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RCREEEWindEnergyBuildingCapacityProgram Stage2Rabat,Tangier29 March 2nd April2010 p

ReviewofWindTurbinesDriveSystemsandwhy GearlessDirectDrive Gearless Direct Drive


DRYehiaShankir

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Contents
1. ELSewedyElectric&SWEG 1 EL Sewedy Electric & SWEG 2. WindTurbinescomponentsandgeneratortypes 3. WindTurbinesdrivesystemsadvantagesand 3 Wi d T bi d i d d disadvantages 4. ComparisonsofWindTurbinesdrivesystems 5. Conclusions 6. Appendix 7. References
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ElsewedyElectric

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ELSewedyElectricWind EL Sewedy Electric Wind Sector

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I TOWERS
SIAGCompanyOverview

Theleadingtubularsteeltowersupplierin GermanyandEurope Marketsharemorethan30% Leadingtechnologyinsteelindustry Nearly1000employees Proventrackrecord ofgrowthinEurope f th i E

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II TURBINES
MTorresCompanyOverview
OneofthemostInnovative EngineeringcompaniesinSpain Startedinthepaperindustries& nowoneoftheleadersin supplyingmachinesforthe aerospaceindustry Atotalof500highskilled employees

MTorresWindDivision MT Wi d Di i i
2001thefirstinnovative 1.5MWprototype MTOIengineering, MTOI engineering manufacturing, development,O&M

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IIIBLADES
WindRotorBladesFactoryinEgypt Stateoftheartproduction State of the art production technologytransferfroma leadingGermanmanufacturer. StateoftheartBladesDesign licensedbyleadingDutchand licensed by leading Dutch and GermanDesigners Thefactorywillbeequipped withthemostadvanced Fiberglassmouldsand Fib l ld d equipmenttoproduce200sets ofbladesinstage1expandable to500sets Nearly500employeesand technicianswillbeemployedin thefirststage

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SWEG ELSewedyforWindEnergyGeneration EL S d f Wi d E G ti theWindSectorArm

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Wind Turbines components and g generator types yp

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WindTurbineSystemMain Wind Turbine System Main Components


Mechanical P M h i l Power
WindPower Rotor Gearbox (Optional)

Electrical P El t i l Power
PowerConverter Transformer Generator (Optional) Grid

GearlessSystems Gearless Systems


ElectricalExcited Synchronous Generator(EESG) Generator (EESG) PermanentMagnet Synchronous Generator(PMSG) Generator (PMSG)

GearedSystems Geared Systems

Types of Generators
(AC Machines)

SquirrelCage InductionGenerator ( (SCIG) ) DoubleFeed InductionGenerator (DFIG)


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WoundRotorIM SquirrelCageIM InductionMachine


+ve T

Grid
Motor SubSynch(+veslip) veT ve T Generator Supersynch(veslip)

Generator

Motor
OperatingTorque T

Synch Speed= 120f/p /p www.elsewedyelectric.com


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SynchronousGenerator Synchronous Generator

WoundRotor

PermanentMagnet Generator

Freq=Pxn / /120 Vdc www.elsewedyelectric.com


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Wind Turbines Drive Systems, g g advantages and disadvantages

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TheTypicalTypesofDriveSystemsforLarge The Typical Types of Drive Systems for Large WindTurbines


Fixed Speed Squirrel C S i l Cage Induction Generator (SCIG) Variable Speed Double Feed Induction Generator (DFIG) Variable Speed Electrical Excited Synch Generator (EESG) Variable Speed Permanent Magnet Synch Generator (PMSG) www.elsewedyelectric.com
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Squirrel C S i l Cage Induction G I d ti Generator t Geared, (SCIG)

Directlyconnectedtogrid ve Agearboxisrequiredinthedrivetrain Torque AlmostaFixedspeed.Operatesinnarrow Al Fi d d O i rangeofspeed Theonlyspeedcontrolisthrough pole changingwhichleadstworotationspeeds.

