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Schimbtoare de cldur cu plci

Schimbtor de cldur cu plci. Sunt folosite n industria alimentar, de exemplu la nclzirea i rcirea laptelui, berii i vinului i la prepararea apei calde de consum, n instalaii individuale i n puncte termice de cartier.[30]

Amplasarea plcilor.

Forma unei plci. Aceste schimbtoare sunt alctuite dintr-un set de plci individuale montate ntr-un cadru metalic de susinere i strnse cu buloane. Fiecare pereche de plci alturate formeaz un canal de curgere, astfel nct n dou canale adiacente sensul de curgere al celor dou fluide este ntotdeauna n contracurent. Plcile sunt executate din foi metalice subiri, din oeluri

inoxidabile, i sunt prevzute cu ondulaii realizate prin presare, att pentru mrirea rigiditii, ct i pentru mbuntirea transferului termic prin mrirea turbulenei fluidelor.[30][31] Etanarea ntre plci mpiedic amestecul agenilor termici i scurgerea acestora spre exterior i se realizeaz cu garnituri. Garniturile din cauciuc, rini, butil sau neopren rezist la presiuni pn la 25 bar (suficiente pentru instalaii de nclzire) i temperaturi de 150 C, iar cele de azbest pn la 200 C.[31] Acest tip de schimbtoare sunt compacte, la un volum dat ofer o suprafa de schimb de cldur mare, suprafaa de schimb de cldur poate fi mrit sau micorat conform necesitilor, adugnd sau scond plci, au costuri de fabricaie reduse i sunt uor de curat.[30] Au ns i probleme. Buloanele se pot relaxa,[32] caz n care apar scurgeri pe lng garnituri, ns scurgerile au loc spre exterior, nu prin amestecarea fluidelor.[33] Au cderi de presiune relativ mari, ceea ce mrete costurile de pompare. Dac apare o avarie, repararea dureaz mult, mai ales dac sunt sute de plci[33] i se pot colmata relativ uor, nervurile reinnd impuritile.[34]

Bulonul este un urub de mari dimensiuni folosite n lucrri de inginerie, maini grele, ci ferate, etc. n mod normal, buloanele se folosesc cu o aib corespunztoare, care n general st sub presiune i se manipuleaz cu o cheie corespunztoare. Cauciucul este un termen general care definete polimere elastice din gum, poate fi de origine natural, sau cauciucul sintetic obinut din izopren, acesta din urm este o form mai pur omogen i cheltuielile de obinere sunt mai reduse dect cele ale cauciucului natural. Utilizarea principal a cauciucului sintetic este pentru fabricarea anvelopelor, sau ca nlocuitor al cauciucului natural care se obine din latexul rina produs de arborele de cauciuc (Hevea brasiliensis).

[modificare] Productori de cauciuc natural


ri mai importante productoare de cauciuc natural Ran g Produci e Ran (in mii. t g ) 3030 1792 1000 694 550 391 123 112 108 Produci e (in mii. t ) 96 92 88 50 46 46 36 23

Stat

Stat

1 Tailanda 2 Indonezi a

10 Brazilia 11 Sri Lanka 12 Filipine 13 14 Guatema la Cambod gia

3 Malaysia 4 India 5 China 6 Vietnam 7 Coasta de filde

15 Camerun 16 Myanmar 17 Mexic

Opt state produc peste 88 % din producia mondilal

8 Nigeria 9 Liberia

[modificare] Cauciucul sintetic


In anul 1860 Greville Williams reuete s obin i s stabileasc formula chimic a izoprenului (C5H8) prin distilarea cauciucului natural. Aceast descoperire face posibil etapa urmtoare de sintetizare a cauciucului artificial din izopren i acid clorhidric, n anul 1879 de ctre Gustave

Bouchardat. Prin anul 1900 J. Kondakow reuete sintetizarea din dimetilbutadien, patentul de obinere a cauciucului artificial a fost acordat n anul 1909 lui Fritz Hofmann. Aceast descoperire permite firmei Bayer din Leverkusen s produc ntre anii 1915 -1918 o cantitate de 2 500 de tone cauciuc artificial. Prima producie de cauciuc sintetic reentabil din punct de vedere economic a fost cauciucul (SBR) produs n 1929 prin metoda de polimerizare a emulsiei a lui Walter Bock din 1,3-Butadien i styrol. In anul 1930 Erich Konrad i Eduard Tschunkur reuec s produc n Germania cauciucul (NBR), iar n USA firma DuPont produce cauciucul (CR), care azi este numit neopren. n 1942, n USA se reuete producerea cauciucului-silicon, iar n 1948 cauciucul-fluor, ca n anii urmtori s fie perfecionat tot mai mult producia de cauciuc sintetic.

