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CONCRETE COTTAGES

SMALL GARAGES

AND

FARM BUILDING3

;'; ;.^' ','•,.

:

THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

PRESENTED BY PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND

MRS, PRUDENCE W. KOFOID

1'^

^c.

/''

CONCRETE COTTAGES

SMALL GARAGES AND FARM BUILDINGS.

CONCRETE COTTAGES

SMALL GARAGES

AND

FARM BUILDINGS.

Edited by

ALBERT LAKEMAN, M.S.A., M.C.I.,

Honours Medallist Construction.

Late Lecturer at the Woolwich Polytechnic.

Published for

THE CONCRETE UTILITIES BUREAU

(6, Lloyd's Avenue, LONDON, E.C.),

By CONCRETE PUBLICATIONS, LTD.,

Publishing Office .•—4, Catherine Street, Aldwych,

LONDON, W.C.

(1918)

CONTENTS.

PREFACE

CHAPTER I.

MATERIALS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

Page

xi

I

Section I : Accommodation and Planning ; Materials. Section II : Methods and Details of Construction. Section III : Floor Construction. Section IV Roof Construction. Section V : Concrete Staircases. Section VI : Window

Cills, Doorsteps and Lintels.

Section VII : Joinery and Fittings generally.

Section VIII : Labour Saving Devices.

CHAPTER II.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF OTHER SMALL BUILDINGS

Section I : Small Concrete Garages.

Section II : Cowhouses.

Section

III :

Stables.

Section IV : Bams and Sheds.

Section V : Piggeries. Section

59

VI : Dairies, Section VII : Greenhouses and Root Cellars,

CHAPTER III.

GENERAL INFORMATION FOR THE BUILDER

82

Section I : Generally, Plant ; Layout and Supervision ; Yard Work ; Site Work. Section II : Organisation. Section III : Block Making.

DESIGNS FOR COTTAGES

CHAPTER IV.

CHAPTER V.

CONCRETE ROOFING TILES AND FENCE POSTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

ivi3g3075

99

I48

VI

INDEX.

Accommodation and Planning

Aggregates

Anchors, Line

Arbour Posts

Ashes or Cinders Assessors' Report, Concrete Cottage

2,

3,

Competition

i

Barns and Sheds

Block Making .

Blocks

Blocks, Cavities in Blocks, Curing of Blocks, How to make .

Blocks, Machines for

Blocks, Mould for

Blocks, Porosity of Blocks, Proportions of Ingredients for Blocks, Sizes of Blocks, Spacing of

Blocks, Splayed

Blocks, Surface Finish for

Page.

I Concrete, Materials for Concrete, Mixing

S, 148

1 68

169

Concrete Moulded Horizontally

Concrete, Plain

4 Concrete Poured into Iron Moulds

Concrete, Proportioning the Ingredients

100 Concrete, Reinforced .

77

90

4, 62

Construction, Methods of

Copings .

Corner Posts

i, 10,

6 Cost of Bungalow Cottage, Wayford .

6, 97

Cost of Cottages at Crayford .

Page.

2

163

39

2

42

165

2, 9

70

59.

56

168

17

27

96 Cost of pair of Cottages by Messrs.

6

Cubitt

18

93 Cost of pair of Cottages for Mr. Strachey 29, 30

8

5

6

Cottage, Concrete, Competition

 

.

.

100

Cottage, Concrete, Competition, Com-

 

mentary on

.

.

,

.

.

.

.

loi

12 Cottage, Concrete, Competition, Speci-

13.

56

109, no,

6 III, 116, 117, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132, 133

fications to Designs .•.

103,

108,

Blocks, Thickness of

Block Walls

Box, Measuring

Bracing Posts and Braces Brick and Pottery Refuse Bricks, Concrete Bridging Pieces Builder, Information for

Buildings for Small Holdings, Report

Buildings, Small, Construction of

Bungalow, Double Wall

Byelaws with reference to Concrete

.

Blocks

Cavities in Blocks

Cellars, Root

Cement Mortar

Cement, Portland

Cement, Storage of Chepstow, Cottages at

Chimney Stacks

Cills

Cinders, Ashes or

Competition, Concrete Cottage Competition, Concrete Cottage, Com-

mentary on

.

.

10

164

169

3

M

16

82

8

59

147

.

6

6

79

13

4

85

147

14

51

4

100

lOI

Competition, Concrete Cottage, Speci-

fications to Designs

III, 116, 117, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132,

103,

108, 109,

Concrete, Aggregates for

Concrete, Bank-run Gravel for Concrete, Block Concrete, Crushed Rock or Screened

Gravel for Concrete in situ

2, 3, 88,

no,

133

148

166

166

32

Cottage in U.S.A.

