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RIMT- Regional Institute of Management and Computer Technology, Near Floating Restaurant, Sirhind Side, Mandi Gobindgarh.



A Project Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for

Master of Business Administration

Of Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar

Submitted to Submitted by
Kumar Sandeep Singh

Mr. Charanjit

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Acknowledgement Student Declaration Chapterisation Questionnaire Conclusion & suggestions

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Before getting into thick of things, I would like to express my heart full words for few people without whom the completion of my project was farfetched dream The following project is a result of the inspiration of a number of people without whose significant contribution it would have been difficult to compile the said project. At the very beginning, I would like to thank NTPC, Auraiya for providing me with an opportunity where hence I could carry out my project. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. M. K. Sharma, Training Officer for his diligent and continuous guidance in the pursuit of the project. I would also like to express my gratitude to Mr. Amit Sharma for his regular help at every stage of the project. I would also like to thank Mr. Charanjit Kumar and Smt. Sumita Rai, Sr. Officer (HR) with NTPC for their thoughtfulness and insight at every step of the way. I also wish to thank all the executives who spared their time despite of work pressure and for patiently providing me with all the valuable information that I needed for my study.



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Student Declaration
I hereby declare that the project report entitled Study on Career Development & Job Rotation Process AT

N.T.P.C. Limited Auraiya

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of business Administration

To Punjab technical university, jalandhar, is my original work and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship, or any other similar title or prize

Place: Date:


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Work in 21st century- career development Career development program Key steps in career development initiatives

8 11 18

Job rotation system Detailed guidance Steps in implementation Road blocks Use of Job rotation to reduce training cost 23 27 30 32 34

About NTPC
Overall situation of power scenario A overview of NTPC HR at NTPC Elements of HR Strategy 36 37 56 66

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Policies & Management HR department at NTPC AURAIYA

79 89


Subjective Interview summary questionnaire Open ended questions

91 94 102



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Work in the 21st Century: Career Development

The nature and structure of careers is changing quickly, and with that evolution, the area of career development has become more important, and more challenging, than ever. The title of Douglas Hall and Associates' recent book on careers, The Career is Dead-Long Live the Career, captures some of the uncertainty that exists during this period of transition in career definition. This column includes my observations about the factors that are affecting the nature of careers, some of the ways in which careers are changing, how the practice of career development is changing in response, and some of the things I/O psychologists can contribute in this area.

Why is the nature of careers changing?

There are a number of factors related to changing organizational design and structure that are influencing changes in the nature of careers, including the flattening of organizations, increased reliance on teams, the changing nature of the employment contract, and the trend toward leaner companies. As organizations become flatter, there are fewer jobs in middle and upper management, and the opportunity for traditional career advancement through "climbing the ladder" decreases. Many organizations that are becoming flatter are also developing an increased reliance on teams. In some cases, teams are expected to take the place of middle managers, as the team members develop the ability to self-manage. In addition, jobs may be less clearly defined within a team environment, making career planning more difficult for employees used to seeing a linear career path. The changing employment contract and the drive to be lean are factors that have reduced the stability of a traditional career, as well as affecting morale, loyalty, and employees' expectations. Employees cannot count on long-term commitment from their employer, nor can they necessarily count on their skills being valued in the job market.

How are careers changing?

Careers are changing in a number of specific ways. To name a few, people are less likely to remain in one job or area of specialization, effective performance in many jobs requires continuous learning and acquisition of new skills, people are less likely to remain employed by the same company, and the overall responsibility for developing and enhancing careers is shifting more heavily to the employee. These changes create an environment in which employees must reevaluate their capabilities and career plans regularly, and organizations are less likely to cultivate loyalty and commitment. Careers are more likely to be made up of lateral and diagonal moves; employees and employers alike are more likely to take risks when matching people and jobs, and the need for more creativity and dialogue about how to put employees' talents to use is growing. The shift in ownership or responsibility of careers and their development is a significant change. The Career Action Center (in Palo Alto, CA) characterizes this transition as employees becoming more "career self-resilient" meaning that employees take more responsibility for, and control of, their careers, and develop resilience to the sometimes negative effects of today's world of work.

9 of 125 This organization counsels people and organizations to accept the changing definition of careers and learn to succeed within it.

How are these changes affecting the practice of career development?

Today's practice of career development is likely to include continued development of creative approaches to skill building, more sophisticated assessment and development tools, links to other human resource systems, and increased clarity around providing value to both employees and the company. Some of the approaches to skill building that seem to work well within today's organizations include cross-training and job rotation to provide people the opportunity to develop new skills or enhance existing skills in on-the-job situations, and mentoring programs, which help people develop relationships that can assist their career success and growth. Traditional mentoring programs may assign people with more organizational experience and a higher job level as mentors to newer, lower level employees; given the speed with which organizational structures and needs are changing, mentoring programs may need to take new forms in order to assign mentors who can help employees navigate careers in fast-paced, ever changing organizations (Kram, 1996). Assessment and development tools are becoming more sophisticated. Many of the assessment tools include multi-rater feedback, while new development tools structure tailored development plans around on-the-job opportunities in combination with formal learning opportunities. In addition, many of today's tools are part of integrated human resource software packages. For example, performance management systems with a career development component reinforce the organization's commitment to the development of individuals beyond the requirements of the job. Training and career development are often linked, as well. Employees receiving feedback on a career-related assessment may be directed to particular internal training programs-all within a single software application. Most career development programs can be seen to have a clear dual-focus-individual and organizational. Career development programs work for individuals by providing support, career planning services, and learning opportunities. The programs serve the organizations by developing internal talent, supporting succession planning efforts, and working to counter low morale associated with uncertainty and instability. This last factor, countering low morale, may explain some of the increase in interest paid to career development. As organizations become less willing (and able) to offer job security, they are searching for other ways to show the employees that they are valued, and one of those ways is to support employees in their efforts to become and remain competitive and fully employable-inside or outside of the company. Having the opportunity to develop their skills may help employees develop their self-esteem; in Manuel London's recent book on careers, Brockner and Lee (1995) refer to career development as self-affirming.

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What can I/O psychologists contribute to career development?

Our knowledge and skills can inform career development efforts in a number of ways, including: creating assessment methods and development tools, assisting in human resource planning activities, identifying career paths, and conducting high quality program evaluation. At the core of career development is assessment of individuals' skills and capabilities. The quality of career advice given is largely dependent on the accuracy and thoroughness of the assessment conducted, and our work in designing assessment tools for skills that are required in today's careers and organizations is critical. Once advice is given, career development programs usually try to help employees respond to identified developmental needs, through guidance, development tools, or a combination of the two. Our work in the area of skill development and learning can help ensure that when people work to develop their skills, they will be more likely to succeed. Effective career development programs are informed by sound human resource planning. Through planning, companies can identify the skills that will be needed in the future, the areas of job growth anticipated, and existing competencies that will no longer be required. A career development program informed by this type of information can serve employees better by directing them toward areas that the company will need and value, and can serve the organization better by developing internal talent to meet future needs. We can bring our techniques (e.g., future job analysis and work analysis) to human resource planning, and increase the quality of this information. Another area where our expertise is important is career planning. We can use our knowledge of job design and organizational design to identify logical connections among jobs that can form meaningful career paths. For example, by identifying the skill requirements of multiple job families within a company, we may be able to identify jobs for which a similar requirement profile exists, even if the titles and organizational locations are very different. Finally, as with any organizational intervention, evaluation of career development programs is important. The programs require significant amounts of employee and managerial time, as well as a substantial financial investment in many cases. We can design evaluation processes to learn what is working well, and what is not, to inform the improvement of the programs and to assist them in delivering the individual and organizational support they are designed to provide.

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Career Development Program

Employee Development Plans
Organizations that place a high priority on employee development tend to stay fresher and remain flexible despite changing business conditions. David Patrick, consultant and an adjunct professor at Concordia University Minnesota, cites [3] a study by Lominger Limited Inc., which found that some 70% of what we learn as adults comes directly from our work experiences, 20% from a coach, and 10% from classes, workshops, books and articles. Given these findings it makes sense that the bulk of an employee's development plans ought to consist of work experience. Patrick suggests the following collaborative steps for building employee development plans: Discuss career goals and potential roles within the organization. (A mentor relationship may also be found to help with formulating long-term goals.) & also the employee's short and long-term development needs which lead toward meeting defined career goals. Outline the skills that are needed within the organization. Develop an understanding of current skill levels set against the desired level. Suggest possible courses or workshops. Identify specific work activities, community volunteer activities that would be beneficial, and include the participation in these activities as part of the employee's formal performance goals. Stress that skill development comes in small, day-to-day steps, and reflect this in the employee's development plan. Suggest a peer who could become a coach/role model. Provide constructive feedback and encouragement as changes in behavior are made and as growth occurs.

Job rotation and employee development

Job rotation is a systematic process of moving selected internal candidates into targeted positions which it is believed will benefit their development. Judy Orr, principal of Change Journeys, Coaching & Consulting in Toronto, writes [4] that job rotation can be used as a leadership and employee development strategy. Job rotation can build up a breadth of experience and help to develop key leadership competencies and enlarge the skill set of the employee. Job rotation can help to break down "silo-thinking" and encourage the development of stronger networks which foster cross-functional idea sharing and solutions. Importantly, as employees learn about other parts of an organisation, their strategic orientation is likely to increase, and they can feel more valued because of the investment that has been put into their growth and development.

Job Evaluation
Job evaluation forms a central plank of all performance management systems. The international Labour Organization (ILO) defines job evaluation as an attempt to determine, and compare, the demands that normal performance in a particular job makes on an average worker. Job evaluation enables the relative ranking of positions and this ranking is the basis for the definition of salary ranges.

12 of 125 Fred Hilling president of Sander Salary Systems, Canada, describes [5] job evaluation as "the systematic analysis of the relative demands that work places on an employee". Job evaluation, according to Hilling, requires considerable skill and experience. In the public sector, and also in many private-sector organizations, job evaluation is essential for an authoritative salary administration program. Job evaluation is a practical necessity which requires wrestling with job definitions, job evaluation committees, upset managers, and anxious employees. However the increased legitimacy resulting from effective job evaluation reviews is believed to be well worth the time and effort needed to define, understand and rate job content. Hilling noted that there was a continuing tension between (a) the practical interest of gaining acceptance of a job evaluation Programme, and (b) defining a competitive salary for a given position. It was believed that it is possible to integrate these two factors if attention is paid to the limits of effective participation in job evaluation plan design, and also if the practical knowledge built up over many years of job evaluation experience was put to good use. Sandra Weeks managing director of Canadian Human Resources Partners Inc., a rewards and compensation consultant states [6] that job evaluation programmes remain very relevant in today's workplace as systems become much more flexible and more aligned to business needs and strategies. Job evaluation has an important place particularly within total rewards frameworks. Good Job evaluation processes can ensure that fair and competitive base salaries are struck providing a balance between internal equity and external benchmarks. Job evaluation techniques range from point factor, ranking, slotting, through to job families/career level analysis, and also include a combination of these applications. The following chart derived from [6] outlines recent changes in job evaluation requirements.

Traditional Job Evaluation Flexible Job Evaluation

Tight descriptions defining exactly Expandable descriptions based on a core list of essential what, and how, employees carry accountabilities allowing roles to change with out a job. circumstances and employee skill levels. Base pay used compensation for total Base pay plus incentives forming total compensation packages

Job evaluation used strategically and focusing on Job evaluation used as a tactical customer service, innovation, and continuous tool to create hierarchical structure improvement. Limited recognition of individual Greater recognition of individual efforts through base pay contributions and incentives Narrow focus of compensation Total rewards emphasis

Traditional salary surveys based New benchmarked surveys based on career levels on typical duties A fair day's work for a fair day's Job security through employability pay and job security development of skills and knowledge Internal focus and internal equity External market competitiveness via continual

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Competencies Core and Individual

Competencies are the characteristics of individuals which govern their performance and the levels of achievement expected in a given job. Carri Baca, compensation administrator at WorldatWork journal, and Gary Starzmann, global compensation solutions architect at U.S.ACS Inc., write [7] that individual competencies should be aligned with the competencies that an organisation needs for the achievement of business success. Core competencies must link with the central purposes of the organisation and reflect its mission, values, and business strategies. Contrastingly, individual competencies are largely behavioral based, and should ideally form a sub-set of the organizations core competencies. Well described competencies help employees to understand the aims of the organisation which they serve, also sound competency models can help managers drive the most appropriate behaviors which will lead to organizational success. The competencies Iceberg model adapted from [7] depicts both the derivation, and the development of individual competencies.

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Career development impacts employee performance
It is a known fact that most professionals leave an organisation due to lack of career growth. Active career development initiatives by a company are a key retention tool to keep the best talent within its fold. It is one of the greatest motivators to keep an employee happy and engaged. But does career planning and development of employees actually make a difference to the productivity of a worker? Most organisations think so, and consider it a part of their critical human resource strategy. From the employees point of view career development initiatives gives them a clear focus about their career track, the blind spots that they have to overcome and the final goal to be reached. This focused approach works to their advantage from their everyday work to long-term aspirations. The impact of career development/ succession planning programmes can be seen through the productivity indicator, engagement surveys and reduction in attrition rate. It is in fact a win-win situation for all. The typical employee views a career development Programme as a path to upward mobility, the manager sees it as a retention and motivational tool, and the top management view it as a tool for succession planning, explains Tarun Singh, Director, Kenexa Technologies (India). These career development efforts bring into focus high potential candidates who can be groomed for greater responsibilities in the future.

Understanding the significance

It has often been debated whether all organisations do understand the advantages of these initiatives in the process of accomplishing their business goals. Sreeram Kaviliga, AVP-HR, AppLabs Technologies states, Yes to some extent they do understand. But, unfortunately due to factors like deliverables, tight deadlines, insufficient bandwidth to the reporting managers, nor coaching given to them, in practice there is not enough visible attention given to this area presently. It is not just enough to understand the significance of career development programmes but managing it well. The whole process should be well organized to receive full support from employees who will clearly see the advantages. It is mutually beneficial to the employee as well as the employer. Aspects like what, when, why, where, who all and how, have to be clearly captured as a part of the development plan and communicated effectively, says Anshuman Ray, HR, Country Manager, Synopsys (India). He adds that candid communication helps manage expectations better and once plans are finalized and rolled out, there should be zero tolerance around consistency, commitment, compliance and credibility; unless business encounters something unusual and things that could not be foreseen. Implementation of these plans helps companies earn credibility amongst employees and commitment towards building intellectual capital which is the root for any IT organisation.

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Affect on employee performance

Career development programmes enable a deeper focus on an employees aims and aspirationsfrom identification of the handicaps being faced by an employee in accomplishing his goals to the solutions in terms of re-skilling or reassignment. This focus acts as the significant motivator for an employee to excel and exceed the targets. It facilitates powerful personal and professional development. As per the motivational theories, achievement orientation, growth and development are the basic human needs. Possibility and hope for career development motivates employees to perform better. It is an ongoing, dynamic process; employees may need encouragement and support in reviewing and re-assessing their goals and activities, explains Ulhas Aher, Head HR, Compass Connections.

"Possibility and hope for career development motivates employees to perform better. It is an ongoing, dynamic process" Ulhas Aher Head HR Compass Connections

"A strong sense of direction coupled with responsibility, boosts motivational levels and hence performance" - Vishwas Mahajan, CEO & Managing Director Compulink Systems

An organisation focused on developing the career path of its employees boosts the morale and ultimately the productivity of its staff. Vishwas Mahajan, CEO & Managing Director, Compulink Systems, points out that these organisations infuse a lot of confidence among its employees. Besides helping employees get equipped with relevant skills and knowledge, it also facilitates the organizations objective of showing a well articulated, growth oriented yet flexible career path to its employees. A strong sense of direction coupled with responsibility, boosts motivational levels and hence performance, adds Mahajan.

