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Suggested answers to Practical Workbook for SBA


Ch 11 Cell cycle and division
Practical 11.1 Examination of different stages of the cell cycle
Questions (p. 11-2)
1 Cell Cell growth (Prophase) Mitosis (Nuclear division) Stage 1 Stage 2 (Metaphase) Stage 3 (Anaphase) Interphase: Individual chromosomes cannot be distinguished. Prophase: Chromosomes become visible, each is seen to consist of two chromatids held together at the centromere. The nuclear membrane disintegrates. Metaphase: The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. Anaphase: The two chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to the opposite poles of the cell. The cytoplasm starts to divide. Telophase: New nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes. The chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin again. 3 The cells near the tips divide actively by mitotic cell division. Stage 4 (Telophase) Cytoplasmic division

A B C D E F G H I J 2

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Practical 11.2 Investigation of the relative time required for each stage of the cell cycle
Results (p. 11-6)
1

2 Stage Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytoplasmic division Number of cells in the stage Area 1 (A1) 23 3 2 1 1 1 Area 2 (A2) 25 2 2 1 2 0 Area 3 (A3) 24 3 1 1 1 1 Relative time spent in the stage (min) 551 61 38 23 30 15

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Total number of cells in each area 3

T1 = 31

T2 = 32

T3 = 31

Questions (p. 11-8)


1 2 To expose more cells for observation. a b 3 To intensify the stain. To avoid the slide being overheated and broken.

The number of cells in each phase is directly proportional to the time required by the cells in that phase. a b (Answer varies with results.) (Answer varies with results.) The results are different. This is because different students and groups used slightly different criteria to categorize the phases (i.e. personal judgment and subjectivity) or different groups collected their data from different samples. No. The findings are based on an assumption without testing. If the assumption is wrong, the findings will also be incorrect. Subjectivity; Tentativeness; Observation vs. Inference; Creativity; Empirically based.

b c

Conclusion (p. 11-9)


Interphase takes the longest time in the cell cycle. Phases in mitosis are relatively short.

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Practical 11.3 Examination of meiotic cell division


Questions (p. 11-13)
1 2 3 4. 8. abdce a) Homologous chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell. b) Separation of homologous chromosomes. d) Formation of two daughter cells each with chromosome number halved. c) Arrangement of chromosomes at the middle of the cell. e) Formation of four haploid daughter cells.

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Ch 12 Reproduction in flowering plants


Practical 12.1 Examination of binary fission in bacteria
Results (p. 12-2)

Questions (p. 12-2)


1 2 3 2 Mitotic cell division. a b Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction. Binary fission does not involve gametes. The offspring are genetically identical to each other and to the parent. 4 bac

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Practical 12.2 Examination and cultivation of a vegetative propagating organ


Results (p. 12-5)
1

2 3

The iodine solution turns dark blue in colour. a b (Results vary with Ss.) (Results vary with Ss.)

Questions (p. 12-6)


1 Vegetative propagation is the process by which the vegetative parts of the flowering plants develop into new plants. Starch is stored in the tuber. The buds of the tuber. The swollen end of an underground stem. The potato tuber becomes smaller because food stored in the tuber is used up for the development of a new plant. 1 2 3 In spring, the buds use the food stored in the tuber to produce adventitious roots and shoots. In summer, some food made in the leaves is sent to the underground shoots and stored. The ends of underground shoots swell and form new tubers. In winter, the aerial shoots die and the new tubers remain dormant.

2 3 4 5

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In the next growing season, each bud in the tubers may grow into a new plant.

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Practical 12.3 Dissection and examination of a flower


Results (p. 12-11)
1 Floral part Sepal Petal Stamen Carpel 2 Colour Greenish yellow Yellow Brown Greenish yellow Number 5 5 10 1

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4 L.S. of ovary

T.S. of ovary

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Questions (p. 12-13)


1 Name Stigma Ovary Flower stalk Style Anther Filament Petal Sepal Receives pollen grains Contains ovules which carry female gametes Attaches the flower to the main stem of the plant Supports the stigma Produces pollen grains which carry male gametes Supports the anther Protects the inner parts of the flower and attracts insects Protects the inner parts of the flower when it is a bud Function

a b

carpel stamen corolla calyx

3 4

The ovary develops into the fruit. The flowers are bisexual because they have both stamens and carpels in the same flower.