[modificare] Utilizare
Intre 65 % i 70 % din producia total de cauciuc este folosit ca materie prim pentru producerea anvelopelor de maini. Cauciucul natural este folosit atare ca polimer sau sub form de amestec cu cauciucul sintetic. Dezavantajul cauciucului natural este se poate descompune dac ajunge n contact cu lumina solar (razele UV) sau cu lipidele. O alt aplicare important este de folosire ca liant n industria hrtiei, industria productoare de covoare sau n medicin mnuile din latex. Mai poate fi folosit ca profile elastice de etanare, la cele care sunt supuse la aciunea intemperiilor se folosete EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer).
Categorie: Cauciuc

Azbest
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Plci ondulate de azbest

Azbestul (grec. , asbestos, =durabil) este un termen pentru minerale fibroase din grupa rspndit a silicailor. Este denumit azbest forma fibroas a Riebeckitului din grupa amfibolilor, a blendei (numit azbest albastru, a Chrysotilului din grupa serpentinelor, (azbest verede) sau Gruneritul (azbest brun).

Mineralul este foarte rezistent la temperaturi nalte, la aciunea acizilor, fiind un izolator excelent, fiind n trecut folosit pe scar larg n industria de construcii, n producerea izolatoarelor electrice i termice n industria naval, industria cauciucului. Datorit descoperirii ulterioare a pericolului pe care-l prezint pentru sntatea omului, i anume a efectului cancerigen a fibrelor de azbest, folosirea lui a fost interzis n unele ri, i n ntreaga UE, aceast msur cauznd probleme financiare la ndeprtarea lui complet.

[modificare] Obinere i rspndire


Minerale urmtoare apar sub variante fibroase, fiind numite azbest:
Din grupa serpentinelor (Mg,Fe,Ni)3Si2O5(OH)4 Grunerit Fe7Si8O22(OH)2 Mysorit (Azbest brun) Riebeckit Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2 Tremolit Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Aktinolith Ca2(Mg, Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2 Anthophyllit (Mg, Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2

Minereul este extras prin lucrri din subteran sau de la suprafa de minerit. Zcminte de azbest se afl n America de Nord, Africa de Sud, n Tuva sau Ural la Ak-Dovurak n Rusia.

[modificare] Vezi i
List de minerale Pneumoconioze

[modificare] Galerie de imagini

Chrysotilasbest

Ortsbrust min de azbest

Amfiboli, forma fibroas

GARNITURI PENTRU SCHIMBATOARE DE CALDURA IN PLACI Alegerea corecta a garniturilor este cruciala pentru buna functionare a schimbatoarelor de caldura in placi.Datorita faptului ca caeste garnituri sunt fabricate din polimeri perisabili este necesara schimbarea lor datorita faptului ca isi pierd capacitatea de a etansa prin deteriorarea si imbatrinire. Cu cele peste 10 tipuri de polimeri disponibili inclusiv NBR, EPDM, VITON, RCB, NEOPREN, putem oferi solutii pentru orice aplicatie si orice fel de schimbator : Ca urmare a unor studii indelungate si a experientei acumulate s-au evidentiat 6 factori critici care determina compozitia corecta a materialelului garniturilor :
Incompresibilitatea : dupa ce a fost supus compresiunii acesta trebuie sa isi revinea la forma initiala Rezistanta la temperatura : unul din dezavantajele polimerilor care intra in compozitia garniturilor este dependenta caracteristicilor sale functie de temperatura.Acestia isi mentin proprietatile pe un interval restrins de temperatura.Din acest motiv polimeiil trebuie atent selectionati pentru a satisface cerintele de calitate la temperatura de lucru impusa. Impermeabilitate fata d agentul de schimb de caldura : greutatea molara ridicata si matricea de legaturi in cross confera impermeabilitate necesara care nu permite contactul intre cele 2 medii. Rezistenta la eforturi mecanice : este suficient de rezistent ca sa reziste la fortele de stringere si la cele exercitata de agentul termic Elasticitate : materialul selectionat trebuie sa fie in acelsi timp rezistent la eforturi mecanice dar este si suficient de elastic incat sa Longevitatea : Polimeri sintetici moderni au o durata de utilizare marita.In acest sens este vitala compzitia materialului.Materiale care confera etansietatea sufera o relaxare in timp ceea ce are ca si consecinta aparitia scurgerilor.

Tinind cont de cei 6 factori s-a optimizat substantial compozitia polimerilor sintetici avand ca efect caracteristitici de utilizare net superioare.
Material utilizate Temperatu ra

NBR HT NBR HYDROGEN EPDM

-25 / + 130 C -40 / + 130 C -40 / + 150 C

EPDM HT VITON

-40 / + 150 C -20 / + 175 C

Exemple de garnituri care pot fi livrate pentru modele de schimbatoare in placi SWEP si Alfa Laval SWEP
G30 GC28 G48 G50 G55 G66 G75 G78 G85 G95 GC12

GC28 GC30 GC50 GC55 GC65 GC75 GC85 GC95 GCD65

GFP05 GFP10 GFP18 GM138 GX100 GX118 GX12 GX140 GX145 GX18 0 0 0 GX180 GX205 GX26 GX265 GX325 GX37 GX42 GX51 GX6 GX64 GX85 GX91 GX60

GXD01 GXD02 GXD04 GXD05 GXD06 GXD09 GXD10 8 6 2 1 4 1 0

GXD11 GXD14 GXP02 GXP04 GXP05 HXD01 HXD02 HXD05 HXD08 HXD14 8 0 6 2 1 2 5 0 5 5 HXP05 UFX42 UF42H UX01 0 H UX016 UX10 UX100 UX216 UX80 UXP00 5

UXP01 UXP06 UXP20 UXP40 UXP80 0 0 0 0 1

ALFA LAVAL
A10 A10B A15 A45 A15B AK20 A15BW AM10 A20 A20HB A3 M A3-P30 A30

A30HB A35 M

AM20 AM20B

AM20BF AM20HB M M

AM20W AX30

AX30B AX30B W

AX30FM

CLIP10 & AX35 Clip3 FRONT1 0 EC700 H10 H7M10B M20M

EC 350

Clip6 & Clip8 & Clip8W EC500 Front 6 Front 8 S M10BW M10M M15B

EC600

M15BCli M15FFM8 M15F M15M

M20MW M25B

p M3 M6M MX25 P15 P26 TL10 M30 M30FM M30M M30S

M M3X M6 M6B M6F M6FN C

M6MCli M6MFC MA30 p N MX25B PO1 P16 P31 P32 TL10B TS6 P17 & P171 P36 P02 P20 P41

Microther MK15B MK15 mP W P11 P21 & P22 P45 P13 P225 P5 P132 P25 PO16 P135 P252 T200 T50 P14 P14&L 1

Nitrile rubber
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2008)

Nitrile rubber

Identifiers CAS number 9003-18-3

(verify) (what is: / ?) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 C,

100 kPa) Infobox references

Nitrile rubber, also known as Buna-N, Perbunan, or NBR, is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. Trade names include Nipol, Krynac and Europrene. Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a family of unsaturated copolymers of 2-propenenitrile and various butadiene monomers (1,2-butadiene and 1,3-butadiene). Although its physical and chemical properties vary depending on the polymers composition of nitrile, this form of synthetic rubber is generally resistant to oil, fuel, and other chemicals (the more nitrile within the polymer, the higher the resistance to oils but the lower the flexibility of the material). It is used in the automotive and aeronautical industry to make fuel and oil handling hoses, seals, and grommets. It is used in the nuclear industry to make protective gloves. NBRs ability to withstand a range of temperatures from -40 C to +108 C makes it an ideal material for aeronautical applications. Nitrile butadiene is also used to create moulded goods, footwear, adhesives, sealants, sponges, expanded foams, and floor mats. Its resilience makes NBR a useful material for disposable lab, cleaning, and examination gloves. Nitrile rubber is more resistant than natural rubber to oils and acids, but has inferior strength and flexibility. Nitrile gloves are nonetheless three times more puncture-resistant than natural rubber gloves.[1] Nitrile rubber is generally resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Nitrile, like natural rubber, can be attacked by ozone, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters and aldehydes.