The viability

Then there is the question of long-term viability of investing time and resources into an initiative which might not actually pay in the long-term, taking into consideration short-term employee loyalty. This is a truth which no organisation can deny, but it cannot also give up its plans for employee development. Career development is a continuous process. Incidents such as employees quitting the organisation should not stand as a barrier to this process. There is always a commitment of the top leadership towards such programmes as they see long-term value addition to the organisation, states Mahajan.

"Organisations have their own vision and individuals their own aspirations. Alignment and congruence of both create a win-win situation" Anand VP, Management ITC Infotech Talwar Talent

Anand Talwar, Vice-president, Talent Management, ITC InfoTech, acknowledges that a large number of employees have the opportunity to change jobs, but it is imperative for professional organisations which are in business from a long-term perspective, to have a sound career management framework. In fact the lack of it impacts productivity. In ITC InfoTech, we believe that individuals must be provided growth and career advancement opportunities as we look forward to building them into thoroughbreds professionals, adds Talwar. The company has launched a career management framework built around the fulcrum of personal development plans and career mentoring. This framework is being instituted in the organisation during the current financial year.

Tarun Singh, Director, Kenexa Technologies (India), suggests a three-pronged approach to tackle long-term productivity issues:

16 of 125 The employee must have a degree of clarity on what he wants to pursue and achieve in life, so some degree of self-knowledge and self-introspection is essential for any person to find a job where he is the correct fit. Once this happens, then the employee is fully engaged and thus highly productive, and less likely to switch jobs if he perceives that the company is really interested in his career development. Just as an individual must have a clear goal orientation, the organisation must show a highlevel vision and goals which are clearly made known to employees, which would give them a lot of confidence about the organizations intent and the opportunities for progress within the company. The goal of career development thus becomes a plan to retain and promote employees who are strategic to the companys success.

The right approach

Organisations have today begun to understand the effectiveness of mentoring among all career development initiatives like promotion, job rotation, training, etc. The mentorship approach has proved to make a significant impact. Nirupama V G, Associate Director, Team Lease Services, informs, Few companies assign career counselors to employees, who act as a mentor and coach throughout the counselees career with the company. The counselors take genuine interest in the counselees career and guide them to projects which will enable him/her to develop the skills and experience and hence employability. Review of the project handled by the employee is done with respect to the career plan at regular intervals. These apart many companies have communities of knowledge comprising people involved in similar projects, business streams or domains. These communities act as knowledge banks/learning centers which help the employees to strengthen the skills pertaining to their career stream. Biju S Nair, Vice-president (Finance & HR), Four Soft, lists the best approaches to developing careers: Creating opportunities for the employees in the organisation. Employee-friendly work environment with high learning curve and leadership mentoring. Understanding broad corporate goals as well as industry requirements and aligning the career development initiatives. Creating friendly work culture and transparent environment for better career growth. Salary growth and benefits to match the role specific requirement and ability to perform as per the job requirement

. Common career development initiatives

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Promotion Training Job rotation Job enlargement Succession planning Mentoring Assessment and development centers

Source: Compass Connections

Aligning with organizational goals

The growth of an individual is intrinsically linked with the growth of an organisation and vice versa. No organisation can develop without taking its employees on the growth path and an individuals development is meaningless if it does not align with the organisational goals and strategies. When an individuals aspiration is directed elsewhere from that of his organizations it can lead to absolute chaos. Organisations have their own vision and individuals their own aspirations. Alignment and congruence of both create a win-win situation and the lack of such alignment can create movement in haphazard directions leading to loss of productivity, morale, etc, states Talwar. Alignment of employees with organisational goals and strategies is a must. Shrikant Kulkarni, Senior Vice President, KPIT Cummins Info systems, points out that this happens when organisations leverage home-grown talent which understands the companys business, its challenges, customers, technology, its values and culture. Soft skills development is an integral part of career planning initiative. Team play, leadership skills, communication skills are key competencies for one who goes up the career in the IT industry, adds Kulkarni. Every organisation needs to retain people with the right skills and talent. This can be enabled by investing in their future growth and showing them the path to fulfill their dreams. In this process the effort put by employees gives a fillip to their performance and transforms into greater organisational productivity.

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Key Steps in Career Development Initiatives

1. Define the need. To "hit the bull's-eye," you need to talk with employees to find out what's missing. Is it lack of perceived opportunity, not enough training, too little communication, diversity issues? Exit interview analysis, employee surveys, and focus groups can help you become clearer about employees' views on these issues. 2. Identify target groups. Focus on the employees you most want to keep. This helps you to get buy-in from all levels of management, which is important in building enthusiasm and gaining acceptance for the initiative. 3. Tie the initiative to human resources systems and policies. Company policies and practices regarding application procedures for posted jobs, managers' ability to block internal movement, hiring from within, use of computer job/talent banks, training, tuition reimbursement, use of pay systems that reward flexibility rather than hierarchy, and performance management all impact the career development initiative and should be : synch with it. 4. Tailor the initiative to fit the culture. Start with the pieces that the current culture will accept. If you are trying to change your culture to create more employee initiative, giving workers the tools to take charge is an important way to do it. One company, Komatsu, took an initiative to develop a web of relationships across the company. It included an innovative new career path concept a 'return ticket' policy to encourage the transfer of young employees to subsidiaries and affiliate companies that had previously been viewed as banishment; and the Strategic Employee Exchange Program, which allows employees to work on projects in other parts of the company on a shortterm basis. 5. Take a long-term approach with short-term payoffs. To build momentum, develop the program in stages. Begin by conducting a needs evaluation with a manager task force, then design and pilot a program, measure the results, spread the good word, and gradually include more managers and employees. If the gradual approach is solidly designed and well executed, the long-term results in keeping the right people will take care of themselves. 6. Redesign performance management system to make the process easier, if necessary. Some companies require managers to have career discussions with their employees at least twice a year, or to jointly create career development action plans once a year. Others incorporate manager ratings as career coaches on the performance review. 7. Co design with line management. The career development system, like the performance management system, should be owned by line management, not by human resources, if it is to be successful. Getting line management to help design this system from the outset will go a long way toward making this happen. 8. Separate career management from performance appraisal. Keeping the two apart helps assure employees that the purpose of the program is to help them manage their careers and not to help their superiors manage them. Career discussions between manager and employee should be scheduled between performance appraisal discussions.

19 of 125 9. Ensure top management support. This is the key to success with almost all initiatives. Sometimes successful programs can be created gradually from the bottom up (or from the middle up), but the way to more immediate success starts at the top. 10. Measure results. Collecting manager and employee comments from career management workshops and disseminating them to other managers and employees works quite well. So does documenting the success stories employees who decided to stay within the company or whose performance improved because they attended the workshops and initiated career discussions with their managers 11. Publicize results. Making presentations to managers that include the results and success stories is the key.

Has your organization seriously considered implementing a career development program? If not, perhaps this is a good time to do so. The following description of several, widely used career development interventions and case studies can be used to stimulate discussion on various career development practices.

Alternative Career Paths

One approach to alternative career pathing involves incorporating the skills employees already have with what their hearts want to do. It can involve changing career and lifestyles for more meaningful and fulfilling work arrangements. Creating alternative career paths often involves incorporating other career development interventions, such as flexi-time or job enrichment. Alternative career paths should not be confused with dual career paths, which are described later.

Career Pathing
Career pathing, also called career tracking, is a process of outlining an individual career plan, usually within an organization. Career pathing is most often used as a part of management training and development, although individuals may develop their own career track, either alone, or in conjunction with a career coach. Employees follow pre-determined steps along the career path to develop expertise in managing different types of organizational situations and to reach their career goal. Periodic checks evaluate progress, as well as determining what further training or experience is needed to move to the next step. Career pathing often uses several other career development interventions as part of the process. These include cross-training, job rotation, job enrichment or enlargement, and temporary assignments.

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Dual Career Tracks

Dual career tracks should not be confused with alternative career paths. Creating dual career paths involves preparing employees to succeed and be rewarded without necessarily being on a management or vertical organization career path. In other words, ``up'' is not considered the only way employees can grow and advance within the company. The establishment of dual or multiple career tracks has proven to be an effective way to retain and motivate valued employees. Management can be an attractive career alternative for many employees, but it is not for everyone. This may be particularly true for many technical or creative workers. The number of people managed often distinguishes managerial levels, but under the dual career track plan, individuals apply their expertise (like managers) to tasks of greater complexity and impact within their specialty field. For example, they may make recommendations in a wide range of business areas, participate in high level decisions, and act as mentors to other employees. The interest in dual or multiple Career tracks are likely to grow as more organizations do away with formal management titles and establish team structures.

Career Coaching/Counseling
Career coaching frequently involves helping individuals prepare for a career change or helping employees advance in their existing jobs. From the employee's view, career coaching consists of evaluating interests, values, work styles, and skills. From the organization's view, it consists of matching employee talents with organizational needs, recruiting and retaining talent in the company, identifying training and development needs, and assisting employees in specifying and locating new employment opportunities within the organization.

Cross-trained workers are taught skills outside their current job assignment so they can be called upon to perform a variety of tasks as the need arises. Many workers and supervisors find themselves cross-training each other, just to make the day-to-day work life manageable. As a career development intervention, however, companies put into place a formal program of crosstraining. Cross-training helps organizations to balance workloads so everyone is busy, and allows the company to respond quickly to employee absences. It also allows employees and departments within an organization to gain a better understanding of the ``big picture'', and to improve communications and relations. Employees who are cross-trained are more valuable to the company, and more marketable in the work world overall.

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Flexi time
Flextime is one of the most popular and most widely known career development interventions. Flexitime gives employees the opportunity to balance their work and personal lives by restructuring the typical workday to accommodate individual employee schedules. Employers who offer flexitime often report decreased use of paid leave, decreased tardiness and increased productivity. Other benefits for the employer include a low-cost method of providing personal time off and extending service hours without overtime pay. This career development intervention is popular with employees who have extended families or young children, who may be facing ``burn-out'', and those seeking further education or pursuing second careers. Flexitime allows employees to set their own schedules, within limitations set by management. For example, workers may adjust their starting and ending times, but are required to be at the office during management specified core or peak hours. Working four ten-hour days is an example of a compressed workweek form of flexitime. Flexitime may also be combined with other interventions, such as job sharing, job rotation, and phased retirement.

Job Rotation
Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives : for simply staffing jobs, for orienting new employees, for preventing job boredom, and, finally, for training employees and enhancing their career development. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track, usually for a management position, where they are expected to perform a variety of duties, and have a variety of skills and competencies. Job rotation is often confused with cross training. While both interventions perform essentially the same service of providing employees with a varied set of skills, job rotation goes beyond this. Besides being used as a means of management training, job rotation can also be used as a form of job enrichment, by adding increased responsibilities, increasing challenge, and reducing boredom or burnout.

Job Enlargement
Job enlargement is defined as increasing the number of tasks a worker performs, with all of the tasks at the same level of responsibility, and is also sometimes referred to as ``horizontal job loading'' . Be careful not to confuse job enlargement with job enrichment, which will be discussed later. Job enlargement and job enrichment can both be used with plateaued workers or workers who are experiencing burnout, and with especially high achievers. These two interventions may be used in conjunction with each other, or with other career development interventions such as job rotation and temporary assignments. Both interventions provide the employee with increased skills, making him or her more valuable to the company, or more marketable in the job search.

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Job Enrichment
Job enrichment involves increasing a worker's responsibility and control over his or her work, and is also called ``vertical job loading''. Job enrichment allows you to expand your responsibilities or change your role to develop new competencies without leaving your current position or the organization altogether. Job enrichment is also used as an effective motivational technique. According to this perspective, if a job provides a sense of responsibility, a sense of significance and information concerning performance, the employees will be internally motivated to high levels of performance. The key to creating this situation is to enrich jobs so they provide five core characteristics: task variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback.

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Job Rotation System

There are many reasons for implementing a job rotation system, including the potential for increased flexibility in production, increased employee satisfaction and lower MSD rates. However, establishing a rotation system that properly determines job rotations and monitors their safe use is not a simple task. There are many issues to consider and no official protocol or methodology to call upon. The successful implementation of a program requires teamwork from all parts of the organization, including management, union, medical providers, and especially the employees themselves. Many job rotation systems have failed because of lack of planning and lack of foresight into the problems and shortcomings of rotation. It can prove more difficult than it might seem at first glance, since it involves changing the organizational structure of an entire facility. The following materials provide systematic guidance for setting up a rotation system. This guidance should be viewed as a starting point for further discussion by workplace personnel.

Program Goals
The goals of the program are to:
Reduce the number of cumulative trauma disorders Reduce boredom and work stress of involved employees Prevent job rotations that increase stress Increase productivity of involved departments Reduce absenteeism and turnover of involved departments Involve and further educate employees Increase innovation in the design of jobs, workload balance, and department boundaries It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position

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Background Information
Pros and Cons of Job Rotation
A number of studies address the positive impact of variation and pauses during work, but Few studies have dealt with actual job rotation 1. However, several job rotation case Studies were found in the literature. These studies came from the United States, Japan, and Sweden and covered a variety of industries. The following benefits were noted among them: Reduced boredom Reduced work stress Increased innovation Increased free time activity Reduced CTDs Increased production Reduced absenteeism Reduced turnover

Several of the same case studies noted difficulties in implementing job rotation. Most of these difficulties came from the challenge of changing the work structure and not from the job rotation itself. The following problems were noted: Experienced workers not wanting to learn new types of work Machine operators not wanting to "lend" their machines to others Practical problems of physically getting from one job to the next Unsuitable wage forms Education and training of workers for new jobs Difficulties in finding appropriate jobs to rotate to Inappropriate use of job rotation by management

There was also one paper that offered evidence against job rotation.
1 .It stated that through a learning process, individuals are likely to have developed a behavioral strategy that protects them from the apparent hazards of the job. Thus, rotation of unskilled workers into a biomechanical stressful job increases the risk of injury with each rotation 2. This highlights the importance for complete training and break-in periods before an Employer begins a job rotation program. The training and break-in period enables the employee to develop those behavioral strategies needed to limit the risk factors. 3. This also suggests that the number of jobs included in a particular rotation should be kept to a minimum, perhaps two or three, allowing the employees to become "experts" at each task.

25 of 125 So, to realize the beneficial aspects of job rotation it is necessary to establish definitive guidelines which insure consistency of application and at the same time allow for restricting employees from rotating into jobs they can not perform. To ensure that all job rotations meet basic ergonomics requirements a consistent and systematic approach is required. In the point of view of the employer, job rotation practice is actually costly. Though job rotations do help individuals in knowing general job functions, it also prevents one from specializing in a specific job responsibility. Therefore, a performance level that is excellent is actually discouraged. This issue is quite relevant and serious especially for jobs wherein a high form of specialization is needed. This has brought some companies to not practice job rotation, or if they do practice it, it is done selectively as well as cautiously. Job rotations make employees more empathetic basically, job satisfaction is the attitude that an individual feels towards the job he is involved in. It is an experience that is positive and pleasurable after doing a good job or if appraised after doing a good job. Training via doing job rotation is effective as it teaches workers what to do by actually doing it. Also, job rotation helps develop understanding between employees. It also helps encourage independence as well as inter-dependence. Since everyone know how one feels while doing a particular job responsibility as everyone has gone through it via job rotation teamwork is fostered. All in all, job rotation is an experience that is positive for employees. It allows workers to know more than what their job requires. It offers them growth, a more open perspective and a higher probability to be employable. As people prioritize personal satisfaction and finding meaningful work mostly, job rotation is one step in which workers could explore their own work-selves and know for themselves which jobs work best for them, or which job they would rather not do. The literature noted in previous pages points to many of the pros and cons of implementing a job rotation program. The benefits may be outlined as reductions in boredom, work stress, absenteeism, and turnover and an increase in innovation, production, and loyalty. The difficulties of implementing a job rotation program center on such aspects as experienced staff not wanting to learn new job skills or move to other locations, educating and training staff for the new jobs, the fitting of staff (skill level) and job (skill and pay structure), the direct and opportunity costs of implementing a rotation program, and--in industrial settings--putting untrained staff in hazardous situations. While this latter issue may not be uppermost in the minds of library staff, improper stooping to and loading of library shelves or pushing book trucks improperly can result in nasty outcomes!

