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9/19/00

ATPG and Fault Coverages, Lecture 6 Jump to first page ■ Podem - Path oriented
ATPG and Fault Coverages, Lecture 6
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■ Podem - Path oriented
decision making
a x
0
b x
■ In D-algorithm
a = 0, or
b = 0, or
decisions are made
a=b=0
a
at J-fronters
b
■ In Podem
0
0
1
decisions are made
c
1
at PIs
f
d
f=0
c=1
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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9/19/00

■ Multi-Backtrackings 1 1 ◆ In Podem, only one path is traced back at a
■ Multi-Backtrackings
1
1
◆ In Podem, only one path
is traced back at a time
1
◆ In FAN, mu
ltiple paths
1
are traced back
1
simultaneously
decision made here
■ Decisions ma
de at
Headlines
◆ In Podem, a decision is
k
made at a PI
◆ In FAN, a decision can
tree circuit
be made at
a headline
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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■ Convert ATPG problem into a SAT instance
■ Use an existing SAT tool
a
f
b
c
=1?
(c+a’)(c+b’)(c’+a+b)
g
(a+b)(a’+b’)
a
a
c
b
c
b
(c’+a)(c’+b)(c+a’+b’)
(c+a)(c+b)(c’+a’+b’)
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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9/19/00

■ In general, to solve an NP-complete problem with backtracking ◆ branching - a set
In general, to solve an NP-complete problem
with backtracking
◆ branching - a set of potential solutions,
represent
ed by a node, can be partitioned into
mutually exclusive sets (children nodes).
◆ Bounding
the lower
- an algorithm is available to determine
bound on the cost of solution
✦ In ATPG, this can mean “no solution” (= infinite cost)
✦ You will
see in many algorithms, they try to prove as
early as
possible that a branch is a “dead end” so avoid
unnecessary backtrackings.
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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■ Implication
◆ determine necessary assignment as early as
possible
◆ determine a conflict as early as possible
■ Recursive learning
◆ recursively try all the combinations
◆ find out necessary assignments
◆ prove that there is no solution space underneath
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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9/19/00

■ k = 1 Li-C. Wang’s Lecture Jump to first page
■ k = 1
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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■ n = 0 Li-C. Wang’s Lecture Jump to first page
■ n = 0
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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9/19/00

Search for a solution prove no solution ■ In traditional ATPGs, redundant faults cause problems
Search for
a solution
prove no solution
■ In traditional ATPGs, redundant faults cause problems
◆ since ATPG is trying to look for a solution while there
is not any
■ By alternating strategies, faults can be proved
redundant quickly
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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100%

FC

100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many

100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many

100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many
100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many

# of patterns

100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many

100% FC # of patterns ■ Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns many

Lots of faults are detected by first few patterns

many easy faults

faults are detected by first few patterns many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste
faults are detected by first few patterns many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste
faults are detected by first few patterns many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste

no need to waste time on them

many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste time on them ■ Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste time on them ■ Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste time on them ■ Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

many easy faults ◆ ◆ no need to waste time on them ■ Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

Li-C. Wang’s Lecture

ATPG spends most of the time on the hard faults

need to waste time on them ■ Li-C. Wang’s Lecture ATPG spends most of the time
need to waste time on them ■ Li-C. Wang’s Lecture ATPG spends most of the time

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9/19/00

■ Step 1 - Random ◆ throw in a lots of patterns (eg. 16 at
■ Step 1 - Random
◆ throw in a lots of patterns (eg. 16 at a time)
◆ fault simulate the circuit
◆ until no
fault can be detected in i trials
■ Step 2 - Deterministic
◆ for each undetected fault
✦ perfo
rm deterministic ATPG
✦ fault simulate remaining undetected faults
✦ removed fortuitously detected faults
◆ reverse fault simulation of all patterns
✦ pattern compression
✦ in general, another NP-complete problem
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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■ Fault Coverage FC = # detected faults/ # faults
■ Defect Coverage DC = # of detected defects/#
defects
■ William-Brown model
Y (1-DC)
DL = 1 -
■ In practice, no one knows what DC is
◆ DL est = 1
- Y (1-FC)
◆ ex. FC=0.99, Y=0.85, DL = 1623 PPM
■ Since FC π DC
DL est π DL
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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9/19/00

ππ ■ To detect an and- bridging a and ◆ detect a s-a-0 b and
ππ
■ To detect an and-
bridging
a
and
◆ detect a s-a-0
b
and b = 0
◆ detect b s-a-0
good
1
and a = 0
c
bad
■ To detect a
transition fault on c
◆ pattern 1 : c = 1
If defects are not stuck-at, detecting
them relies on fortuitous detection
◆ pattern 2 : detect
c s-a-1
Li-C. Wang’s Lecture
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