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A Bibliography of Publications on Computer-Based Spelling Error Detection and Correction

Nelson H. F. Beebe University of Utah Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB 155 S 1400 E RM 233 Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090 USA

Tel: +1 801 581 5254 FAX: +1 801 581 4148

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23 March 2007 Version 2.05

Title word cross-reference

n [Wag74].

- [Wil94]. -gram [Ull76].

/ [IEE87a]. /usr/group [USE82].

12th [Ano92a]. 14th [Pre91]. 15th [Ano92b]. 16th [Hes90]. 17th [RW92]. 17th-century [RW92]. 1880-1920 [Car93]. 1982 [Mor82]. 19th [RAR94].

21st [RAR94]. 2D [Lav93]. 2nd [IEE90].

3rd [LT81].

6th [Ano93b].

80 [Hus81]. 80’S [Hus81]. ’81 [BS + 81]. ’87 [IEE87b].

’91 [ASP91]. ’92 [BIP92]. ’93 [Ano93b]. ’93-Nagoya [IEE93a]. ’94 [BJ94]. 9th [Ano93a].

Abbreviations [EP82]. accept [IN94]. access [Mil95]. Accuracy [LMPK92]. achievement [AB84]. achieving [TWT84]. ACM [ACM81]. Acquired [CMVR87]. Actes [ACM88]. Actes/Proceedings [ACM88]. Actuated [Can81]. Adaptation [Bey88]. Add [MM92]. Add-A-Word [MM92]. Advanced [Ano93c]. Advances [O’S84].



Advertisement [Ano85b]. affected [BH92]. affix [BH92]. agents [Fou94]. Agglutinative [Ofl92]. AI [Rob86]. Aid [GMW75]. aided [HRLJ93]. Aids [Che81]. Airline [Dav62]. Airport [IEE90]. algorithm [KW81]. Algorithms [AFCB94]. almost [Tay86]. alternative [Ano91]. Alternatives [Car93]. Analysis [Sid79]. analytic [BCK85]. Anticipation [MPG + 92]. any [KPB87a]. Application [IK83]. applications [Pel83]. approach [Pel83]. approximate [DC94]. April [Ano93b]. Arabic [BH92]. architectures [DGK + 90]. Arizona [CBC84]. array [Lav93]. Articles [NCNS82]. artificial [IYME93]. ASIC [IEE92a]. ASMC [Ano93c]. Assistance [FZ88]. assisted [TWT84]. associative [CVB90]. AT&T [AT&T86]. Atlanta [ASP91]. attitude [AB84]. Augmented [Hus81]. August [Ano92b]. Authoring [Hur87]. authorship [Smi83]. AutoCAD [Yar95]. automata [LK93]. automated [EP82]. automatic [Ull76]. Automatically [Kuk92b]. Automation [BDT94]. Avignon [Ano92a]. Aviv [BS + 81].

Back [Kuk88]. Back-propagation [Kuk88]. backtracking [KC94]. Base [Zam80]. based [Tur81]. Baseforms [LM84]. Bases [Bou77]. Basic [Thi82]. Basque [CA89]. best [JVFM95]. better [SW93]. Between [Chi84]. Beyond [Dun81]. Bibliographic [Bou77]. Bibliography [Pol82]. binary [Ull76]. biomedicales [IEE87b]. Blind [NH84]. board [CT92]. Bratislava [SD94]. Bucharest [Ano93a]. Bucket [CS82]. Buffer [CMVR87]. Bug [Rob86]. Builder [Fly88]. Bulgaria [Boy85].

CA [ACM83]. CALICO [BJ94]. California [CB87]. Cannes [ACM88].

Capabilities [Ber86b]. Carolina [BS83]. case [FW82]. Cedar [Tei84]. Center [ACM89]. Century [Edm82]. Changes [LMPK92]. channel [Dol88a]. Character [TST93]. Characterization [PZ83]. characters [KPB87a]. Check [Ano85a]. checker [Bom82]. Checkers [Ros82, HP88]. Checking [Tur81]. Checks [WS94]. Chinese [Cha94]. chip [Lav92]. City [Pre91]. class [Pel83]. Classic [RB05]. Classification [Pai81]. Clause [Ber86b]. clerical [PM87]. Cn [Mea87]. CNIT [IEE92a]. co-sponsorship [Law85]. COBOL [VD84]. Code [MF82a]. Cognitive [PMC85]. COLING [Ano92b]. COLING-92 [Ano92b]. Collection [PZ83]. Collegiate [Pet82]. Colorado [SK83]. Command [Ebi92]. Commercial [CR95]. Commission [Law85]. Commonwealth [ACM89]. Communication [GT84]. Communities [Law85]. Comparison [MM92]. completion [TST93]. Components [BKP86]. Compound [Ros82]. compressed [Mil95]. compression [Coo05]. Compu [MM92]. computable [EH88]. Computation [MV93]. Computational [Ams86]. computer [Dam64]. computer-aided [HRLJ93]. computer-assisted [TWT84]. computer-based [Tur81]. computer-managed [TG83]. Computer-Tutor [Ter81]. Computerized [Hei72]. Computers [Rad83]. Computr [Mea87]. Concurrent [Ano86a]. conferences [IEE87b]. Congres [INN90]. Congress [CC89]. conjugation [Bos94]. connaissance [EBR87]. connectionistic [DGK + 90].