 

.

.

.

147

Cottages at Crayford

.

.

.

23

Cottages at

Invergorden

 

.

.

.

.

147

Cottages at Wayford, Norfolk.

 

.

16

Cottages, by Arnold Mitchell .

 

.

.

140

Cottages, Chepstow

.

.

.

.

.

147

Cottages, Designs for . ,

.

.

99

Cottages for Kilkenny Woodworkers,

 

&c

Industries

 

,.

 

18

Cottages for Mr. Strachey

 

.

.

29

Cottages, Pair of, Messrs. Cubitt's Costs

for

18

Cow Houses

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

69

Crayford, Cottages at

 

23

Cubitt, Messsrs. Costs for pair of Cot-

 

tages

.

.

.

.

.

18

Curing Fence Posts

.

.

.

.

.

167

Curing of Blocks

 

.

.

.

.

6, 97

Dairies

.

.

.

.

.

79

Damp Course

 

13

Designs for Cottages

.

.

.

99

Dimensions of Garage .

 

.

.

60

Distempering

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

42, 56

Division of Work

.

.

.

.

85

Door Frames

 

,.

15, 56

Doors

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

66

Doorsteps

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

51

Drying Ground

 

.

.

.

8$

Facing Mixture

.

.

.

.

.

5

Fence Posts

 

148,158

Fence Posts, Curing

.

.

.

.

.

,

167

Fence

Posts,

 

Making a

 

Six-Post

Batch

 

.

.

.

.

.

164

Fence Posts, Moulding

.

.

,

166

VI

Page.

Fence Posts, Setting

168

Fences, Erecting

168

Fittings .

SO

Flints, Chalk

3

Flints, Field

3

Floor Construction

Floor of Garage

Flooring Tiles

Flues

Foundations Garages . ,

Gate Posts

Gravel, Bank-run

Gravel, Pit Gravel, River . Gravel, Screened, or Crushed Rock for

.

44, 74

76, 7S

61

7. 155

14

14. 35

59

Openings in Concrete Block Walls

Organisation

Painting, Oil

Partitions

Party Walls

Petrol Storage

Piggeries

Pipes Pit, Inspection .

Planning

Plant for Builder

169 Plaster for Tinting

166

Plastering

3 Porosity of Blocks

3 Portland Cement

Posts, Fence

Concrete

Greenhouses and Root Cellars

Hand Tamping .

Heating

Hitching Posts . Houses, Cow

Housing Scheme, Invergordon

Inspection Pit . Invergordon, Cottages at

Iron Moulds

Joinery .

Kilkenny Woodworkers, &c., Indus

166 Posts, Fence, Curing .

79 Posts, Fence, Making

97

67

Batch Posts, Fence, Moulding

a Six-Post

169 Posts, Fence, Setting .

69 Posts, Miscellaneous

147 Pottery, Brick and. Refuse

68 Pressure Machines

147 Proportions of Ingredients for Con

42 Crete Blocks .

56 Quantities of Material for Six-Post

Batch

tries. Cottages for

Labour, Local Labour Saving Devices

Lathing, Metal, with Stucco Lay-Out and Supervision Lighting

Line Anchors .

Lintels

Lofts

L.C.C. Regulations regarding Concrete Blocks

Loose Boxes

Machines for Concrete Blocks

Machines for Roofing Tiles

Machines, Pressure

Mangers

Materials

Materials and Methods of Construction

.

.

18 Quarry, Stone, Refuse

87 Regulations, L.C.C. regarding Con-

57 crete Blocks

63 Reinforced Concrete

84 Reinforcements for Fence Posts

67, 69

Report, Assessors', Concrete Cottage

168 Competition .

12, SI

77

Report on Buildings for Small Hold

ings

Rick Stands Rock, Crushed, or Screened Gravel

77

6

148

96

77

2

for Concrete

Roof Construction

Roofing

Roofing Tiles

Roofs, Flat

Roofs, Pitched

I Sand

.

.

46

17,

Page.

42

15. 37

15

67

78

5.56

68

70. 99

82

42

5.56

8

4

8, 158

167

164

166

168

168

3

96

165

3

2, 9

162

78

166

75 77

63

151

46

63

4

47

Materials for Roofing Tiles

148

Sheds, Barns and

77

Materials of Construction for Garage

60

Shell Discard Steel

ID

Materials, Quantities of, for Six-Post

Shuttering

36

Batch

165

Site for Garage

60

Measuring Box

164

Site Work

86

Metal Lathing with Stucco

63

Sizes of Concrete Blocks

6

Methods of Construction

I

Slabs

16

Mitchell, A., Cottage by

140

Spacing of Concrete Blocks .

