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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

All of the creature need a food. They can live healthy and do some activities in their life if their need of food fulfilled. For the human , food is a fuel of their muscle. Beside that , food also useful as raw material or growth and various processes in our body. In this time, the society less conscious about their health life. They do not care about what they eat, what foods they eat is nutritious or not, yhe important is they feel full. This mindset can be dangerous to themselves. Many diseases can be caused if the pattern of their lives remain that way, especially diseases that are closely related to the digestive system. Such as heartburn, constipation and diarrhea.

Based on the above explanation, we were interested to discuss about the digestive system, especially in the human digestive system.

1.2 Research Question

From the background above, we can be formulated some problem about digestive system, especially for human such as:

1. What is the definition of digestive system? 2. What is the organs system that involved in digestive system of human? 3. What kind of the disease that usually happens in digestive system of human? 4. What is the organs system that involved in digestive system of animals?
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1.3 Research Purposes 1. To know whats the definition of digestive system. 2. To know whats the organ system that involved in digestive system of human and the kind if disease that usually happens in there? 3. To know what is the organs system that involved in digestive system of animals?

CHAPTER II SOLUTION
1.1 Definition of Digestive System

A. Digestive Channels

Digestive system is a system which has purpose to break the food stuff become more simple structure so that can be permeated by body cells. In general , we know there are two kind of digestion. That is digestion mechanically and digestion chemically.

A. Digestion mechanically is physically digestive process that cause the food will be broken to be a small part. B. Digestion chemically is food resolving process with helped digestive enzyme that came from digestive gland. Enzyme is protein molecule that useful as catalyst in various reaction of chemistry. As a catalyst, the enzyme do not follow to change certainly.

In general, there some useful of digestive system, such as: To disolved the food to be some nutriens To absorb nutriens into the bloodstream To throw the part of food that can not be digestive by the body

1.2 Digestive System of Human A. Digestive Channels Alimentary tract consist of mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, intestinum, colon, rectum and anus. The digestive system also includes
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the organs that lie outside the digestive tract, the pancreas, liver and gallbladder.

A. Mouth, Throat & Esophagus

The mouth is the entrance to the digestive system and respiratory system. The inside of the mouth covered by a mucous membrane. Channels of the salivary glands in the cheeks, under the tongue and under the jaw drain its contents into the mouth.

On the floor of the mouth there is a tongue which serves to sense and mix the food. Behind and below the mouth there is a throat (pharynx). Food is cut into pieces by the front teeth (incisors) and chewed by the back teeth (molars, molars), into smaller parts that are easier to digest. Saliva from the salivary glands will wrap the parts of the food with digestive enzymes and begin digesting it. At meals, the flow of saliva to clean the bacteria that can cause tooth decay and other abnormalities. Saliva also contains antibodies and enzymes, which break down proteins and attack the bacteria directly. The process of swallowing begins consciously and continues automatically. Epiglottis will be closed so that food does not enter into the windpipe (trachea) and into the lungs, while the roof of the mouth next to the rear (moles palate, soft palate) lifted so that food does not enter into the nose.

Gullet (esophagus) is a muscular channel thin-walled and lined by mucous membrane. The esophagus connects the throat to the stomach. Food is pushed through the esophagus rather than by gravity, but by the waves of rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles called peristalsis.
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B. Stomach Stomach is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a cage big and donkeys, consists of three parts. They are cardia, fundus and antrum or pylorus. Food into the stomach from the esophagus through a ringshaped muscle (sphincter), which can open and close.

Under normal circumstances, the sphincter prevents re-entry of gastric contents into the esophagus. Stomach serves as a storehouse of food, which contracts rhythmically to mix food with enzymes.

There are three enzyme that produce by stomach, such as: Pepsin (enzymes that break the protein became pepton) Rennin Hcl (stomach acid)

Only a few substances that can be absorbed directly from the stomach (such as alcohol and aspirin) and even then only in very small quantities.

C. Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that has two main function. First, to produce the digestive enzyme and some important hormone. Pancreas consists of two basic tissue, they are: Asini, produce digestive enzymes Island of the pancreas, produce hormones. Three hormones produced by the pancreas are: Insulin, which serves to reduce levels of sugar in the blood Glucagon, which serves to raise blood sugar level

Somatostatin, which serves both block the release of other hormones (insulin and glucagon). Some digestive enzyme produced by pancreas are: Amylase (convert maltose) Trypsinogen Lipase NaHCO3 starch into

The

pancreas

releases

digestive

enzymes into the duodenum and release hormones into the blood. Digestive

enzymes produced by cells asini and flows through various tract into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic duct will join the bile duct at the sphincter of Oddi, both of which will go into the duodenum. Enzymes released by the pancreas to digest proteins,

carbohydrates and fats. Protheolityc enzymes break down proteins into a form usable by the body and are released in inactive form. This enzyme will be active only if it has reached the digestive tract. The pancreas also releases large amounts of sodium bicarbonate, which serves to protect the duodenum by neutralizing stomach acid. D. Liver Liver is the biggest gland in human body. Its located in right of the abdominal cavity. Has a deep red color and weighs 2 kilograms in adults. liver is divided into two lobes, right and left lobes. Toxic substances enter the body and will be screened first in the liver before it spreads throughout the body. Heart absorb toxic substances

such as some drugs and alcohol from the blood circulation system. Liver toxic substances out simultaneously with the sap of bile.

The Function of Liver Liver is a very essentials organ and useful to: 1. To produce the bile that came from erithrosit remodeled 2. To neutralize poison that come to the body in and killed the germs 3. To changed the sugar substances to be glicogen and saved it as sugar reserve 4. To form the certain proteins and remodel it 5. Placed for changed pro vitamin A to be vitamin 6. Placed forming prothombin that useful for thrombosis

The bile color substances result from erithrosit remodels cell that was damage not be released directly by the liver but released the other organ of excretion. For example, will bring by the blood into the kidney and be released together in urine.

E. Intestinum Anatomy of intestinum

The small intestine was divided into 3 parts: duodenum (duodenum), colon empty (yeyenum) and intestinal absorption (ileum)

duodenum: has a length of twelve fingers, there are estuaries of the two channels: from the pancreas gland and from the gallbladder. The stomach releases food into the duodenum (duodenum), which is the first part of the small intestine. Food into the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter in the amount that can be digested by the intestine. When full, the duodenum to the stomach sends a signal to stop flow of food.
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The pancreatic

duodenum enzymes

receives from the

pancreas and bile from the liver. The liquid ( entering into the duodenum through a hole called the sphincter of Oddi ) is an essential part of the process of digestion and absorption. Peristaltic movement also helps digestion and absorption by stirring and mixing it with substances produced by the intestine. In the ileum absorption of digestive nutrients. Inner wall of the ileum folds called flakes (villi). Villi serves to broaden the field of absorption of nutrients. Nutrients are dissolved in water (such as glucose, amino acids, vitamins B and C) absorbed by the blood in the capillaries and then circulated to all the cells in need.

F. Colon The large intestine consists of: the ascending colon (right) transverse colon descending colon (left) sigmoid colon (related to the rectum). Colon produces mucus and serves to absorb water and electrolytes from the feces. When it reaches the large intestine, intestinal contents as a liquid, but when it reaches the rectum into solid form. The number of bacteria present in the colon serves to digest some of the ingredients and helps absorption of nutrients. Bacteria in the colon also serves to make the important substances, such as vitamin K. These bacteria are essential for normal function of the intestine.
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Some diseases and antibiotics can cause interference with the bacteria in the colon. The result is irritation that could cause the release of mucus and water, and there was diarrhea. G. Rectum & Anus The rectum is a room that starts from the end of the colon (the sigmoid colon) and ends at the anus. Rectum is usually empty because the stool is stored in a higher place, namely in the descending colon. If the descending colon is full and feces into the rectum, then the desire to urinate. Adults and older children can resist this desire, but infants and younger children have less control of the muscles that are important to delay defecation. The anus is a hole at the end of the digestive tract, where waste material out of the body. Most of the anus is formed from the body surface (skin) and some of the intestine. A muscular ring

(sphincter ani) keeping the anus remains closed.

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The Diseases in Human Digestive System 1. Diarrhea Reaction that occurs when the diarrhea is excessive bowel movements, can be more than 4 times a day. This disease is caused due to the presence of bacteria in food that is eaten, causing the food difficult to digest.

This disease most often occurs in young children, but not infrequently also occur in adults. to treat it is usually by drinking oral rehydration salts to replace fluids lost during defecation.

2. Ulcer Ulcer is a disease that interferes with the stomach and intestine 12 fingers. Symptoms that arise are as follows.

a. Stomach feels sore and heartburn if it's too late to eat. b. When eating any abdominal pain, nausea and even vomiting at times feels.

This disease occurs due to excessive production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Ulcer is often caused by tiredness and tension caused by work overload. Patients should immediately go to the doctor so as not to be severe.

3. Typhus

Typhus is a disease of inflammation of the intestine. The disease can be transmitted quickly. Typhoid can also arise from food and beverage hygiene is not maintained properly. Symptoms experienced by patients with typhoid fever, among others. Body chills, weakness, and accompanied by nausea. Due to high fever, delirious patients can. Back pain, sometimes accompanied by diarrhea or constipation (difficult bowel movements).

Patients should receive treatment in hospital. Food that usually provided in the form of porridge.

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B. Digestive Glands Digestion of food in the digestive tract is assisted by enzymes. Digestive enzymes produced by the digestive gland. Kinds of digestive gland in humans include: salivary gland (parotid) gastric glands pancreas glands and liver

a) The Salivary Glands (parotid)

Salivary gland located under the tongue, lower jaw right and left and below the right ear and left pharynx. Salivary glands produce saliva (saliva). Salivary out psikhis affected by conditions that envisages certain foods as well as reflexes because of the food into the mouth. Saliva contains enzymes ptialin or salivary amylase.

b) Gastric Gland

Gastric glands that produce the enzyme pepsin, the enzyme renin and acid chloride (HCl). The enzyme pepsin from pepsinogen is activated by stomach acid. Gastric acid secretion or expenditure is influenced by reflex if any food into the stomach, and is influenced by the hormone gastrin is released by the stomach wall. The production of excess stomach acid can make the inflammation of the stomach wall.

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c) Gallbladder

Gallbladder is attached to the liver, as a place to accommodate the bile. Bile is produced from the revamp of old red blood cells or damaged by the liver. Flow of bile into the duodenum. Expenditure bile kolesistokinin influenced by

hormones. This hormone is produced by the duodenum.

d) The pancreas gland

The pancreas gland is located in the abdominal cavity near the stomach. The pancreas produces digestive enzymes which flowed into the duodenum, namely: the enzyme amylase, an enzyme

trypsinogen, lipase enzymes and NaHCO3. Secretion of pancreatic enzymes is influenced by hormones sekretin. Sekretin hormone produced by the duodenum when food entered the

duodenum(duodenum).

e) Gland in The Small Intestine

Glands in the small intestine produces an enzyme enterokinase, an enzyme erepsin (peptidase), the enzyme maltase, sukrase enzyme, lactase enzyme and nuclease enzymes and lipase. Spending on these enzymes is influenced by hormones produced by the duodenum enterokrinin.

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CHAPTER III CLOSING

3.1 Advices From writing paper, can be given suggestions such as: 1. Maintain a healthy body, especially the digestive system, because the energy we use for activities comes from the digestive system. 2. Eat less foods that can cause interference with the digestive system such as spicy foods and acidic foods.

3.2 Conclusion Digestive system is a system which has purpose to break the food stuff become more simple structure so that can be permeated by body cells. Digestive tract is divided into two, namely the gastrointestinal tract and digestive glands. With the help of the digestive tract and glands, the nutrients will be joined by blood cells to be circulated throughout the body. So that our bodies get the energy to move.

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Setiowati, T dan Furqonita, D. 2007. Biologi Interaktif Kls. XI IPA. Jakarta: Azka Press Zakrinal dan Purnama, S. 2009. Jago Biologi SMA. Jakarta: Media Pusindo Handayani, N. 2009. Buku Kantong Biologi SMA. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Widyatama Sudjadi, B dan Laila, S. 2007. Biologi. Jakarta: Yudistira Saktiyono. 2007. IPA Terpadu. Jakarta: Erlangga

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