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Lecture 3: The Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

The material in this lecture is not covered in Atkins. It is required to understand postulate 6 and 11.5 The informtion of a wavefunction

Lecture on-line The Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation (PDF) The time Dependent Schroedinger Equation (HTML) The time dependent Schrödinger Equation (PowerPoint) Tutorials on-line The postulates of quantum mechanics (This is the writeup for Dry-lab-II ( This lecture coveres parts of postulate

6)

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Development of Classical Mechanics Experimental Background for Quantum mecahnics Early Development of Quantum mechanics Audio-visuals on-line review of the Schrödinger equation and the Born postulate (PDF) review of the Schrödinger equation and the Born postulate (HTML) review of Schrödinger equation and Born postulate (PowerPoint **,

1MB)

Slides from the text book (From the CD included in Atkins ,**)

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

setting up equation

Consider a particle of mass m that is moving in one dimension. Let its position be given by x   O

X

V V(X,t 1 )
V(X,t 2 )

O

Let the particle be subject to the potential V(x,t)

All properties of such a particle is in quantum mechanics determined by the wavefunction Ψ(x,t) of the system

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Vxt(,)

setting up equation X

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

setting up equation

 A system that changes with time is described by the time -

dependent Schrödinger equation

h δ Ψ x t

(,)

ˆ

 − = H Ψ (,) xt

i

δ t

ˆ

Where H is the Hamiltonian of

the system :

ˆ h 2

δ 2

 H =− + Vxt (,)

2 m

δ x

2

for 1D - particle

according to postulate 6

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

setting up equation 2
2
h
δ Ψ
(,) x t
h
δ
Ψ (,) x t
=−
+ Vxt
(,)
Ψ
(,)
xt
2
i
δ t
2
m
δ
x

The time dependent Schrödinger equation

The wavefunction Ψ(x,t) is also referred to as

The statefunction

Our state will in general change with time due to V(x,t). Thus Ψ is a function of time and space

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Probability from wavefunction

The wavefunction does not have any physical interpretation. However :

P(x,t) = *
Ψ
(x,t)
Ψ
(x,t) dx

Probability density

Is the probability at time t to find the particle between x and x + x. Ψ ( x,t) Ψ * ( x, t)dx

dx

o x

will change with time

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Probability from wavefunction

It is important to note that the particle is not distributed over a large region as a charge cloud

Ψ(x,t)Ψ(x,t) *

It is the probability patterns (wave function) used to describe the electron motion that behaves like waves and satisfies a wave equation

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation Probability from wavefunction
Consider a large number N of
identical boxes with identical
particles all described by the
same wavefunction Ψ(x, t):

Let dn

which at the same time is found between x and x + x

x denote the number of particle

Then :

dn

*

x (,)Ψ (,)

x t

x t

N

dx

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy

The time - dependent Schroedinger equation :

h

δ

Ψ

(,) x t

h

2

2

δ

Ψ (,) x t

=−

i δ t

2

m

δ

x

2

+ Vxt (,)

Ψ (,) xt

Can be simplified in those cases where the potential V only depends on the position : V(t,x) - > V(x)

V V(X)

O

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

We might try to find a solution of the form :

Ψ(xt,) = ft()ψ(x)

We have

δ Ψ(x,t)

=

δψ

(

(x)f(t))

δ

δ

tt

=

ψ ( x)

δ f(t)

δ t

and 2
2
2
δ
Ψ(x,t)
δ ψ
(
(x)f(t))
δ ψ
( x)
=
= f(t)
2
2
2
δ
xx
δ
δ x

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

h

δ

Ψ

(,) x t

h

2

2

δ

Ψ (,) x t

=−

i δ t

2

m

δ

x

2

+ Vxt (,)

Ψ (,) xt

A substitution of Ψ(xt,) = ft()ψ(x) into the Schrödinger equation thus affords :

2

2

 h δ f(t) h δ ψ x) ( =− i ψ ( x) δ 2 tm f(t) δ x 2

+

V x f(t)

()

ψ

(

x)

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

2

2

 h δ f(t) h δ ψ x) ( =− i ψ ( x) δ 2 tm f(t) δ x 2

+

V x f(t)

()

ψ

(

x)

A multiplication from the left by

1

ft()ψ(x)

affords :

2

2

 h 1 δ f(t) h 1 δ ψ ( x) =− if t () δ t 2 m ψ ( x) δ x 2

+ V ( x

)

The R.H.S. does not depend on t if we now assume that V is time independent. Thus, the L.H.S. must also be independent of t

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Thus : h
1
δ f(t)
==
E
cons
tan
t
ift
( )
δ t

The L.H.S. does not depend on x so the R.H.S. must also be independent of x and equal to the same constant, E. 2
h 2
1 δ
ψ x)
(
+
V ( x
)
== E
cons
tan
t
2
2 m ψ x)
(
δ x

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

We can now solve for f(t) : h
1
δ f(t)
==
E
cons
tan
t
ift
( )
δ t

Or :