12

Mixers

83

Specification for Mr. Arnold Mitchell's

Mixing Board

163

Cottages

140

Monolithic Walls

62

Specifications to Competition Designs, 103,

Mortar, Cement

13

108, 109, no. III, 116, 117, 124, 125, 126,

Mosaic Tiles

Moulding Fence Posts . Moulds Moulds for Fence Posts

Moulds for Roofing Tiles

Moulds, Iron

Oiling for Moulds

.

.

156

166

Splayed Blocks

.

.

51. 93

Stables

158

Staining

148

Staircases

42

Stall Divisions .

162

Steel, Shell Discard

127, 132, 133

.

.

13, 56

75

42

48

76

10

Vlll

IX

Cottages by I. J. Gill

Cottages, Chepstow .

Cottages, Crayford . Cottages, Messrs. Cubitt's Cottages, Mr. Strachey's

Cottages on Messrs. Rowntree's Estate

Cottages, Talbot's Inch, Kilkenny Cottages, Wayford, Norfolk

Cottages, Whitlingham, Norwich

Cottages, Wrotham .

Cow Byre

Cow Houses

Cow Stable

Cowshed, Fodder Room, and Double Pigsty

CowsTALLS, Mangers, &c., Malvern

Crayford, Cottages .

Creamery

Crosnier, M., Concrete Cottage Design

Cubitts, Messrs., Cottages

Dall, J., Concrete Cottage Design Davies, W. G., Concrete Cottage Design Doorsteps

Drying Racks for Tiles

Farm Buildings

Paqb.

 

144

, 145, T46, 147

 

Frontispiece

24.

25

26, 27, 28, 29

 

20, 22, 23,

 

31

39, 41

19. 30

18, 19

33. 34

32

78

70, 72

79

78

73

24.

25

26, 2'

28, 29

 

79

107

22, 23

122

134

55

153

79

72.

53.

Fence Posts

160,

168, 169

Fence Posts, Moulds for

160,

161, 163

Fireplace, Lintel to

Fodder Room . Framework, Metal Lathing, for Garage

Frazer, J. K., Concrete Cottage Design Garages

Gill, I. J., Cottages by

Greenhouse, Benching for Greenhouse in Reinforced Concrete . Hannaford, L. G., Concrete Cottage Design

Harness Room, Stable, Cow Byre and Pigsty, Norfolk Holt, H. G., Concrete Cottage Design

60, 61

;

54

78

63

131

62, 63, 64, 65

144 145, 146, 147

80

80

106

78

105

Houses, Cow

.

70, 72

Invergordon, Cottages at .

146

Jacket, Nail

.

162

Jones, H., Concrete Cottage Design

Keates, W. a

Concrete Cottage Design

Kilkenny, Talbot's Inch, Cottages

King, C, Concrete Cottage Design Lintel to Fireplace

McBeath, R. J., Concrete Cottage Design

aiACHiNE, Block, Hollow Concrete

Machine, Roofing Tile

Malvern, Cowstalls, Mangers, &c.

Mangers, Cowstalls, &c., Malvern

Markham, J., Concrete Cottage Design May, p., Concrete Cottage Design

(8365)