P=4

P=2

%ofSynchSpeed

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AdvantagesofGearedSCIG
Cost (SCIG)isaverypopularmachine,ithasLow specificmass(kg/kW)andsmallerouter diameter(lownumberofpoles)hencelower di t (l b f l )h l cost. Mechanical,Maintenance&Reliability h i l i & li bili Mechanicalsimplicity,robuststructure

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DisadvantagesofGearedSCIG
Mechanical,Reliability&Maintenance Agearbox inthedrivetrainisrequired: Electrical&PowerQuality Directlyconnectedtothegrid Directly connected to the grid SCIGwoulddisconnectfromthegrid evenduringquitesmalldisturbances. Theydidnothaveanyfaultride Th did t h f lt id throughcapability, Themachinealwaysrequiresreactive power,anditsvaluecannotbe controlled.Thismakesitimpossibleto supportgridvoltagecontroltherefore nogridsupport, Needdifferentgearboxesfordifferent gridfrequencies50Hz/60Hz Control Nopossibilityofspeedcontrol,onlyapole changeablecanbeused,whichleadstwo rotationspeeds. p Theturbinespeedcannotbeadjustedtothe windspeedtooptimizetheaerodynamic efficiency. efficiency.` Windspeedfluctuationsaredirectly translatedintoelectromechanicaltorque variations(nodampingcontrol),Thiscauses variations (no damping control) This causes highmechanicalandfatiguestressesonthe system(P=T.W)

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Double Fed Induction Generator, Geared, (DFIG)

Power flow in Powerflowin +ve T

O Operating i Speed Powerflowout N3 N1 N2 Generator

Directlyconnectedtogrid RotorConnectedtogridviapower converter Agearboxisrequiredinthedrivetrain Variablespeed,Speedcanbecontrolled Variable speed, Speed can be controlled withina+/ 30%aroundsynchronous speed(TheconverterisFeedingor Absorbingpowerfrom/tothegrid) Absorbing power from/to the grid)

ve T Operating Torque T

Motor

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Cost Lowspecificmass(kg/kW)andsmallerouterdiameter(lownumberof Low specific mass (kg/kW) and smaller outer diameter (low number of poles)hencelowercost. TheconverterforaDFIGissmall(30%ofratedpower).Thereforeitis cheaperthanforadirectdrivegenerator. h th f di t d i t MorecomplexstructurethanSCIG Electrical&PowerQuality Thereactivepower canbecontrolledbycontrollingtherotorcurrentswith theconverter,thisallowsthesupplyofvoltagesupporttowardsthegrid. Howeverreactivepowerislimitedbytheconverter30%rating. However reactive power is limited by the converter 30% rating. Control DFIGsupportsawidespeedrangeoperation,dependingonthesizeofthe frequencyconverter.TypicallyVariablespeedrangeis+30%aroundthe f t T i ll V i bl d i +30% d th synchronousspeed InDFIG,windgustsleadtovariationsinthespeedwithoutlargetorque variations.
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AdvantagesofGearedDFIG

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DisadvantagesofGearedDFIG
Mechanical,Reliability&Maintenance Agearboxinthedrivetrainisrequiredwhichshowareliability negativerecord. DFIGhavebrushes,whichneedregularinspectionandreplacement. DFIG have brushes which need regular inspection and replacement Theyareapotentialcauseofmachinefailureandlosses. Electrical&PowerQuality Statordirectlyconnectedtogrid d l d d Accordingtogridconnectionrequirementsforwindturbines,incase ofgriddisturbances,aridethroughcapabilityofDFIGisrequired,so thatthecorrespondingcontrolstrategiesmaybecomplicated. Undergridfaultconditions,ontheonehand,largestatorcurrents resultinlargerotorcurrents,sothatthepowerelectronicconverter g , p needstobeprotected Needdifferentgearboxesfordifferentgridfrequencies50Hz/60Hz
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Electrical Excited Synchronous Generator, Gearless (EESG)

NoGearboxisrequired No Gearbox is required Nodirectconnectiontothegrid, Connectedthroughapowerconverter Theamplitudeandfrequencyofthe suppliedvoltagecanbefullycontrolled Thefluxisfullycontrolledtominimize lossesindifferentoperatingranges Operateinawiderangeofspeedeven toaverylowspeed to a very low speed
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AdvantagesofGearlessEESG
Mechanical,Maintenance&Reliability NoGearboxsohighreliability,lessnoise, lesscost, DFIGhavebrushes,whichneedregular DFIG have brushes which need regular inspectionandreplacement.Theyarea potentialcauseofmachinefailureand losses. losses Electrical&PowerQuality Theconverterpermitsflexiblefull control ofactiveandreactivepowerincaseof normalanddisturbedgridconditions.this allowsthesupplyofvoltagesupport towardsthegrid. Thesamegeneratorsuitablefordifferent gridfrequencies50Hz/60Hz Thefullpowerconvertertotally The full power converter totally decouplesthegeneratorfromthe grid.Hence,griddisturbanceshave nodirecteffectonthegenerator no direct effect on the generator Control Theconverteroffersawiderangeof d l l d speedcontrolevenatverylowspeed thereforeahigherenergyyield Theamplitudeandfrequencyofthe voltagecanbefullycontrolledbythe converter EESGhastheopportunitiesof pp controllingthefluxforaminimized lossindifferentpowerranges