26 of 125 These comments focus attention on three key challenges: the determination of the type of job rotation, the clarification of the process of changing the work structure itself, and the communication to all about the type of staff training and the length of the learning period. There are often restrictions on the type and extent of job rotations. If there is a unionized environment, the job rotation may be held within particular generic jobs or classification levels. There may be significant skill differences among the staff. Management may baulk at the short-term expense of upgrading staff or at the loss of productivity during the break-in period. It may be easier to begin with a limited job rotation program within a delimited segment of staff. Changing the processes or work structure on a small scale may be less daunting than if the program encompasses all work and staff in the organization in one fell swoop. Whatever the extent of the program, the training and on-the-job learning period may be an important consideration. The focus of this article is on job rotation. By no means does that point to job rotation as the only means of improving the organization and its staff. The literature illustrates that there must be a context or an organizational culture that is conducive to a job rotation program. However, trying to implement a job rotation program should do wonders at bringing out all manner of questions and issues requiring resolution.

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Detailed Guidance

The objective is to provide the ergonomics committee with a consistent and systematic method of developing formal job rotations that are based on the requirements of the jobs being rotated. Since, job requirements have already been documented on Physical Job Requirement worksheets (PJAs), these will be used in the systematic analysis. In order to facilitate the smoothest possible transition into a job rotation system the following issues must be addressed. Items listed should be viewed as options and starting points for further discussion by the site ergonomics team and other interested personnel.

How Jobs are matched for Rotation

First, the PJAs for each job should be reviewed to ensure that they are accurate and up to date. If they are not, then the appropriate corrections should be made. Second, the PJAs should be entered into the Job Rotation Spread Sheet*. Doing this automatically calculates job rotation scores for each individual entry, section averages (for backs, arms, hands/wrists), and the overall job difficulty. From the section and total scores the spread sheet generates a ranking (Red, Yellow, or Green). These rankings can be used in matching job rotation candidates and are determined by: Green if score is 0 to 30 Yellow if score is 31 to 45 Red if score is 46 to 100

These cut-offs were determined through experience with sample jobs from the site and are based on the judgment (they may be updated as our experience dictates). These cut-offs might not be appropriate in all industries and are based on information from pork slaughter. After the PJAs have been entered and the appropriate scores and rankings computed then the job rotation worksheets should be manually compared and discussed by the ergonomics committee. In general, decisions about the appropriateness of a particular job rotation should be based on the following:

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How Often Jobs are Rotated

In general, job rotations should consist of two jobs: an A job that the employee starts at the beginning of the shift, and a B job that the employee rotates to after the first break. The employee returns to the A job after lunch, and then back to the B job after the second break. Jobs would then be posted for bidding by the A job, with the B job defined as part of the process. This illustration depicts one possible organization of two job rotations. For flexibility reasons it may be necessary to use other arrangements or have three job rotations. These questions can be answered as experience is gained with the system. In some cases, depending on the logistics, rotations may occur more frequently or contain more than two jobs. However, that may complicate the job matching process.

It is recommended that a generic list of all acceptable rotations for each department be generated to allow flexibility in making job assignments without violating ergonomic standards. What Training is needed?

The same training requirements and documentation that a new hire must have before starting in a position should be met by experienced line employees going to a new job. Thus, the training requirements are probably spelled out in existing human resources guidelines. What Break-In Period is needed?

Similar to above the same guidelines for new hires starting out should apply to experienced employees starting in a new job. Flexibility and Considerations Needed

Determined at each site. What Follow-up is required?

What Information is needed to Track the Program?

In order to determine if the results experienced meet the goals set forth there should be a system of tracking results in place before starting any further rotations. The system should allow for the comparison of the number of CTDs, restricted duty days, and lost time by man hours worked. Similarly, other characteristics such as medical aids, turnover, yields, and job satisfaction could be monitored.

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Job Rotation Checklist

The following must occur for each job rotation set-up. Jobs proposed to be rotated are:

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Has an employee meeting been held to determine interest and gain involvement and input? Has each task involved in the proposed rotation been reviewed with the Physical Job? Analysis checklist to determine precise requirements and has a Job Rotation Worksheet been generated? Has common sense been used in evaluating job rotation possibilities? Have all employees involved in the rotation schedule been trained to do all tasks? Have all employees been provided an adequate break-in priod to insure they are: A. . Fully qualified to do all tasks? B. Physically conditioned and accustomed to do the job? Has flexibility and consideration bee given for individuals in the rotation schedule? Are there any employees who would have physical difficulty in performing all the tasks? Can accommodations be made for these individuals? Have formal follow-up evaluations using Team Ergo and supervisors been Conducted? Are benefits or problems being tracked (increased or decreased injury rates, turnover, employee satisfaction, workers compensation costs, etc.)?

Scoring System
For best results, it is important to quantify or score the risk factors associated with each of the tasks that are to be rotated. There is no established system or protocol for these scores and you will need to select or develop a system that is appropriate for your site and the tasks in question. Typically, a score would be calculated for each job for (1) the hand and wrist, (2) the arm and shoulder, (3) the lower back, and (4) the overall job difficulty. However, other factors and body parts may need to be taken into consideration depending upon the tasks. Whatever scoring system is used, it can be helpful to convert your final results into red, yellow, and green to represent high, medium, and low risk. Thus, a good rotation would a job with a red score for the lower back and one with a green score for the lower back.

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Key Steps for Implementation

Step 1: Hold an employee meeting to determine interest and gain involvement and input. During
this meeting it would be appropriate to have a short presentation on ergonomics and job rotation. The purpose here is to build upon the ergonomics training already received and further it by discussing the relationship between it and job rotation. At this time it would be appropriate to issue a Job Rotation Questionnaire (see below).

Step 2: Calculate the scores for the jobs considered for rotation. Use these scores to establish
which jobs should be rotated with which. In general, decisions about the suitability of a particular job rotation should be based on the following:

Step 3: Apply a common-sense review to ensure that the logistics of the proposed rotation are
suitable and that the job rotation seems reasonable. Also, review the job rotation scheme with the affected employees. The employee concerns and insights should be taken into account. If necessary, changes to the list should be made, and final approval for the list obtained.

Step 4: Provide employees with any training that they may need to perform the tasks or handle
the tools and equipment. In general, experienced employees going to a new job should receive the same training requirements and documentation that a new hire must have before starting in that position.

Step 5: Provide employees with adequate break-in time to ensure that they are fully qualified and
physically conditioned to perform their new tasks. Similar to training requirements, the same guidelines for new hires starting out should apply to experienced employees starting in a new job. Even if the employees have performed the job previously, they should generally be allowed the break-in period to become accustomed to the work again.

31 of 125 The training and break-in period enables the employee to develop those subtle work techniques needed to perform the task the easiest way and thus minimize the risk factors. This also suggests that the number of jobs included in a particular rotation should be kept to a minimum, perhaps two or three, allowing the employees to become experts at each task.

Step 6: Begin job rotation. Step 7: Monitor the new rotation to ensure flexibility and consideration for individuals that are
having difficulty performing new tasks. Assess if further training, break-in, and/or accommodations can be made for these individuals.

Step 8: Hold follow-up meetings with employees to evaluate the job rotation. Survey the
employees using the job rotation questionnaire again. Compare results to the initial survey. If results are favorable then continue rotation. If results indicate a problem then decide if corrective action is needed or if rotation should be discontinued.

Step 9: Track other measures such as injury rates, turnover, employee satisfaction, or workers
compensation to determine effects of the job rotation.

These steps can be viewed as options and starting points for further discussion by the site ergonomics team and other interested personnel. This framework was written with a particular company and industry (meatpacking) in mind, and you may have different needs and applications. The objective here is to show you one approach for developing a formal, consistent, and systematic method of job rotations that are based on the requirements of the jobs. To help you make sure that all of the steps of the process are completed and documented, you may find it helpful to use the Job Rotation Checklist found on the following page.

Role of Ergonomics Team

Anyone should be able to suggest job rotations, including supervisors, production employees, or union officials. However, the job rotation scheme should be approved by Team Ergo with input from the affected employees before being implemented.

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There are two major categories of roadblocks that are often encountered in setting up a job rotation system:

Cultural issues: The first set of difficulties is associated with the challenge of changing the
work structure and not from the job rotation in and of itself. Examples of problems include: Experienced workers not wanting to learn new types of work Employees not wanting to lend their equipment to others Pre-existing differences in wage levels among employees whose jobs are to be rotated High-seniority employees who have paid their dues working at difficult jobs may believe that they have earned their right to easier jobs and may resist going back to more difficult work. Practical problems of physically getting from one job to the next

Rotation issues: The other set of difficulties have to do with issues surrounding the rotation
schedule itself: Difficulties in finding appropriate jobs to rotate to (for the goal of reducing MSDs) Difficulties for employees in learning the subtleties of some tasks and thus end up increasing the physical demands. Inability of some employees to be physically able to perform the most difficult tasks Education and training of workers for new jobs Inconsistency of application

Basic Limitation
Job rotation alone does not change the risk factors present in a facility. It only distributes the risk factors more evenly across a larger group of people. Thus, the risk for some individuals can be reduced, while the risk for others can be increased. However, there will be no net change in risk factors present. This can be shown in the following graph.

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When employees rotate between two jobs the risk exposure can be thought of as being averaged. Job rotation may drop the average to within a safe level, or raise the whole group in excess of safe limits. Unfortunately, it is not possible with current knowledge to determine what the safe limit is. For this reason it is prudent to be cautious about job rotation. Engineering changes should remain the goal of the ergonomics program.

More Limitations
If the jobs being rotated involve the same muscle-tendon groups then the benefit of MSD risk reduction is lost. Thus, rotation among jobs that are similar is not appropriate. Situations that are best able to benefit from job rotation are those where, for example, a wrist intensive task is adjacent to a back-intensive task. Additionally, if the rotation is too infrequent, such as a daily rotation, the benefit may also be lost. Typically, employees should rotate every two hours. An hourly rotation is probably better and a four-hour rotation probably the maximum that would provide any benefit from an MSD perspective.

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Use job rotation to reduce training costs

Sustaining employee interest in a single job is not easy, which is perhaps why retention poses such a big challenge for businesses today. People outgrow their jobs quickly and it may not be possible for employers to provide enough diversity within a vertical career framework to maintain employee interest in the job. This is where job rotation steps in to provide much needed variety and job enrichment from an employees perspective. Job rotation programmes serve a variety of purposes from simply staffing jobs, to providing orientation to new employees, preventing stagnation and job boredom, and giving employees the opportunity to explore alternative career paths. Employees who participate in job rotation programmes develop a wide range of skills, are more adaptable to changes in jobs and career, and in general are far more satisfied with their jobs when compared to workers who specialize in a single skill set or domain. Here are a few tips for you to make the most of a job rotation program in your organisation. To be effective, job rotation programmes need to be carefully planned and organized. Most job rotation programmes fail simply because not enough thought goes into implementing them, or because they are merely viewed as stop gap arrangements with no recognition of the added value it brings to employees. Preparation is key to the success of any job rotation Programme. Carefully analyze the feasibility of setting up a Programme, work out the implementation issues, and set up realistic schedules for each position. Formulate clear policies regarding who will be eligible, whether it will be mandatory or voluntary, whether employees will be restricted to certain jobs or will be open to all job classifications. Consider making job rotation a part and parcel of your training and career development initiatives. Not all jobs may be suitable for job rotation, but the large majority of jobs including technical, clerical, HR, administrative and managerial tasks can be handled by comparative non experts with

35 of 125 a little training. Alternatively, you can also link rotation with the individual career goals of employees and make it a part of a planned career development initiative. Involve the employee in planning job rotations so that there is a clear understanding of mutual expectations, and the road ahead. Understand that job rotation is not a substitute for training. It must be supported by parallel developmental goals and initiatives, and skills that are not enhanced by job rotation need to be dealt with through separate training programmes and management coaching. Decide who will benefit the most from participating in job rotation programmes. Some organisations tend to rotate employees faster in early-career stages and slow down in latercareer stages. This practice is based on the assumption that employees who are at an early stage of their career are more open to job rotation than senior level executives. People who are starting out in their careers typically are more eager to demonstrate their willingness to learn, to advance and to take on increasing responsibilities to enhance their skill development. They also have more to learn and benefit from rotation experiences, adding higher value to their career prospects. But job rotation can also be used to assist later career and plateaued employees, to mitigate the mind-numbing monotony of the plateauing process, and make the employees work more interesting and stimulating. Job rotations can be used as a developmental alternative to promotions. In times of economic recession or downsizing, it may not be always possible to reward employees with promotions and big hikes. In such a scenario, job rotations are a way of demonstrating that the company has faith in employees abilities and wants to provide them with opportunities for career growth. Adopt best practices to get the most out of your rotation programmes. Pay utmost attention to the selection of jobs, partnering with employee goals and increasing awareness among staff about the value of job rotations as a developmental tool. Job rotation offers a number of benefits for organisations. It is especially useful in helping employees cultivate valuable, organisation specific skills, and prepares the ground for lateral transfers and promotions. A systematic, well-designed job rotation program can help reduce training costs, reduce turnover, and improve employee morale and productivity. It can also endow a company with greater flexibility, and help take the edge out of contingency staffing. But perhaps the greatest benefit that accrues to organisations through job rotation programmes is its capacity to contribute to employee self- worth, motivation and job satisfaction.

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Overall Situation of Power Scenario

Although electric power generation in India on a commercial basis is almost a century old, substantial power development efforts began only after independence. At the launch of the first five year plan in 1951 power generation is recognize as a major input for the countries economic development and was accorded high priority. Power sector outlay have been among the highest in successive FYP ever since. The first two plans focus on hydro-power. Subsequent plans emphasized on rapid installation of thermal power stations. As a result of efforts, India installed power of the plant growth since 1951 indicated that with the uneven generation capacity grew to 16,664 MW in 1974. However, assessment distribution of resources, power development with only States as spatial units, would result in large inter-state imbalances. This, and the need for quicker and greater capacity addition, led the Government of India to assume a leading role in large scale power generation as matter of policy and, through an amendment of the Electricity Act, National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC) and National Hydroelectric power Corporation Ltd (NHPC) were set up in the central sector to supplement the efforts of the States. Consequently, total install capacity of power utilities has increase from 1362 MW in 1947 to 104918 MW in March 2002. Electricity generation, which was only about 4.1 BUs in 1974, has risen to 515 BUs in 2001-02


37 of 125 As on March 2002, the total installed capacity of utilities stood at 104,918 MW. Most of the installed capacity is under Government control. The State Government control nearly 60% of the power generating capacity. Currently the central government owns about 30% of the power generating capacity in the country, the majority of which is in the thermal sector. Of the total installed thermal capacity of 25366.50 MW in central sector, NTPCs share is 20092 MW (76.61%)

National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC) is the largest power generating company of India. A public sector company incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate the power development in the country as a wholly owned company of government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic banks, Public and others. As per survey, based on 1998 data, carried out by Data monitor UK, NTPC is the 6th largest in terms of thermal generation and the second most efficient in terms of capacity utilization amongst the top 10 utilities in the world. The company enjoys the NAVRATNA status conferred by the GOI to nine PSUs. NTPCs core business is engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants and also providing consultancy to power utilities.

