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Glycolysis 2atp in forms unstable 6C intermediate Nad reduced 4 atp out, forms two pyruvates.

link reaction: pyruvate + coA and NAD reduces NAD, releases CO2 decarboxylation, produces acetyl-coA

Krebs: substrate level phosphorylation: acetylcoa(2c) onto 4c acceptor reduces 2 nad, 1 fad, releases 2CO2

electron transfer chain:(oxidative phosphorylation) hydrogen on NAD/FAD transferred from carrier to carrier by a series of redox reactions releases energy as electrons passed on ATP from ADP+P with ATPase (protons into intermembrane space, pass back through ATPase) oxygen last acceptor to produce water

Electron transfer chain: aerobic respiration redNAD oxidised to NAD, electron passed along ETC by series of redox reactions oxygen final electron acceptor, with H ions, produces H2O (energy used to transport H-ions across to intermembrane space) (potential used by ATP synthase to phosphorylise ADP to ATP)

ATP and water produced, redNAD oxidised to NAD (~34ATP, total so far = 38) Oxidation in respiration: dehydrogenation by enzymes forming reduced NAD froming reduced FAD (in krebs)

Electron transfer chain:light dependent reaction: Light energy hits chlorophyllA at photosystem2 excites an electron to a higher energy level passed along electron transfer chain reduces NADP and produces ATP (transports protons into thylakoid lumen, out of chloroplast stroma (the chlorplast's cytosol) (ATP uses the potential energy of the H-ions to phosphorylise ADP) note cyclic photophosphorylation where the electron cycles between the chain and PSII photolysis of water replaces the electrons used in the chain

Calvin cycle:light independent reaction RuBP + CO2 (rubisco) --> reactive intermediate goes to 2 GP molecules (glycerate 3 phosphate) + ATP for each --> 1,3BPG or PGAP (1,3biphosphoglycerate) reduced NADP reduces that to TP (triose phosphate) 5 TP reform the RuBP, one is used to make glucose (therefore two turns of cycle required)

Resting potential in Axon: sodium ions actively transported out of neuron to higher conc outside different permeability to k+ and na+ causes charge potential = voltage

Acting potential

neurotransmitter causes activation of charge activated membrane channels, opening them sodium ions diffuse in rapidly causing depolarisation potassium diffuses out to start recovery

Myelinated vs Not: non-myelinated - next section of membrane depolarised myelinated next node depolarised (which is a whole schwann cell away) impulse jumps from node to node

muscle contraction: ca2+ binds to tromysin revealing binding site on actin (which was obstructed by troponin) myosin with atp bound to it attaches to the actin filament in the strong state ADP and P released, causing power stroke Z bands pulled closer together ATP binds causing the release of the actin filament calcium ions activate ATPase

Rigor mortis = no atp = actin not released = rigid

Trichromatic vision cones sensitive to different wavelengths absorb R, B, G combinations of stimulated cells interpreted to form colours

Eye muscles: brain detects too much light/impulses on retina radial muscles increase diameter via sympathetic system antagonistic circular muscle decrease via parasympathetic

Rods and Cones: both on lamellae, both bleach/break down in light with the formation of transretinal (from cis)


rods = rhodopsin, highly sensitive to all wavelengths of light cones = iodopsin, weakly sensitive to specific wavelengths (see above) cones are one-to-one with bipolars and ganglions rods are many-to-one, with an summation effect, where many activated signal greater intensity.

Speciation: (geographically) isolated populations no interbreeding; no gene flow in any population there is variation due to mutation (+random assortment) two populations experience different conditions = different selection pressures natural selection = differential mortality/survival, adapting to environment different features/adaptations selected for between populations changes allele frequency = genetically different populations leading to reproductive isolation = speciation, when they can't produce fertile offspring

Variation from meiosis: Formation of chiasmata/crossing over exchanges alleles between homologous chromosomes new combination of linked alleles random movement of homologous chromosomes each gamete is different = random fertilisation independent assortment

what causes a range of phenotypes in a species phenotype depends on genotype and environment; different environments produce variation due to different selection pressures = competition, predation, disease which lead to differential survival mutations produce new alleles meiosis produces new combinations of alleles random fusion of gametes + independent assortment