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DisadvantagesofGearlessEESG
Cost Highspecificmass(kg/kW)andLargeouterdiameter(highnumber ofpoles) henceHighercostandmoreweight.Thisweightis partiallybalancedbytheeliminationofthegearbox. partially balanced by the elimination of the gearbox Theconverteris100%ofratedpower.itismoreexpensivethanfor aDFIG.Thisextracostisbalancedbytheeliminationofthegearbox MorecomplexstructurethanSCIG Mechanical,Reliability&Maintenance Mechanical, Reliability & Maintenance EESGhavebrushes,whichneedregularinspectionand replacement.Theyareacauseofmachinefailureandlosses.

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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, Gearless (PMSG)

NoGearboxisrequired No Gearbox is required Nodirectconnectiontothegrid, Connectedthroughapowerconverter Theamplitudeandfrequencyofthe suppliedvoltagecanbefullycontrolled Nofluxcontrolandnosliprings becauseofpermanentmagnets Operateinawiderangeofspeedeven toaverylowspeed to a very low speed
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AdvantagesofGearlessPMSG
Mechanical,Maintenance&Reliability Theconverterpermitsveryflexiblefull NoGearboxandbrushessohigher controloftheactiveandreactivepowerin reliability,lessnoise,lesscost, caseofnormalanddisturbedgrid improvementinthethermal p conditions.thisallowsthesupplyofvoltage characteristicsofthePMmachinedue supporttowardsthegrid. totheabsenceofthefieldlosses, Control Electrical&PowerQuality Electrical & Power Quality Theconverteroffersawiderangeofspeed Thefullpowerconvertertotally controlevenatverylowspeedthereforea decouplesthegeneratorfromthegrid. higherenergyyield higher energy yield Hence,griddisturbanceshavenodirect Hence grid disturbances have no direct Theamplitudeandfrequencyofthevoltage effectonthegenerator canbefullycontrolledbytheconverter Thesamegeneratorsuitablefor PMSGhastheopportunitiesofcontrolling PMSG h th t iti f t lli differentgridfrequencies50Hz/60Hz / thefluxforaminimizedlossindifferent Noadditionalpowersupplyforthe powerranges magnetfieldexcitation,
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DisadvantagesofGearlessPMSG
Cost HighcostofPMmaterialandLargeouterdiameter(highnumberof poles),howeverthisisbalancedthroughalowerspecificmass (kg/kW)andtheeliminationofthegearbox. (kg/kW) and the elimination of the gearbox Theconverteris100%ofratedpower.itismoreexpensivethanfor aDFIG.Thisextracostisbalancedbytheeliminationofthegearbox Mechanical,Reliability&Maintenance DemagnetizationofPMathightempduetoseverloadingorshort circuit. Difficultiestohandleinmanufactureandintransportation,

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ComparisonsofWind TurbinesDriveSystems Turbines Drive Systems

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SummaryComparison Summary Comparison


Comparison base Investment Cost, size and weight Mechanical and structure Simplicity Reliability d R li bilit and maintenance t l i t to lower maintenance cost and increase availability(Gearbox and brushes) Grid support and LVRT Suitability for 50HZ & 60 HZ Speed control to damp mechanical stresses Speed control to optimize p p aerodynamic efficiency to maximize energy yield Sourcing of material and handling in manufacturing and transportation SCIG (++) (++) (-) (-) (-) (-) (-) (+) DFIG (+) (+) (--) (+) (-) (+) (+) (+) EESG (-) (-) (+) (++) (+) (++) (++) (-) PMSG (-) (-) (++) (++) (+) (++) (++) (--)

If in the middle of a desert with hot sandy, and dusty weather or if offshore If the point of common connection in the middle of a complex grid

Annual Energy Yield due to control , reliability and less down time Cost of Kwh (Levelized Energy Cost)

(-) (-)

(+) (+)

(++) (++)

(++) (++)

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WindturbineTopTenmanufacturersandtheir Wind turbine Top Ten manufacturers and their generatortypes


Current manufacturers of Direct Drives Turbines 3.6 MW 3.5 3 5 MW Companies who p recognized the DD concept and now Joining g