Contents
[hide] 1 Production 2 Applications 3 Dangers 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

[edit] Production
Emulsifier (soap), 2-propenenitrile, various butadiene monomers (including 1,3-butadiene, 1,2butadiene), radical generating activators, and a catalyst are added to polymerization vessels in the production of hot NBR. Water serves as the reaction medium within the vessel. The tanks are heated to 3040 C to facilitate the polymerization reaction and to promote branch formation in the polymer. Because several monomers capable of propagating the reaction are involved in the production of nitrile rubber the composition of each polymer can vary (depending on the concentrations of each monomer added to the polymerization tank and the conditions within the tank). One repeating unit found throughout the entire polymer may not exist. For this reason there is also no IUPAC name for the general polymer. The reaction for one possible portion of the polymer is shown below:

1,3-butadiene + 1,3-butadiene + 2-propenenitrile + 1,3-butadiene + 1,2butadiene nitrile butadiene rubber

Monomers are usually permitted to react for 5 to 12 hours. Polymerization is allowed to proceed to ~70% conversion before a shortstop agent (such as dimethyldithioarbamate and diethyl hydroxylamine) is added to react with the remaining free radicals. Once the resultant latex has shortstopped, the unreacted monomers are removed through a steam in a slurry stripper. Recovery of unreacted monomers is close to 100%. After monomer recovery, latex is sent through a series of filters to remove unwanted solids and then sent to the blending tanks where it is stabilized with an antioxidant. The yielded polymer latex is coagulated using calcium nitrate, aluminium sulfate, and other coagulating agents in an aluminium tank. The coagulated substance is then washed and dried into crumb rubber. The process for the production of cold NBR is very similar to that of hot NBR. Polymerization tanks are heated to 515 C instead of 3040 C. Under lower temperature conditions, less branching will form on polymers (the amount of branching distinguishes cold NBR from hot NBR).

[edit] Applications

A disposable nitrile rubber glove. Nitrile gloves are available in different colours, the most common being blue and purple[citation needed].

The uses of nitrile rubber include non-latex gloves for the healthcare industry, automotive transmission belts, hoses, O rings, gaskets, oil seals, V belts, synthetic leather, printer's roller, and as cable jacketing; NBR latex can also be used in the preparation of adhesives and as a pigment binder.

Unlike polymers meant for ingestion, where small inconsistencies in chemical composition/structure can have a pronounced effect on the body, the general properties of NBR are not altered by minor structural/compositional differences. The production process itself is not overly complex; the polymerization, monomer recovery, and coagulation processes require some additives and equipment, but they are typical of the production of most rubbers. The necessary apparatus is simple and easy to obtain. For these reasons, the substance is widely produced in poorer countries where labor is relatively cheap. Among the highest producers of NBR are mainland China and Taiwan. A hydrogenated version of nitrile rubber, HNBR, also known as HSN (highly saturated nitrile) is commonly used to manufacture o-rings for automotive air-conditioning systems.[2] In January 2008 the European Commission imposed fines totaling 34,230,000 on the Bayer and Zeon groups for fixing prices for nitrile butadiene rubber, in violation of the EU ban on cartels and restrictive business practices (Article 81 of the EC Treaty and Article 53 of the EEA Agreement).[3]

[edit] Dangers
Do not use these gloves when working with red fuming nitric acid, as sudden combustion of these two chemicals could cause serious chemical burns. Caution must be taken when working with the acid and the gloves at the same time.

[edit] See also

EPDM rubber
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from EPDM) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011)

EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene diene monomer (M-class) rubber),[1][2] a type of synthetic rubber, is an elastomer which is characterized by a wide range of applications. The E refers to ethylene, P to propylene, D to diene and M refers to its classification in ASTM standard D-1418. The M class includes rubbers having a saturated chain of the polymethylene type. Dienes currently used in the manufacture of EPDM rubbers are dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), ethylidene norbornene (ENB), and vinyl norbornene (VNB).

A roll of EPDM foil, used for waterproofing roofs

The ethylene content is around 45% to 75%. The higher the ethylene content the higher the loading possibilities of the polymer, better mixing and extrusion. Peroxide curing these polymers give a higher crosslink density compared with their amorphous counterpart. The amorphous polymer are also excellent in processing. This is very much influenced by their molecular structure. The dienes, typically comprising from 2.5% up to 12% by weight of the composition, serve as crosslinks when curing with sulphur and resin, with peroxide cures the diene (or third monomer) functions as a coagent, which provide resistance to unwanted tackiness, creep or flow during end use.