"5

no

19. 30

135

54

139

90

149

73

73

120

136

B

Metal Lathing Framework for Garage . . . Mitchell, Arnold, Concrete Cottage Design Mitchell, C.
Metal Lathing Framework for Garage
.
.
.
Mitchell, Arnold, Concrete Cottage Design
Mitchell, C. T., Concrete Cottage Design
Monolithic Garages
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Morris, G. Ll., Concrete Cottage Design
Mosaic Tiles
Mould for Ridge Tiles
Moulds, Block
Moulds
for
Fence Posts
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Moulds
for
Window Cills, Doorsteps, Headstones, &c.
.
Nail Jacket
Norfolk, Harness Room, Stable, Cow Byre and Pigsty .
Norwich, Whitlingham, Cottages
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pallet for Blockmaking
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pallet for Ridge Tiles
Pearson, C. B., Concrete Cottage Design
Piggery
"
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pigsty
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Plan Showing Layout of Cottages, Crayford
.
,
Posts, Fence
Posts, Fence, Moulds for
'
Racks, Drying, for Tiles
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Roofing Tiles
Rowntree's, Messrs
Estate, Cottages
Shuttering
Smith, J. A., Concrete Cottage Design
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Sprayer,
Colour
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Stable
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Stable, Cow
Stables, Stalls and, Whitecross Street, E.C.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
Staircases
Stalls and Stables, Whitecross Street, E.C.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Strachey, St. Lce, Cottages
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Strickle for Ridge Tiles
Striker for Ridge Tiles
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Stubbs, E. W., Concrete Cottage Design
Tamper
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Thompson, E. S., Concrete Cottage, First Prize Design
.
Tile Machine, Roofing
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
Tiles, Interlocking
Tiles, Mosaic
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Tiles, Roofing
Tool for Bevelling Posts
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
Trough,
Bottle-Washing
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Vernon, A., Concrete Cottage Design
.
.
.
.
Walls, Concrete Block
Walton, S., Concrete Cottage Design
,.
Wayford, Norfolk, Cottages
Whitecross Street, E.C, Stalls and Stables
.
.
.
Whitlingham, Norwich, Cottages
.
.
.
.
.
.
Wire, Fence, Fixing
Wrotham, Cottages
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Paob.

63 , . . . . 140, 141 123 64, 63 . . . .
63
,
.
.
.
.
140, 141
123
64, 63
.
.
.
.
.
137
157
150
91.92,93.94.95
160, 161, 163
.
52
.
.
.
.
.
162
.
.
.
.
.
78
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
33. 34
94
.
.
.
.
.
150
104, 129
72
.
.
.
.
.
78, 79
.
.
.
.
.
24
.
.
.
.
.
160,168,169
160, 161, 163
153
.
,
.
.
.
i49. 150. I53. I54. i55
.
.
39, 41
36
.
.
.
.
.
114
150
.
.
.
.
.
78
.
.
.
.
.
79
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
• • 73. 76
49
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
73. 76
31
.
.
.
.
.
150
.
.
.
.
.
150
.
.
.
.
.
112, 130
150
.
.
.
.
.
102
.
.
.
.
.
149
.
.
.
.
.
153
.
.
.
.
.
157
.
.
.
.
.
149,150,153,154,155
160
.
.
.
.
.
79
.
.
.
.
.
138
.
.
.
.
.
,.11,12,13,38
118
18,19
.
.
.
.
.
.
73. 76
• • 33. 34
160,163
32
.
,
.
.

XI

PREFACE.

Cottage construction involves much consideration on account of the limitations

of expenditure, which essentially form one of the most important factors in the

design and execution of this class of work, and for this reason the subject is an

interesting one.

At the same time the question of satisfactory and economical cottage building

is one of national interest, owing to the urgent need of healthy and convenient

dwellings for all classes of workers who cannot afford to pay anything but the

lowest of rentals ; and with the constant increase in the price of materials and

labour the problem becomes more and more difficult with the progress of time.

The use of concrete for all the main portions of the structure has increased during the last few years and this material can claim many advantages over other materials as regards initial cost, durability and ease of execution which

render it worthy of study as a possible solution to the problem.

There are many points to be considered in cottage work and it is necessary

to develop a type of building which will combine sound work with economy.

This can only be accomplished by a skilful application of cheap and efficient

construction to a well-planned simple and convenient design.

The local conditions existing in the vicinity of a cottage site will have some

effect on the class of structure, both as regards appearance and accommodation,

and the best results will generally be obtained when the designer works on lines

which are to some extent based on these local conditions, unless such conditions

are of a very low standard.

Concrete is the one material with which full advantage can be taken of local

conditions, as local materials and labour can be utilised, and in this respect it is,

therefore, the ideal material.

No hard and fast rule can be laid down for cottage work, and attempts to

standardise types have not generally proved successful. Some good results

might possibly be produced, however, by more standardisation of doors, windows and other features, as such standardisation will allow of economies to be effected

without any sacrifice of quality in material.

A great deal of unsatisfactory cottage construction has, unfortunately,

been executed in the past, owing to misguided efforts to reduce the cost to a figure

inconsistent with reasonable expenditure. One of the objects of this book is to give sound information as to the use of concrete, which will enable those respon-

sible for the conception and execution of this form of construction to produce

good work without incurring unnecessary expense.