Consistency [LMPK92]. Consortium [BJ94]. constraints [Sen93]. Construct [Pet82]. Consultants [Chi84]. consumers [Pre92]. containing [OL95]. Context [MDM91]. continuously [JVFM95]. Contributed [CC89]. Convention [ACM89]. Conventional [CVB90]. conversion [Bes94]. Copenhagen [BIP92]. corpus [WWSG94]. correcting [Bla60]. correction [Dam64]. corrector [YF83a]. correctors [Mit87b]. Corrects [AHZ81]. Correspondences [HHHR66]. cost [TG83]. Could [Edm82]. courseware [DR94]. Cues [HHHR66]. CUG248 [Art89]. CUG360 [McC92]. CUG374 [Law92].

Data [Bou77]. Databases [PZ82]. datasets [Mil95]. deaf [Kuk92a]. December [ACM83]. decoding [Dol88a]. decryption [Che87]. deletion [Ull76]. Denmark [BIP92]. Depth [Boy85]. Design [FW82]. designing [DC94]. Detecting [WMRB77]. detection [Dam64, EBR87]. Determination [LM84]. Deutsche [BN85]. Development [McI82]. Device [Gri83]. diagnosis [Bos94]. dialect [Sla87]. Dictionaries [Ano86c]. Dictionary [SM80]. DIDAC [DR94]. Diego [ACM83]. Digital [Gri83]. d’ing´enieire [EBR87]. Directions [BS82]. Disambiguation [TV94]. disk [Arn83]. Display [Thi82]. distance [EH88]. distances [VMA95]. Districts [Car93]. diverse [SHC83]. do [Dit87]. docile [Fou94]. document [KL82]. documents [Ber87]. Does [JS91]. domain [SKS96]. Domains [SPR90]. d’orthographe [EBR87]. Dulles [IEE90]. during [FS92]. Dutch [Bos94]. Dynamic [Ano85a]. Dysgraphia [CMVR87].

Dyslexia [PMC85]. dyslexic [LBW92].

EACL [Ano93b]. East [CB87]. Easy [Rob86]. ECAI [O’S84]. ECAI-84 [O’S84]. Ecrire [GT84]. Edit [Ano86a]. editing [FQA89]. Editor [Dun81]. Editors [Thi82]. effect [AB84]. Efficient [Gon83]. Eighth [ACM85]. Electric [Rob83]. Electronic [GMW75]. Electrotechnical [BS + 81]. Electrotechnology [BS + 81]. Embedded [Hes90]. Empirical [VD84]. engineers [Wei82]. English [CS82, EBR87]. Entry [Gri83]. Enumeration [Car93]. Environment [MF82b]. Environmental [SD94]. equipment [Mit85]. erreurs [EBR87]. Error [Pai81]. errors [Bla60]. Essential [SM80]. Euro [IEE92a]. Evaluation [TL82]. Evidence [CMVR87]. Example [EBR87]. exemple [EBR87]. Experiment [Hua87]. Expert [BA88]. Exploration [LMPK92]. Exploring [GF87]. Extending [Ber86b].

Factor [BJ94]. Factory [Ano93c]. Fast [CS82]. Fault [Sch94]. Fault-tolerant [Sch94]. Faulty [MF82b]. features [VD84]. February [ACM89]. Fifteenth [BIP92]. File [IK83]. Filter [Urq84]. filtering [Cav94]. Finding [ZD95]. Finds [Pro95]. finite [LK93]. First [AHZ81]. Flags [Mac87]. font [KPB87a]. Foolproof [WS94]. foreign [Gor85]. foreign-language [Gor85]. formatter [MM93]. forming [BDT94]. forms [RW92]. FORTH [Hes90]. FORTRAN [Hei72]. Fourth [Bic87]. Fourth-Generation [Bic87]. framework [Ber87]. Fran¸caise [GT84]. France [IEE86, ACM88]. French [Bey88]. Frequency [Bou77]. Fully [Ano86b].


Function [GHU84]. Further [LMPK92]. future [Yar95]. Fuzzy [IYME93]. Fuzzyness [Sch75].