Contents
[hide] 1 Usage 2 Common applications 2.1 Vehicles 2.2 Cold-room doors and refrigeration 2.3 Safety equipment 2.4 Cable insulation 2.5 Solar pool panels 2.6 Roofing 2.7 Playground and pool deck surfacing 2.8 Pond liners

3 References

[edit] Usage
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011)

An EPDM rubber roof

EPDM rubber is used in seals, glass-run channel, radiators, garden and appliance hose, tubing, washers, belts, electrical insulation, vibrators, and speaker cone surrounds. It is also used as a medium for water resistance in electrical cable-jointing, roofing membranes, geomembranes, rubber mechanical goods, plastic impact modification, thermoplastic, vulcanizates, and many other applications. EPDM exhibits satisfactory compatibility with fireproof hydraulic fluids, ketones, hot and cold water, and alkalis, and unsatisfactory compatibility with most oils, gasoline, kerosene, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated solvents, and concentrated acids. The main properties of EPDM are its outstanding heat, ozone and weather resistance. The resistance to polar substances and steam are also good. It has excellent electrical insulating properties. Typical properties of EPDM vulcanisates are given below. EPDM can be compounded to meet specific properties to a limit depending first on the EPDM polymers available, then the processing and curing method(s) employed. EPDMs are available in a range of molecular weights (indicated in terms of Mooney viscosity ML(1+4) at 125 C), varying levels of ethylene, third monomer and oil content.
Mechanical properties Hardness, Shore A Tensile failure stress, ultimate Density 4090 25 MPa Can be compounded from 0.90 to >2.00 g/cm3

Thermal properties Coefficient of thermal expansion, 160 linear[3] m/mK Maximum service temperature[4] 150 C Minimum service temperature[4] Glass temperature 50 C 54 C

[edit] Common applications


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011) [edit] Vehicles

EPDM rubber is commonly used in weatherseals on all vehicles. This includes door seals, window seals, trunk seals, and sometimes hood seals. Frequently these seals are the source of noise due to movement of the door versus the car body. This is due to friction between the EPDM rubber and the mating surface (car painted sheet metal or glass). This can be alleviated using specialty coatings that are applied at the time of manufacture of the weatherseal, not as an aftermarket application. Such coatings can also greatly increase the chemical resistance of EPDM rubber. Some vehicle manufacturers such as General Motors also recommend a light application of silicone dielectric grease to weatherstripping to reduce noise. In general, EPDM is especially used in cooling system circuit hoses in an automobile. Water pump, thermostat, EGR valve, EGR cooler, heater, oil cooler, radiator and degas bottle is connected with hoses of which material is usually EPDM. Additionally, EPDM can be used as charge air tubing on turbo charged engines. More specifically, it can be used to connect the cold side of the charge air cooler (intercooler) to the intake manifold.
[edit] Cold-room doors and refrigeration

EPDM provides good thermal resistance in insulation. It is used in cold-room doors for sealing purpose.
[edit] Safety equipment

EPDM is also commonly used as a material for the face seals of industrial respirators, most frequently chosen where the use of silicone must be avoided, typically in automotive paint spray environments.

[edit] Cable insulation

EPDM is also commonly used as a material for the outer casing on wires used on electrical appliances for outdoor installation, or exposed to UV light. E.g., for tubular motors for awnings, shutters, and roller blinds and also Venetian blind drives
[edit] Solar pool panels

Extruded EPDM is used to make a solar heat collector for swimming pool solar water heating systems.
[edit] Roofing

EPDM is used as a covering to waterproof roofs. It has the benefit that it does not pollute the run-off rainwater, which is of vital importance if the house owner wishes to use this water for personal sanitation/hygiene. Several houses equipped with rainwater harvesting thus make use of this type of roofing.
[edit] Playground and pool deck surfacing

Granulated, colored EPDM granules are mixed with polyurethane binders and trowled or sprayed onto concrete, asphalt, screenings, interlocking brick, wood etc. to create a non-slip, soft, porous safety surface for wet-deck areas such as pool decks or playgrounds.
[edit] Pond liners

EPDM sheeting is used to line and waterproof man made ponds. Most back yard water gardens and koi ponds use an EPDM liner.

[edit] References