Sunteți pe pagina 1din 29

Lecture 3: The Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

The material in this lecture is not covered in Atkins. It is required to understand postulate 6 and 11.5 The informtion of a wavefunction

Lecture on-line The Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation (PDF) The time Dependent Schroedinger Equation (HTML) The time dependent Schrödinger Equation (PowerPoint) Tutorials on-line The postulates of quantum mechanics (This is the writeup for Dry-lab-II ( This lecture coveres parts of postulate

6)

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Development of Classical Mechanics Experimental Background for Quantum mecahnics Early Development of Quantum mechanics Audio-visuals on-line review of the Schrödinger equation and the Born postulate (PDF) review of the Schrödinger equation and the Born postulate (HTML) review of Schrödinger equation and Born postulate (PowerPoint **,

1MB)

Slides from the text book (From the CD included in Atkins ,**)

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

setting up equation

Consider a particle of mass m that is moving in one dimension. Let its position be given by x

O X
O X
O X

O

X

V

V(X,t 1 ) V(X,t 2 )
V(X,t 1 )
V(X,t 2 )

O

Let the particle be subject to the potential V(x,t)

All properties of such a particle is in quantum mechanics determined by the wavefunction Ψ(x,t) of the system

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Vxt(,)

setting up equation

Time Dependent Schr ö dinger Equation Vxt(,) setting up equation X

X

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

setting up equation

A

system that changes with time

is

described by the time -

dependent Schrödinger equation

h δ Ψ x t

(,)

ˆ

= H

Ψ (,) xt

i

δ t

ˆ

Where H is the Hamiltonian of

the system :

ˆ h 2

δ 2

H =−

+

Vxt (,)

2 m

δ x

2

for 1D - particle

according to postulate 6

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

setting up equation

2 2 h δ Ψ (,) x t h δ Ψ (,) x t −
2
2
h
δ Ψ
(,) x t
h
δ
Ψ (,) x t
=−
+ Vxt
(,)
Ψ
(,)
xt
2
i
δ t
2
m
δ
x

The time dependent Schrödinger equation

The wavefunction Ψ(x,t) is also referred to as

The statefunction

Our state will in general change with time due to V(x,t). Thus Ψ is a function of time and space

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Probability from wavefunction

The wavefunction does not have any physical interpretation. However :

P(x,t) =

* Ψ (x,t) Ψ (x,t) dx
*
Ψ
(x,t)
Ψ
(x,t) dx

Probability density

Is the probability at time t to find the particle between x and x + x.

Ψ ( x,t) Ψ * ( x, t)dx
Ψ ( x,t) Ψ * ( x, t)dx

dx

o

dx o x

x

will change with time

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Probability from wavefunction

It is important to note that the particle is not distributed over a large region as a charge cloud

Ψ(x,t)Ψ(x,t) *

It is the probability patterns (wave function) used to describe the electron motion that behaves like waves and satisfies a wave equation

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Probability from wavefunction Consider a large number N of identical boxes with identical particles all
Probability from wavefunction
Consider a large number N of
identical boxes with identical
particles all described by the
same wavefunction Ψ(x, t):

Let dn

which at the same time is found between x and x + x

x denote the number of particle

Then :

dn

*

x (,)Ψ (,)

x t

x t

N

dx

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy

The time - dependent Schroedinger equation :

h

δ

Ψ

(,) x t

h

2

2

δ

Ψ (,) x t

=−

i δ t

2

m

δ

x

2

+ Vxt (,)

Ψ (,) xt

Can be simplified in those cases where the potential V only depends on the position : V(t,x) - > V(x)

V

V(X)
V(X)

O

Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

We might try to find a solution of the form :

Ψ(xt,) = ft()ψ(x)

We have

δ Ψ(x,t)

=

δψ

(

(x)f(t))

δ

δ

tt

=

ψ ( x)

δ f(t)

δ t

and

2 2 2 δ Ψ(x,t) δ ψ ( (x)f(t)) δ ψ ( x) = =
2
2
2
δ
Ψ(x,t)
δ ψ
(
(x)f(t))
δ ψ
( x)
=
= f(t)
2
2
2
δ
xx
δ
δ x