Geller [Ang90]. Genealogy [Car93]. generalized [OL95]. Generalizing [SKS96]. Generated [Chi84]. Generation [Ano86b]. Georgia [ASP91]. German [KW81]. GIS [ASP91]. GIS-LIS [ASP91]. Glove [Gri83]. grade [AB84]. graders [TWT84]. gram [Ull76]. grammar [HP88]. grammars [JVFM95]. Grapheme [HHHR66]. grapheme-to-phoneme [Bes94]. Graphemic [CMVR87]. Greek [VTTC94]. guide [Pfa86]. Guild [Law85].

handbook [Stu82]. Handicapped [Ter81]. handwritten [SKS96]. Harbor [CB87]. Hash [CS82]. Hash-Bucket [CS82]. Hashing [Flo87]. Having [Ano86a]. Hebrew [Sch82]. held [CC89]. Herndon [IEE90]. Heuristic [Coo05]. Heuristical [Bes94]. Hidden [DS94]. Hierarchical [IK83]. High [TTK86]. High-Performance [Flo87]. Hindi [SS84]. historical [RW92]. history [FW82]. Honour [BRSS94]. Horn [Ber86b]. Hotel [ACM83, ACM88]. Houston [Mor82]. human [LM87]. human-computer [LM87]. Humanities [BS83]. Hyatt [IEE90]. Hypercard [Fly88]. Hyphenation [Pet82].

IBM [Mit85]. Icon [Fly88]. ICSLP [Ano94b]. Identification [JS91]. IEEE/SEMI [Ano93c]. IFIP [LT81]. IJCNN [IEE92b]. IJCNN-91-Seattle [IEE92b]. Impact [Bou77]. Implementation [Mil90]. implications [Yan91]. improve [TWT84]. Improvement [HHHR66]. Improving [Fur90]. In-Depth [Boy85]. Includes [Fly88]. incorporate [SKS96]. Incorporating [Par83].

Independent [CFGJ91]. Indian [SC96]. Inductive [WL84]. inflection [CA89]. Informational [Wil82]. Inforum [ASP91]. INNC [INN90]. insertion [Ull76]. instruction [TWT84]. Instrument [TL82]. Integrated [Ano92c]. Integrating [SHC83]. Integration [Dal87]. Intelligent [AHZ81]. interaction [LM87]. Interactive [Rad83]. Interactively [FQA89]. Interface [Gri83]. Interfaces [DLS83]. introduction [Gor85]. investigation [VD84]. Invited [CC89]. IPCC [IEE87a]. ISKO [SD94]. Island [CB87]. issues [Gor85]. Istanbul [Ano93e]. Italy [O’S84]. IX [RAR94].

Jake [Ang90]. January [ACM90]. Japanese [Fur90]. Jerusalem [Sch82]. Joint [USE82]. Jointly [Law85]. Jose [VP94]. July [LT81]. June [Mor82, ACM81]. Just [Cun94].

Kansas [Pre91]. katakana [IN94]. Kaypro [Hic83]. Kentucky [ACM89]. Keyboard [Can81]. Keywords [Sch75]. Khmer [Har94a]. knowledge [SHC83]. Knowledge-Based [Ebi92]. KONVENS [Tro94]. Korean [KC94].

label [GDEJ05]. language [Gor85]. Languages [Wag74]. Large [WMRB77]. Lausanne [LT81]. Learning [TL82]. learns [FW82]. Legal [Ano93d]. Legal-Specific [Ano93d]. Lemmatizing [KW81]. Length [Tur82]. Length-segmented [Tur82]. lessons [Klixx]. Letter [Dun81]. Lexical [Ber86b]. lexicology [Ams86]. lexicon [VTTC95]. lexicons [ZD95]. life [Ano92d]. Lightning [Yer86]. linear [EH88]. linguistics [Ano92b]. LIS [ASP91]. LISP [Sla87]. List [McI82]. lists [Tur82]. Literacy [CBC84]. literary [Smi83]. logical [Ber87].


LOGO [GF87]. look [Cri88]. looks [Yar95]. lost [Ano92d]. Louisville [ACM89]. low [TG83]. Low-Achieving [MM92]. low-cost [TG83]. LPC [BG84]. LRE [Adr95]. Lumpy [Yan87].

Macro [LHR + 92]. mai [ACM88]. Making [Joh81]. man [Arc83]. managed [TG83]. Managers [SM80]. Manipulation [ACM81]. Manual [Ano84]. Manufacturing [Ano93c]. March [CBC84]. Markov [DS94]. Massachusetts [Ano93c]. Master [Pet82]. match [Tay86]. matches [ZD95]. Matching [IK83]. Matter [Pro95]. Max [Alt90]. May [BS + 81]. Me [Cun94]. Meaning [JS91]. Measure [AFW83]. Measures [Kre92]. Mediterranean [BS + 81]. MELECON [BS + 81]. membership [MW94]. memory-based [CVB90]. Message [Che87]. Method [WMRB77]. methods [KO84]. metric [EH88]. micro [Cri88]. Microcomputers [CBC84]. Microprocessored [AHZ81]. MicroSpell [Law92]. Misspelled [Dav62]. misspellings [Mit87b]. mistakes [Dol88b]. MMSFORTH [Mil90]. MO [Pre91]. model [AB89]. Models [DS94]. Modern [VTTC94]. Montech [IEE87b]. Montfleury [ACM88]. Montreal [ACM85]. morphological [CA89]. MT [Adr95]. much [Rob83]. Multi [Ano86c]. Multi-Language [Ano86c]. Multiculturalism [Cun94]. Multiple [Ano86a].