Insulin: increase in blood sugar detected by Bcells in Islets of langerhans insulin secreted, binds to specific receptors on liver/muscle cells leads to more glucose entering, lowering blood glucose levels glycogenesis in liver cells

ADH if water potential of blood falls, detected by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus; leads to ADH released from pituitary gland; ADH makes cells of collecting duct/distal convoluted tubule permeable to water; water leaves filtrate by osmosis; smaller volume of urine produced;

Loop of Henle Sodium ions diffuse into descending limb water osmoses out sodium ions actively transported from ascending limb which is impermeable to water high sodium concentration in tissue fluid water leaves collecting duct/distal tubule by osmoses due to water potential difference

temperature responses: impulses to hypothalamus from skin+others/ detection of blood temperature sends impulses to hypothalamus heat gain/loss centre contraction/dilation of arterioles, divert blood away from/to skin (via shunt vessels) pili erector muscles trap air around hairs, sweat production altered, shivering triggered by hypothalamus

nasty little brain questions: touch etc:

impulses to brain to sensory areas in cerebral hemispheres interpreted by association areas visual cone/rod stimulated, (bp cell, ganglion) impulses to brain via optic nerve, cross over to visual cortex in cerebellum to visual association areas speech association area sends impulses to association area for speech (wernickes) words from memory which sends impulses to motor area for speech (broccas) impulses to muscles of face and larynx

Definitions: Allele: homologous pair: sex linked gene: separate species: codominance: polygenic traits: distribution epistasis: chiasmata: refractory period: Binary fission: mitosis) Bivalent: recessive allele: mitochondrial crista: variant of a gene two copies of a chromosome formed from mitosis not present on Y, present only on X, can't produce fertile offspring both alleles presented when both present many genes control one factor, results in continuous where one gene modifies the effect of another crossing over of chromosomes time between impulses the way prokaryotes reproduce asexually (different from Pair of homologous chromosomes only expressed if homozygous Infoldings of the inner membrane

fungi: myosin: oars) actin: powerstroke reflex:

chitin cell wall, hyphae, Mycelium thick strand, heads for ATP binding and powerstroke (like thin filament, binding sites, Z lines pulled together in response to a stimulus which isn't under conscious control

Independent assortment: the lining up on the equator, random which of the chromosomes end up on each side. significant difference: happening, a difference which has a less than 5% chance of therefore must be due to an external factor.

Chapter 5

pH of mud: take a sample and dilute with water test with universal indicator

Salty mud kills plants: more negative water potential water passes out of roots

passage of energy in food chain: respired by producers & their consumers dead matter + waste respired by detritovores lost as heat fossilised remains combusted by filfy yumans

Any population graph, consider these points: rise and fall/variation/cycles peaks/troughs lag behind that of the prey species include a couple figures slower rate/sudden rate of increase, decrease? plateau rather than sharp peak?

trophic levels: heat loss from respiration, catching prey, digestive inefficiency only some of the biomass converted to predator biomass after many trophic levels simply too much biomass/energy lost

Eutrophication: nitrate is limiting factor for plant growth algal bloom/rapid increase in plant growth as it is needed for protein synthesis competition for light with surface plants outcompeting deeper plants plants die providing food for decomposers respire aerobically using all the oxygen increasing BOD invertebrates/fish die which are also decomposed.

related to farming? removing hedges etc increases soil erosion increased runoff carries more fertilisers/more blown into lake less absorbed by hedges = more in lake

Monoculture: hedgerows lost as impractical for large machines deep rooted plants and wind exposure increase soil erosion large number of same species grow closer together smaller variety of plants so smaller variety of niches increased disease spread due to proximity increased need for fertilisers = eutrophication

succession (clearings - secondary succession) short lived plants, (foxgloves) change soil conditions allowing other plants to colonise shrubs/small trees move in and outcompete them for light/water etc eventually large trees dominate again

succession (bare land - primary succession) plants (like lichens and mosses) begin to grow, increasing organic matter around themselves eventually results in soil, with moisture, colonised (by grasses) soil conditions change making them suitable for larger plants which outcompete them for light/etc

succession (aquatic - primary/secondary) build up of organic matter, small aquatic plants grow stabilise the silt, hold in organic matter, more suitable for plants which breach the surface further stabilise the soil with large root systems, reeds with Vlarge roots create soil terrestrial plants colonise the rich soil making it appropriate for large trees like oaks climax community