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Conclusions
Themultiple stagegeareddriveDFIGsystemsisstill The multiplestage geared drive DFIG systems is still dominatingthecurrentmarket, Themarketshowsinterestinthedirectdrivesystemswitha fullscalepowerconverter.Newcompaniesrecognizedtheir advantagesandalreadystarted, Weight,sizeandinitialcostarehigherindirectdrivesystems. Weight size and initial cost are higher in direct drive systems Overallefficiency,reliabilityandavailabilityarehigherin directdrivesystemsbecauseofomittingthegearbox, Maintenancecostishigheringeareddrivesystemsspeciallyin rulerarea,desert,andoffshorealsoinhotanddustyweather, ThecostofKWhislessindirectdrivesystems, The cost of KWh is less in direct drive systems Intermsofgridsupportdirectdrivewindturbineswithafull scalepowerconvertermaybemoreeffectiveandless complicatedtodealwithgridrelatedproblems,
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Nacelle Front

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Nacelle Rear

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Thank Th k you for your attention f tt ti

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Appendix

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Gearboxes and Reliability


Gearboxesareoneofthemostexpensivecomponentsofthewindturbinesystem, Thehigherthanexpectedfailureratesareaddingtothecostofwindenergy. Thefutureuncertaintyofgearboxlifeexpectancyiscontributingtowindturbine priceescalation. Turbinemanufacturersaddlargecontingenciestothesalespricetocoverthe warrantyriskduetothepossibilityofprematuregearboxfailures. Ownersandoperatorsbuildcontingencyfundsintotheprojectfinancingand incomeexpectationsforproblemsthatmayshowupafterthewarrantyexpires.
ImprovingWindTurbineGearboxReliability,ConferencePaperNREL/CP50041548,May2007

Forexample,replacingagearboxina1.5MWturbinecancostacompanymore than$500,000whenyouaddinthepriceofanewgearbox,labor,cranerental,and lostrevenuefromturbinedowntime. lost revenue from turbine downtime.


http://www.windpowerengineering.com/maintenance/how-to-keep-them-worki... 3/17/2010

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Electrical & Power Quality


Theidealvoltagesourceprovidesa g p perfectlybalancedvoltageinthethree phases,apuresinewavewithaconstant frequencyandmagnitude. q y g Whentheseconditionsarenotmet,itis saidthatthepowerqualityofthegridis deteriorated. deteriorated TherequirementssetbytheTransmission SystemOperators(TSOs),arebeing constantlyreviewedandexpanded: constantly reviewed and expanded: Powerquality(Constantvoltage, harmonics,flickers) reactivepowercontrol(powerfactor) faultridethrough(voltagedipsand voltageswells) g )
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DFIG Control System y

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EESG & PMSG Control System y

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TWT 1.65 Poles

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References
H.Polinder,,Sjoerd W.H.deHaan,M.R.Dubois,JohannesG.Slootweg,BasicOperationPrinciplesand ElectricalConversionSystemsofWindTurbines, J.Soens,J.Driesen,R.Belmans,InteractionbetweenElectricalGridPhenomenaandtheWindTurbine's Behaviour,PROCEEDINGSOFISMA2004, H.Li*Z.Chen,OverviewofdifferentwindgeneratorsystemsandtheircomparisonsPublishedinIET RenewablePowerGenerationReceivedon24 January2007Revisedon Renewable Power Generation Received on 24th January 2007 Revisedon 23rd August 2007 doi:10 1049/iet August2007doi:10.1049/iet rpg:20070044, GNewman,SPerera,VGosbell andVSmith,VOLTAGESAGRIDETHROUGHIMPROVEMENT,OFMODERN ACDRIVES:REVIEWOFMETHODSANDACASESTUDY,IntegralEnergyPowerQualityCentre, C.Rahmann,H. J.Haubrich,L.VargasandM.B.C.Salles, InvestigationofDFIGwithFaultRide Through C. Rahmann, H.J. Haubrich, L. Vargas and M. B. C. Salles, Investigation of DFIG with Fault RideThrough CapabilityinWeakPowerSystems,InternationalConferenceonPowerSystemsTransients(IPST2009)in Kyoto,JapanJune36,2009, ,K.S.Sandhu,D.K.Jain ,LVRTofGridInterfacedVariableSpeedDrivenPMSGforWECSduringFault Rajveer Mittal,InternationalJournalofComputerandElectricalEngineering,Vol.1,No.4,October,2009 17938163, Anca D.Hansen*,Nicolaos A.Cutululis*,Poul Srensen*,FlorinIov+,Torben J.Larsen,*Simulationofa flexiblewindturbineresponsetoagridfault,Ris NationalLaboratoryincooperationwithAalborg University, MartaMolinas,Bjarne N M t M li Bj Naess,WilliamGullvik,ToreCageInductionGeneratorsforWindTurbineswith Willi G ll ik T C I d ti G t f Wi d T bi ith PowerElectronicsConvertersintheLightoftheNewGridCodes,Undeland NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOF SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,

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