N [Cav94]. N-best [JVFM95]. N-gram-based [Cav94]. Nagoya [IEE93a]. Name [Mil90]. Names [Dav62]. Naming [LM87]. Nantes [Ano92b]. natural [CR95]. Naturlicher [Tro94]. NC [BS83]. need [GDEJ05].

Neighborhood [LMPK92]. net [AB89]. network [Hei91]. network-based [TV94]. networks [JVFM95]. Neural [AB89]. Neuropsychological [PMC85]. neuropsychology [AB89]. newspaper [KW81]. next [BD95]. nineties [Pre91]. ninth [RAR94]. No [Pro95]. Non [GT84]. non-semantic [BCK85]. Non-Verbale [GT84]. Nonword [LMPK92]. normal [LBW92]. normalized [MV93]. note [Pet86]. Notes [Pol82]. nothing [BD95]. November [Law85]. novembre [IEE87b].

OCR [TKS86]. October [IEE86]. Office [GR78]. Omnifont [BKP86]. OPACs [Sch94]. operators [EP82]. Optically [Can81]. Optimization [IY85]. Order [Wag74]. Order- [Wag74]. Oregon [ACM81]. Organization [IK83]. ORTHO [DR94]. ORTHO-DIDAC [DR94]. Orthographe [GT84]. Orthographic [LMPK92]. Other [Yan87].

Pacific [Ano94c]. Page [BKP86]. Palais [INN90]. paper [WL83]. Paris [IEE86]. parser [CA89]. Parsing [Ofl92]. Pascal [KP81]. Passenger [Dav62]. password [MW94]. Pathways [Wil82]. Patient [FS92]. Patterns [DC85]. PC [HP88, ACM88]. Pearls [Ben85]. SEMI [Ano93c]. Pennsylvania [RAR94]. perfect [Mil95]. Performance [Flo87]. person [Bom82]. Personal [Rad83]. Personnel [SM80]. Perspectives [CC89]. Phoneme [HHHR66]. Phoneme-Grapheme [HHHR66]. phonemes [Yan91]. Phonemic [LM84]. Phonological [PMC85]. pilot [Cha94]. Pisa [O’S84]. Plagued [Rob86]. Plus [CBC84]. poor [Bom82].


Portland [ACM81]. Possible [BG84]. Pour [GT84]. practical [Pfa86]. practice [SW93]. Predictive [Ano92c]. preparation [KL82]. Presented [CC89]. PRICAI [Ano94c]. PRICAI-94 [Ano94c]. Principles [Thi82]. printed [KPB87a]. probabilistic [KO84]. problem [Ram94]. problem-solving [Ram94]. Proceed [JS91]. process [BDT94]. processes [AB89]. Processors [Ano86a]. Prof [BRSS94]. proficiency [TWT84]. program [Bla60]. Programming [Mor69]. programs [Mor70]. project [Adr95]. Prolog [Ber86a]. pronunciation [LHR + 92]. pronunciation-information [HK95]. Proof [WL83]. Proof-reading [WL83]. propagation [Kuk88]. Prototype [BA88]. Proximity [Mac87]. Proximity-Scan [Mac87]. Pseudohomophone [LMPK92]. Psychological [Ano84]. Publication [Ano84].

Qualified [Ano86b]. Quebec [ACM85]. Queries [MF82b]. question [Asi82].

R13 [Yar95]. Raed [Mea87]. Rajaraman [BRSS94]. Raleigh [BS83]. RAM [Edw87]. RAM-resident [Edw87]. Random [Mil95]. Reaction [Kre92]. Reactive [WCD83]. reader [BCK85]. readers [CHJ94]. Readings [AT&T86]. real [Ram94]. real-time [JVFM95]. real-word [Ram94]. Reclaiming [Ano92d]. recognition [SHC83]. recognizer [BH95]. Recognizing [DGK + 90]. Record [Dav62]. Reduction [WL84]. reflexive [dO94]. Regular [Wag74]. Reject [Ano95]. Remedial [Pai81]. representing [LK93]. research [Ams86]. resident [Edw87]. RESORT [Kra84]. Responsiveness [Sch82]. results [SW93]. Retrieval [Dav62, Har94b]. Revelation [Mac87]. reversal [Ull76].

review [Klixx]. right [Sil85]. Rim [Ano94c]. road [Pou84]. robust [BH92]. Rochester [Hes90]. Role [CMVR87]. Romanian [CEU93, BDT94]. ROSE [Ord87]. ROWS [Ord87]. rules [EP82]. Russell-Soundex [Mil90].