Various prices are given which illustrate the saving that can be effected over other materials, and, although these are, in every case, those obtaining prior

to the outbreak of war, such comparisons will be more than justified at the present

xii CONCRETE COTTAGES AND SMALL BUILDINGS,

time owing to the increase in price of the majority of building materials being

greater than tliat which has occurred with concrete. There are also other difficul- ties with regard to many materials which will retard their use, as for example,

timber, which is practically unobtainable for this class of work, while the output of the brickyards is very limited, and in some cases has ceased altogether. Thus,

the user will do well seriously to consider the question before making a selection,

apart from the important question of expense.

Endeavours have been made in this book to deal with both the design of

cottages and the practical application of concrete, and many examples of satis-

factory cottages which have been executed in this material are given, which will be conclusive evidence as to its adaptability. Many of the designs are of a very

high standard and they indicate successful types of cottages apart from any

question of material.

The book has been written for the use of builders and building owners, as

well as for professional men, and notes are therefore given as to the methods

that should be adopted in organising the work, both in the yard and on the site.

The question of labour-saving devices is arousing considerable attention at

the present time, and as it was felt that the book would not be complete without

some reference to these, notes are given on the chief items to be considered. Sections are also given on tile-making and fence posts, as these are daily

becoming more important items of concrete work, and where the staff and

appliances are in existence for block-making, it will be of great benefit as regards cost, if full advantage is taken of these to produce other types of concrete

articles.

The use of concrete on the farm is of such importance that a chapter is devoted to this part of the subject, together with a chapter on small garages. Thanks arc due to the authors of the several designs which are published and

particularly to Mr. Arnold Mitchell for the drawings and specification of the

excellent design which is given on page 140, this being the outcome of many years of practical experience in cottage work.

Special acknowledgment must also be made to " Concrete and Constructional

Engineering " and the publishers of " Everyday Uses of Portland Cement " for

a large amount of useful information and the loan of many illustrations which occur throughout the book. Various manufacturers of concrete block machines have kindly given particulars of work executed with their appliances and these

have greatly assisted in making the volume complete.

Two illustrations of

American work are reproduced by kind permission from " Concrete," U.S.A.

It is hoped that the book will prove both interesting and instructive to estate owners, members of the architectural profession and contractors, there being no existing treatise on this important subject, and if it affords some assistance in the

solution of the problem of cheap and efficient houses for the working classes its

objects will be fully achieved,

Langwith, 1918.

A.

L.

MATERIALS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION.

CONCRETE COTTAGES AND SMALL BUILDINGS.

CHAPTER I.

MATERIALS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION.

Section I.

ACCOMMODATION AND PLANNING.

The methods of construction will be affected to some extent by the type of plan adopted, and this point should not be overlooked when efforts are being

made to produce economical buildings. The amount of accommodation to be provided will naturally be governed by

the class of occupier for which the cottages are designed ; but there is a minimum

limit which should govern all plans, and where a large scheme is proposed, it will

usually be found satisfactory to provide two or three types varying from those

providing the minimum accommodation to others which are more generously planned. In the smallest type the minimum accommodation will be a fair size

living room, a scullery with bath, and three bedrooms, with the usual larder,

W.C. and space for fuel ;

while in the largest type a sitting room will be given

in addition to the living room, and the bedrooms will be of the same number,

but slightly larger in size. \Vlien space and expenditure permit a separate bath-

room is preferable to having the bath in the scullery, as suggested above.

The best type of plan is that which is the most simple and compact, and novel types will invariably be found more expensive than a straightforward arrange-

ment. The chief point to keep in view is the planning of the different apartments

in convenient relationship to one another without any waste of space, such as is

given with unnecessary passages and .staircase landings. The fireplaces should

be grouped to allow of the flues being combined into the minimum number of chimney stacks, and the points from which drainage is necessary should be kept

adjacent to one another to avoid the formation of drains around the whole or

greater part of the building. The bungalow type of cottage will produce a saving

in cost under certain circumstances, and the construction is much facilitated in

this class of structure, but its adoption is not always possible or advisable, as, for example, when the area of ground is limited or the levels are unsatisfactory. Detached or semi-detached cottages are usually preferred by the occupants,

but these will prove more expensive than those erected in groups of four or six.

When larger groups are built, additional expense is incurred by providing separate

access to the

so

back of

each cottage, and the arrangement

is usually not

2

COXCKETE COTTAGES AND SMALL BUILDINGS.

convenient ; and this leads to the general rule that, on the grounds of expense,

convenience and appearance, the best method to adopt is that of grouping the

cottages into sets of four and six where a number are to be built. These notes are only intended to cover the general principles, and do not

claim to cover the whole aspect of cottage planning, as it is a matter upon which a great deal could be written.

MATERIALS.

Concrete