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

h

δ

Ψ

(,) x t

h

2

2

δ

Ψ (,) x t

=−

i δ t

2

m

δ

x

2

+ Vxt (,)

Ψ (,) xt

A substitution of Ψ(xt,) = ft()ψ(x) into the Schrödinger equation thus affords :

2

2

h

δ

f(t)

h

δ

ψ x)

(

 

=−

i

ψ

(

x)

δ

2

tm

f(t)

δ

x

2

+

V x f(t)

()

ψ

(

x)

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

2

2

h

δ

f(t)

h

δ

ψ x)

(

 

=−

i

ψ

(

x)

δ

2

tm

f(t)

δ

x

2

+

V x f(t)

()

ψ

(

x)

A multiplication from the left by

1

ft()ψ(x)

affords :

2

2

h

1

δ

f(t)

 

h

 

1

δ

ψ ( x)

 

=−

if t

()

 

δ

t

2

m

ψ

( x)

δ

x

2

+ V ( x

)

The R.H.S. does not depend on t if we now assume that V is time independent. Thus, the L.H.S. must also be independent of t

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Thus :

h 1 δ f(t) − == E cons tan t ift ( ) δ t
h
1
δ f(t)
==
E
cons
tan
t
ift
( )
δ t

The L.H.S. does not depend on x so the R.H.S. must also be independent of x and equal to the same constant, E.

2 h 2 1 δ ψ x) ( − + V ( x ) ==
2
h 2
1 δ
ψ x)
(
+
V ( x
)
== E
cons
tan
t
2
2 m ψ x)
(
δ x

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

We can now solve for f(t) :

h 1 δ f(t) − == E cons tan t ift ( ) δ t
h
1
δ f(t)
==
E
cons
tan
t
ift
( )
δ t

Or :

δ f(t)

i

) = h

f

( t

E

δ t

Now integrating from time t=0 to t=to on both sides affords:

t o

o

t

δ

f(t)

= −

o

i E

 

o

 

f

( t )

h

δ t

Simplyfied Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

t o

o

t

δ

f(t)

= −

o

i E

 

o

 

f

( t )

h

δ t

ln[ft(

i

h

o

)]

ln[fo( )]

=−

[

E t

o

0

]

ln[ f (t )]

i

h

o

=−

Et

o

+

ln[

f

( o )]
(
o
)]

Cons tan t

ln[ f (t )] =−

o

i

h

o

Et

+

C

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Or:

f

( ) =

t

f

( ) =

t

i

h

=

ln[ f (t )] =−

o

Et

C

+

o

  −+

i

h

Et

  Exp C Exp

[

]

Et

i

Exp

C

h

[

Exp C

](cos

h

E t

E

i sin

h

t

)

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

E  f ( ) = t Exp C [ ](cos  E t −
E
f
( ) =
t
Exp C
[
](cos
 E t
i sin
  h
   t
h
  )
-
i
i
+
-
+
i
Change of
sign of f(t)
with time
t = 0
t
= π (h/ E)
t =
π (h/ E)
t = 3π (h/E) t= 2π (h/ E)
2
2

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

The equation for ψ(x) is given by

h 2

2

1 δ

ψ x)

(

Vx

(

)

+=

E

2 m ψ x)

(

δ x

2

Or :

h 2

2

δ

ψ x)

(

(

x)

()

+=

ψ

Vx

E

ψ

(

x)

2m

δ x

2

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

h 2

2

δ

ψ x)

(

(

x)

()

+=

ψ

Vx

E

ψ

(

x)

2m

δ x

2

This is the time-independent Schroedinger Equation for a particle moving in the time independent potential V(x)

It is a postulate of Quantum Mechanics that E is the total energy of the system

Part of QM postulate 6

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

The total wavefunction for a one-dimentional particle in a potential V(x) is given by

Ψ( xt ,) = ft () ψ ( x ) = Exp [] C Exp
Ψ( xt ,)
= ft ()
ψ (
x
)
=
Exp [] C Exp
[
− i E t
]()
ψ
x
h
=
AExp
[
i E t
]()
ψ
x
h

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

Time independent Schrödinger equation

If ψ(x) is a solution to

h 2

2

δ

ψ x)

(

(

x)

Vx

()

+=

ψ

E

ψ

(

x)

2m

δ x

2

So is Aψ(x)

Lecture 2

h 2

δ 2

(

A

ψ x))

(

A

(

x)

()

+=

ψ

V x

AE

ψ

(

x)

2m

δ x

2

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

time independent probability function

h 2

δ 2

(

A

ψ x))

(

A

(

x)

()

+=

ψ

V x

AE

ψ

(

x)

2m

δ x

2

or :

h 2

δ 2

ψ '( x)

'(

x)

+=

ψ

Vx

(

)

E

ψ

'(

x)

2m

δ x

2

' (x) = A

with ψ

(x)

ψ

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

time independent probability function

Thus we can write without loss of generality for a particle in a time-independent potential

Ψ(,)x t

E

h

=

Exp[ i

t

]

ψ (

x

)

This wavefunction is time dependent and complex.

Let us now look at the corresponding probability density

*

Ψ(,)Ψ (,)

xt

xt

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

with time independent potential energy :

separation of time and space

time independent probability function

We have :

* Ψ(,)Ψ (,) x t x t = − x ) h E * *
*
Ψ(,)Ψ (,)
x t
x t
=
x
)
h
E
*
*
×
Exp i
[
tx
]
ψ
()
=
ψψ
()
xx
()
h

Exp

[

i E t

]

ψ (

Thus , states describing systems with a time-independent potential V(x) have a time-independent (stationary) probability density.

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

stationary states

* Ψ(,)Ψ (,) x t x t = Exp [ − i E t ]
*
Ψ(,)Ψ (,)
x t
x t
=
Exp
[
i E t
]
ψ (
x
)
h
E
*
*
×
Exp i
[
tx
]
ψ
()
=
ψψ
()
xx
()
h

This does not imply that the particle is stationary. However, it means that the probability of finding

a particle in the interval x + -1/2 constant.

x to x +1/2

x is

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

stationary states

*

ψ()ψ ()

x

x dx

Equation stationary states * ψ () ψ () x x dx Independent of time We say

Independent of time

We say that systems that can be described by wave functions of the type

Ψ(,)x t

E

h

=

Exp[ i

t

]

ψ (

x

)

Represent

Stationary

states

of the type Ψ (,) x t E h = Exp [ i − t ]
of the type Ψ (,) x t E h = Exp [ i − t ]

Simplified Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Postulate 6 The time development of the state of an undisturbed system is given by the time - dependent Schrödinger equation

h δ Ψ x t

(,)

ˆ

= H

Ψ (,) xt

i

δ t

ˆ

where H is the Hamiltonian (i.e. energy) operator for the quantum mechanical system

What you should know from this lecture

1. You

time dependent Schrödinger equation

should know

postulate 6 and the form of the

h δ Ψ x t

(,)

ˆ

= H

Ψ (,) xt

i

δ t

2. You should know that the wavefunction for systems where the potential energy is independent of

time [V(x,t)

V(x)] is given by

h

Where

Schrödinger equation :

and E is the energy of the system.

ψ (

x )

is a solution to the time - independent

H ψ

(

x

)

=

(

Ex

ψ

),

Ψ (,) t

x

=

Exp

[

i E t

]

ψ () x

What you should know from this lecture

3. Systems with a time independent potential energy [V(x,t) → V(x) ] have a time
3. Systems with a time independent potential
energy [V(x,t)
→ V(x) ] have a time - independent
probability density :
E
*
*
Ψ x t Ψ
(,)
(,)
x t
= Exp −i E t
h
[
]
ψ
()
x Exp i
[
t
]
ψ
()
x
h
= ψ
(
x
)
ψ
* (
x
).
They are called stationary states