz = 5 5

si y + 5 = 5 tg z dy = 5 sec 2 z dz

Reemplazando
5 y +5 5 5 5 +c z+c= arc tg 5 5 5

(y + 5)2 + 5 = 5 tg 2 z + ( y + 5 )2 + 5 ( y + 5 )2 + 5
si

= 5 (tg 2 z + 1) = 5 (sec 2 z)

5 y +5 5 dy 5 +c = arc tg 2 5 5 y + 10 y + 30

y + 5 = 5 tg z tg z =
y+5 5

y+5 5

( y + 5 )2 + 5
z
5

Y+5

z = arc tg

= arc tg

5 (y + 5 ) 5 * 5

z = arc tg

5 (y + 5 ) 5 y+5 5 = arc tg 5 5

79

# 66 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx 20 + 8x - x 2

Se ordena
dx 20 + 8x - x 2 = dx - x 2 - 8x - 20 = dx x 2 - 2 (4 ) x - 20

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
6 2 - (x - 4)2 x - 4 = 6 sen z
x - 4 = 6 sen z (x - 4) 2 = 36 sen 2 z

se completa el cuadrado, sumando 16 y restando 16


dx - x 2 - 8x + 16 - 20 - 16 dx - x 2 8 x + 16 36 = dx - x 2 8 x + 16 20 16 dx - (x - 4 )2 - 36

si x - 4 = 6 sen z dx = 6 cos z dz

36 (x - 4 )2 =

36 - 36 sen 2 z

36 (x - 4 )2 = 36 (x - 4 )2 =

36 1 - sen 2 z 36 cos 2 z

Se ordena y luego se reemplaza 6 cos z dz dx = = dz 6 cos z 2 36 - (x - 4)

36 (x - 4)2 = 6 cos z

Tabla de integrales
dz

si x - 4 = 6 sen z sen z =
x -4 z = arc sen 6

x-4 6

= z + c

se reemplaza

cos z = 1 - x 2

x-4 +c dz = z + c = arc sen 6

x-4 = arc sen +c 2 6 20 + 8x - x


dx

z
36 - (x - 4 )2

X- 4

80

# 67 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx = 2x 2 + 2x + 5 Se multiplica por 2 y se divide por 2 para intentar completar el cuadrado

dx 2x 2 + 2x + 5

(2) dx

(2)2x 2 + 2x + 5

2 dx 4x 2 + (2 )2x + 10

2 dx (2x )2 + (2 )(2 )(1)(x ) + 10

se completa el cuadrado, sumando 1 y restando 1

2 dx (2x )2 + 4x + 1 + 10 - 1

2 dx (2 x )2 + 4 x + 1 + 10 1

2 dx (2x )2 + 4x + 1 + 9

2 dx (2x + 1)2 + 9

2 dx = (2x + 1)2 + 3 2

a2 + x2

x = a tg z 2x + 1 = 3 tg z

reemplazando
2 dx 3 sec 2 z dz 1 = = dz 3 (2x + 1)2 + 32 9 sec 2 z

(2x + 1)2 + 3 2

2x+1 = 3 tg z 2x = 3 tg x - 1 (2x+1)2 = 9 tg2 z

Tabla de integrales
dz = z + c

si 2x + 1 = 3 tg z 2 dx = 3 sec 2 z dz

(2x + 1)2 + 9 =
1 1 dz = z + c 3 3
Reemplazando 1 1 2x + 1 z + c = arc tg +c 3 3 3

9 tg 2 z + 9

(2x + 1)2 + 9 (2x + 1)2 + 9


sec 2 z =

= 9 (tg 2 z + 1) = 9 (sec 2 z)

(2x + 1)2 + 10
9

2 x 2 + 2x + 5

si

2x + 1 = 3 tg z tg z =

2x+1 z 3

z = arc tg

2x + 1 3

2x + 1 3

81

# 68 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

= 2 x - 4x + 8
se completa el cuadrado, sumando 4 y restando 4 (x + 1) dx = (x + 1) dx = (x + 1) dx 2 2 x 2 - 4x + 4 + 8 - 4 x - 4x + 8 x - 4x + 4 + 8 - 4 (x + 1) dx = (x + 1) dx = 1 dx x dx + 2 + 4 (x - 2 )2 + 4 (x - 2 )2 + 4 x 2 - 4x + 4 + 4 (x - 2)

