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IV Normality A. Equivalent Weight 1.

Def - is defined differently for different types of substances - is defined in a way dependent upon the rxn it is undergoing 2. For Acids a.
EW ' number of H FW
%s

reacted per acid i n formula

b. NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O EWHCl =

c. 2 NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O EWH2SO4 =

d. 3 NaOH + H3PO4 Na3PO4 + 3 H2O EWH3PO4 =

e. H3PO4 + NaOH H2O + NaH2PO4 EWH3PO4 =

f. H3PO4 + 2 KOH 2 H2O + K2HPO4 EWH3PO4 =

3. For bases FW a. EW ' - reacted per formula number OH


Ca (OH)2 base % 2 HCl Y CaCl2 % 2 H2O acid
FWCa(OH) 2
2

b.

EWCa(OH) '
2

c. Ca (OH)2 + HCl Ca(OH)Cl + H2O

EWCa(OH) '
2

FWCa(OH) 1

4. In Reduction- Oxidation R x ns a. EW '


FW number e &transferred
-

b. Ag + e Ag
+

EW '

FWAg 1 FWCa 2 FWAl 3

c. Ca + 2 e Ca
+2 -

EW '

d. Al + 3e Al
+3 -

EW '

e. EW MnO41. MnO4- + e- MnO4-2


EW ' FW 1

2. MnO4- +4 H+ + 3e- MnO2 + 2 H2O


EW ' FW 3

3. MnO4- + 8 H+ + 4e- Mn+3 + 4 H2O

EW '

FW 4

5. Precipitate Formation & Complex Formation a. Salt (ionic) cationr anions b. EWcation ' c.
FWcation r charges on cation
FWanion number of e quiv of Metal cation that will react with it

EWanion '

d.

EWsalt '

FWsalt Total number of r charges in 1 formula unit of salt

e. Ba+2 + SO4-2 BaSO4


EW
Ba %
2

FW Ba % ' ' %2

g/equivalent

Ba (NO3)2
EWBa (NO ) '
3 2

FWBa(NO ) %2

3 2

+6 -6 +3 -2

f. Fe2O3 complex ion


EWFe O '
2 3

FWFe O

2 3

number % charges

'

FWFe O 6

2 3

B. Number of Equivalents 1. Def


number e quiv ' number g of Subst number g ' GEW of Subst number g / e quiv

equiv x GEW substance = # g of Subst

C. Normality Def
N ' number e quiv of Solute number me quiv Solute ' number l of Solution number ml Solution

1 equiv of solute in 1.0 liter of Solution 1 equiv/l = 1 Normal = 1 N # equiv solute = N x #l of Solution (NCV(l)) # mequiv solute = N x #ml of Solution (NCV(ml))

D. Value of Equiv & Normality 1. Regardless of Stoichiometry


1 equiv of one reactant reacts with 1 equiv of other reactant to yield 1 equiv of each product

2. 2 NaOH +
2 moles 1 equiv

H3PO4 Na2HPO4 + 2 H2O


1 mole 1 equiv 1 mole 1 equiv 2 mole 1 equiv

FW- 40 amu

98 amu

GFW- 40 g/mole 98 g/mole Eq Wt. 40/1= 40


#

98/2 = 49

equiv Base = # equiv Acid

Nb x Vb (l) = Na x Va (l)

E. Conversion Between Molarity & Normality 1. N = Mx # H+ that react /formula of acid # OH- that react/formula of base # e- transferred/formula of redox # + charges/formula if cation 2. H3PO4 ?N 3M

a) H3PO4 + NaOH > Na H2PO4 + H2O N = 3 M x 1 = 3N

b) H3PO4 + 2 NaOH > Na2HPO4 + 2 H2O N = 3 M x 2 = 6N

c) H3PO4 + 3 NaOH > Na3PO4 + 3 H2O N = 3 M x 3 = 9N

d) Hence: If not told the rxn, assume that all H+ react 1. H3PO4 ?N 3M

N=3Mx3=9N

V Other Expressions of Concentration A. Molality Number of moles of Solute m ' Number of Kg of Solvent B. Mole Fraction
Number of moles of Solute Number of moles Solute % Number of moles Solvent

'