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Practical 12.4 Examination of an insect-pollinated flower and a wind-pollinated flower


Results (p. 12-17)
1 Part of the flower Petal Feature Size Colour Anther Gladiolus flower Large Grass flower Small

Pollen grain

(Result depends on the Brown specimen.) Way of attachment to Firmly attached Loosely attached the filament Position Enclosed inside the Hang outside the flower flower Quantity Small in number Large in number Texture Rough and sticky Relatively smaller Enclosed flower Sticky Present inside Smooth and dry Relatively larger the Hang outside the flower Feathery Absent

Stigma

Size Position Texture

Nectary

Present / Absent

2 Gladiolus flower Grass flower

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Questions (p. 12-18)


1 2 Gladiolus flower Anther enclosed inside the flower. / Large brightly coloured and scented petal attracts insects and provides a platform for them. / Sticky stigma curls down to pick up pollen grains from the insect. / Nectary secretes nectar to attract insects. / Rough and sticky pollen grains attach to the insect. (Any three) Grass flower Feathery stigmas hang outside the flower to catch pollen grains in the air. / Anther hangs outside the flower to release pollen grains to the air. / Filament is thin and flexible. / A large number of light and smooth pollen grains produced. (Any three) Gladiolus is an insect-pollinated flower and grass is a wind-pollinated flower.

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Ch 13 Reproduction in humans
Practical 13.1 Examination of the mammalian reproductive systems
Questions (p. 13-3)
A Male reproductive system 1 Structure Name A B C D E F G H I Seminal vesicle Prostate gland Cowpers gland Penis Urethra Testis Epididymis Vas deferens Scrotum Ejects semen to the females vagina during sexual intercourse Discharges semen and urine out of the body at different times Produces sperm and male sex hormones Stores sperm temporarily Transports sperm from the epididymis to the urethra during ejaculation Holds the testes

Function Secrete seminal fluid which activates and nourishes the sperm provides a medium for the sperm to swim neutralizes the acidity in the female reproductive tract

2 3 4

Sperm tubules. Erectile tissues. The temperature inside I is about 3C lower than the core of the body. This provides the optimal temperature for sperm development.

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FGHE

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B Female reproductive system 1 Structure Name J Ovary

Function Produces ova and female sex hormones

Oviduct

Transports the ovum to the uterus

Uterus

Provides protection and a stable internal environment for the development of the embryo and foetus The wall contracts to push out the foetus during labour Holds the penis during sexual intercourse Provides an acidic environment to reduce bacterial growth Acts as the birth canal for the foetus during labour

Vagina

2 3

Cilia. They sweep the ovum along the oviduct to the uterus. JKLM

Practical 13.2 Examination of the mammalian sperm and ova


Results (p. 13-7)
1 Sperm Size Shape Movement Smaller Tadpole-like Active / Yes Ovum Much larger Spherical Inactive / No

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2 Sperm Ova

Questions (p. 13-7)


1 Ova are much larger than sperm because ova contain a larger amount of cytoplasm with food reserves for the early development of the embryo. After the sperm have been ejaculated into the vagina, the sperm are able to swim through the cervix, up the uterus and enter the oviducts towards the ovum for fertilization. Each sperm has a tail for swimming. The ovum is carried along the oviduct by the beating action of cilia and the contraction of muscular wall of the oviduct.

3 4

Practical 13.3 Examination of different stages of foetal development


Results (p. 13-10)
Number of weeks 8 16 24 Appearance of the embryo / foetus Small, with its head on the right and body on the left Bigger in size, with a clear distinction between the head and the abdomen Getting even bigger, spine visible

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Questions (p. 13-11)


1 2 3 Nervous system. At week 10. The hands of the foetus in Photo A are normal. The hands of the foetus in Photo B are mitten.

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