1. The installed capacity of NTPC as on March 31, 2008 is 29394 MW through its A. B. C. 15 Coal based (23395 MW). 7 Gas/Liquid fuel based (3955 MW). 4 Joint ventures (coal based) Project (2044 MW)


NTPC has generated 181597 Million units of electricity in 2007-08.

38 of 125 3. NTPC is instrumental also in improving the efficiency of the power plants as a whole by setting up the higher standards from the very beginning. Prior to it, generating consistently for the PLF above 50% was thought to be extraordinary. Currently, NTPC stations recorded an all time PLF of 87.5%, which is highest for any financial year since its inception. 4. Provisional and unaudited sales of energy of Rs.286, 350 million during the year 2004-05 as against Rs. 221,990 million in the year 2004-05. 5. Provisional and unaudited Net Profit after tax for the year 2007-08 is Rs 74,699 million as compared to Rs.52920 million for the year 2004-05


As at the end of March 2008, NTPCs installed capacity is about 1901% of the total power generation of country during 2007-08. After adding the capacity and generation contributed by joint venture companies, NTPCs share of installed capacity increases to 20.15% accounting for 28.51% of the total generation in the country.

NTPC Contribution
NTPC, the largest power generating Company in India, was setup in 1975 to accelerate power development in the country. It is among the worlds largest and most efficient power generation Companies. In Forbes list of Worlds 2000 Largest Companies for the year 2007, NTPC occupies 411th place. NTPC has installed capacity of 29,394 MW. It has 15 coal based power stations (23,395 MW), 7 gas based power stations (3,955 MW) and 4 power stations in Joint Ventures (1,794 MW). The company has power generating facilities in all major regions of the country. It plans to be a 75,000 MW company by 2017.

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NTPC has gone beyond the thermal power generation. It has diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution. NTPC is now in the entire power value chain and is poised to become an Integrated Power Major.

NTPC's share on 31 Mar 2008 in the total installed capacity of the country was 19.1% and it contributed 28.50% of the total power generation of the country during 2007-08. NTPC has set

40 of 125 new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. With its experience and expertise in the power sector, NTPC is extending consultancy services to various organizations in the power business. It provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. In November 2004 NTPC came out with its Initial Public Offering consisting of 5.25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company with Government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital and rest held by Institutional Investors and Public. The issue was a resounding success. NTPC is among the largest five companies in India in terms of market capitalization. Recognizing its excellent performance and vast potential, Government of the India has identified NTPC as one of the jewels of Public Sector 'Navratnas'- a potential global giant. Inspired by its glorious past and vibrant present, NTPC is well on its way to realize it's vision of being "A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth, with increasing global presence".


1. NTPC has set up regional power stations supplying power to various states in the country as per power allocation formula approved by Government of India. 2. For the purpose of administration NTPC has set up 4 regional offices and are as under:

Eastern Region Western Region Southern Region Northern Region

Patna Mumbai. Hyderabad. Noida.

National Capital Region U.P.

The list of completed projects and joint ventures of NTPC are given below:

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Regional Spread of Generating Facilities

Region Northern Western Southern Eastern JVs Total Coal 7035 5860 3600 6900 564 23959 Gas 2312 1293 350 1480 5435 Total 9374 7153 3950 6900 2044 29394

Coal Based Power Stations

Coal based 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Singrauli Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon NTCPP Talcher Kaniha Unchahar Talcher Thermal Simhadri Tanda Badarpur Sipat State Uttar Pradesh Chattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Delhi Chattisgarh Commissioned (MW) 2,000 2,100 2,600 1,600 3,260 2,000 1,840 840 3,000 1,050 460 1,000 440 705 500 Capacity

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Total (Coal) 23,395

Gas/Liq. Fuel Based Power Stations

Gas based 16. Anta 17. Auraiya 18. Kawas 19. Dadri 20. Jhanor-Gandhar

State Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat

Commissioned (MW) 413 652 645 817 648 350 430 3,955


21. Rajiv Gandhi CCPP Kayamkulam Kerala 22. Faridabad Total (Gas) Haryana

Plants with Joint Venture Project

Commissioned Capacity (MW) 120 120 324 1480 2044 29,394

Coal Based State 23. Durgapur 24. Rourkela 25. Bhilai 26. RGPPL Total(JV) Grand Total (Coal + Gas + JV) West Bengal Orissa Chhattisgarh Maharashtra

Fuel Coal Coal Coal Naphtha/LNG

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The operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85.03 % in 1997-98 to 92.12 % in 2007-08, which compares favorably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 75.2% in 1997-98 to 92.24% during the year 2007-08 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC.

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It may be seen from the table below that while the installed capacity has increased by 62.34% in the last ten years, the employee strength went up by only 4.23%\

Description Installed Capacity Generation No. of employees Generation/employee

Unit MW MUs No. MUs

1997-98 16,847 97,609 23,585 4.14

2007-08 27,350 2,00,863 23,674 8.48

% of increase 62.34 105.78 4.23 4.83

The table below shows the detailed operational performance of coal based stations over the years.
Unit 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08

Generation PLF

BU 109.5 118.7 130.1 133.2 140.86 149.16 159.11 170.88 188.67 200.863 % 76.60 80.39 81.8 81.1 83.6 88.7 84.4 88.8 87.51 91.20 87.54 89.91 89.43 90.09 92.24 92.12

Availability Factor %

89.36 90.06 88.54 81.8

45 of 125 The energy conservation parameters like specific oil consumption and auxiliary power consumption have also shown considerable improvement over the years.

Tariff fees sales of electricity is determined by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. The commission has been established under the Electricity Regulatory Commission Act, 1998 to discharge the following function: To regulate the tariff of generating companies owned or control by Central Government. To regulate the tariff of generating companies other than those owned or controlled by the Central Government if such generating companies enter into or otherwise have a composite scheme for generation and sale of electricity in more than one state. To aid and advise the Central Government in the formulation of tariff policy which shall be * Fair to consumers. * Facilitate mobilization of adequate resources for the power sector. To promote competition, efficiency and economy in the activities of the electricity industry. Tariff structure for each plant is different.

It consists of two parts: 1. Fixed components: 2. variable components

Return on equity @ 16%. Fuel Cost: fuel used by different stations Interest on working capital. Depreciation. Operation and maintenance Expenses. Interest on borrowed capital.

1) NTPC retained the leadership position in the Indian power generation sector not only terms of size but also performance. 2) NTPC high operational efficiency in a demonstration of NTPC competence operation and maintenance.NTPC continuously improving the project implementation performance. In new projects it has succeeded in drastically reducing the implementation time. 3) NTPC financial position is strong. This will enable to finance capacity expansion plan.

46 of 125 4) NTPC has highly competent and committed work force. Employment productivity has risen from 5.58 MU per employee to 7.81 MU per employee during the past five years. 5) Greater Thrust on Corporate Social Responsibility. NTPC, while spearheading the process of accelerated development of the power sector in the country and thus fulfilling its Corporate Responsibility, is equally conscious of its Social Responsibility of maintaining ecological balance and continues to take various pro-active measures for protection of the environment and ecology around its projects. 6) Greater thrust on HR. To make the HRD happen, professional circles, quality circles, job rotation and redeployment etc. have been used in NTPC to enable the development of employees and to raise there competence levels.

Great Places to Work award - 2008 in India awarded on 17th
May, 2008 from Shri Tarun Das, Chief Mentor, CII, Mumbai. NTPC has been ranked number ONE in the special category the 'Best Workplaces for Large Organizations' and number eight overall for the year 2008 This is the fourth consecutive year when the Company figures among the top 10 list and also has the distinction of being the only PSU in the top 10 Companies that are the great places to work in the country. A total of 250 companies have participated in this year's survey. The companies represented various sectors of the booming Indian economy dominated by the IT and ITeS segments to manufacturing, media, realty, hospitality and FMCG companies etc.

Business World FICCI-SEDF CSR Award 2007 Awarded on

16th May 2008 at 3 pm by Hon'ble Minister of Finance Shri P. Chidambaram to Shri R.K.Jain, Director (Technical) NTPC. NTPC was ranked 2nd Runner up in the Business world FICCISEDF Corporate Social Responsibility Award for its efforts in integrating and internalizing CSR into its core business operation. Mahindra & Mahindra is the winner and Tata Tea limited was the first runner up. The Jury was chaired by Dr. Abid Hussein, Former Ambassador to USA and other members included Dr. Mohini Giri,Dr. Girija Vyas, Ms. Justice Leila Seth, Mr. Mark Runacres

Performance/Productivity Awards
Enterprise Excellence Award 2007 received on 26th May
28, 2008.
Enterprise Excellence Award awarded to NTPC for its financial and operational strength assessed under 5 perspectives-Financial Strength, Achievements, Internal Processes, Innovation & learning and External Customer orientation. The award was presented by Shri Pratap Singh Rane, Speaker, Goa Assembly to Shri S. Kumar, Executive Director (HR) at a function held in Panaji, Goa.

47 of 125 CII Exim Bank Award for Excellence 2007 received on 2nd Nov 2007 in Bangalore Six NTPC Stations (Farakka, Kawas, Korba, Simhadri, Talcher Thermal & Unchahar) have received the CIIEXIM Award for excellence. Simhadri has received the second level of recognition titled "Significant Achievement Award" while the other five station received the first level recognition titled "Strong Commitment to Excel" Award under this series. Six Indian Organisations ie HP India, Maruti Udyog ltd.,
Tata Steel, Infosys Technologies, Tata Motors & TCS have received the Role Model Award so far.

SAP award for Customer Excellence Awarded on 27th August, 2007 in New Delhi.
NTPC Limited has received the SAP Award for Customer Excellence (ACE) for Best Implementation in Utilities .The ACE Awards take into account the overall perspective of the implementation process being followed by the organization.

Infraline Energy Excellence Awards 2007,received on October 12, 2007 at Hotel Intercontinental, the Grand, New Delhi
NTPC was awarded the Jury Award for Recognizing Long Standing Contribution and Service to the Nation in the Power Generation Sector.

CSR Awards
Sustainability Awards 2007 Conferred on 12th December 2007 at ITC Maurya Sheraton BY Mr. D. Raja,
Minister of Communications. NTPC has received Commendation Certificate for Significant Achievement among large Business organization. This award has been instituted to recognize and reward excellence in social, economic and environmental performance.

TOUCH-Best Corporate Citizen Award was conferred on 18th August by Secretary (P).
NTPC won the Runners up Prize. NHPC was the winner. The jury comprised of Ms. Asha Bhandarkar, Prof, MDI, Mr. M.N Buch, Ex Member PSEB, Mr. Dwaraka Nath, D(HR), Smithkline & Glaxo.

Corporate Governance Awards

Golden Peacock Global Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance 2007 The Golden peacock
Award Jury is chaired by Justice P.N.Bhagwati, former Chief Justice of India & Member UN Human Rights Commission.

SCOPE Meritorious Award for Good Corporate Governance 2005-06 Awarded on 5th September
2007 at New Delhi. Scope Meritorious Awards have been instituted in specialized fields so that the excellence achieved /contributions made by various PSEs in different fields could be encouraged recognized & rewarded. Justice P.N.Bhagwati is the Chairman of the panel of judges & IMI is the evaluating agency responsible for assisting the panel of judges. The awards in other fields CSR, Environment, HR, "R&D & Innovation" were awarded to NHPC, NLC, IOCL & BHEL respectively.

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HR Awards
Gold Award for Excellence in People Management Conferred on 1st August 2007 at a function held at
New Delhi. This award is recognition of NTPC as a national leader in the area of Human Resource Management.

CARE-Award for Best practices towards Promotion of Women's Welfare Development, & Empowerment was conferred on 18th August by Secretary (P).
NTPC was the winner. Power grid was the runners up. The jury comprised of Ms. Asha Bhandarkar, Prof, MDI, Mr. M.N Buch, Ex Member PSEB, Mr. Dwarka Nath, D(HR), Smithkline & Glaxo.

Company Rankings
NTPC identified as the 2007 Platts Top 250 Global Energy Company on Thursday, September 13,
2006 at the Four Seasons Hotel Singapore. The Platts Top 250 recognizes outstanding financial performance of energy industry's elite using four key metrics: asset worth, revenues, profit & return on invested capital based on data from Standard & Poor computed. Other organizations from India are Reliance; IOC & ONGC NTPC has earned a ranking of 103 on overall global performance. Platt has also analyzed energy companies by nine industry classifications & three global regions NTPC ranked 5th in the Independent power producer & energy trader category worldwide & 20 overall in the Asia region. Ranked No. 1 Independent power producer in Asia.

Safety Awards
Golden Peacock Occupational Health & Safety Award 2007 & 2008 Conferred on 9th June 2007 At
SM Convention Centre, Palampur. The application was submitted by NTPC Corporate Office Safety Department. The awards were evaluated by a jury headed by Justice P.N.Bhagwati, former Chief Justice of India & Member, UN Human Rights Commission.

Environment Awards
Golden Peacock Environment Management Award 2008 Conferred on 9thConferred on Saturday,
31st May 2008 at S M Convention Centre, Palampur. NTPC Ltd, Dadri has been selected as the winner. The jury was chaired by, Justice P N Bhagwati, former Chief Justice of India and Member, UN Human Rights Commission.

Srishti Good Green Governance Award 2006 Conferred on 22nd April 2007 by Shri Kamal Nath,
Hon'ble Minister of Commerce & Industry at NTPC received the Runners up award in the category of Infrastructure and large Industries. New Delhi.

49 of 125 Greentech Environment Excellence Award 2007 received on 29th August 2007 in Goa.

The following units have been selected for this award:

Faridabad: Gold Award Dadri Thermal: Gold Award Auraiya: Silver Award Rihand: Silver Award Farakka: Silver Award Simhadri: Silver Award Korba: Bronze Award

Achievements in last few years

1. EXCELLENCE IN POWER GENERATION NTPC has achieved all the targets to be rated EXCELLENT during 2004-05 for the 18 consecutive year since inception of the MOU system. NTPC station recorded the highest PLF of 87.5% in year 2004-05. With the share of 20.15% in the total installed capacity of the country, NTPC generated 27.09% electricity during 2004-05. NTPC recorded highest ever generation of 159.11 BU in 2004-05 against 133.199 BU in 2001-02. NTPC IPO oversubscribed by 13.14 times. NTPCs coal stations achieved an operating availability of 19.2%.


In a remarkable achievement, the recently conducted Business Today-Hewitt Associate Best Employers Survey 2003 rank NTPC the third best among 220 major companies in India. The Corporation continuous an effort to augment its installed capacity and improve manpower utilization has seen its Man-MW ratio improves consistently.

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NTPCs center for Power Efficiency and Environmental Protection (CENPEEP), a resource centre for developing and disseminating latest technology on Environment Management, received the Climate Protection Award in 2003, instituted by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Shri C.P. Jain, CMD has been awarded the SCOPE Award for Excellence and Outstanding Contribution to the Public Sector Management Individual category for the year 2003-04. SHRI P. Narasimharamulu, Director (Finance) received the IMA Award Excellence in Finance instituted by the International Market Assessment (IMA). Ten NTPC Power stations received Ministry Of Power National Awards for Outstanding Performance. NTPC bagged the coveted The Best Employers in India 2004 survey by Hewitt Associates and CNBC TV 18 ranking 3rd for the second consecutive year. NTPC ranked 3rd in Great Place to Work for in India by M/s Grow Talent & Business World. NTPC ranked 6th in Best Companies to work for in India by M/s Mercer Human Resources Consulting & Business Today. NTPC, PMI bagged The Golden Peacock National Training Award 2004 by the Institute of Directors, New Delhi

NTPC- Growth Plan

Diversified Growth
Future of the Generation Business

51 of 125 Developing and operating world-class power stations is NTPC's core competence. Its scale of operation, financial strength and large experience serve to provide an advantage over competitors. To meet the objective of making available reliable and quality power at competitive prices, NTPC would continue to speedily implement projects and introduce state-of-art technologies.