Scan [Mac87]. scholar [Pfa86]. Scholarly [PZ83]. Scientific [PZ83]. scientists [Wei82]. screen [WL83]. Scripting [RB05]. Scripts [Chi84]. Search [CS82]. Searches [Sch75]. Searching [CS82]. Seattle [IEE92b]. SECC [Adr95]. second [dO94]. Secretaries [SM80]. security [MW94]. Segmentation [LAS93]. segmented [Tur82]. Selected [KW87]. selectively [JVFM95]. semantic [BCK85]. Semiconductor [Ano93c]. Sept [Wil82]. September [O’S84]. sequence [Kuk88]. sequences [TTK86]. Sequential [Dol88a]. Seventeenth [ACM89]. Seventh [Pet82]. Shell [RB05]. Sheraton [CB87]. Sichere [BN85]. SIGIR [ACM85]. SIGOA [ACM81]. SIGPLAN [ACM81]. SIGSMALL [ACM88]. SIGSMALL/PC [ACM88]. Silbentrennung [BN85]. Similar [IK83]. Similar-String [IK83]. Similarity [Sch75]. Simplified [Adr95]. single [SS84]. Sinnentsprechende [BN85]. sixth [AB84]. sixth-grade [AB84]. size [KPB87a]. Skilled [Kre92]. Skipping [GHU84]. Slovakia [SD94]. small [Pel83]. smarter [Joh81]. Smoothing [KKC04]. Sofia [Boy85]. Solution [GR78]. solving [Ram94]. Some [Pol82]. sound [BCK85]. Soundex [Mil90]. sources [SHC83]. space [Ano92d]. Spacing [KKC04]. Spain [CC89]. speak [FW82]. Speaker [CFGJ91]. Speaker-Independent [CFGJ91]. Specialized [Yan87]. Specific [Ano93d]. Specification [Ano86b].


Specified [Ano86b]. Speech [GMW75]. Speed [Edm82]. Speed-Spelling [Edm82]. spell [FW82, LHR + 92]. spell-checking [GDEJ05]. SpellCode [Ang90]. Spelled [CRF92]. Speller [SM80, dO94]. spellers [Mit87b]. spelling [Bla60]. spelling-checker [Ano92d]. spelling-correction [RW92]. Spelling-Sound [LMPK92]. Spelling-To-Phoneme [WL84]. spelling-to-sound [BCK85]. spelling-word [WWSG94]. Spellings [Ros82]. Spoken [CRF92]. Sponsored [Law85]. sponsorship [Law85]. Sprache [Tro94, BN85]. squeeze [CD01]. Standard [GT84]. Standardizing [SW93]. State [SK83]. Statistical [WMRB77]. statistics [WWSG94]. Status [MPG + 92]. Steps [Hic83]. Stochastic [KKC04]. Stockholm [KW87]. Strategic [MPG + 92]. Strategy [Kre92]. Strictness [SPR90]. String [IK83]. strings [EH88]. Structure [Yan87]. structured [FQA89]. Structures [Ofl92]. students [AB84]. study [Cha94]. Stuttgart [Ano94a]. style [Adr95]. Stylometry [Smi83]. Sublexical [MPG + 92]. substitution [Ull76]. Supplement [Ano85a]. Support [Ano86d]. Surface [PMC85]. Survey [NCNS82]. Sweden [KW87]. Switzerland [LT81]. System [Dav62]. Systems [Mor69]. systolic [Lav92].

T [Sla87]. Tale [MM90]. TALISMAN [BA88]. talk [FW82]. Tasks [Ano85a]. TC [LT81]. TC-3 [LT81]. Teaching [Hus81]. technique [Dam64]. Techniques [Kuk92b]. technologies [IEE87b]. Tel [BS + 81]. Tel-Aviv [BS + 81]. telecommunications [Kuk92a]. Tempe [CBC84]. terminology [Buc93].