(x + 1) dx

a2 + x2

x = a tg z x - 2 = 2 tg z

(x - 2)2 + 2 2

x dx 1 dx + = 2 + 4 (x - 2 )2 + 4 (x - 2)

x-2 = 2 tg z x = 2 tg x + 2 (x- 2)2 = 4 tg2 z

(2 tg z + 2) 2 sec 2 z dz 2 + 2 sec z dz = 4 sec 2 z 4 sec 2 z

2 dz = 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 (2tgz + 2) dz dz = 2 tg z + 2 dz + dz 2 2 2 2 2

si x - 2 = 2 tg z dx = 2 sec 2 z dz

(x - 2)2 + 4 = 4 tg 2 z + (x - 2)2 + 4 (x - 2)2 + 4


sec 2 z =

(2 tg z + 2)(2

dz )

= 4 (tg 2 z + 1) = 4 (sec 2 z)
= x 2 - 4x + 8 4

2 2 1 1 tg z + dz + dz = tg z dz + dz + dz 2 2 2 2

(x - 2)2 + 4
4

tg z dz + dz =
Tabla de integrales

3 2

sec z =

x 2 - 4x + 8 4

si

x - 2 = 2 tg z tg z =

tg z dz = Ln sec z + c

dz = z + c

x-2 2

z = arc tg

x-2 2

tg z dz + dz = Ln sec z +
Reemplazando

3 2

3 z+c 2

Ln sec z +

3 z + c = Ln 2

x 2 - 4x + 8 3 x 2 + arctg +c 4 2 2

82

2 x - 4x + 8 1 Ln 2 2 (2)

2 +
x2 x 2 - 4x + 8 x2 3 1 3 arc tg + c = Ln + arc tg +c 2 2 2 4 2 2

1 3 x2 Ln x 2 4 x + 8 - Ln 4 + arc tg +c 2 2 2
pero: Ln 4 + c = C1 Reemplazando
x 2 - 4x + 8

x-2 z 2

1 3 x2 Ln x 2 - 4x + 8 + arc tg + C1 2 2 2

83

# 69 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx 28 - 12x - x 2

Se ordena
dx 28 - 12x - x 2 = dx - x 2 + 12x - 28 = dx x 2 + 2 (6 ) x - 28

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
8 2 - (x + 6)2 x + 6 = 8 sen z
x + 6 = 8 sen z (x + 6) 2 = 64 sen 2 z

se completa el cuadrado, sumando 36 y restando 36


dx - x 2 + 12x + 36 - 28 - 36 dx - x 2 + 12 x + 36 64 = dx - x 2 + 12 x + 36 28 36 dx - (x + 6)2 - 64

si x + 6 = 8 sen z dx = 8 cos z dz

64 (x + 6 )2 =

64 - 64 sen 2 z

64 (x + 6 )2 =

64 1 - sen 2 z

Se ordena y luego se reemplaza dx

64 - (x + 6 )2 dx 64 - (x + 6 )2 = 8 cos z dz = dz 8 cos z

64 (x + 6 )2 =

64 cos 2 z

64 (x + 6)2 = 8 cos z

si x + 6 = 8 sen z sen z
x +6 z = arc sen 8

x+6 8

Tabla de integrales
dz

= z + c

se reemplaza
dz = z + c = arc sen

x +6 +c 8

dx 28 12 x - x 2

x+6 = arc sen +c 8

X+6 z

64 - (x + 6 )2

84

# 70 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

(x + 3) dx
5 - 4x - x 2

Se ordena

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
=

(x + 3) dx

(x + 3) dx
- x 2 + 4x - 5

5 - 4x - x 2

(x + 3) dx
x 2 + 2 (2 ) x - 5

3 2 - (x + 2 )2 x + 2 = 3 sen z
x + 2 = 3 sen z (x + 2) 2 = 9 sen 2 z x + 2 = 3 sen z x = 3 sen z - 2 si x + 2 = 3 sen z dx = 3 cos z dz

se completa el cuadrado, sumando 4 y restando 4

(x + 3) dx
- x 2 + 4x + 4 - 5 - 4

(x + 3) dx
- x 2 + 4 x + 4 5 4

(x + 3) dx
- x 2 + 4 x + 4 9

(x + 3)

dx

9 (x + 2 )2 = 9 (x + 2 )2 = 9 (x + 2 )2 =

- (x + 2 )2 - 9

9 - 9 sen 2 z 9 1 - sen 2 9 cos 2 z z

Se ordena y luego se reemplaza

(x + 3) dx 9 - (x + 2)2

(x + 3) dx 9 - (x + 2 )2

(x + 3) 3 cos z dz = (x + 3) dz
3 cos z

9 (x + 2 )2 = 3 cos z
si x + 2 = 3 sen z sen z = x+2 3

( x + 3) dz = x dz + 3 dz
Se reemplaza x = 3 sen z - 2

x dz + 3 dz = (3 sen z - 2) dz + 3 dz
(3 sen z - 2 ) dz + 3 dz = 3 sen z - 2 dz + 3 dz

x + 2 z = arc sen 3
cos z = 9 - (x + 2)2 3

3 sen z - 2 dz + 3 dz
Reduciendo terminos semejantes

3
z
9 ( x + 2 )2

3 sen z + dz
Tabla de integrales
dz

X+2

= z + c

sen

z dz = - cos z + c

se reemplaza

85

9 - ( x + 2 )2 3 sen z dz + dz = - 3 cos z + z + c = - 3 3 Simplificando

x + 2 + arc sen 3 + c

- 9 - ( x + 2 )2

x + 2 + arc sen +c 3
x + 6 9 - (x + 2 )2 + arc sen +c 8

(x + 3) dx
5 4x - x 2

=-

86

# 71 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

(2x + 3) dx
9x 2 - 12x + 8

se completa el cuadrado, sumando 4 y restando 4 para intentar completar el cuadrado

(2x + 3) dx
9x 2 - 12x + 8

(2x + 3) dx (2x + 3) dx (2x + 3) dx = = (3x )2 2(3)(2 )x + 8 (3x )2 12 x + 4 + 8 4 (3x )2 12 x + 4 + 8 4


=

(2x + 3) dx
(3x )2 - 12x + 4 + 8 - 4

(2x + 3) dx
(3 x )2 12 x + 4 + 4

(2x + 3) dx = (3x - 2 )2 + 4

(2x + 3) dx = (3x - 2 )2 + 4

a2 + x2

x = a tg z 3x - 2 = 2 tg z

reemplazando

(2X + 3) 2 sec 2 z dz (2X + 3) dx = 3 = 2 +4 2z (3x - 2) 4sec


(2X + 3) 2

(3x - 2)2 + 2 2

3x- 2 = 2 tg z 3x = 2 tg x +2 (3x -2)2 = 4 tg2 z

x=

2 tg x + 2 3

dz 2 1 3 = (2 x + 3) dz = (2 x + 3) dz 4 12 6

1 1 1 1 1 (2 x + 3) dz = 2 x dz + 3 dz = x dz + dz 6 3 2 6 6 2 tg x + 2 Pero : x = 3 reemplazando 1 1 1 2 tg x + 2 1 dz + dz x dz + dz = 3 2 3 3 2
1 2 tg x 2 1 + dz + dz 3 3 3 2

si 3x - 2 = 2 tg z 3 dx = 2 sec 2 z dz 2 dx = sec 2 z dz 3

(3x - 2)2 + 4 = (3x - 2)2 + 4 (3x - 2)2 + 4


sec 2 z =

4 tg 2 z + 4

= 4 (tg 2 z + 1) = 4 (sec 2 z)

1 2 1 2 1 tg x dz + dz + dz 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 tg x dz + dz + dz 9 9 2

(3x - 2)2 + 4
4

sec z =

(3x - 2)2 + 4
2

si

3x - 2 = 2 tg z tg z =

3x - 2 2

Sumando trminos semejantes

z = arc tg

3x - 2 2

87

13 2 tg x dz + dz 9 18

Tabla de integrales

tg z dz = Ln sec z + c
2 13 Ln sec z + z + c 9 18
Reemplazando 2 13 3x - 2 Ln sec z + arc tg +c 9 18 2

dz = z + c

9 x 2 - 12x + 8

3x-2 z 2

pero: cosz =

2 9x2 -12x+ 8

secz =

9x2 -12x+ 8 2

2 Ln 9

9x 2 - 12x + 8 13 3x - 2 + arc tg +c 2 18 2
2 + 13 3x - 2 arc tg +c 18 2

2 9x - 12x + 8 2 Ln 2 (2) 9 (2)

1 9 x 2 12 x + 8 13 3x - 2 Ln + arc tg +c 9 4 18 2

1 1 13 3x - 2 Ln 9x 2 - 12x + 8 - Ln 4 + arc tg +c 9 9 18 2
Pero: 1 Ln 4 + c = C1 9

REEMPLAZANDO

1 13 3x - 2 Ln 9x 2 - 12x + 8 + arc tg + C1 9 18 2

88

# 72 Pg. 248 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

(x + 2) dx
4x - x 2

Se factoriza el signo y se ordena

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z
2 2 - (x - 2 )
2

- (x

(x + 2) dx
2

- 4x

x - 2 = 2 sen z

se completa el cuadrado, sumando 4 y restando 4

x - 2 = 2 sen z (x - 2) 2 = 4 sen 2 z x - 2 = 2 sen z x = 2 sen z + 2 si x - 2 = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz

(x + 2) dx
- x 2 4x + 4 - 4

(x + 2) dx
- x 2 4 x + 4 4

(x + 2) dx - [ (x - 2)2 - 4]
Se ordena, se reemplaza y se simplifica

4 (x - 2 ) =
2

4 - 4 sen 2 z 4 1 - sen 2 z 4 cos 2 z

4 (x - 2 ) =
2

(x + 2) dx 4 - (x - 2 ) 2
(x + 2) dx 4 - (x - 2)2

4 (x 2 ) =
2 2

)
x-2 2

4 (x - 2 ) = 2 cos z

(x + 2)(2 cos z dz ) = (x + 2) dz
2 cos z

si x - 2 = 2 sen z sen z =
x -2 z = arc sen 2

(x + 2) dz = x dz + 2 dz
Se reemplaza x = 2 sen z + 2
x dz + 2 dz = (2 sen z + 2 ) dz + 2 dz

cos z =

4x - x 2 2

2 sen z dz + 2 dz
2 sen z dz + 4 dz

+ 2 dz

Reduciendo trminos semejantes

2
z
4x x 2

X-2

Tabla de integrales
dz

= z + c

sen

z dz = - cos z + c

se reemplaza
2 4x - x 2 sen z dz + 4 dz = - 2 cos z + 4z + c = - 2 2 x -2 + 4 arc sen 2 + c

89

Simplificando

x -2 - 2 cos z + 4z + c = - 4x - x 2 + 4 arc sen +c 2

(x + 2) dx
4x - x 2

=-

x -2 4 x x 2 + 4 arc sen +c 2

90

# 73 Pg. 248 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx x2 -1

x2 1 =
1

dx

(sec z tg z dz) sec z dz = tg z tg 2 z

sec z tg z dz = cos z ctg z dz = cos z


Simplificando 1 dz = csc z dz sen z

cos z dz senz

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z x 2 - 1 x = 1 sec z

x = sec z X2 = sec2 z
si x = sec z dx = sec z tg z dz x 2 - 1 = sec 2 z - 1 x 2 - 1 = tg 2 z

Tabla de integrales

csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c


csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c
Reemplazando

x = sec z
si sec z = x cos z =
sen z =

1 x
x x2 -1

csc z dz = Ln

x x2 -1 x -1 x2 -1

1 x2 -1

+c

x 2 -1 csc z = x

tg z = x 2 - 1 ctg z =

1 x2 -1

csc z dz = Ln

+c

csc z dz =

(x - 1)2 + c = 1 Ln (x - 1)(x 1) + c 1 Ln 2 2 2 x2 1 2 x 1
(x - 1)(x 1) + c 1 Ln (x 1)(x + 1) 2 (x 1) + c 1 Ln (x + 1) 2

x z
1

x 2 -1

csc z dz =

csc z dz =

91

# 82 Pg. 248 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dy 25 - 16 y 2

=
a 2 - y 2 y = a sen z 25 - 16 y 2 = 5 2 - (4y )2 4y = 5 sen z (4y )2 = 25 sen 2 z dz

5 cos z dz dy = 4 25 cos 2 z 25 - 16y 2


Simplificando 5 1 1 dz = sec z dz 100 cos z 20 Tabla de integrales

Si 4y = 5 sen z 4 dy = 5 cos z dz

dy =

5 cos z dz 4

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
Reemplazando

25 - (4y )2 = 25 - 25 sen 2 z 25 - (4y )2 = 25 (1 - sen 2 z ) 25 - (4y )2 = 25 (cos 2 z )

1 1 Ln sec z + tg z + c sec z dz = 20 20

si 4y = 5 sen z sen z =

4y 5

1 1 Ln sec z dz = 20 20

5 25 - 16y 2 5 + 4y 25 - 16y 2

4y 25 - 16y 2

+c

si cos z =
tg z =

25 - 16y 2 5
4y 25 - 16y 2

sec z =

5 25 - 16y 2

1 1 Ln sec z dz = 20 20

+c

(5 + 4y )2 1 1 Ln sec z dz = 20 20(2) 2 25 16 y

+c=

(5 + 4y)(5 + 4 y ) + c 1 Ln 40 25 16y 2

5 z
25 - 16y 2

4y

(5 + 4y)(5 + 4 y ) + c = 1 Ln 5 + 4y + c 1 Ln (5 4 y )(5 + 4 y ) 40 40 5 - 4y
dy 25 - 16y 2 = 5 + 4y 1 Ln +c 40 5 - 4y

92

# 83 Pg. 249 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

dx x 2 + 6x + 8
dx x 2 + 6x + 8

Se completa el cuadrado, se adiciona 9 y se le resta 9


= dx x 2 + 2(3) x + 9 + 8 - 9 = dx x 2 + 6x + 9 + 8 9

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z (x + 3)2 - 1 x + 3 = 1 sec z

x 2 + 6x + 9 1 sec z tg z dz dx sec z 1 = = dz = sec z dz tg z tg z (x + 3)2 - 1 tg 2 z 1 1 cos z 1 ctg z dz = dz = dz = csc z dz cos z cos z sen z sen z

dx

dx (x + 3)2 1

x + 3 = sec z (X+3)2 = sec2 z


si x + 3 = sec z dx = sec z tg z dz (x + 3)2 - 1 = sec 2 z - 1

(x + 3)2 - 1 =

tg 2 z

x + 3 = sec z

Tabla de integrales

si sec z = x + 3 cos z =

csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c


sen z =
Reemplazando
csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c

1 x+3

x 2 + 6x + 8 csc z = x+3

x+3 x 2 + 6x + 8

tg z = x 2 + 6 x + 8 ctg z = +c

1 x 2 + 6x + 8

Ln

x+3 x 2 + 6x + 8

1 x 2 + 6x + 8

Ln

x + 3 1 x 2 + 6x + 8

+ c = Ln

x+2 x 2 + 6x + 8

+c =

( x + 2 )2 1 Ln +c 2 2 2 x + 6x + 8

X+3
x 2 + 6x + 8

(x + 2)(x + 2) + c = 1 Ln (x + 2)(x + 2) = 1 Ln x + 2 + c 1 Ln 2 (x + 2)(x + 4) 2 x + 4 2 2 x 2 + 6x + 8

dx x 2 + 6x + 8

z
1

1 x+2 Ln +c 2 x+4

93

# 84 Pg. 247 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx = 4x - x 2 Se factoriza el signo y se completa el cuadrado, sumando 4 y restando 4.
dx 4x - x 2 = dx dx dx = = x 2 4 x + 4 4 x 2 4 x + 4 4 x 2 2(2 )x

dx ( x 2 )2 - 4 dx 4 ( x 2 )2

dx 4 ( x 2 )2

a2 - x2

x = a sen z

4 - (x - 2 )2 = 2 2 - (x - 2 )2 x - 2 = 2 sen z
Si x- 2 = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz (x- 2)2 = 4 sen2 z

reemplazando
dx 4 ( x 2 )2 = 2 cos z dz 1 1 1 = dz = sec z dz 2 4 cos 2 z 2 cos z

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c

4 - (x - 2 )2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z 4 - (x - 2 )2 = 4 (1 - sen 2 z ) 4 - (x - 2 )2 = 4 (cos 2 z )

si x - 2 = 2 sen z sen z =

x-2 2

1 1 sec z dz = Ln sec z + tg z + c 2 2 reemplazando 1 1 sec z dz = Ln 2 2 2 4x - x 2 + x-2 4x - x 2 +c

si cos z =
tg z =

4x - x 2 sec z = 2
x-2 4x - x 2

2 4x - x 2

1 1 2+ x-2 +c sec z dz = Ln 2 2 4x - x 2
1 x2 +c= Ln 2(2 ) 4x - x 2 2 4x - x x 1 x2 + c = Ln +c 2 4 4x - x 2

1 Ln 2

2 x-2 z
4x - x 2

1 x (x ) 1 x Ln + c = Ln +c (x )(4 - x ) 4 4 4-x

dx 4x - x 2

1 x Ln +c 4 4-x

94

# 8 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM dx 32 4 - x2 32 a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z



dx 4 - x2 32 = 2 cos z dz 8 cos 3 z
32 32 4 - x2 = (2)2 - x 2 32 (2)2 - x 2 x = 2 sen z

1 1 dz 4 cos 2 z
1 = sec 2 z dz 4
Tabla de integrales Tabla de integrales

x = 2 sen z
x 2 = 4 sen 2 z

2 sec z dz = tg z + c

si x = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz 32 32 4 - x2 = 4 - 4 sen 2 z 32 32 4 - x2 = (4)1 - sen 2 z

1 1 2 sec z dz = tg z + c 4 4
Reemplazando 1 1 (tg z) + c = ( 4 4

4 - x2
4 - x2 4 - x2 4 - x2

32
32

= (4) cos 2 z

32

= [(4)]3 2 * cos 3 z = 64 cos 3 z = 8 cos 3 z


x 2

x 4 - x2

) +c

32

dx 4 - x2 32

x 4 4 - x2

+c

32

si x = 2 sen z sen z =

tg z = x

x 4 - x2

z
4 - x2

95

# 9 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

25 - x 2 dx x 25 - x 2 dx 5 cos z (5 cos z dz ) = x 5 sen z

a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

5 2 - x 2 x = 5 sen z x 2 = 25 sen 2 z

5 cos 2 z dz sen z

si x = 5 sen z dx = 5 cos z dz
25 - x 2 = 25 - 25 sen 2 z

Identidad trigonometrica cos2 z = 1 - sen2 z

25 - x 2 = 25 - x 2 =

25 1 - sen 2 z 25 cos 2 z

1 - sen 2 z dz 2 5 cos 2 z dz = 5 1 dz - 5 sen z dz = 5 sen z sen z sen z sen z


5 csc z dz - 5 sen z dz

25 - x 2 = 5 cos z
si x = 5 sen z sen z = 5 x x 5

Tabla de integrales

csc z dz = Ln csc z - ctg z + c


sen z dz = - cos z + c

csc z =

tg z =

x 25 - x 2

5 csc z dz - 5 sen z dz = 5 Ln csc z - ctg z - 5 (- cos z ) + c 5 Ln csc z - ctg z + 5 cos z + c ctg z =


Reemplazando

25 x 2 x 25 x 2 5

5 Ln

5 x

25 - x 2 25 - x 2 + (5) +c x 5

cos z =

5 Ln

5 - 25 - x 2 x

+ 25 x 2 + c

5 - 25 - x 2 25 - x 2 dx = 5 Ln x x

5
+ 25 x 2 + c

z
25 - x 2

96

# 11 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

x 2 + 4 dx

2 2 2 3 x + 4 dx = 2 sec z 2 sec z dz = 4 sec z dz


4 sec 3 z dz =

a2 + x2
x2 + 4 =

x = a tg z
x 2 + 22 x = 2 tg z

x = 2 tg z
4 sec 3 z dz por partes

Se resuelve la integral

x 2 = 4 tg 2 z si x = 2 tg z dx = 2 sec 2 z dz
x2 + 4 = 4 tg 2 z + 4 4 (tg 2 z + 1 )

u dv = u * v - v du

4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

x2 + 4 =

u dv = u * v - v du
4 sec 2 z * sec z dz = 4[sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ]
4 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

x 2 + 4 = 4 sec 2 z

x 2 + 4 = 2 sec z

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica tg2 z = sec2 z - 1


4 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz 4 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz
4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz

4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - 4 sec 3 z dz + 4 sec z dz

Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes


4 sec 3 z dz + 4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z + 4 sec z dz 8 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z + 4 sec z dz

Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2


4 sec 3 z dz = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 sec z dz

97

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
4 sec 3 z dz = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 Ln sec z + tg z + c

x = 2 tg z
si x = 2 tg z tg z =
cos z = 2 a2 + x2

x 2

x 2 + 4 dx = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 Ln sec z + tg z + c

x2 + 4 x 2 x + 4 dx = 2 * 2 2

+ 2 Ln

x2 + 4 x + 2 2

+c x 2 + 4 = 2 sec z
x2 + 4 2

x 2 x + 4 dx = 2

x2 + 4 + 2 Ln 4 x 2 + 4 + 2 Ln

x2 + 4 + x 2 x2 + 4 + x 2

+c

sec z =

x 2 + 4 dx =

1 x 2

+c

Propiedad de los logaritmos

x 2 + 4 dx =

1 x 2

x2 + 4

+ 2 Ln

a2 + x2 + x

- 2 Ln 2 + c
x2 + 4

C1 = - 2 Ln 2 + c

x z
2

2 x + 4 dx =

x x 2 + 4 + 2 Ln 2

x2 + 4 + x

+ C1

98

# 13 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM


2 x - 4 dx =

2 2 x - 4 dx = 2 tg z (2 sec z tg z dz ) = 4 sec z tg z dz
4 tg 2 z sec z dz =
Identidades trigonometricas

x2 - a2

x = a sec z

x 2 - 22

x = 2 sec z

x = 2 sec z
x 2 = 4 sec 2 z

tg 2 z = sec 2 z - 1
4 tg 2 z sec z dz = 4 sec 2 z 1 sec z dz 4 sec 2 z sec z dz - 4 sec z dz

si x = 2 sec z dx = 2 sec z tg z dz
x 2 - 22 = 4 sec 2 z - 4

x 2 - 22 =

4 (sec 2 z - 1)

4 sec3 z dz - 4 sec z dz =
Se resuelve la integral

Integral inicial

x 2 - 4 = 4 tg 2 z

u dv = u * v - v du

4 sec 3 z dz por partes

x 2 - 4 = 2 tg z

4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

dv = sec2 z

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

u dv = u * v - v du
4 sec 2 z * sec z dz = 4 [sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] 4 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica


4 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz 4 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz

tg 2 z = sec 2 z - 1

99

4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz 4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z - 4 sec 3 z dz + 4 sec z dz

Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes


4 sec 3 z dz + 4 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z + 4 sec z dz 8 sec 3 z dz = 4 sec z * tg z + 4 sec z dz

Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2

4 sec 3 z dz = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 sec z dz


Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
Regresando a la integral inicial despus de resolver 4 sec 3 z dz por partes.

x = 2 sec z
si x = 2 sec z sec z = 2 x x 2

4 sec3 z dz - 4 sec z dz = 4 sec 3 z dz - (4 sec z dz ) = 2 sec z * tg z + 2 sec z dz - (4 sec z dz )


2 sec z * tg z + 2 sec z dz - 4 sec z dz

cos z =

x 2 - 4 = 2 tg z
x2 4 2

Se reducen trminos semejantes


2 sec z * tg z - 2 sec z dz

tg z =

aplicando la tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c

2 sec z * tg z - 2 Ln sec z + tg z + c
Reemplazando 2 x - 4 dz = 2 sec z * tg z - 2 Ln sec z + tg z + c
x x2 - 4 x x2 - 4 2 - 2 Ln + +c x - 4 dz = 2 * 2 2 2 2 x x2 - 4 x + x2 - 4 2 +c x - 4 dz = 2 - 2 Ln 4 2

x z
2

x2 4

100

2 x - 4 dz =

1 x + x2 - 4 x x 2 - 4 - 2 Ln +c 2 2

Propiedad de los logaritmos

2 x - 4 dz =
Pero:

x x 2 - 4 - 2 Ln x + x 2 - 4 + 2 Ln 2 + c 2

C1 = 2 Ln 2 + c

2 x 4 dx =

x x 2 - 4 - 2 Ln x + x 2 - 4 2

+ C1

101

# 15 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

x 2 dx 4 x2

52
4 sen 2 z (2 cos z dz )

a2 - x2
= = 8 sen 2 z dz 32 cos 4 z

52

x = a sen z

x 2 dx 4 x2

52

32 cos 5 z

1 1 sen 2 z dz 4 cos 2 z cos 2 z


1 2 2 tg z sec z dz = 4

52 22 - x 2 x 2 = 4 sen 2 z

x = 2 sen z

si x = 2 sen z dx = 2 cos z dz
4 - x2
4 - x2
4 - x2

52
52

= 4 - 4 sen 2 z

52
52

Solucin por cambio de variable u = tg z du = sec2 z dz


1 1 2 2 2 tg z sec z dz = (u ) du 4 4

= 41 - sen 2 z
= 2 2 cos 2 z

52

52

Tabla de integrales

4 - x2 4 - x2

52 52

= 2 5 cos 5 z = 32 cos 5 z
x 2

n u du =

u n +1 n +1

+ c n -1

si x = 2 sen z sen z =

1 1 u3 2 +c (u ) du = 4 4 3

z = arc sen
x

x 2

Reemplazando u = tg z u3 = tg3 z 1 u3 1 1 + c = u 3 + c = tg 3 z + c 4 3 12 12
1 (tg z )3 + c = 1 x 12 12 2 4-x 3 +c=

tg z =

4 - x2

(x )3 1 12 4x x 2

+c

z
4 - x2

x 2 dx x3 +c = 52 32 4 - x2 12 4 x x 2

102

# 17 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM


dx x2 9 - x2 a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

dx x2 9 - x2

3 cos z dz 9 sen 2 z (3 cos z )

3 2 - x 2 x = 3 sen z

x = 3 sen z
x 2 = 9 sen 2 z

1 1 dz 9 sen 2 z

si x = 3 sen z dx = 3 cos z dz
9 - x2 = 9 - 9 sen 2 z

1 2 csc z dz 9
Tabla de integrales
2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c

9 - x2 = 9 - x2 =

9 1 - sen 2 z 9 cos 2 z

)
x 3

9 - x 2 = 3 cos z

1 1 2 csc z dz = - ctg z + c 9 9
Reemplazando

si x = 3 sen z sen z =

tg z =

x 9 - x2 ctg z =

1 1 9 - x2 - (ctg z) + c = - ( ) +c x 9 9

9 x2 x

dx x2 9 - x2

= -

9 - x2 +c 9x

x z
9- x2

103

# 18 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM

x 2 dx x 2 - 16
x 2 dx x 2 - 16
=

x 2 - a 2 x = a sec z

(16 sec 2 z)4 sec z tg z


(4 tg z )

x 2 - 16 =
dz x 2 - 42

x 2 - 42
x = 4 sec z

16 sec 3 z dz =

x = 4 sec z
x 2 = 16 sec 2 z si x = 4 sec z dx = 4 sec z tg z dz
x 2 - 16 = 16 sec 2 z - 16

Se resuelve la integral 16 sec 3 z dz por partes

u dv = u * v - v du

16 sec 3 z dz = 16 sec 2 z * sec z dz

Se resuelve por partes u = sec z du = sec z tg z dz

x 2 - 16 =
dv = sec2 z

16 (sec 2 z - 1) 16 (tg 2 z )

2 dv = sec z dz
v = tg z

x 2 - 16 =

x 2 - 16 = 4 tg z

16 sec 2 z * sec z dz = 16 [sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] 16 [sec z * tg z - (tg z ) * sec z * tgz dz ] = 16 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

] ]

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica


16 sec z * tgz - tg 2 z * sec z dz

tg2 z = sec2 z - 1

= 16 sec z * tg z - sec 2 - 1 * sec z dz

16 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz 16 sec 3 z dz = 16 sec 3 z dz =

] ]

16 sec z * tg z - sec 3 z dz + sec z dz

16 sec z * tg z - 16 sec 3 z dz + 16 sec z dz

Ordenando como una ecuacin cualquiera y simplificando los trminos semejantes


16 sec 3 z dz + 16 sec 3 z dz = 16 sec z * tg z + 16 sec z dz 32 sec 3 z dz = 16 sec z * tg z + 16 sec z dz

Dividiendo la ecuacin por 2


16 sec 3 z dz = 8 sec z * tg z + 8 sec z dz

104

Tabla de integrales

sec z dz = ln sec z + tg z + c
16 sec 3 z dz = 8 sec z * tg z + 8 Ln sec z + tg z + c x 2 dx x 2 - 16 x 2 dx = 8 sec z * tg z + 8 Ln sec z + tg z + c

x = 4 sec z
si x = 4 sec z sec z = cos z = 4 x x 4

2 x x x - 16 = 8 * + 8 Ln 4 + 4 4 x 2 - 16 x 2 dx

tg z =
x 2 - 16 +c 4

x 2 - 16 4

2 x + x 2 - 16 x x - 16 =8 + 8 Ln +c 16 4 2 - 16 x 2 x x - 16 2 = + 8 Ln x + x - 16 - 8 Ln 4 + c 2 2 - 16 x x 2 dx

x z 4

x 2 - 16

Pero: C1 = - 8 Ln 4 + c
2 x x - 16 2 = + 8 Ln x + x - 16 + c1 2 x 2 - 16 x 2 dx

105

# 19 Pg. 272 Calculo diferencial e integral SCHAUM x 3 a 2 - x 2 dx


x

3 a 2 - x 2 dx = a 3 sen 3 z (a cos z )(a cos z dz )



a 2 - x 2 x = a sen z

a 5 sen 3 z cos 2 z dz = a 5 sen 2 z sen z cos 2 z dz

Reemplazando la Identidad trigonomtrica Sen z = 1 cos z


2 2

x 2 = a 2 sen 2 z

x 3 = a 3 sen 3 z

Si x = asen z dx = a cos z dz
a2 - x2 = a 2 - a 2 sen 2 z a 2 1 - sen 2 z a 2 cos 2 z

a 5 1 - cos 2 z sen z cos 2 z dz = a 1 cos 2 z cos 2 zsenzdz

a2 - x2 =

Solucin por cambio de variable u = cos z du = - sen z dz


a 5 1 u 2 u 2 du dz = - a 5 u 2 du + a 5 u 4 du

a2 - x2 =

a 2 - x 2 = a cos z

Tabla de integrales

n du =

u n +1 n +1

si x = a sen z sen z =

+ c n -1

a z

x a

x
cos z =

a2 -x2 a

a 5u 3 a 5 u 5 + +c 3 5

a2 x2

Reemplazando u = cos z u3 = cos3 z u5 = cos5 z a 5 cos 3 z a 5 cos 5 z a 5u 3 a 5 u 5


3 + 5 +c= 3 + 5

a 5 (cos z )3 a 5 (cos z )5 a5 a 2 - x2 + = 3 5 3 a

a5 a 2 - x 2 + 5 a

2 2 5 a -x a +c= 3 a3

2 2 5 a x a + 5 a5

5
+c

2 32 1 52 3 a 2 - x 2 dx = - a a 2 x 2 + a 2 - x 2 +c
3 5

106