Total Capacity Portfolio

India's generation capacity can be expected to grow from the current levels of about 120 GW to about 225-250 GW by 2017. NTPC currently accounts for about 20% of the country's installed capacity and almost 60% of the total installed capacity in the Central sector in the country. Going forward, in its target to remain the largest generating utility of India, NTPC would endeavor to maintain or improve its share of India's generating capacity. Towards this end, NTPC would target to build an overall capacity portfolio of over 66,000 MW by 2017.

Fuel / Energy Mix for Capacity Addition

Currently, coal has a dominant share in the power generation capacities in India. This is also reflected in the high share of coal-based capacities in NTPC's current portfolio. With high uncertainties involved in Domestic gas/ LNG, both in terms of availability and prices, NTPC would continue to set up large pit-head coal based projects, including few integrated coal cum power projects. To reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, there is a need to push for renewable sources of power in the sector. NTPC would avail of opportunities to add hydropower to its portfolio subject to competitive tariffs. A first step in this direction has already been taken with the investment in Koldam Hydro Power Project. NTPC would continue to closely monitor developments on nuclear front also and be open to setting up around 2000 MW of Nuclear power generation capacity, possibly through a Joint Venture. As a leader in power generation, NTPC would also consider other energy sources such as biomass, cogeneration, fuel cells, etc for future development thereby reducing the dependence on thermal fuels. While a decision on the fuel/energy mix for NTPC in the future would be largely governed by their relative tariff-competitiveness, the fuel mix in 2017 may be different from the existing portfolio, though not very significantly.

Diversification along the Value Chain

NTPC has achieved the distinction of being the largest thermal generating company in India. In the past, this focus was adequate as the industry was highly regulated with limited diversification opportunities. Over last few years, the country has been facing acute shortages, both in coal and gas, severely affecting optimum utilization of its power stations and these shortages are likely to

52 of 125 continue in future as well. This is in spite of the fact that India is one of the largest producers of coal in the World. To safeguard its competitive advantage in power generation business, NTPC has moved ahead in diversifying its portfolio to emerge as an integrated power major, with presence across entire energy value chain. In fact, to symbolism this change, NTPC has taken on a new Identity and a new name 'NTPC Limited'. NTPC has recently diversified into coal mining business primarily to secure its fuel requirements and support its aggressive capacity addition program. In addition, NTPC is also giving thrust on diversification in the areas of power trading and distribution. Diversification would also allow NTPC to offer new growth opportunities to its employees while leveraging their skills to capitalize on new opportunities in the sector.

Establishing a Global Presence

To become a truly global company serving global markets, it is essential for NTPC to establish its brand equity in overseas markets. NTPC would continue to focus on offering Engineering & Project Management Services, Operations & Maintenance services, and Renovation & Modernization services in the international market. Establishing a successful services brand would be a precursor to taking higher investment decisions in different markets. Going forward, NTPC would continue to evaluate various options for strengthening its presence in global markets including setting up power generation capacity, acquisition of gas blocks etc.

Circa 2017: NTPC's Corporate Profile

By the year 2017, NTPC would have successfully diversified its generation mix, diversified across the power value chain and entered overseas markets. As a result NTPC would have altered its profile significantly. Elements of the revised profile that NTPC would seek to achieve are: Amongst top five market capitalization in the Indian market An Indian MNC with presence in many countries Diversified utility with multiple businesses Setting benchmarks in project construction and plant availability & efficiency Preferred employer & A leading corporate Have a strong research and technology base Loyal customer base in both bulk and retail supply

Powering India Today and Tomorrow:

Established in 1975, NTPC today has an installed capacity of 21,249MW, operates 13 coal-based, 7 gas-based and 3 joint venture stations.NTPC contributes 26.51% of country's entire power generation with only 19.44% of India's total installed capacity. Has as ambitious growth plan of becoming a 40,000MW plus company by the year 2012.

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A Powerful Performer:
Generated 140.87 Billion Units of electricity during 2002-03. Turnaround of Badarpur, Unchahar, Tanda and Talcher Thermal power stations - a testimony to the company's capabilities. Has achieved all the targets in the "Excellent" category set out in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Govt. of India, for 16 years in succession.

Financial Strength:
A provisional turnover of Rs. 19,946.61 crore (US$ 4122 million) and after tax net profit of Rs. 3574.15 crore (US$ 739 million) during 2002-03.Authorised share capital of Rs. 10,000 crore. Paid an interim dividend of Rs. 400 crore (US$ 82.66 million) for the year 2002-03 to the Govt. of India. Already received funding proposals for over Rs. 7,219 crore (US$ 1491 million) from various Banks and financial institutions for capacity addition Programme.

State-of-the-art Technology:
First to introduce advanced systems like High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC), DDCMIS, sliding pressure operations, ash water recirculation, etc in India. Super critical technology being adopted for the first time in the country at NTSCs Sipat project to improve thermal efficiency and reduce green house gas emissions. Closed cycle sea water cooling at Simhadri project has been adopted for the first time in India. NTPC has taken up a detailed feasibility study through USAID for setting up a 100 MW Integrated Gasified Combined Cycle (IGCC) pilot plant. Sharing its expertise worldwide as a power consultant for more than a decade.

A Learning Organization:
For NTPC, its 23569 employees are its most valuable assets. The Company attaches great importance to training and development. ISO 9001 certified Power Management Institute (PMI) is enriching the intellectual capital of NTPC and also other organizations in the power and allied sectors. Academic enrichment initiatives have been taken for the employees like Post-Graduate and Graduate engineering degree programme through reputed institutes like IIT, Delhi and BITS, Pilani.Greater exposure and learning is provided through Development Centres, Open Competition for Executive Talent and Professional Circles movement. Total Quality Management (TQM) has been introduced across the Company.

Green Power:
True to its commitment towards protecting the environment, NTPC has planted 16 million trees in and around its power stations. All but two stations are ISO 14001 certified. The remaining two stations will also acquire ISO 14001 shortly. Under the Environment Action Plan, a number of environment projects have been taken up. During 2002-03, 5.7 million tones of ash has been utilized in ash dyke raising, land development, cement and asbestos industries. Over 145 million

54 of 125 ash bricks have been manufactured in 13 NTPC coal stations so far and utilized in various inhouse construction activities. Large quantity of ash from Badarpur ash pond is being used in prestigious projects in and around Delhi such as Delhi Metro Rail, NOIDA-Greater NOIDA Expressway and Delhi's Flyovers.

Technological Advancements:
The R&D Centre of NTPC caters to the need for continuous technological advancement, implementation of the latest innovations in the field and station support for sustaining high levels of generation. The Centre has played a key role in the formulation of a 15 year R&D Perspective Plan for the Indian power sector. The Centre for Power Efficiency and Environmental Protection (CENPEEP) has been set up in association with USAID and USDOE to usher in eco-friendly power generation in the country. CENPEEP has introduced several cost-effective technologies and methods for efficiency improvement and reduction of green house gas emissions.

Joining Hands:
Two Joint Ventures with SAIL for owning and operating its three captive plants with a combined capacity of 314 MW. Utility Powertech Ltd.- the JV Company with BSES had a turnover of Rs. 77.88 crore during 2002-03. Another Joint Venture company NTPC-ABB Alstom Power Services Ltd. posted a provisional turnover of Rs. 35.69 crore during 2002-03. Power Trading Corporation of India Ltd., formed with equity contribution from POWERGRID, NTPC and Power Finance Corporation, had a provisional turnover of Rs.922.50 crore during 2002-03. MOU with Ministry of Railways for setting up power plants of approximately 2000MW capacity to meet the traction and non-traction power requirements of Railways. A joint venture compact of NTPC and Railways to set up a 100MW power plant at Nabinagar in Bihar. MOU with Tamil Nadu Electricity Board for setting up a 1000 MW Coal based power plant at Ennore. MOU with Black & Veatch, USA for providing efficient and reliable services for setting up state-of-the-art power plants in India and abroad.

New Initiatives:
NTPC Electricity Supply Company Ltd. has been formed to take up power distribution activities. NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam has been formed as a subsidiary company for power trading. The excess power available with NTPC during the off-peak periods will be sold by this

55 of 125 company.NTPC Hydro Ltd., incorporated as a subsidiary company to take up similar hydro projects. The Company is also planning to enter the coal mining and coal washeries business.

A Responsible Corporate Citizen:

In line with the Corporation's social objectives, the Company makes constant efforts to improve the socio- economic status of its Project Affected Persons (PAPs) through Rehabilitation Action Plan. Village Development Advisory Committees and Public Information Centres have been established for better transparency and greater involvement of PAPs. For all new projects, the Corporation conducts a socio-economic survey of all PAPs to work out suitable and timely rehabilitation schemes for them. NTPC has become a member of Global Compact, a UN initiative for promoting Corporate Social Responsibility.

The Power of Vision:

NTPC has an ambitious programme of becoming a 40,000MW plus Company by the year 2012.Diversification into Hydro Sector-construction of 800 MW Hydro Project at Koldam under progress. MOU signed with Govt. of Uttaranchal for Loharinag Pala (520MW) near Uttarkashi and Tapovan-Vishnugad (360MW) near Joshimath.Renovation and Modernization schemes for ageing power plants taken up. Under the Accelerated Power Development & Reforms Programme (APDRP) of Ministry of Power, NTPC has been entrusted with the responsibility for training 4500 engineers in distribution management during the next three years. This is planned to be achieved through 50 workshops every year.NTPC is also helping 37 distribution circles to emerge as Centres of Excellence under the APDRP scheme.

NTPC Vision

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Core Values

Customer Focus Organizational Pride Mutual respect and Trust Initiative and speed Total Quality

Human Resources

57 of 125 NTPC believes in achieving organizational excellence through Human Resources and follows "People First" approach to leverage the potential of its 23,500 employees to fulfill its business plans. Human Resources Function has formulated an integrated HR strategy which rests on four building blocks of HR viz. Competence building, Commitment building, Culture building and Systems building pyramid. All HR initiatives are undertaken within this broad framework to actualize the HR Vision of "enabling the employees to be a family of committed world class professionals making NTPC a learning organization." To induct talent and groom them into a dedicated cadre of power professionals "Executive Trainee" Scheme was introduced in the year 1977 for recruitment in the disciplines of Mechanical, Electrical, Civil, Control & Instrumentation and now encompasses Computer Science, Chemistry, HR and Finance disciplines also. Besides a comprehensive one year training comprising theoretical inputs as well as on-the-job training, the new recruits are also attached with senior executives under a systematic and formal 'Mentoring System' of the company to integrate them into the Culture of the company. As part of post employment training and development opportunities, a systematic Training plan has been formulated for ensuring minimum seven man days training per employee per year and includes level-wise planned intervention designed to groom people for assuming positions of higher responsibility, as well as specific need-based interventions based on scientific Training Needs Analysis. NTPC has set up 15 project training centres, 2 simulator training centers and an apex institute namely 'Power Management Institute' (PMI). While the project training centres (Employee Development Centres) have specialized in imparting technical skills and knowledge, PMI places emphasis on management development. Besides opportunities for long term education are also provided through tie ups with reputed Institutions like IIT, Delhi, (M.Tech in Power Generation Technology), MDI, Gurgaon (Executive MBA programme), BITS, Pilani (B.Tech) etc. In order to realize the HR Vision of making NTPC a learning Organization by providing opportunities to continually learn new capabilities a number of initiatives have been taken. NTPC Open Competition for Executive Talent (NOCET) is organized every year in which teams of executives compete annually through oral and written presentation on a topical theme. Similarly

58 of 125 "Professional Circles" have been formed department-wise where Executives of the department meet every fortnight to share their knowledge and experiences and discuss topical issues. In order to tap the latent talent among non executives and make use of their potential for creativity and innovation, Quality Circles have been set up in various units/offices in NTPC. Besides a management journal called "Horizon" is published quarterly to enable employees to share their ideas and experiences across the organization. Demonstrating its high concern for people, NTPC has developed strong employee welfare, health & well-being and social security systems leading to high level of commitment. NTPC offers best quality-of-life through beautiful townships with all amenities such as educational, medical and recreational opportunities for employees and their family members. The motivation to perform and excel is further enhanced through a comprehensive NTPC Rewards and Recognition system. In order to institutionalize a strong Culture based on Values a number of initiatives are taken to actualize the Vision and Core Values (BCOMIT) across the company. A culture of celebrating achievements and a strong focus on performance are a way of life in NTPC. NTPC has institutionalized "Development Centers" in the company to systematically diagnose the current and potential competency requirements of the employees with the objective of enhancing their development in a planned manner. These Centers give a good insight to the employees about their strengths and weaknesses, the gaps in their competencies which they can bridge through suitable support from company. Due to innovative people management practices there is a high level of pride and commitment amongst employees as reflected in the various external surveys including Great Places to Work for in India in which NTPC was rated third Great Place to work for in the country in 2005

HR Vision

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To enable our people to be a family of committed world class professionals making NTPC a learning organization





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Professional development

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Actualise the HR vision of enabling NTPC employees to be a family of world class professionals making NTPC a learning organization Enhance organisational performance and commitment of employees by recognising and rewarding high performance Build a competency based organisation Institutionalise core values and create a culture of team-building, empowerment, equity, innovation and openness which would motivate employees and enable achievement of strategic objectives To be a preferred employer in order to attract and retain world class talent.


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F r o m D is h a to L a k s h y a
N T P C s VVisis io n B u s D isshs aIm p e r a tiv e N T P C s io n in e
G rroow th in ggeenneer raatin gg S u p p o r t p r o j e c t m a n a g e m e n t e ffo r ts to d e liv e r G w th in tin p r o j e c ts o n tim e a n d o n c o s t ccaappaaccity ity DDiv eerrssific aat tionn iv ific io S u p p o r t d iv e r s ific a tio n in to n e w b u s in e s s a r e a s s e a m le s s in te r fa c e F a c ilita te m a n a g e m e n t c o n tr o l th r o u g h fle x ib le d a ta / a n a ly s is a id e d d e c is io n m a k in g L a r g e s t a n d B e s t P o w e r U t ilit y in th e W o r ld O ppeerraatio nnaal l O tio eexxcceelle nnccee lle S u p p o r t o p e r a tin g c o s t r e d- u c tio n e ffo r ts e ffic ie n c y in p r o c u r e m e n t a n d o th e r o p e r a tin g s y s te m s Im p r o v e C a p a c ity u tiliz a tio n

S u p p o r t t o p lin e (r e v e n u e ) im p r o v e m e n ts r e c e iv a b le s a n d w o r k in g c a p ita l m a n a g e m e n t F a c ilita te s ta k e h o ld e r in tenra b le n e-e a c tio C h a n n e ls w ith s u p p lie r s & c u s to m e r s C r e a te a tr a n s p a r e n t & le a r n in g o r g a n is a t io n k n o w le d g e m a n a g e m e n t, H R M

SSta kkeehhoold eerr ta ld m aannaaggeem eennt t m m


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C h a n g in g B u s in e s s N e e d s
S e a m le s s In t e g r a tio n F a s t e r r e s p o n s e to c h a n g e K n o w le d g e M a n a g e m e n t e-e n a b lin g e x te r n a l in te r fa c e s

E x is t in g I T S c e n a r io
O n li n e a p p l i c a tio n s i n u s e s i n c e 1 9 9 4 L i m i te d i n te g ra tio n , V a ry i n g te c h n o lo g y

U s e r f r ie n d lin e s s
e a s y n a v i g a b i l i ty w eb based

In te g ra tio n

E n -d s e r U

P r o je c t D is h a

s e a m le s s d a ta f l o w b e tw e e n a p p l i c a tio n s n o d u p l ic a ti o n o f e f f o rt d a ta i n te g ri ty s y s te m a u d i t


R e lia b ility

M g m t.