Terms [LMPK92]. testing [PM87]. Texas [TL82]. text [Tur81]. texts [KW81]. Textual [PZ82]. their [Dal87]. Theme [Ano93c]. Theoretic [LM84]. Therapy [GMW75]. Three [MM90]. Ths [Mea87]. time [EH88]. tolerant [Sch94]. Tolerating [Sch75]. tool [Cri88]. Toolkit [Mac87]. Tools [KP81]. topologies [Kuk88]. Toronto [Pre92]. touching [LAS93]. tour [Tei84]. Trade [Law85]. traditional [OL95]. trained [JVFM95]. Translating [Law85]. translator [Mit85]. transliteration [AFCB94]. transposition [OL95]. TREC [Cav94]. TREC-2 [Cav94]. Trigram [AFW83]. Tsukuba [IEE93b]. Turbo [Yer86]. Turkey [Ano93e]. Turkish [Ano93e, Ofl92]. Tutor [Ter81]. Tutoring [YEMR91]. Twenty [Edm82]. Twenty-First [Edm82]. two [AB84]. Two-Strategy [Kre92]. Type [Yer86]. Typesetting [Har94a]. typing [Pet86]. Typist [Rob86]. typographical [Tur81].

understanding [Woo85]. undetected [Pet86]. Unfold [GHU84]. Units [KW87]. UNIX [KL82]. unknown [Fou94]. Unstructured [Gon83]. USA [IEE90]. Usability [Sch82]. Use [GMW75]. USENIX [USE82]. User [Thi82]. User-Specified [Ano86d]. Users [Chi84]. Uses [Mac87]. Using [AFW83]. Uspell [McC92]. usr [USE82]. Utilities [Edw87]. Utility [Fly88]. Utilization [VTTC95]. utilizing [HK95]. Utrecht [Ano93b].

V [BRSS94]. v2.0 [Law92]. VA [IEE90]. Validation [FS92]. value [Mil95]. Variant [Ros82]. variants [IN94]. VCATS [Hus81]. Ventura [Alt90]. Verarbeitung [Tro94]. verb [CA89]. Verbale [GT84]. verbs [Bos94].



Verification [GR78]. Very [Gon83]. Virtual [Wie86]. Visual [Hus81]. vocabularies [LK93]. VP [Alt90]. VP-to-the-Max [Alt90].

WA [IEE92b]. warning [GDEJ05]. Webster [Pet82, Rob83]. well [Dit87]. Westgate [ACM83]. Whole [BCK85]. Whole-word [BCK85]. Winnipeg [IEE87a]. within [CC89]. without [KC94]. Word [Sid79, MM92]. word-forming [BDT94]. word-forms [RW92]. Word-Spacing [KKC04]. Wordprocessing [Ano92c]. words [Ull76]. Wordz [Tay86]. Work [Edm82]. Workbench [SK83]. Workshop [Ano93c]. WP [Joh81]. Writer [SK83, HP88]. Writers [Che81]. writing [Wei82].

Yur [Mea87].



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[Pet80a] James Lyle Peterson. Computer programs for detecting and cor- recting spelling errors. Commu- nications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 23(12):



676–687, December 1980. CO- DEN CACMA2. ISSN 0001- 0782. See remarks [Dun81, Mil81,



[Pet80b] James Lyle Peterson. Com- puter Programs For Spelling Cor- rection. Springer-Verlag, Inc., Berlin, Germany / Heidelberg, Germany / London, UK / etc.,

1980. ISBN 3-540-10259-0. vi +

213 pp. LCCN QA76.6 .P474.


[Pet81] James L. Peterson. Letter to the editor: On spelling correction and beyond. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 24(9):609, September


0001-0782. See [Pet80a, Dun81,



[Pet82] J. L. Peterson. Use of webster’s seventh collegiate dictionary to construct a master hyphenation list. In Morgan [Mor82], pages 665–670. ISBN 0-88283-035-X. LCCN TK7885.A1 J6 1982.


[Pet86] James L. Peterson. A note on undetected typing errors. Com- munications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 29(7):

633–637, July 1986. CODEN CACMA2. ISSN 0001-0782.

Pfaffenb erger:1986:SPC



scholar’s personal computing

Bryan Pfaffenberger.

handbook: a practical guide. Lit- tle, Brown and Co., Boston, MA, USA, 1986. ISBN 0-316-70401- 6. xiii + 359 pp. LCCN QA76.5 .P399 1986. US$15.95. From Computing Reviews : “Spelling checkers to help weed out silly ty- pographical errors, indexing pro- grams to help prepare what may be the most important part of any major written academic work, and so forth, are very well de- scribed. Unfortunately, this book has a very skimpy index! It does not provide an alphabetized list naming each of the programs mentioned in the book. One has to hunt for various index terms under which specific programs may be named.”.


[PM87] Lucelle Prindle and T. F. McLaughlin. A computer spelling testing program with clerical en- glish students: An empirical eval- uation. Journal of Computer- Based Instruction, 14(4):146–149, Autumn 1987. CODEN JCOID8. ISSN 0098-597X.


[PMC85] K. E. Patterson, J. C. Mar- shall, and M. Coltheart. Sur- face Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Cognitive Studies of Phono- logical Reading. Erlbaum, New York, NY, USA, and London, UK, 1985. ISBN 0-8367-7026- 6 (??invalid checksum??). xxii + 544 pp. LCCN RC394.W6 S971 1985, WL 340.6 S961 1985. UK£ 29.95.




