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Endre Dobó

> is composed of four lobes as to its surface

> comprises four segments as to the branches of the hepatic portal vein

> according to various morphological, physiological, biochemical, pathological

considerations, the segments are classified into three kinds of histological lobules

> the principles of the histological structure of the liver

> receives a unique dual blood supply from both artery and vein
> hepatic artery proper
> hepatic portal vein
> branches from both vessels run together in the so called portal space
> the arterial and venous blood is mixed in the hepatic sinuses
> the sinuses fuse to form central vein
> as an exocrine gland, it produces bile
> bile flows in the opposite direction to blood
> blood: centripetally (toward the central vein); bile: centrifugally
> the bile duct runs in the portal space, as well
> the hepatic parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) constitute a network of plates,
along which the sinuses converge upon the central vein
> is demarcated with septa
> looks hexagonal in section
sublobular v.
> at the angles, there are the portal triads:
> interlobular a.
> perilobular a.
> interlobular v. bile capillary

> perilobular a.
> interlobular bile duct canal of
> canal of Hering
> in the center, is the central v.
hepatic duct
> receives mixed blood from sinus hepatic portal v.

> drained by the sublobular v. hepatic a. proper

> the draining area of a central vein
> morphological unit
> the connective tissue septa are hardly seen in man
> the classic lobule can be readily studied in the swine liver
> in man, the classic lobule has less practical importance than two other types
of hepatic lobules:
> portalis lobule as one unit of an exocrine gland
> hepatic acinus as one biochemical-pathological unit
> portal triad (Glisson s triad) is always accompanied by lymphatics!
> 30-50% of lymph in the thoracic duct originates from the liver!
portal triads
central vein

interlobular septa
interlobular septum

interlobular bile duct

interlobular artery

lymphatics interlobular vein

binucleate hepatocytes
lymphocytes in
the portal space

central veins
in the beginning of the
central vein , there may
not be smooth muscle


Kupffer s cell

endothelial cell

sinuses / sinusoids

binucleate hepatocyte
Disse s space

lipid mitochondria

rER bile capillary

Golgi Golgi
sER occluding junction

glycogen microvilli

Disse s space

reticular fibers
(reticular fibers in the space of Disse)


reticular fibers
the section was
obtained from a
perfused rat, which
received an
injection of trypan-blue
arrows: Kupffer-sejtek
Comparison of the classic lobule, portal
lobule and the hepatic acinus

interlobular bile d.
interlobular a.

interlobular v.
central v. perilobular a. portal triad

classic portal hepatic metabolic

lobule lobule acinus zonations
classic lobule:

int int

erl er
int ula ula
draining area of the central v. ce
n t r

ob lob
erl r b r v
ob ile .
ula d.
portal lobule:

draining area of the bile duct

hepatic acinus: perilobular vessels

perilobular arteriole
supply region of the perilobular perilobular venule

(the shapes depend on the

number of portal triads [3-6]
drawn at the angles of the
classical lobules!!!)
simple columnar epithelium

mucous fold
mucin vesicules


lamina propria
centro-acinar cells
membran intercalated tubule
> compound, alveolar gland
> purely serous, secreting
digestive enzymes

special features:
> there are no myoepithelial cells
> there are no striated ducts

zymogen granules serous cells

exocrine gland;
excretory duct

endocrine islet
of Langerhans

serous glandular cells

arrows: centro-acinar cells