B e tte r M IS & K n o w le d g e m g m t.
re p o rt c o n s i s te n c y re a-ti m e d a ta l u n i f ie d re p o rti n g f o r a ll S r. M g m t. p l a n ts C re a ti o n o f k n o w l e d g e w o rk e rs

A d o p t io n o f B e s t P r a c t ic e s

Different Initiatives performed by HRD

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The Four Perspectives for HR

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F i n a n c ia l P e r sp e c tive

I n t e rn a l Pr o c e s s P e r sp e c tive

S u m m a r iz e s t h e k e y f in a n c ia l in d ic a t o r s orId e a d if ie s t h e c r it ic a l in t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s t h e r n t ily m e a s u r a b le e c o n o m ic c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a c t iognasn iz a t io n m u s t e x c e l t o or tak en . d e liv e r v a lu e p r o p o s it io n t o a t t r a c t & r e t a in A n s w e r s q u e s t io n s lik e c u s to m ers A r e w e m a n a g in g t h e c o s t o f t u r n o v e r / c h usr a t?is f y s h a r e h o ld e r e x p e c t a t io n s n A r e o u r H R p la n s a n d p r o g r a m s c o m p A tnit iv e ? s q u e s t io n s lik e e s w er Is o u r H R s e r v ic e d e liv fefreyc t ive ? -e cost A r e o u r s t a f f in g s u p p o r t s y s t e m s f o s t e r in g A r e w e m a n a g in g f in a n c ia l r is k ? b e t t e r s e le c t io n ? W h a t is o u r r e t u r n o n in v e s t m e n t in p e o p A?r e o u r o t h e r H R p r o c e s s e s / t r a n s a c t io n s le e f f ic ie n t a n d e f f e c t iv e ?

C u s to m e r P e r s p e c tive

S t r a te g ic C a p ab ility P e rs p e c tive

Id e n t if ie s c u s t o m e r a n d m a r k e t s e g m e n t s Idnedn t if ie s in f r a s t r u c t u r e t h a t m u s t b e b u ilt t o c r e a t e a m e a s u r e s p e r f o r m a n c e in t h e s e t a r g e t e d s lognmt e r ms . r o w t h a n d im p r o v e m e n t . e -g n t g A n s w e r s q u e s t io n s lik e A n s w e r s q u e s t io n s lik e A r e w e v ie w e d a s a g r e a t p la c e t o w o r k D o w e h a v e t h e t a le n t w e n e e d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l? ? A r e w e c r e a t in g a n e n v ir o n m e n t t h a t e ng aog e se h a v e t h e le a d e r s h ip b e n c h s t r e n g t h w e D w a n d b u ild s c o m m it m e n t in t h e w o r k f o r c e ? e d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l? ne Is H R v ie w e d a s a n e n a b le r t o a t t r a c t in g ,A r e w e h e lp in g t h e c o . m e e t o u r e x t e r n a l r e t a in in g , a n d e n g a g in g t a le n t ? c u s t o m e r s e r v ic e n e e d s ? Is H R v ie w e d a s p r o v id in g e f f e c t iv e s u p Is rH R f a c ilit a t in g o r g a n iz a t io n in t e g r a t io n a n d po t s y s t e m s t o e m p lo y e e s ? s h a r e d v is io n ? A r e w e g r o w in g o u r H R c a p a b ilit ie s ?


Elements of HR Strategy

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Competence Building

Culture Building

Commitment Building

Systems Building

Competency Building Measures

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Talent Hiring and Management

Key Focus of HR: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Talents to be done on sound manpower planning system based on benchmarking of international practices of manpower norms. Depending on the new and diversified business requirement, Lateral Entry in the areas where experience and competency is not available in the Company shall be made. Also to be supplemented by building competencies and redeployment. The cost and quality of manpower hired to be competitive. Development of Business orientation, commercial, marketing and legal skills

Competency based Performance Management System

Shift the focus from performance appraisal to performance management at all levels Define, document and circulate competencies of all employees Measures like KPA, Review & feedback system, identifying developmental needs and linkage with T&D and Rewards & Recognitions Developing KPA Directory Online Module of PMS Equipping Executives with Performance counseling , coaching & giving positive feedback to improve performance, transparency and objectivity

Competency based Performance Management System

Performance Evaluation to bring out developmental needs and linking it to Training and Development Initiatives Identifying Performers and Non-performer Coaching and counseling the Non-Performers to enhance performance System for suitably dealing the persistent Non-Performance.

Leadership Development Program

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Leadership Development at all levels with special focus on developing strategic leaders, functional leaders, business leaders, entrepreneurial leaders and transformational leaders Review & reinforcement of current leadership development program with emphasis on people orientation and culture building. Development of Global Competencies

Transition of Development Center to Assessment Center at different transitional levels involving role change Multi-source Feedback through 360 appraisals Integrated Career planning, development and succession planning
Focus on employee Development & Job enrichment Identifying various career paths leading to business leaders/functional leaders Short-term and long -term career rotation plans Strengthening succession planning for senior level positions- Leadership succession criteria upto two levels below the Board Identifying the functions and Jobs which are specialist in nature and development of growth opportunities.

Training and Development, E-Learning & Global Exposure

7 days mandatory training on behavioral, functional and technical areas based on individual development plan/TNA. Training Program based on the outcome of Performance Evaluation Process + DC Outcome + Individual Development Plan Build functional Competency in all areas. Strengthen Core competencies of the people in the company through state of the art practices. Adopting Training Evaluation Model Measuring effectiveness of training and transfer of the skill to the workplace E-Learning modules for distant learning Global exposure of executives for global competencies and mindset

Power Management Institute

70 of 125 o Transforming PMI into a center of excellence for Power professional for

world-class learning, talent building and competencies. o It shall support and promote Employee Development Centers and other Training Agencies existing all over NTPC for talent building. o It would establish and operate state-of-the art simulators for imparting cutting-edge skills and technologies in the Power Sector. o PMI shall build competencies in the SEBs for sectoral development and for effective Power Sector Reforms. o It shall take up research studies and model building in Power Sector technomanagerial practices.

Initiatives for a learning Organizations

o o o o Strengthening of PC & NOCET etc Long term program on business management IT-enabled knowledge management system System for promoting creativity and innovation

Enhanced Skill set for HR Personnel

o o o o New competencies of HR Professional HR Missionary Change agent Internal Consultant/Facilitator

Promoting Consultancy Enabling Competency Development for Vendors & Other Associates Initiative for learning Organization: Educational Programs MBA Strengthening R&D
o Revitalized R&D and Technology Centre o Significant role through applied and basic research o Global competencies

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Commitment Building Measures

Enabling Organizational Climate
Motivation and commitment through tangible and intangible motivators The employee welfare systems will be designed and maintained by way of providing best of quality of life to employees, their children and family members so as to make NTPC a preferred employer. HR Policies and System for attracting and retaining Talent in Power Projects/Stations through suitable differentiation based on performance, merit and locations. Enhancing employee satisfaction through regular surveys and addressing the areas of concern to transform NTPC a great place to work.

Compensation on the principle of differentiated compensation based on performance and merit

Involvement and Attitude

Use of participative fora Positive attitude through training, role models, value based behavior and rewards

Sound Employee Relation Strategy for conducive IR climate, high productivity, efficiency and maintenance of Discipline, high level of performance and growth. Employee Welfare for wholesome health and well being of employees and their family members

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Culture Building Measures

Core-Values Actualization
Value Handbook, Values workshop, Value Actualization Teams, Value Audit & Rewards Development of value based leadership.

Culture of Respect, Trust and Openness

Value based behavior campaign New PMS system built around competency, feedback etc Review of existing policies and DOP for transparency, openness empowerment


Culture of Team Work

Shift from hierarchical to flexible team based work teams

Customer Focus
Culture of working as per the needs and expectations of customers Measurement for customer orientation of executives System for interaction, feedback and evaluation of HR services by the internal customers.

Communication (Top Down, Bottom Up, Forums, E-Communication/ Outside

world for a socially responsive Orgn) Communication to be used as tool for removing misconceptions, managing perception and promoting openness, trust and transparency.

Managing Globalization
Competency for multi-cultural nuances, diversity, law of the land, language & etiquettes

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Addressing compensation, Organization Cultures, competency and commitment development issues by developing suitable systems and processes.

Managing Mergers and Acquisitions

System Building Measures

Focus on core-competency
Identifying core-competencies of HR & out-source, automate/simplify the non-core activities so that time spent for routine and repetitive activities are released for core-activities Competitive and comparable cost for providing HR services Hassle free and quality service for achieving high customer satisfaction Continuous feedback from the customers on the service provided.

Simplification of Policies, Review of HR systems and Integration of Systems to bring speed, equity, fairness, transparency and align them with CoreValues

Human Resource Planning System

Man: MW ration An industry trend setter through benchmarking, reskilling, multiskilling, redeployment, surplus management, VRS etc

Organizational Excellence
HR to adequately support the effort for building organizational Excellence Training , systems for Rewards & Recognitions, feedback and Research for organizational Excellence

Impact of HR Initiatives
Measuring impact of HR Initiatives through research and Feedback

IT enabled Systems
Implementation of People soft Making NTPC a paperless office through state of art technology

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Process Improvement Tools

ISO standards in HR, Six Sigma

Strategy Measurement and Alignment Tool

Implementation of Balance Score Card in HR.

Employer Branding and Image Building

Participation of NTPC in brand building and Awards/Competitions for Unique/Best/Innovative HR Practices Encouraging employees in such efforts in respective functions/areas of interest etc.

HRs Role in Organizational Structure.

Review for organizational Structure for synergy and effectiveness Clarity, accountability and responsibility Customer Relationship Management, Managing Change Productivity Enhancement measures & Discipline Mngt

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Achieving records in power generation, gas power plant of NTPC- Auraiya is on its way to progress, scaling newer heights; Indias power sector has a significant contribution from NTPC Auraiya. Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Rajasthan and Jammu Kashmir in northern region of the country are the beneficiary states. Railway also gets electricity generated by Auraiya plant of NTPC. NTPC-Auraiya situated in Dibiyapur of Auraiya district in Utter Pradesh. Total installed power generation capacity of this gas based combined cycle power station is 652MW. Natural gas and Naphtha are the fuel used to generate power at NTPC- Auraiya. Water needed for power generation is drawn from Etowah canal. GAIL India Ltd. Supplies the natural gas through HBJ pipelines to NTPC Auraiya plant, for the power generation and western off-shore gas fields, are the source of natural gas.

Government Approval Bhoomi Pujan Main plant award 21.09.1986 17.01.1987 03.09.1987

Gross Station Capacity Main plant Contractor Primary Fuel Source Alternate Fuel Source 663.36 MW Mitsubishi Japan Heavy Industries,

Natural gas through HBJ pipeline Naphtha through road tankers.

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Water Source

Etowah branch canal


The company strictly believed to be continued with Lightening the way to Indias Progress. It also aimed at providing better employment facilities to the country. Good governance provides the appropriate frame work to different departments in order to carry out the objectives that are in the interest of the company and the shareholders.

Head of station Technical Service O&M
Mr. V.B.Fednavis (GM)

Mr. Navin Chandra (DGM)

Mr. Shankar Das (AGM) Mr. Keshav Singh (DGM) Maintenance. Mr. S. Venkatesh, (DGM) Operation. Mr. Davendra Singh (DGM) Operation. Mr. P.K.Mishra (DGM) MTP. Mr. A.K Saxena (DGM) O&E. Mr. H.S.S. Senger (DGM) Chemistry.

C&M FINANCE & Account Human Resource

Mr. Pradeep Kumar (DGM)

Mr. Kumar Sanjay (DGM)

Mr. G.R.Panwar (Chief Manager) Civil Construction/EQUIP./ERECN. Mr. R.C.Jain (DGM) Mr. Joginder Singh (DC) CISF

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Heading Energy generated MUs Total Sales- Lacs Profit After Tax- Lacs




2005-06 (Proposed)

4268.21 69894.48 6546.14

4248.92 80038.3 5 8296.9

4118.47 83696.49 149750.76

4300 103382 4209

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120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 generation Mus sales Lacs PAT

95-96 61.2 96-97 66.0 97-98 66.2 98-99 71.4 99-00 87.2 00-01 80.6 01-02 80.6 02-03 73.5 03-04 72.9 04-05 70.9

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90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 199596 199798 19992000 20012002 200304 PLF

CONSTITUENTS Delhi Haryana Himanchal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Chandigarh Railways Unallocated Total ALLOCATION 71 MW (10.89%) 38 MW (5.83%) 22 MW (3.37%) 43 MW (6.60%) 81 MW (12.42%) 60 MW (9.20%) 232 MW (35.89%) 5 MW (0.77%) 30 MW (4.60%) 68 MW (10.43%) 663MW (100%)


1) ST-1 overhauling completed in record time of 23 days. 2) For the first time gas turbine rotor inspection was carried out in India at BHEL works. GT#1 major overhaul including rotor replacement with refurbished rotor successfully completed in record 21 days.

80 of 125 3) The major overhauling of GT#4 was completed in record time of 17 days and 4 day hours. This is an international record for MHI machines as well as National record. 4) NTPC-Auraiya has achieved an all time record highest marginal fuel contribution which is highest among all gas stations of NTPC. 5) NTPC-Auraiya is the first station, which is supplying direct power to railways. During the financial year 2003-04,256 MUs have been directly sold to railway. 6) Station has received ISO: 9001-2000, ISO: 14001 and ISO: 18001 certifications during the year. 7) Station achieved following records in Naphtha handling and generation, since inception: a) Monthly highest receipt of 32109KL during Feb.04. b) Annual highest receipt of 216507 KL in 2003-2004. c) Daily highest generation of 6.01 MU of 6.2.04. d) Monthly highest generation of 135.4 MU in Feb.04. e) Annual highest generation pf 866/24 MU in 03-04. 8) Station received the following safety awards during the year: Greentech Safety Gold award for 2002-03. Greentech foundation Silver Award. National Safety Award for the year 2001. National Safety Award for the year 2003 through British Safety Council, U.K. Greentech Silver Award for Safety for 2003-04. Station received the Social Accountability Management System (SA-8000:2001) certification from BVQI, France. Station received Greentech Safety Silver award in June 2004 for year 2003-2004. Station received Greentech Environment Silver Award in November 2004 for the year 200304.


The organization structure and human relations within it are as important as the technology of the plant and machinery. Inventory of human resources, identification of future trends and aspirations of the employees, anticipation of turnover, phasing of recruitment over age groups, planning for

81 of 125 succession, enhancing technological and managerial skills, the overall manpower planning, etc. are very important activities, have to be performed by personnel dept. Personnel dept. of AuGPP has been constantly endeavoring to achieve its objectives of planning, inducting developing and retaining of manpower, and proper integration of the aspirations of individuals with that of the organization through implementation of corporation personnel policies. With a view to achieve the objectives of the organization, the activities carried out by the personnel & administration department are given as under:

1. Organization Structure
The organization structure is vital for the efficiency and effectiveness of the management. For better organizational effectiveness, NTPC has a three tier organizational set up: mainly workmen for execution of specific jobs, Supervisors for direct supervision and executives for direction and control.

2. Manpower Planning & Recruitment

Constant forecast on a continuous basis, in advance, of requirement in various skills, at various stages of the construction and operation is made. Sufficient care is taken to keep the man/ MW ratio as low as possible. Through proper recruitment and selection process, persons of high potential, skill and caliber are attracted towards NTPC & adopted it as their carrier. Due to overall shortage of adequately qualified and experienced personnel in the power sector, particularly with exposure to operation & Maintenance, induction of manpower has been posing us a challenging task. To ensure availability of the required skills and to minimize redundancies, stock taking of the existing personnel on a continuous basis is being carried out which also is used for determining the skills inventory, carrier planning, training needs and developmental activities.