[Pol82] J. J. Pollock. Spelling error detec- tion and correction by computer:

Some notes and a bibliography. Journal of Documentation, 38(4):

282–291, December 1982. CO- DEN JDOCAS. ISSN 0022-0418.


[Pou84] J. Pournelle. On the road. Byte Magazine, 9(10):363–382, September 1984. CODEN BYT- EDJ. ISSN 0360-5280.

Presp erin:1991:TNA



J. J. Presperin, editor. Technol- ogy for the nineties: 14th An- nual conference — June 1991, Kansas City, MO, volume 11 of Proceedings of the RESNA An- nual Conference. RESNA Press, ????, 1991. ISBN 0-932101-29-1. ISSN 0883-4741. LCCN ????

Presp erin:1992:TCI

J. J. Presperin, editor. Tech- nology for consumers: Interna- tional conference — June 1992, Toronto, Canada, volume 12 of Proceedings of the RESNA An- nual Conference. Resna Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1992. ISBN 0-932101-30-5. ISSN 0883- 4741. LCCN ????


[Pro95] Jeff Prosise. Tutor — no matter how you spell it, soundex finds it. PC Magazine, 14(10):261, 1995. ISSN 0888-8507.


[PZ82] Joseph J. Pollock and Antonio Zamora. Automatic spelling er-

ror detection and correction in

textual databases. Proceedings of the ASIS annual meeting , 19:236– 238, 1982. CODEN PAISDQ. ISBN 0-86729-038-2. ISSN 0044-





J. J. Pollock and A. Zamora. Collection and characterization of spelling errors in scientific and scholarly text. Journal of the American Society for Informa- tion Science , 34(1):51–58, Jan- uary 1983. CODEN AISJB6. ISSN 0002-8231.


J. J. Pollock and A. Zamora. Au- tomatic spelling correction in sci- entific and scholarly text. Com- munications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 27(4):

358–368, April 1984. CODEN CACMA2. ISSN 0001-0782.


[PZ84b] Joseph J. Pollock and Antonio Zamora. System design for de- tection and correction of spelling errors in scientific and scholarly text. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 35(2):104–109, March 1984. CO- DEN AISJB6. ISSN 0002-8231.



Jon Radue. On the design of an interactive spelling dictionary for personal computers. In ACM PSC ’83 [ACM83], pages 197–199. ISBN 0-89791-123-7. LCCN QA 76.5 S53 v.6 no.2. ACM (Order n 609830). Baltimore, MD, USA.




[Ram94] Lance A. Ramshaw. Correcting real-word spelling errors using a model of the problem-solving con- text. Computational Intelligence, 10(2):185–211, May 1994. CO- DEN COMIE6. ISSN 0824-7935.


[RAR94] G. Rzevski, R. A. Adey, and D. W. Russell, editors. Appli- cations of artificial intelligence in engineering IX: proceedings of the ninth international confer- ence, held in Pennsylvania, USA, 19th–21st July, 1994. Comput. Mech. Publications, Southamp- ton, UK, 1994. ISBN 1-85312- 284-X. LCCN TA345.I5674 1994.


[RB05] Arnold Robbins and Nelson H. F. Beebe. Classic Shell Script- ing. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Se- bastopol, CA 95472, USA, 2005. ISBN 0-596-00595-4. 520 (est.) pp. LCCN QA76.76.O63 R633 2005. Chapter 12 develops a com- pact, flexible, and powerful mul- tilingual spellchecker, and com- pares it to early software imple- mentations.


[Rob83] D. Robinson. Electric Web- ster: much more than a spelling checker. Creative Comput, 9(11):

108–112, November 1983.



Barbara Robertson. The AI typ- ist: Writing aid is fast and easy,

but bug plagued. InfoWorld, 8(2):

35, January 13 1986. CODEN IN- WODU. ISSN 0199-6649.



Eric S. Rosenthal. Spelling check- ers, compound words, and variant spellings. In USENIX-Summer’92 [USE82], pages 315–322.

Rob ertson:1992:SHW

[RW92] Alexander M. Robertson and Pe- ter Willett. Searching for histor- ical word-forms in a database of 17th-century English text using spelling-correction methods. In Belkin et al. [BIP92], pages 256– 265. CODEN FASRDV. ISBN 0-89791-523-2. ISSN 0163-5840. LCCN QA76.9.D3I552 1992.


[SC96] P. Sengupta and B. B. Chaud- huri. Morphological processing of Indian languages for lexical interaction with application to spelling error correction. Sad- hana — Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences, 21(pt 3):

363–380, June 1996. CODEN SAPSER. ISSN 0256-2499.


[Sch75] H.-J. Schek. Tolerating fuzzy- ness in keywords by similarity searches. Technical report, Uni- versity of Heidelberg (??), Heidel- berg, Germany, 1975.


[Sch82] Peter Scheuermann, editor. Pro- ceedings of the Second Interna- tional Conference on Databases:



Improving Usability and Respon- siveness, June 22–24, 1982, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1982. CODEN PICDD7. ISBN 0-12-624080- 9. LCCN QA76.9.D3I558 1982.



[Sch94] U. Schulz. Fault-tolerant struc- ture of search processes in OPACs. ABI-Technik, 14(4):299– 310, 1994. CODEN ABITD. ISSN



[SD94] Pavla Stancikova and Ingetraut Dahlberg, editors. Environmen- tal Knowledge Organization and Information Management. Pro- ceedings of the First European ISKO Conference, 14–16 Sept. 1994, Bratislava, Slovakia. IN- DEKS Verlag, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, 1994. ISBN 3-88672- 600-2. ISSN 0946-9389. LCCN GE30.E97 1994.


[Sen93] Ren´e Sennhauser. Improving the recognition accuracy of text recognition systems using ty- pographical constraints. Elec- tronic Publishing—Origination, Dissemination, and Design, 6(3):

273–282, September 1993. CO- DEN EPODEU. ISSN 0894-3982.


[SHC83] S. N. Srihari, J. J. Hull, and R. Choudhari. Integrating diverse knowledge sources in text recog- nition. ACM Transactions on

Office Information Systems, 1(1):

68–87, January 1983. CODEN ATOSDO. ISSN 0734-2047.



A. A. Sidorov. Analysis of word similarity in spelling correc- tion systems. Programming and Computer Software; translation of Programmirovaniye (Moscow, USSR) Plenum , 5(4):274–277, July–August 1979. CODEN PC- SODA. ISSN 0361-7688. En- glish translation of Russian ar- ticle in Programmirovanie 1979, No.4, 65-68 (1979).


[Sil85] B. Sillery. Spelling it right:

Webster’s new word spelling checker. Personal Computing, 9 (11):162, November 1985. CO- DEN PLCMDL. ISSN 0192-5490.


[SK83] C. R. Smith and K. E. Kiefer. Using the writer’s workbench programs at colorado state uni- versity. In Burton and Short [BS83], pages 672–684. ISBN 0-914894-96-X. LCCN AZ105 .I56 1983. From Computing Re- views : “The Writer’s Workbench programs described include:

ORGANIZATION; DEVELOP- MENT; FINDBE; DICTION; SUGGEST; SPELL; PUNCTU- ATION; GRAMMAR; STYLE; PROSE; ABSTRACT; VAGUE- NESS; and CHECK. The latter two programs were developed at CSU for inclusion in the package. In combination, the thirteen pro- grams produce some five to six



pages of analysis to aid students in revision before their papers are handed in for marking.”.


[SKS96] Giovanni Seni, V. Kripasundar, and Rohini K. Srihari. Gener- alizing edit distance to incorpo- rate domain information: hand- written text recognition as a case study. Pattern Recognition , 29(3):

405–414, March 1996. CODEN PTNRA8. ISSN 0031-3203.


[Sla87] Stephen Slade. The T pro- gramming language: a dialect of LISP . Prentice-Hall, Inc., En- glewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA, 1987. ISBN 0-13-881905-X. xiv + 425 pp. LCCN QA76.73.T18 S58 1987. US$21.33. From Comput- ing Reviews : “The well-thought- out problems on interesting topics such as spelling correction, cryp- tography, lazy array space alloca- tion, workspace editor, database management system, etc. are par- ticularly pleasing.”.


[SM80] Charles J. Sippl and JoAnn Coff- man Mayer. The Essential Com- puter Dictionary and Speller for Secretaries, Managers, and Of- fice Personnel . Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA, 1980. ISBN 0-13-284364- 1 (hardcover), 0-13-284356-0 (pa- perback). v + 258 pp. LCCN QA76.15 .S514. US$13.95 (hard- cover), US$6.95 (paperback).


[Smi83] M. W. A. Smith. Stylometry: the detection of literary authorship. The Computer Bulletin, 2(35):8– 9, 11, March 1983.


[SPR90] R. C. Sekar, Shaunak Pawagi, and I. V. Ramakrishnan. Small do- mains spell fast strictness analy- sis. In ACM POPL ’90 [ACM90], pages 169–183. ISBN 0-89791- 343-4. LCCN QA76.7 .A15 1990.


[SS84] R. M. K. Sinha and K. S. Sigh. A program for correction of single spelling errors in hindi words. Journal of the Institu- tion of Electronics and Telecom- munication Engineers, 30(6):249– 251, November 1984. CODEN JI- ETAU. ISSN 0377-2063.


[Stu82] R. A. Stultz. The word pro- cessing handbook . Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA, 1982. ISBN 0-13-963454-1, 0-13-963447-9 (paperback). 237 pp. LCCN HF5548.115 .S78.