C. Wt % w/w

Number of g Solute x 100 Number of g Solute % Number of g Solvent

Vol % v/v

Number l of Solute x 100 Number l of Solute % Number l Solvent

w/v

Number g Solute x 100 Number ml of Solution

10% (w/w) NaCl

10% (w/v) NaCl

D. Parts per million, ppm 1. ppm ' mg Solute or mg Solute


kg Solution l Solution

5 mg NaCl in - 1.0 liter solution 5 ppm NaCl

2. Note: 2 NaOH + H3PO4 > Na2HPO4 + 2H2O 5ppm 10ppm ppm does not work in stoichiometry

3. Can convert ppm to moles/l


ppm ' mg g ' ( x 10&3) l l

moles g 1 g 10&3 &3 ' ( 10 ) ' l l FW FW l

To get moles/l must (ppm x 10-3) by FW

ppm mole 10&3 &3 10 ' FW l

E. Titre 1. Definition of Titer


mg Solute Reacted by Solution Being Standardized ml of Standardized Solution Required

T '

2. NaOH + HCl > NaCl + H2O 8 8 8 Want to standardize Weigh out 4.00 mg NaOH

Add HCl until neutralize all NaOH

Record # ml of HCl required

3. If 1.00 ml of HCl neutralized 4.00 mg NaOH HCl + NaOH > NaCl + H2O Calculate the NaOH Titre 4.00 mg NaOH mg NaOH ' 4.00 1.00 ml HCl ml HCl

TNaOH '

4. Suppose you have an unknown NaOH sample and it Requires 3.0 ml of the Std. HCl solution How much NaOH is present? #mg = TNaOH x #ml of Std. HCl
Number mg NaOH ' 4.00 mg NaOH 3.0 ml HCl ml HCl

= 12.0 mg NaOH

5. May relate Titre & Normality a) T = N x 8 8 Expressed in terms Normal of the substance Concentration with which the of standard solution reacts solution EW 8 of the substance with which the solution reacts

b) Ca (OH)2 + 2 HCl > CaCl2 + 2 H2O 1) TCa(OH) ' NHCl EWCa(OH)


2 2

NHCl '

TCa(OH)

EWCa(OH)

EWCa(OH) '
2

FWCa(OH) 2

2) Calculate the Ca(OH)2 titre of a .1000 N HCl solution

6. Suppose you have a 0.20 N solution of HCl. What is its a) NaOH titre? FW = 40
40 mg ' 8.0 1 ml

TNaOH ' NHCl EWNaOH ' 0.20

b) Ca(OH)2 titre?
2

74 = FW
2

TCa(OH) ' NHCl EWCa(OH) ' .20

74 mg ' 7.4 2 ml

c) NH4OH titre ?
4 4

FW=35
35 mg ' 7.0 1 ml

TNH OH ' NHCl x EWNH OH ' .20 x

d) Al (OH)3 titre
3 3

FW= 78
78 mg ' 5.2 3 ml

TAl(OH) ' NHCl x EWAl(OH) ' .20 x

7. Suppose that a solution of HCl has a NaOH titre of 0.20 mg/ml. If it takes 10.00 ml of the HCl solution to react with an unknown solution containing NaOH, how much NaOH is present? ( #mg, #g, #moles NaOH)
#

mg NaOH = TNaOH x #ml of HCl


' 0.20 mg NaOH x 10.00 ml HCl 1 ml HCl

= 2.0 mg NaOH
#

g = .002 g moles = .002


g 40 g/mole

Determination of Concentration of Acid From Information Given on Bottle


M ' Density x %Acid x 10 Density x Fraction of solution that is acid x 1000 ' FW of Acid FW of Acid

Eq

For HCl Sp. Grav = Density = 1.18 36.5 - 38.0 % HCl FW of HCl = 36.5

M '

1.18 g of solution .38 g HCl 1000 ml solution x x ml of solution g of solution l of solution 36.5 g HCl mole HCl moles HCl ' 12.3 M l of solution

M ' 12.3

Eq

For H3PO4

Sp. Grav = Density = 1.69 85 % H3PO4 H3PO4 FW = 98

M=

.85 g H3PO4 1.69 g solution 1000 ml solution x x g solution ml solution l of solution 98 g H3PO4 mole H3PO4

M = 14.7 M H3PO4

Composition of Commercial Acids & Bases

Acid or Base

Specific Gravity Percentage by Mass

Molarity

Normality

HCl HNO3 H2SO4 HC2H3O2 H3PO4 HClO4 NH3(aq)

1.19 1.42 1.84 1.05 1.69 1.68 0.90

38 70 95 99 85 71 28

12.4 15.8 17.8 17.3 14.7 11.9 14.8

12.4 15.8 35.6 17.3 44.1 11.9 14.8