3. Industrial relations There are two unions

1) NTPC Karmachari Sangh (BMS); 2) NTPC Employees union

Regular discussions are held with the unions for exchange of views on working conditions and other aspects of mutual interest with a view to promote constructive trade unionism. Open door approach towards individual grievances has been responsible for high degree of employee morale. Efforts are made for effective enforcement of relevant provisions of the labor enactments. The management and the unions are determined to pursue and promote industrial peace.

4. Incentives

82 of 125 In order to maintain a high degree of motivation with a view to maximize the productivity and reduce costs, both during construction & operation stages, incentive schemes are formulated by the Company. These schemes are carefully designed bear good blend of the short and long-range requirements in such a way as to maximize the generation on a sustained long-term basis.

5. Welfare Facilities
In the overall policy of NTPC, Employees Welfare constitutes an important aspect. Also in AUGPP, Welfare assumes greater importance. Welfare facilities provided in AuGPP can be summarized under following heads:

(I) Housing & Township:

Housing & all other related facilities were provided to all our employees, as most of our employees have come from outside/ distant places and also as rented houses are not available in the vicinity of the project. NTPC Township is known as mini India

(ii) Hospital:
A 12 bedded hospital is available in township. The hospital is equipped with sophisticated equipments and facilities. Free treatment, both indoor and outdoor is provided to our employees.

(iii) Education:
In order to take care of the educational needs of the children of employees, schools are available in township. Necessary infra-structural facilities were provided by NTPC for establishing the schools.

(iv) Cultural and Recreational Activities:

At Auraiya GPP, we have various welfare activities like NTPC Employees Welfare Association, Sports Council, and Jagriti Mahila Mandal etc. for promotion of sports, cultural and other recreational activities in the Township.

Due to non-availability of the local transport facilities at Dibiyapur, local transport facility is provided from Alok Nagar to Phaphund railway station for selected trains to facilitate employees & their family members.

83 of 125 (vi) Canteen Facilities: For the benefit of our employees, canteen facilities are provided at subsidized rates. The management provides necessary facilities such as building, furnitures, fixtures etc. to ensure availability of better services.

(vii) Personal Protective Equipments, Uniform etc. to the Employees:

Personal protective equipments, Safety shoes, Gumboots etc. are provided for employees in executives, supervisors, workmen category on functional basis. Apart from this, all categories of employee get allowances for purchasing uniforms, raincoats etc. Employees are also entitled for washing allowance.

(viii) Cooperative Society:

A consumers cooperative society is available in our township. It runs a cooperative store to ensure availability of consumer goods at reasonable price. The society also runs an agency for distribution of LPG. The management for the effective functioning of the cooperative society provides supporting facilities.

Training Facilities
It includes following facilities Audio visual aids Development of power plant literature Training hostels Latest training techniques.

NTPC orients professionals & engineers according to its needs by providing them training. The induction of manpower has been mainly through selection of engineering graduates, diploma holders, and ITI certificate holders, as trainees in the areas of construction / operation and maintenance.

Civil construction refers specially to management of the execution of civil, structural and infrastructure works involved in main power house, associated systems, off site works and township development.

84 of 125 The main responsibilities of this group are as under: To ensure proper coordination with contractor for timely execution of various civil works at site as per contract agreement; To allot necessary land and infrastructure facilities to various contractors, to enable them to mobilize their workforce and proceed with the contract work as per the schedule; To ensure that all work-fronts, inputs and resources are regularly available during the course of execution of work and to pre-empt any unforeseen hold-ups due to non-availability of any of these; To exercise judicious control over consumption of bulk material and consumables; To ensure that quality of work meets the required standards and norms; To maintain, check and ensure proper work measurement records, based on which payments are released to the contractors.

Equipment erection consists of mechanical, electrical & C&I erection sections. The equipment erection activity involves erection of all plant and systems such as boiler, turbine, generator, auxiliary systems, electrical systems, control and instrumentation. The main responsibilities of this group are as below: To ensure proper coordination with the contractors for timely execution of various equipment erection work contracts at site as per contract agreements; To allot necessary land and infrastructure facilities, to contractors to enable them to mobilize their work force and proceed with the erection work force and erection work as per schedule; To plan, monitor and review the erection work on a regular basis so that work progresses as per schedule; To ensure that all work fronts, inputs and resources are regularly made available during the course of execution of the work and to pre-empt any unforeseen hold-ups due to non availability of any of these; To exercise judicious control over consumption of bulk materials and other consumables & to ensure that quality of erection work meets the required standards and norms; To maintain checks and ensure proper work measurement.

Material management at site is major service function for the executing departments like Civil Construction, Equipment Erection, O&M Department and other departments.

85 of 125 Material Management function covers the following activities: To carry out materials requirement planning, inventory planning and control & stores layout planning ; To procure bulk materials like Cement & Steel, building materials, electrical materials pipes, conduits and various consumable and misc. items required for construction, erection work and O&M; To receive, inspect, record, store and preserve all the materials coming under their custody; To handle claims for damage and short supply of materials; To expedite the supply of materials by coordinating with the suppliers/ manufactures.


Finance & accounts and group are responsible for providing services and guidance on all financial and accounting matters to executing departments. Following are the responsibilities of F&A group: To provide all financial management and accountancy services at site; To serve as a control point for all financial matters and dealings; To implement corporation guidelines and policies of financial aspects transmitted to them by Corp, Finance; To assist various departments in budget and budgetary control matters; To monitor and control the various costs in line with estimates.


86 of 125 This group consists of various sub groups like Planning & systems, Field engg, F.Q.A, E.D.P., Industrial safety. Details are as given below: a. PLANNING & SYSTEMS: This group at site provides the centralized staff assistance to the project head in planning, monitoring and co-ordination for site activities. The broad function responsibilities of this group are as given below: reparation, monitoring and review of overall construction network, in association with various site executing department; Resource planning and assisting materials management group in procurement and deployment planning; Manpower planning in association with site personnel and administration department; System implementation; Preparation and monitoring of budgets and targets; b. FIELD ENGINEERING: This group provides Engineering support to the executing departments. Assistance regarding technical clarification on drawings, engineering documents etc. is provided by this group at site. c. FIELD QUALITY ASSURANCE: This group ensures development and enforcement of quality norms and checks and it will also carry out important pre-determined or random quality checks during the construction phase of project. The main function & responsibilities of this group are as below: To carry out quality inspection at pre-determined and random check points; To carry out special quality tests and audits wherever necessary;

d. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY: This group advices and assists the station management in the fulfillment of its obligation, statutory, other concerns to prevent personal injuries and maintaining a safe working environment.

87 of 125 The main responsibilities are as given below: To advice the departmental heads, supervisors and other such officers in planning and organizing measures necessary for the effective control of personal injuries; To check and evaluate the effectiveness of the action taken or proposed to be taken to prevent personal injuries; To advice on matter relating to reporting and investigation of industrial accidents and diseases and to suggest remedial measures to the management; To advice on the maintenance of necessary records related to accidents, dangers occurrences, and industrial diseases; To prepare annual report of accidents and industrial diseases suggesting their remedial measures to submitted to concern authority.

This group is responsible for identifying case of malpractices, correction, etc. and processing of complaints at the unit level and suggesting effective measures to curb the same. The broad functional responsibilities of this group are as below. To take care of all the vigilance aspects in cases of financial irregularities, administrative lapses, sabotage etc. To monitor the implementation of policies formulated for providing necessary deterrents against nepotism and nefarious activities. To implement the system for keeping vigil on the various areas of functioning to identify elements of doubtful/questionable integrity. To carry out jobs pertaining to the proceedings with respect to cases of irregularities brought out by audit and look after the activities for detection of facts. To bring to the notice of appropriate authorities, acts of victimization, correction, malpractices etc. with facts and figures for further action. To keep the project head and also chief vigilance officer posted about the progress in respect of various cases &To comply with all statutory directives concerning vigilance activities. Responsible for maintaining secrecy and safety of all documents under his charge.


The main functions of Operation and Maintenance are as below:

88 of 125 The organization of fuel handling & transportation consists of both operations as well as maintenance functions of the systems. This has been done keeping in view the frequency and nature of break downs and also the responsibility of minor maintenance job with operations. A separate department of Maintenance Planning has been envisaged to take care of the aspects of long term & short term maintenance plans, maintenance contracts, condition monitoring and spare parts planning. The various areas of maintenance have been, by and large, organized specialty-wise irrespective of the location of plant and equipment example pressure parts, main boiler and valves under mechanical maintenance; LT & HT switchgears under electrical maintenance and measuring instruments under control & instrumentation.

The performance is monitoring and efficiency testing wing, directly under DGM (O&M)/ Head of O&M provides details of plant performance and efficiency aspects for taking necessary decisions.

Manpower Status

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Grade Number

E8 E7A E7 E6 E5 E 4 E3 1 1 9 15 7 13 21

E2A E2 20 98 5

E1 6

Total number of executives

Manpower Status at different dept except O&M

S.No Dept


E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2A E2 E1 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 5 1 2 2 1 1 1 8 9 3 4 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Proj Head 1 Tech Serv HR F&A Medical Mtls Mgt Civil Cons 1 2

Total 45

10 3

Manpower Status at different dept.

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Including O&M

Sl. Department No . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 O&M Supp Operation Maintenance MTP O&E Chemistry C&I Mtnce Elect Mtnce Mech Mtnce

E8 E7A E7 E6

E5 E4

E3 E2A E2 E1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 7 2 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 8 1 3 3 3 2 2 13 11 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 7 4 1 1 1

O&M Total 53

HR Dept. at NTPC Auraiya

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HR Org niza nCh rt a tio a

G Panwar Chief Manager (HR)

M K Kaul Sr. Manager (Law) Legal

Sumita Rai DY. Manager (HR) EB, PR

Charanjit Kumar DY. Manager (HR) ER, ES, EW, CSR

M K Sharma Engineer (EDC) EDC and Rajbhasha

Amit Kumar Officer (HR) ER, ES, EW, ED

Anand Sharma Asst. Officer (HR) CSR, EW (Welfare Bodies)


The Employee Development Scheme is introduced with a view to provide opportunities and extend facilities to the willing employees for self learning and acquiring qualifications to enhance

92 of 125 their level of awareness, knowledge, communication skills and competence, and also to facilitate career development. It also aims at retaining executives so that turnover rate can be reduced up to some extent.


The provisions of this scheme will be applicable to all employees in the executive category who are desirous of obtaining qualifications for their self-development, and who want to grow more by acquiring skills


This project was assigned to me by Mr. Charanjit Kumar Deputy Manager HR. Director Human resources (DHR) assigned different projects to different project centers to achieve the aim of career development and retention scheme. And in same manner job rotation project was assigned to AURAIYA project. The whole project was executed under the given guidelines of a particular circular Known as CORPORATE PERSONNEL CIRCULAR NO.

397/98 Date: 12th October, 1998

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1. Objectives:
To provide exposure to employees in various activities and functions to enable them to gain a rich experience before they assume higher responsibilities. To provide job enrichment. To ensure an effective match between the employees competencies and strengths and the role assigned

94 of 125 To ensure that the high quality and standards of the executive cadre of the Company are maintained. Reduce boredom and work stress of involved employees Increase productivity of involved departments Reduce absenteeism and turnover of involved departments Involve and further educate employees It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required

2. Coverage:
1. All regular executives on the rolls of the company

3. Principles:
1 To ensure that job rotation is done in a planned manner and it does not cause any dislocation of work, model career growth paths have been developed and are annexed. These growth paths have to be mapped for each executive. 2 An executive of E2 /E2A should be rotated in a minimum of three sections/areas in his discipline before he reaches the level of E5. He should remain in one section for a minimum of 2 years. 3 4 5 6 As far as possible, for all new recruits inducted at the level of E1/E2/E2A the first posting should normally be in shift Operation or in Erection during construction stage. At the level of E4/E5 an executive needs/requires to be made a team leader of 1 section as far as possible. At the E6 level the executive needs/requires to be made Head of at least 2/3 sections or a Head of an area as far as possible. An executive should preferably have had exposure to at least 3 areas/sections before he reaches the level of E5. However, in certain areas, where expertise needs to be developed this will not be a constraint.

7 Through rotation it may also be ensured that no executive is posted in one area for long (e.g. CHP, Ash Handling etc.). A mix of posting to and from such areas may be kept in view while drawing up the career paths. It may also be ensured that the specialized skills of executives in technical areas are not frittered away by mere job rotation. The growth paths provide for growth in one area for executives who need to develop as experts in a particular area. For such executives retention in one area may be for a longer period say, 8 to 10 years.

95 of 125 8 Rotation for an executive is to be done based on the Career Path which has been mutually decided by the individual and his superiors.

9 While deciding the career path there is a need to ensure that all executives are rotated uniformly except in some exceptional cases on health grounds. An executives aptitude and his individual competencies should also be kept in view. 10 Change in area/function as envisaged in the growth path does not necessarily imply transfer from one project/station to another. Rotation can be planned in various areas within the same plant itself. However, if the management decides in the interest of work or on request of an executive even transfer from one project to another may be considered.

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First of all, all the employees working NPTC Auraiya were divided into 3 Groups named as

E = Executives S = supervisor

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W = Workers
As this project was particularly based on the job rotation of employees at Executive level, all the employees working at executive level were grouped on the bases of there levels.

Worker at diff levels Exposed to Different Functions at AUGPS


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There were several reasons behind the introduction of job rotation process. It was required to provide exposure to employees in various activities and functions to enable them to gain a rich experience before they assume higher responsibilities and to ensure an effective match between the employees competencies and strengths and the role assigned. But the main reason was to Reduce absenteeism and turnover of productive employees, and executives. Initially, in past times career path discipline wise were filled up by the HOD for each executive in consultation with him/her. This will ensure that the career path so developed in a section matches both the individuals needs and the work requirements. In specific cases where the HOD deems it

102 of 125 fit he chalk out a career path other than those suggested in the model career paths, in the same format. The particular career path is being followed at NPTC and the path which was to be followed for job rotation process were like

Example1. The Business Career Path will groom individuals for occupying business leadership positions
Band 4: E9 Band 3: E7A E8 Band 2: E6 E7
E6 E5 E4 E3 E2A E2 E1 Operations Maintenance Materials Commercial Erection

Guiding Principles
Start in any line function in Band 1 Work in each function for minimum 2 years Could move across departments within the same function

(Region) (Plant Head)


Example 1 Example 2

E8 E7A E7

Entry Criteria for Role Bands

For Band 3: Exposure to at least three functions in Band 1 and 2 For Band 4: Experience of at least 10 years in a power plant Good to have experience in regions and corporate center

Example 2. The Staff Career Path will groom individuals for occupying leadership positions in corporate staff functions

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Example for HR
Band 4: E9 Band 3: E7A E8 Band 2: E6 E7
E6 E5 E4

Guiding Principles
Exposure to all facets of the respective staff functions Exposure to relevant line functions may be considered e.g. administrative procurement in projects



Example 1 Example 2

E8 E7A E7

Entry Criteria for Role Bands

For Band 2: Exposure to at least two subgroups of the staff function Experience of at least 3 years in a power plant For Band 4: Good to have multi-location experience Line managers are also eligible to occupy positions in HR

Band 1: E1 E5
E2A E2 E1 ED













HR at Plant

HR at Region

HR at Corporate Center

The completed career paths after discussions with the HOD had to be forwarded to the HR department. HR consolidates the individual plans and the date of rotation to ensure that the movement of executives from one department to another was smooth and that no gaps have been left in any department in terms of work requirements. The consolidated plans were shared by the Head of HR in the Site Management Committee for appreciation of General Manager and the HODs. The job rotation orders, implementation and monitoring of movement was done by project HR for all executives upto the level of E5. A list of the same will be communicated to the Regional Head of HR for appraisal/appreciation of Regional ED. The career paths of executives of E6 level and above were drawn as above in consultation with the General Managers/HODs concerned. The career paths of these executives were forwarded to Corporate HR group through regional ED and had to be implemented and monitored centrally from Corporate HR keeping in view the long term plans for development of future leaders within the company. Orders for rotations were issued once a year in April by Project HR Department upto E4 level, Regional HR Department for executives at E5 level and by CC for executives at E6 and above levels. The rotation orders issued and the status of implementation were sent by the projects/stations for all executives upto E5 to Corporate HR group. Based on the career path chosen by an executive suitable training inputs had to be planned and provided especially to executives who might choose areas of work with which they were not very familiar with.

104 of 125 Wherever inter region transfer were necessary as part of the job rotation exercise Corporate Centre process the cases on advice of the Project/station HR Department. Similarly, where intra region transfer is to be done the concerned Region process the case. Monitoring was done for executives who joined the company as executive trainees to ensure their proper and balanced growth and development. The individual career paths filled up were reviewed and fresh path drawn after a period of three years. Just in same manner, this time also Job rotation process was executed. A dully career path was filled by HODs with the concern of respective executives. A proper questionnaire method was used to check the skills, experiences, attitude toward job, seniors, and subordinates. Efforts were done to know the facts behind the turnover. Subjective and objective questions were asked to executives for further proceedings

Subjective questionnaire
Describe the accident(s) you had when you worked at this workstation. Quick reference

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(Relevant questions)
Where, when, how What workstation, What machine Type of injury Type of production Often or rarely Shift Overtime

Can you explain what operations are performed and the difficulties associated with them? If possible, indicate whether these operations vary, and describe their importance, their intensity and the time invested. Operations / actions Difficulties
(Name, description, location, equipment, tool, material) (With what factors do you associate them?)

Have you experienced pain or discomfort related to your work in the past 3 months? If so, can you specify the areas(s) affected, the causes or the frequency? PAIN/DISCOMFORT IN THE PAST 3 MONTHS Regions affected
Shoulder, neck, upper back, middle Back, lower back, elbow, forearm, Wrist, hand, hip, knee, ankle, etc.

Rarely .Sometimes Regularly Often

We would also like to know if you consulted a health professional and whether you were absent from work due to these pains.

106 of 125 Health Professional

Absence with what do you associate it?

Operations, models, tools, Equipment, speed, deadlines, Taking information, etc.

Do these pains oblige you to change the way you work


Which stages of the work do you find the most difficult or painful to perform? Do you work on rotation with other workstations?

If so, is it favorable or unfavorable? Are there general conditions that make the work more difficult?

Have there been any changes to the workstation? If so, did this have positive or negative impacts on the working conditions?

Particular formats were followed during the interview/ data collection process which were as

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Interview Summary questionnaire

Personal Data
Name Employee number Designation Department Education Qualification

Job History
Joined as ET/OR Date of regularization Date of joining NTPC as ETOR

Grade DOEG Promotion/ transfer/ joining

Year From To

Project/ Departmen Section Sub Duration in Station t Sectio each sub n section

Another format was followed to collect the data, according to the requirements. The format followed is given bellow. E5 Employees Database

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S. No Demographics Emp Code Emp Name DOB Qualification DOEG E5 DOEG E4 DOEG E3 DOEG E2A DOEG 2 DOEG 1 Project 1 Deptt 1 Section 1 Sub Section 1 Yrs 1 Project 2 Deptt 2 Section 2 Sub Section 2 Yrs 2 Project 1 Deptt 1 Section 1 Sub Section 1 Yrs 1 Project 2 Deptt 2 Section 2 Sub Section 2 Yrs 2 Project 1 Deptt 1 Section 1 Sub Section 1 Yrs 1 Project 2 Deptt 2 Section 2 Sub Section 2 Yrs 2 Project 1 Deptt 1 Section 1 Sub Section 1 Yrs 1 Project 2 Deptt 2 Section 2


Posting E5

Posting E4

Posting E3

Posting E2/2A

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Sub Section 2 Yrs 2 Project 1 Deptt 1 Section 1 Sub Section 1 Yrs 1 Project 2 Deptt 2 Section 2 Sub Section 2 Yrs 2 Project 1 Deptt 1 Section 1 Sub Section 1 Yrs 1 Project 2 Deptt 2 Section 2 Sub Section 2 Yrs 2

Posting E2

Posting E1

Objective type Questionnaire

110 of 125 With the help of this questionnare, employees were interviewed to know their views about their company, likings, job, training facilities, peer, subordinatesd. They were asked to grade all these things. Grades which were used for this particular exercise was as foloows

1 - very disagre, 2 disagree, 3 neutral, 4 agree, 5 very agree

Your Company

My company is one of the best companies to work for.







My company treats me well. Considering everything, I am satisfied working for my company at the present time. Are u plan to work at your present job for years to come?.
















Your JOB

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I am satisfied with my job and the kind of work I do. My job are challenging and interesting. I am getting enough relevant training for my present job. I understand what is expected of me in my work. I am satisfied with my working conditions. My manager recognizes and acknowledges my good performance. Overall, I am satisfied with my present job. would you like to change your job in the future







(1) (1)

(2) (2)

(3) (3)

(4) (4)

(5) (5)





























Career and Development

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The company makes every effort to fill vacancies from within before recruiting from outside. I am satisfied with the job opportunities in the company. Promotion goes to those who most deserve it. Did seniority or length of service have any effect on your ob change in this company? Did achievements or results so far have any effect on job change Did seniority or length of service have any effect on your job change in this company?


































Your Manager

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My manager (immediate supervisor) trusts me. My manager helps me to improve myself. My manager takes prompt and fair corrective action on employees who fail to perform their work satisfactorily. My manager establishes plans and work objectives with me. My manager gives me clear instructions. My manager is available when I need advice. I feel free to talk openly and honestly to my manager. My manager praises me when I do a good job. My manager holds regular meetings with my work groups. Those meetings keep me informed, give information and enable me to do a better job. My manager is effective in making decisions. My manager knows what is going on in my work group. My manager is doing a good job. me














































































My Work Group

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Work is fairly distributed in my work group. I am satisfied with how members of my work group solve problems. My work group works well together. I feel free to talk openly and honestly with members of my work group.
























Employee Benefit

What types of other benefits are there at the company?.







. I am satisfied with the companys employee welfare programs such as rewards, incentives, food coupons, insurance and health care, etc







I am satisfied with the companys people programs, such as birthday announcements, valuable employee of the month, bulletins and newsletter, etc. I am satisfied with the recreational activities provided by the company, e.g. picnics and annual dinner











Open Ended Questions

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How long have you worked for this company? How long has you worked for this specific plant? What is your present job classification? What is it that you like most in your job right now? Name at least two aspects.

the operators receive training before occupying this workstation? For how long? Did this training allow the operators to learn the job completely? What is it that you are not comfortable in your job right now? What do you need to improve your performance and productivity? Give at least three suggestions to improve the work environment in this company? If you had a son or daughter looking for a job, would you advice him or her to try and get a job like the one you have? Have you worked for other companies before? How many times have you changed jobs since graduating from school? What kind of companies did you work for? How was it to work for those companies, as compared to this one? Have you ever experienced a layoff? (A) At this company? (B) At previous companies? Are you working the day shift, the night shift, or are you switching between the two? What is the regular working hours for your shift? How many days did you work last month? How many days did you work on a holiday last month?

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May I ask how many days were you been absent from work last month, and for what reasons? How many hours did you work overtime last month? What do you think of overtime? Do you have too much or too little? What are your wages right now? What types of other benefits are there at the company?

Is there a merit system, pay-for-knowledge or some other system where people get higher wages, get promoted, or get various advantages according to how they work? (A) How does it work? (B) What do you think of it? After you got a job in this company, did you ever change position? For example team change, shift change, or a promotion? If you have had any such changes, please tell me when and how they occurred. (A) Team change: (B) shift change: (C) promotion: Could you choose where you were next going to work in the company?

Powers to review, modify/amend the provisions of the scheme is vest with Director (HR).

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My work at NPTC was just to prepare a questionnaire to interview Employees and collect data, for further process. Actually job rotation is not a small project and it takes huge time to get concluded. Data collected by me was going to be used for further proceeding. As first of all it was to be sent to Director HR and after the whole process, the actual job rotation was going to take place, and scheduled to be held in mid of September. It was quiet a different kind of experience for me, to prepare a questionnaire for such a Nobel cause, and for such a big organization. During that whole exercise, I come to know about some finding about JOB ROTATION process. Here I have noted down my views about the SWOT analysis of JOB rotation process.

Strengths From the companys point of view

Works like tailored training for the company Works as recruitment training

Available even when facing lay-offs or dismissals, as a way of retaining

employees loyalty and training a new labour reserve

Inexpensive, even for the public as well as private sector Allows personnel training to take place without disruptions of production

/working routines People already in work can be trained at the same time Improves corporate image

Boosts cooperation and networking between organizations Strengths

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From the employees point of view

Promotes career advancement and job rotation Makes it possible to study, usually on a full salary Encourages employees to take training and further their own vocational development Combines theory and practical training Facilitates the transfer of vocational skills from one generation to the next at work

Strengths From the point of view of the unemployed jobseeker

Gives both new employees and employers a chance to get to know each other Combines theory and practical training Provides induction to a future workplace and its traditions Supports continuous learning

Weaknesses Recruitment
Suitable candidates are hard to find for training as replacements Entrepreneurs have busy schedules, so cooperation and providing for training/ recruitment needs is often difficult or impossible

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Weaknesses Cooperation
Cooperation between the different parties involved is difficult Difficult to arrange tailored training for small companies Small companies are not always willing to network Small companies do not always have a training and development plan

Implementation of job rotation is slow

Management complicated

Opportunities From the companys point of view

Provides a flexible staff training system through which vocational skills and tacit knowledge is transferred to younger workers Can create a well-trained and experienced reserve of labour for companies Boosts companies` competitiveness

Opportunities From the companys point of view

Supports corporate training structures Works as part of the corporate development process

Enables small companies and micro enterprises to update their vocational

skills Promotes networking between small companies

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Opportunities From the companys point of view

Facilitates generation change in company management Workplace health promotion activities can be linked with job rotation Promote healthy environment in organization

Opportunities From the employees point of view

Supports rotation of work and duties Promotes career advancement Improves motivation Promotes wellbeing at work Acts as a component of or support for apprenticeship training Can be combined with job-sharing models Supports lifelong learning

Opportunities From the point of view of the unemployed job seeker

Gives an opportunity to find work & Supports lifelong learning

Gives an opportunity to train for future work Supports studies for vocational qualifications/ part qualifications

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Threats Practical training

Companies accept trainee labour but provide no support for vocational

development or corporate development Issues of responsibility remain unclear concerning practical training (responsibility for productivity versus time for actual learning on the job) Practical training periods sometimes too long: practical training felt to be working for free Induction is often neglected due to lack of time

Threats Cooperation

Meaning of job rotation unclear to trade unions and may meet with

resistance Entrepreneurs and training organizations do not speak the same language

Job rotation project managers may not have business experience Companies reluctant to or cannot find the time to commit due to the

bureaucracy involved

Only large or medium-sized companies use job rotation Good practices and experiences of job rotation fail to be passed on

Job rotation only works as separate projects

Threats finding work

Following job rotation training unemployed jobseekers are placed on very

short fixed-term contracts and are excluded from the benefits and security of a longer employment contract

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After going through the whole practice I come to know about some drawbacks, which should be taken care of in future at the time of execution of such an important task.

Here are some practical recommendations we should think about when considering a job rotation program at our organization.
1 Proactively manages job rotation as a component of your training and career-development system. Job rotation may be especially valuable for organizations that require firm-specific skills because it provides an incentive to organizations to promote from within. 2. Have a clear understanding of exactly which skills will be enhanced by placing an employee into the job-rotation process. Address skills that aren't enhanced by job rotation through specific training programs and management coaching. 3. Use job rotation for employees in nonexempt jobs, as well as for those in professional and managerial jobs. Job rotation may be of great value for developing employees in all types of jobs. 4. Use job rotation with later-career and plateaued employees, as well as with early-career employees. Some organizations may have the tendency to rotate employees too fast in earlycareer stages and too slow in later-career stages. Job rotation can be a good way to reduce the effects of the plateauing process by adding stimulation to employees' work. 5. You can use job rotation as a means of career development without necessarily granting promotions so it may be especially useful for downsized organizations because it provides opportunities to develop and motivate employees. 6. Give special attention to the job rotation plans for female and minority employees. Recent federal equal employment opportunity legislation has recognized the importance of job rotation to promotional opportunities when examining the limited representation of minorities and females in executive jobs (called the "glass ceiling" effect). Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 has ordered a commission to study the barriers and opportunities to executive

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7. Link rotation with the career development planning process so that employees know the developmental needs addressed by each job assignment. Both job-related and developmentrelated objectives should be defined jointly by the employee and the manager when the employee assumes a new position. The rate of rotation should be managed according to the time required to accomplish the goals of the job and the time required to achieve the developmental benefits of the job. The advantage of this approach is that both the employee and the manager will have a clear understanding of expectations and the required tenure on the job will be related to predetermine outcomes. Job rotation should be perceived as voluntary from the employee's point of view if it's going to have the intended developmental effects. 8. Implement specific methods of maximizing benefits and minimizing costs of rotation. Examples include increasing the benefits of organizational integration and stimulating work by carefully selecting jobs, increasing career and awareness benefits by ensuring that they're reflected in the development plans, decreasing workload costs by managing the timing of rotations, decreasing learning-curve costs by having good operating procedures, and decreasing the dissatisfaction of co-workers by helping them understand the role of job rotation in their own development plans.

Be Systematic
To realize the beneficial aspects of job rotation it is necessary to establish definitive internal guidelines that insure consistent application and at the same time allow for restricting employees from rotating into jobs they cannot perform. To ensure that all job rotations meet basic ergonomics requirements a consistent and systematic approach is required. It is probably best to start slowly at first, such as in a pilot work area so that the program can be further refined before being implemented elsewhere.

Apart from these given guidelines there r some more guidelines given by profound Management organizations

OSHA Guidelines and some other guidelines

The following is excerpted from the OSHA Ergonomics Program Management Guidelines which should be considered while practicing job rotation process: Job rotation should be used with caution and as a preventive measure, not as a response to symptoms. The principle of job rotation is to alleviate physical fatigue and stress of a particular set

125 of 125 of muscles and tendons by rotating employees among other jobs that use different muscle-tendon groups. If rotation is utilized, the job analyses must be reviewed by a qualified person to ensure that the same muscle-tendon groups are not used. A "qualified person" is one who has thorough training and experience sufficient to identify ergonomic hazards in the workplace and recommend an effective means of correction; for example, a plant engineer fully trained in ergonomics - not necessarily an ergonomist. In analyzing jobs for rotation, the qualified person must have sufficient expertise to identify the ergonomic stresses each job presents and which muscles and tendons are used. Job rotation can mean that a worker performs two or more different tasks in different parts of the day (i.e. switching between task "A" and task "B" at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals). The important consideration is to ensure that the different tasks do not present the same ergonomic stressors to the same parts of the body (muscle-tendon groups). There is no single work-rest regimen that OSHA recommends; it must be determined by the nature of the task. These excerpts indicate the importance of establishing a formal, documented job rotation system which carefully matches jobs. This matching system should ensure that different muscle-tendon groups are emphasized.