δ f(t)

i

) = h

f

( t

E

δ t

Now integrating from time t=0 to t=to on both sides affords:

t o

o

t

 δ f(t) = − o ∫ i E o f ( t ) h

δ t

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

t o

o

t

 δ f(t) = − o ∫ i E o f ( t ) h

δ t

ln[ft(

i

h

o

)]

ln[fo( )]

=−

[

E t

o

0

]

ln[ f (t )]

i

h

o

=−

Et

o

+

ln[

f (
o
)]

Cons tan t

ln[ f (t )] =−

o

i

h

o

Et

+

C

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Or:

f

( ) =

t

f

( ) =

t

i

h

=

ln[ f (t )] =−

o

Et

C

+

o

  −+

i

h

Et

  Exp C Exp

[

]

Et

i

Exp

C

h

[

Exp C

](cos

h

E t

E

i sin

h

t

)

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space E
f
( ) =
t
Exp C
[
](cos
 E t
i sin
  h
   t
h
  )
-
i
i
+
-
+
i
Change of
sign of f(t)
with time
t = 0
t
= π (h/ E)
t =
π (h/ E)
t = 3π (h/E) t= 2π (h/ E)
2
2

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

The equation for ψ(x) is given by

h 2

2

1 δ

ψ x)

(

 − Vx ( ) += E

2 m ψ x)

(

δ x

2

Or :

h 2

2

δ

ψ x)

(

 − ( x) () += ψ Vx E ψ ( x)

2m

δ x

2

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

h 2

2

δ

ψ x)

(

 − ( x) () += ψ Vx E ψ ( x)

2m

δ x

2

This is the time-independent Schroedinger Equation for a particle moving in the time independent potential V(x)

It is a postulate of Quantum Mechanics that E is the total energy of the system

Part of QM postulate 6

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

The total wavefunction for a one-dimentional particle in a potential V(x) is given by Ψ( xt ,)
= ft ()
ψ (
x
)
=
Exp [] C Exp
[
− i E t
]()
ψ
x
h
=
AExp
[
i E t
]()
ψ
x
h

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

If ψ(x) is a solution to

h 2

2

δ

ψ x)

(

 − ( x) Vx () += ψ E ψ ( x)

2m

δ x

2

So is Aψ(x)

Lecture 2

h 2

δ 2

(

A

ψ x))

(

 − A ( x) () += ψ V x AE ψ ( x)

2m

δ x

2

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

time independent probability function

h 2

δ 2

(

A

ψ x))

(

 − A ( x) () += ψ V x AE ψ ( x)

2m

δ x

2

or :

h 2

δ 2

ψ '( x)

 − '( x) += ψ Vx ( ) E ψ '( x)

2m

δ x

2

' (x) = A

with ψ

(x)

ψ

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

time independent probability function

Thus we can write without loss of generality for a particle in a time-independent potential

Ψ(,)x t

E

h

=

Exp[ i

t

]

ψ (

x

)

This wavefunction is time dependent and complex.

Let us now look at the corresponding probability density

*

Ψ(,)Ψ (,)

xt

xt

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

time independent probability function

We have : *
Ψ(,)Ψ (,)
x t
x t
=
x
)
h
E
*
*
×
Exp i
[
tx
]
ψ
()
=
ψψ
()
xx
()
h

Exp

[

i E t

]

ψ (

Thus , states describing systems with a time-independent potential V(x) have a time-independent (stationary) probability density.

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

stationary states *
Ψ(,)Ψ (,)
x t
x t
=
Exp
[
i E t
]
ψ (
x
)
h
E
*
*
×
Exp i
[
tx
]
ψ
()
=
ψψ
()
xx
()
h

This does not imply that the particle is stationary. However, it means that the probability of finding

a particle in the interval x + -1/2 constant.

x to x +1/2

x is

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

stationary states

*

ψ()ψ ()

x

x dx Independent of time

We say that systems that can be described by wave functions of the type

Ψ(,)x t

E

h

=

Exp[ i

t

]

ψ (

x

)

Represent

Stationary

states  Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Postulate 6 The time development of the state of an undisturbed system is given by the time - dependent Schrödinger equation

h δ Ψ x t

(,)

ˆ

 − = H Ψ (,) xt

i

δ t

ˆ

where H is the Hamiltonian (i.e. energy) operator for the quantum mechanical system

What you should know from this lecture

1. You

time dependent Schrödinger equation

should know

postulate 6 and the form of the

h δ Ψ x t

(,)

ˆ

 − = H Ψ (,) xt

i

δ t

2. You should know that the wavefunction for systems where the potential energy is independent of

time [V(x,t)

V(x)] is given by

h

Where

Schrödinger equation :

and E is the energy of the system.

ψ (

x )

is a solution to the time - independent

H ψ

(

x

)

=

(

Ex

ψ

),

Ψ (,) t

x

=

Exp

[

i E t

]

ψ () x

What you should know from this lecture 3. Systems with a time independent potential
energy [V(x,t)
→ V(x) ] have a time - independent
probability density :
E
*
*
Ψ x t Ψ
(,)
(,)
x t
= Exp −i E t
h
[
]
ψ
()
x Exp i
[
t
]
ψ
()
x
h
= ψ
(
x
)
ψ
* (
x
).
They are called stationary states