Bioaccumulation: pesticide not broken down stored in tissues/fat bioaccumulation occurs because animals higher up eat many organisms lower down

Carbon cycle: leaves + dead matter digested by secretion of extracellular enzymes by decomposers = fungi + bacteria (or animals which then die and are decomposed) absorb soluble products to produce proteins and carbohydrates ie chitin, murein, protease respire to release CO2


absorbed by plants for photosynthesis, glucose used to make cell walls

Random sampling: grid up area, use random numbers to choose (transects can be appropriate) place large numbers of transects ( >10) count number of X, divide by area

Nitrogen: Secretion by animals: proteins digested to aminos, deamminated to urea excreted from kidneys in urine.

Nitrogen cycle: nitrogen fixing bacteria convert N2 to NH3 urea converted to NH3 in ammonification NH3 converted to NO2 then NO3 by nitrifying bacteria NO3 taken up by plants by active transport converted to aminos to proteins decomposed/eaten and excreted/eaten and decomposed releasing NH3 or urea again. denitrifying bacteria turn nitrates to N2 again in anaerobic conditions.

piss of your teacher by writing two lines: decomposers break down proteins to amino acids, ammonified to ammonia which is converted by nitrifying bacteria to nitrites to nitrates which is absorbed actively by plants using ATP against concentration gradient (9 marks)

5: population: standard deviation: all the members of a species in one area spread of the results about the mean

climax community: when succession is done = stable, many niches, large variety of plants=more food sources succession: an area is colonised by plants, one type after another, generally increasing stability.

Chapter 7: microbes and disease

Immune system: macrophages ingest bacteria, process them, attach to them by antigens display bacterial peptides (from their antigens) on the MHC proteins moves in blood and binds to a (helper)T-lymphocyte activates it and causes it to produce cytokines, which increases complement production + attracts more macrophages. Helper-T binds to a matching B lymphocyte causing it to undergo clonal expansion which produces antibodies, which increases complement binding (opsenisation), and agglutination

Immunological memory: some activated T/(B)lymphocytes remain in the lymph nodes after infection once activated by binding with the original antigen type, they undergo clonal expansion producing millions of antibodies faster because it doesn't need t-helpers = direct activation

Stages of microbial growth:

LAG phase: active, no increase in numbers. Cells are respiring and producing enzymes and ribosomes. GROWTH phase: binary fission occurring rapidly. No intraspecific competition for resources, no limiting factors. Maximum rate of reproduction STATIONARY phase: carrying capacity reached. Intraspecific competition, rate of reproduction falls and death rate increases, so the turbidity may remain roughly constant. Viable count falls. DEATH phase: nutrients exhausted, toxicity due to metabolic products/ secondary metabolites increases, number of viable cells falls to zero. Turbidity drops due to cell lysis

Viral replication: virus binds using antigens that are complimentary in shape to specific receptors on the cell surface. Inserts its genome into the cell or joins into the cell membrane to release its genome DNA genomes can incorporate into the host genome and be exhibited later or form mRNA immediately RNA genomes are typically converted by reverse transcriptase that was present in the virus itself at some point mRNA is produced which codes for the production of the virus's genome, surface proteins and capsids. Cell lysis releases the viruses. Sometimes the virus genome includes a gene for cell lysis that is activated after the production of many viruses some viruses use the host cell membrane for themselves, in which case they have self antigens aswell so will most likely be undetected by the host immune system. = enveloped

Viral damage: The virus can digest host genetic material, disrupt genes by inserting its genome into them use up all the host cells amino acids and ATP for viral protein synthesis lyse the cell, sometimes releasing toxins or causing the cells to produce them.

Antibiotics prevent bacterial growth by: inhibiting protein/ribosome production

creating pores in the cell membrane/wall/capsule prevent cell wall synthesis prevent binary fission by preventing DNA replication

Antibodies: Y shaped: 2 light chain pairs which are variable and specific in shape to the unique antigen presented Heavy chain, which may be bound to other heavy chains depending on the immunoglobulin type when multiple cells with that antigen are bound to the light chains they agglutinate and can be removed from the blood more easily by macrophages or other mechanisms.

Ways to immobilise enzymes: entrapment trapped on a mesh or fabric adsorbtion stuck to the surface of something, like a bead encapsulation in alginate balls (time for reactants to diffuse in, only surface enzymes are rapid) Cross-linking with glucuraldehyde bonds (which damages some, but the rest are very effective)

Sterile procedure hints: Keep a bunsen burner nearby to create air currents to carry bacteria away sterilise things!: flame in a bunsen as appropriate, use an autoclave minimise time that tubes, petris and bottles are open + exposed


Total count: haemocytometry

number of live and dead cells measured by turbidity/

Viable count: number of live cells measured by dilution plating. <30 colonies not statistically reliable!! secondary metabolite: a product produced only in the death phase when there are severe limiting factors, ie penicillium production by penicillin. Requires batch processes. Endotoxin: released upon cell lysis a toxin produced inside a bacteria which is only

Exotoxin: a toxin produced and excreted by the bacteria that can be converted to toxoids with heat. Plasmid: in bacteria, circular section of DNA separate from the main genome. Used to gain new genes and gain resistance. Passed around via sex pili Capsule phagocytosis etc. another layer on top of the cell wall, protects against

Herd immunity: enough people are immune so that transfer between the non-immune is unlikely mesosome: surface area. Infoldings of the bacterial cell membrane for increased

Capsid: Viral protein, monomer of its protein shell. Shell is an icosahedron, or helical, possibly with additions, like bacteriophages with their legs, or envelopes. Immunological type: exists, only one strain of it. Highly infectious: very low. single means that only one kind of surface protein

number of virus/bacteria required to cause infection is

Invasiveness: how much and how fast the pathogen spreads through the body, ie by blood and to internal organs is very invasive. Spectrum antibiotics: narrow affects only a few specific bacteria, broad affects all bacteria of a type.


Abiotic factors list:

NOT: "amount of sunlight" or anything wishywashy like this whole stupid subject light intensity, nitrate concentration, soil moisture content, soil/air temperature, soil pH, other mineral concentrations, tests: temp:electronic thermometer soil moisture: dry until it achieves constant mass, measure difference ion concentration: use chemical test strip

fussy little locations: light dependent: thylakoid membranes independent: stroma glycolysis: cytosol krebs: matrix ETC; mitochondrial inner membrane speech left brain!

niggly little figures 5/6ths or 83.3% 38 more than 10 less than 0.05 of TP --> RBP ATP produced in respiration (profit) samples in any scientific test (or say large number) critical p value for significant results

King = kingdom Phillip = phylum

Came = class Out =order For =Family Gay =Group Sex =species


Mutation: Change in the base sequence of DNA: Alteration(point mutation)- or insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides,which may cause a frame shift resulting in the complete malfunction of the gene, unless multiples of 3 added/removed (codons) may result in different mRNA being transcribed, resulting in different aminos incorporated can affect the active site, making it fit poorly (lowering rate). Can result in the ability to break down poisons if the active site now fits those.

DNA replication: semi-conservative as both strands used DNA helicas breaks H-bonds to separate strands complimentary nucleotides align and H-bond A-T, C-G DNA polymerase joins phosphodiester backbone.

Genetic manipulation gene removed from genome using restriction endonuclease or formed from mRNA sequence using reverse transcriptase PCR used to replicate it Plasmid cut using the same endonuclease to create complimentary sticky ends the two are mixed and DNA ligase rejoins the Sections to form a recombinant plasmid

Introduced to a harmless bacteria for culturing, using heat shock or CaCl solution etc. Protein production: DNA unzipped by DNA Helicase breaking the H-Bonds between strands Complimentary RNA nucleotides bind to H-bonds, C<-->G, A-->U, T-->A RNA polymerase joins phosphodiester backbone (up till now = transcription) mRNA migrates to ribosome, read in codons (3 bases). tRNA with complimentary anticodon binds to sequence and is bound to appropriate Amino acid amino acids joined with condensation bonds,

Haemoglobin has a high affinity for oxygen + acts as an oxygen store O2 + Hb => oxyhaemoglobin releases at low ppO2 maintains diffusion gradient between blood and water

Standard enzymes: low rate at low temp less energy = fewer collisions, less activation energy denatured at high temp breaking Hbons/ionic bonds

causes changes to tertiary structure, changing active site DIAGRAMS: