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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

English Version TITLE I - General provisions

Romanian version TITLUL I - Dispoziii generale

CHAPTER 1 - Scope

CAPITOLUL 1 - Domeniul de aplicare Art. 1. [obiectul reglementrii] (1) Prezentul cod reglementeaz domeniul raporturilor de munc, modul n care se efectueazcontrolul aplicrii reglementrilor din domeniul raporturilor de munc, precum i jurisdicia muncii. (2) Prezentul cod se aplic i raporturilor de munc reglementate prin legi speciale, numai n msura n care acestea nu conin dispoziii specifice derogatorii. Art. 2. [subiectele reglementrii] Dispoziiile cuprinse n prezentul cod se aplic: a) cetenilor romni ncadrai cu contract individual de munc, care presteaz munc n Romnia; b) cetenilor romni ncadrai cu contract individual de munc i care presteaz activitatea n strintate, n baza unor contracte ncheiate cu un angajator romn, cu excepia cazului n care legislaia statului pe al crui teritoriu se execut contractul individual de munc este mai favorabil; c) cetenilor strini sau apatrizi ncadrai cu contract individual de munc, care presteaz munc pentru un angajator romn pe teritoriul Romniei; d) persoanelor care au dobndit statutul de refugiat i se ncadreaz cu contract individual de munc pe teritoriul Romniei, n condiiile legii; e) ucenicilor care presteaz munc n baza unui contract de ucenicie la locul de munc; f) angajatorilor, persoane fizice i juridice; g) organizaiilor sindicale i patronale.

Art. 1. [scope] (1) This code regulates the domain of the labour relationships, the manner in which the control of the implementation of labour relationships regulations takes place, as well as labour jurisdiction. (2) This code also applies to the work relations regulated by special laws, unless they contain specific derogatory provisions.

Art. 2. [addressees] The provisions of this code apply to: a) Romanian citizens employed under an individual work contract, carrying out an activity in Romania; b) Romanian citizens employed under an individual work contract and carrying out an activity abroad, under contracts concluded with a Romanian employer, unless the legislation of the country where the individual work contract is performed is more favorable; c) foreign nationals or stateless persons employed under an individual work contract, carrying out an activity for a Romanian employer on Romanian territory; d) persons having acquired the refugee status and employed under an individual work contract on Romanian territory, under the terms of the law; e) apprentices carrying out an activity under an on-the-job apprenticeship contract; f) employers, natural and legal persons; g) trade unions and employers organizations. CHAPTER 2 - Fundamental principles Art. 3. [right to work]

CAPITOLUL 2 - Principii fundamentale Art. 3. [libertatea muncii]

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (1) The right to work is guaranteed by the Constitution. The right to work may not be abridged. (2) Any person shall be free to choose his/her job and profession, trade or activity to execute. (3) No one may be obliged to work or not to work at a certain workplace or in a certain profession, whichever it may be. (4) Any work contract concluded in breach of the provisions of paragraphs (1)-(3) shall be null and void.

(1) Libertatea muncii este garantat prin Constituie. Dreptul la munc nu poate fi ngrdit. (2) Orice persoan este liber n alegerea locului de munc i a profesiei, meseriei sau activitii pe care urmeaz s o presteze. (3) Nimeni nu poate fi obligat s munceasc sau s nu munceasc ntr-un anumit loc de munc ori ntr-o anumit profesie, oricare ar fi acestea. (4) Orice contract de munc ncheiat cu nerespectarea dispoziiilor alin. (1)-(3) este nul de drept. Art. 4. [interzicerea muncii forate] (1) Munca forat este interzis. (2) Termenul munc forat desemneaz orice munc sau serviciu impus unei persoane sub ameninare ori pentru care persoana nu i-a exprimat consimmntul n mod liber. (3) Nu constituie munc forat munca sau activitatea impus de autoritile publice: a) n temeiul legii privind serviciul militar obligatoriu; b) pentru ndeplinirea obligaiilor civice stabilite prin lege; c) n baza unei hotrri judectoreti de condamnare, rmas definitiv, n condiiile legii; d) n caz de for major, respectiv n caz de rzboi, catastrofe sau pericol de catastrofe precum: incendii, inundaii, cutremure, epidemii sau epizootii violente, invazii de animale sau insecte i, n general, n toate circumstanele care pun n pericol viaa sau condiiile normale de existen ale ansamblului populaiei ori ale unei pri a acesteia.

Art. 4. [prohibition of forced labor] (1) Forced labor shall be forbidden. (2) Forced labor means any work or service imposed on a person under threat or for which he/she did not freely express his/her consent. (3) The following work or activity imposed by the public authorities shall not be seen as forced labor: a) pursuant to the law on the compulsory military service; b) for the fulfillment of the civic duties established by law; c) on the basis of a final judicial conviction, under the terms of the law; d) in case of an act of God, respectively in case of war, disasters or disaster danger such as: fire, flood, earthquake, serious epidemic and epizootic, animal or insect invasions and, generally, in all circumstances which endanger the life or normal living conditions of the entire population or a part of it. Art. 5. [equal treatment ] (1) The principle of equal treatment towards all employees and employers shall operate within the framework of the work relations. (2) Any direct or indirect discrimination against an employee based on sex, sexual orientation, genetic characteristics, age, national affiliation, race, color, ethnicity, religion, political option, social origin, disability, family situation or responsibility, trade union affiliation or activity shall be forbidden. (3) The acts and deeds of exclusion,

Art. 5. [egalitatea de tratament] (1) n cadrul relaiilor de munc funcioneaz principiul egalitii de tratament fa de toi salariaii i angajatorii. (2) Orice discriminare direct sau indirect fa de un salariat, bazat pe criterii de sex, orientare sexual, caracteristici genetice, vrst, apartenen naional, ras, culoare, etnie, religie, opiune politic, origine social, handicap, situaie sau responsabilitate familial, apartenen ori activitate sindical, este interzis. (3) Constituie discriminare direct actele i

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII difference, restriction or preference, based on one or several of the criteria referred to in paragraph (2), which have as aim or effect the denial, restraint or removal of the recognition, use, or exercise of the rights provided for in the labor legislation shall represent direct discrimination. (4) The acts and deeds seemingly based on other criteria than those referred to in paragraph (2), but which effect to a direct discrimination, shall represent indirect discrimination.

faptele de excludere, deosebire, restricie sau preferin, ntemeiate pe unul sau mai multe dintre criteriile prevzute la alin. (2), care au ca scop sau ca efect neacordarea, restrngerea ori nlturarea recunoaterii, folosinei sau exercitrii drepturilor prevzute n legislaia muncii. (4) Constituie discriminare indirect actele i faptele ntemeiate n mod aparent pe alte criterii dect cele prevzute la alin. (2), dar care produc efectele unei discriminri directe.

Art. 6. [employee protection] (1) Any employee engaged in an occupation shall enjoy working conditions adequate to the activity carried out, social protection, health and safety at work, and respect of his/her dignity and conscience, without discrimination. (2) Any employee engaged in an occupation shall be recognized the right to collective bargaining, the right to protection of personal data, and the right to protection against unlawful dismissals. (3) Any discrimination based on sex shall be forbidden for equal work or work of equal value as regards all elements and conditions of compensation. Art. 7. [freedom of association]

Art. 6. [protecia salariailor] (1) Orice salariat care presteaz o munc beneficiaz de condiii de munc adecvate activitii desfurate, de protecie social, de securitate i sntate n munc, precum i de respectarea demnitii i a contiinei sale, fr nici o discriminare. (2) Tuturor salariailor care presteaz o munc le sunt recunoscute dreptul la negocieri colective, dreptul la protecia datelor cu caracter personal, precum i dreptul la protecie mpotriva concedierilor nelegale. (3) Pentru munca egal sau de valoare egal este interzis orice discriminare bazat pe criteriul de sex cu privire la toate elementele i condiiile de remunerare. Art. 7. [libertatea de asociere]

The employees and employers can freely Salariaii i angajatorii se pot asocia liber pentru associate to defend their rights and aprarea drepturilor i promovarea intereselor lor professional, economic and social interests. profesionale, economice i sociale Art. 8. [consent, good faith, report, Art. 8. [consensualismul, consultation] informarea, consultarea] (1) The work relations shall be based on the principle of consent and good faith. (2) The participants to the work relations, for the good development of those relations, shall inform and consult each other, under the terms of the laws and collective work agreements. Art. 9. [freedom to work abroad] buna-credin,

(1) Relaiile de munc se bazeaz pe principiul consensualitii i al bunei-credine. (2) Pentru buna desfurare a relaiilor de munc, participanii la raporturile de munc se vor informa i se vor consulta reciproc, n condiiile legii i ale contractelor colective de munc. Art. 9. [libertatea muncii n strintate]

The Romanian citizens shall be free to work Cetenii romni sunt liberi s se ncadreze n in the Member States of the European munc n statele membre ale Uniunii Europene, 3

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Union and any other country, in compliance precum i n oricare alt stat, cu respectarea with the norms of the international labor normelor dreptului internaional al muncii i a law and bilateral treaties to which Romania tratatelor bilaterale la care Romnia este parte. is a signatory.

TITLE II - The individual work contract

TITLUL II - Contractul individual de munc

CHAPTER 1 - Conclusion of the individual work contract

CAPITOLUL 1 - ncheierea contractului individual de munc a contractului

Art. 10. [legal definition of the individual Art. 10. [definiia legal work contract] individual de munc] An individual work contract is an agreement under which a natural person, called employee, undertakes to provide the work for and under the authority of an employer, natural or legal person, against a remuneration called wage. Art. 11. [forbidden clauses] The terms of the individual work contract may not contain provisions contrary to or rights below the minimum level laid down within legal provisions or collective work agreements.

Contractul individual de munc este contractul n temeiul cruia o persoan fizic, denumit salariat, se oblig s presteze munca pentru i sub autoritatea unui angajator, persoan fizic sau juridic, n schimbul unei remuneraii denumite salariu. Art. 11. [clauze prohibite] Clauzele contractului individual de munc nu pot conine prevederi contrare sau drepturi sub nivelul minim stabilit prin acte normative ori prin contracte colective de munc.

Art. 12. [length of the individual work Art. 12. [durata contractului individual de contract] munc] (1) An individual work contract shall be of unlimited duration. (2) By way of exception, the individual work contract may also be of limited duration, under the terms expressly provided for in the law. Art. 13. [legal capacity of the employee] (1) A natural person shall acquire work capacity at the age of 16. (2) A natural person may also conclude a work contract as an employee at the age of 15, with the agreement of his/her parents or legal representatives, for activities corresponding to his/her physical development, skills and knowledge, if (1) Contractul individual de munc se ncheie pe durat nedeterminat. (2) Prin excepie, contractul individual de munc se poate ncheia i pe durat determinat, n condiiile expres prevzute de lege. Art. 13. [capacitatea juridic a salariatului] (1) Persoana fizic dobndete capacitate de munc la mplinirea vrstei de 16 ani. (2) Persoana fizic poate ncheia un contract de munc n calitate de salariat i la mplinirea vrstei de 15 ani, cu acordul prinilor sau al reprezentanilor legali, pentru activiti potrivite cu dezvoltarea fizic, aptitudinile i cunotinele sale, dac astfel nu i sunt periclitate sntatea, 4

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII his/her health, development and vocational training are not harmed. (3) The employment of persons under the age of 15 shall be prohibited. (4) The employment of persons laid under judicial interdiction shall be prohibited. (5) The employment in difficult, unhealthy or dangerous workplaces may only take place after reaching the age of 18; these workplace categories shall be established by Government Decision.

dezvoltarea i pregtirea profesional. (3) ncadrarea n munc a persoanelor sub vrsta de 15 ani este interzis. (4) ncadrarea n munc a persoanelor puse sub interdicie judectoreasc este interzis. (5) ncadrarea n munc n locuri de munc grele, vtmtoare sau periculoase se poate face dup mplinirea vrstei de 18 ani; aceste locuri de munc se stabilesc prin hotrre a Guvernului. Art. 14. [capacitatea juridic a angajatorului] (1) n sensul prezentului cod, prin angajator se nelege persoana fizic sau juridic ce poate, potrivit legii, s angajeze for de munc pe baz de contract individual de munc. (2) Persoana juridic poate ncheia contracte individuale de munc, n calitate de angajator, din momentul dobndirii personalitii juridice. (3) Persoana fizic dobndete capacitatea de a ncheia contracte individuale de munc n calitate de angajator, din momentul dobndirii capacitii depline de exerciiu. Art. 15. [cauza contractului de munc] Este interzis, sub sanciunea nulitii absolute, ncheierea unui contract individual de munc n scopul prestrii unei munci sau a unei activiti ilicite ori imorale. Art. 16. [forma contractului de munc] (1) Contractul individual de munc se ncheie n baza consimmntului prilor, n form scris, n limba romn. Obligaia de ncheiere a contractului individual de munc n form scris revine angajatorului. Forma scris este obligatorie pentru ncheierea valabil a contractului. (2) Anterior nceperii activitii contractul individual de munc se nregistreaz n registrul general de eviden a salariailor, care se transmite inspectoratului teritorial de munc. (3) Angajatorul este obligat ca anterior nceperii activitii s nmneze salariatului un exemplar din contractul individual de munc.

Art. 14. [legal capacity of the employer] (1) For the purposes of this code, employer means a natural or legal person, which, according to the law,may employ personnel under individualwork contracts. (2) A legal person may conclude individual work contracts in the capacity of employer after acquiring legal personality. (3) A natural person may conclude individual work contracts in the capacity of employer after acquiring the ability to act.

Art. 15. [subject matter of the work contract] The conclusion of an individual work contract having as subject matter an illegal or immoral occupation or activity shall be prohibited, at the risk of absolute nullity. Art. 16. [form of the work contract] (1) An individual labour contract shall be concluded based on the parties' consent, in written form, in Romanian. The employer has the obligation to conclude the individual labour contract in written form. The written form is mandatory for the conclusion of the contract. (2) Before starting the activity, the individual labour contract shall be registered into the general registry for the employeesevidence, which will be communicated to the territorial labour inspectorate. (3) The employer is obliged to hand over to the employee a copy of the individual labour contract before the beginning of the activity.

(4) Munca prestat n temeiul unui contract

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (4) The work performed based on an individual de munc constituie vechime n munc. individual labour contract is considered length of service.

Art. 17. [information on work contract Art. 17. [informarea cu privire la clauzele clauses] contractului de munc] (1) Before concluding or amending the individual labour contract, the employer shall inform the person selected for employment or, as appropriate, the employee, on the essential conditions it intends to introduce in the contract or to amend. (11) The obligation to notify to person selected for employment or the employee shall be deemed to be fulfilled by the employer upon the signature of the individual work contract or the addendum, as the case may be. (2) The person selected for employment or the employee, as the case may be, shall be informed at least of the following: a) the identity of the parties; b) the workplace or, in the absence of a permanent workplace, the possibility of working in several places; c) the headquarters or, as appropriate, the domicile of the employer; d) job title/occupation according to the Classifications of Occupations in Romania or other legal provisions, as well as the job description specifying the job duties; d1) The criteria for the evaluation of the employees professional activity applicable to the employers level; e) the job-specific risks; f) the date when the contract enters into force; g) in the case of a work contract of limited duration or of a temporary work contract, its length; h) the length of the leave the employee is entitled to; i) the conditions under which the contracting parties may give notice and its length; j) the basic pay, other essential elements of earned income, and the payment periodicity of the wage the employee is entitled to; k) the normal length of work, expressed in hours per day and hours per week; (1) Anterior ncheierii sau modificrii contractului individual de munc, angajatorul are obligaia de a informa persoana selectat n vederea angajrii ori, dup caz, salariatul, cu privire la clauzele eseniale pe care intenioneaz s le nscrie n contract sau s le modifice. (11) Obligaia de informare a persoanei selectate n vederea angajrii sau a salariatului se consider ndeplinit de ctre angajator la momentul semnrii contractului individual de munc sau a actului adiional, dup caz. (2) Persoana selectat n vederea angajrii ori salariatul, dup caz, va fi informat cu privire la cel puin urmtoarele elemente: a) identitatea prilor; b) locul de munc sau, n lipsa unui loc de munc fix, posibilitatea ca salariatul s munceasc n diverse locuri; c) sediul sau, dup caz, domiciliul angajatorului; d) funcia/ocupaia conform specificaiei Clasificrii ocupaiilor din Romnia sau altor acte normative, precum i fia postului cu specificarea atribuiilor postului; d1) criteriile de evaluare a activitii profesionale a salariatului aplicabile la nivelul angajatorului; e) riscurile specifice postului; f) data de la care contractul urmeaz s i produc efectele; g) n cazul unui contract de munc pe durat determinat sau al unui contract de munc temporar, durata acestora; h) durata concediului de odihn la care salariatul are dreptul; i) condiiile de acordare a preavizului de ctre prile contractante i durata acestuia; j) salariul pe baz, alte elemente constitutive ale veniturilor salariale, precum i periodicitatea plii salariului la care salariatul are dreptul; k) durata normal a muncii, exprimat n ore/zi i ore/sptmn; l) indicarea contractului colectiv de munc ce reglementeaz condiiile de munc ale salariatului; m) durata perioadei de prob;

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII l) the reference to the collective work agreement governing the working conditions of the employee; m) the length of the period of probation; (3) The elements of the information provided for in paragraph (2) shall also be included in the individual work contract. (4) Any amendment to one or more of the elements mentioned in paragraph (2) during the performance of the individual labour contract requires the conclusion of an addendum, within 20 working days as of the date of such change occurrence, excepting the circumstances when such change is expressly provided by the law. (41) When negotiating, concluding or amending the individual work contract, each party may be assisted by third parties, according to its wish, under the provisions of paragraph (5). (5) As regards the information provided to the employee before the conclusion of the individual work contract, the parties may sign a confidentiality contract.

(3) Elementele din informarea prevzut la alin. (2) trebuie s se regseasc i n coninutul contractului individual de munc. (4) Orice modificare a unuia dintre elementele prevzute la alin. (2) n timpul executrii contractului individual de munc impune ncheierea unui act adiional la contract, ntr-un termen de 20 zile lucrtoare de la data apariiei modificrii, cu excepia situaiilor n care o asemenea modificare este prevzut n mod expres de lege.. (41) La negocierea, ncheierea sau modificarea contractului individual de munc, oricare dintre pri poate fi asistat de teri, conform propriei opiuni, cu respectarea prevederilor alin. (5). (5) Cu privire la informaiile furnizate salariatului, prealabil ncheierii contractului individual de munc, ntre pri poate interveni un contract de confidenialitate.

Art. 18. [information working abroad ]

of

employees Art. 18. [informarea salariatului care va lucra n strintate] (1) n cazul n care persoana selectat n vederea angajrii ori salariatul, dup caz, urmeaz s i desfoare activitatea n strintate, angajatorul are obligaia de a-i comunica n timp util, nainte de plecare, informaiile prevzute la art. 17 alin. (2) precum i informaii referitoare la: a) durata perioadei de munc ce urmeaz s fie prestat n strintate; b) moneda n care vor fi pltite drepturile salariale, precum i modalitile de plat; c) prestaiile n bani i/sau n natur aferente desfurrii activitii n strintate; d) condiiile de clim; e) reglementrile principale din legislaia muncii din acea ar; f) obiceiurile locului a cror nerespectare i-ar pune n pericol viaa, libertatea sau sigurana personal; g) condiiile de repatriere a lucrtorului, dup caz. (11) Informaiile prevzute la alin. (1) lit. a), b) i c) trebuie s se regseasc i n coninutul contractului individual de munc. (2) Dispoziiile alin. (1) se completeaz prin legi

(1) If the person selected for employment or the employee, as the case may be, is to perform his/her activity abroad, the employer shall communicate him/her in good time, before the departure, the information provided for in Article 17 (2) and information on the following: a) the length of the work to be performed abroad; b) the currency of wage payment, and the payment methods; c) benefits in money and/or in kind related to the activity performed abroad; e) climatic conditions; e) main labor law regulations in that country; f) local customs whose breach would endanger his/her life, freedom or personal safety; g) employee repatriation conditions, as the case may be. (11) The information provided in paragraph (1) (a), (b) and (c) shall also be included in the individual work contract.

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall be speciale care reglementeaz condiiile specifice de supplemented by special laws governing the munc n strintate. specific conditions of working abroad.

Art. 19. [effects of failure to inform] Should the employer fail to fulfill its obligation to notification as provided for in Articles 17 and 18, the person selected for employment or the employee, as the case may be, shall be entitled to appeal, within 30 days from the failure to fulfill that obligation, to the competent court and seek redress according to the damage incurred following the employers failure to notify.

Art. 19. [efectele omisiunii de informare] n situaia n care angajatorul nu i execut obligaia de informare prevzut la art. 17 i 18, persoana selectat n vederea angajrii ori salariatul, dup caz, are dreptul s sesizeze, n termen de 30 de zile de la data nendeplinirii acestei obligaii, instana judectoreasc competent i s solicite despgubiri corespunztoare prejudiciului pe care l-a suferit ca urmare a neexecutrii de ctre angajator a obligaiei de informare.

Art. 20. [special clauses of the individual Art. 20. [clauzele speciale ale contractului work contract] individual de munc] (1) Besides the essential conditions provided for in Article 17, the parties may negotiate and include other specific clauses in the individual work contract. (2) The following shall be considered specific clauses, the enumeration thereof not being restrictive: a) clause on vocational training; b) non-compete clause; c) mobility clause; d) confidentiality clause. Art. 21. [non-compete clause] (1) When concluding the individual work contract or during its performance, the parties may negotiate and include a noncompete clause in the contract requiring the employee, after the cessation of the contract, not to perform, in his/her own interest or for a third party, an activity competing with that performed for the employer, against a monthly non-compete benefit the employer undertakes to pay during the entire non-compete period. (2) The non-compete clause shall only take effects if the activities forbidden to the employee upon the cessation of the contract, the amount of the monthly non-compete benefit, the length the non-compete clause is to take effects, the third parties forbidden to perform activities to, and the (1) n afara clauzelor eseniale prevzute la art. 17, ntre pri pot fi negociate i cuprinse n contractul individual de munc i alte clauze specifice. (2) Sunt considerate clauze specifice, fr ca enumerarea s fie limitativ: a) clauza cu privire la formarea profesional; b) clauza de neconcuren; c) clauza de mobilitate; d) clauza de confidenialitate. Art. 21. [clauza de neconcuren] (1) La ncheierea contractului individual de munc sau pe parcursul executrii acestuia, prile pot negocia i cuprinde n contract o clauz de neconcuren prin care salariatul s fie obligat ca dup ncetarea contractului s nu presteze, n interes propriu sau al unui ter, o activitate care se afl n concuren cu cea prestat la angajatorul su, n schimbul unei indemnizaii de neconcuren lunare pe care angajatorul se oblig s o plteasc pe toat perioada de neconcuren. (2) Clauza de neconcuren i produce efectele numai dac n cuprinsul contractului individual de munc sunt prevzute n mod concret activitile ce sunt interzise salariatului la data ncetrii contractului, cuantumul indemnizaiei de neconcuren lunare, perioada pentru care i produce efectele clauza de neconcuren, terii n favoarea crora se interzice prestarea activitii,

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII geographical area where the employee may reasonably compete with the employer, are specifically provided for in the individual work contract. (3) The monthly non-compete benefit owed to the employee may not be a wage-like benefit, shall be negotiated and shall amount to at least 50% of the average gross wage of the employee during the previous 6 months before the cessation of the work contract or, if the duration of the individual work contract was less than 6 months, of the average gross wage owed to him/her during the contract. (4) The non-compete benefit is an expense made by the employer, deductible when calculating the taxable income, and the tax shall be collected from the beneficiary natural person, according to the law.

precum i aria geografic unde salariatul poate fi n real competiie cu angajatorul. (3) Indemnizaia de neconcuren lunar datorat salariatului nu este de natur salarial, se negociaz i este de cel puin 50% din media veniturilor salariale brute ale salariatului din ultimele 6 luni anterioare datei ncetrii contractului individual de munc sau, n cazul n care durata contractului individual de munc a fost mai mic de 6 luni, din media veniturilor salariale lunare brute cuvenite acestuia pe durata contractului. (4) Indemnizaia de neconcuren reprezint o cheltuial efectuat de angajator, este deductibil la calculul profitului impozabil i se impoziteaz la persoana fizic beneficiar, potrivit legii.

Art. 22. [extension of the non-compete Art. 22. [prelungirea efectelor clauzei de clause] neconcuren] (1) The non-compete clause may take effects for a period of maximum 2 years from the cessation of the individual work contract. (2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply when the cessation of the individual work contract occurred by right, except for the cases provided for in Article 56 d), f), g), h) and j), or on the initiative of the employer for reasons not related to the employee. Art. 23. [limits of the non-compete clause] (1) The non-compete clause may not have the effect of absolutely prohibiting the exercise of the employees profession or specialization. (2) Upon notification by the employee or the territorial labor inspectorate, the competent court may reduce the effects of the non-compete clause. Art. 24. [effects of non-compete clause breach] When willfully infringing the non-compete clause, the employee may be required to return the benefit and, as the case may be, pay damages according to the prejudice caused to the employer. (1) Clauza de neconcuren i poate produce efectele pentru o perioad de maximum 2 ani de la data ncetrii contractului individual de munc. (2) Prevederile alin. (1) nu sunt aplicabile n cazurile n care ncetarea contractului individual de munc s-a produs de drept, cu excepia cazurilor prevzute la art. 56 lit. d), f), g), h) i j), ori a intervenit din iniiativa angajatorului pentru motive care nu in de persoana salariatului. Art. 23. [limitrile clauzei de neconcuren] (1) Clauza de neconcuren nu poate avea ca efect interzicerea n mod absolut a exercitrii profesiei salariatului sau a specializrii pe care o deine. (2) La sesizarea salariatului sau a inspectoratului teritorial pentru munc instana competent poate diminua efectele clauzei de neconcuren. Art. 24. [efectele nerespectrii clauzei de neconcuren] n cazul nerespectrii, cu vinovie, a clauzei de neconcuren salariatul poate fi obligat la restituirea indemnizaiei i, dup caz, la dauneinterese corespunztoare prejudiciului pe care l-a produs angajatorului.

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

Art. 25. [mobility clause] (1) Under the mobility clause, the parties to the individual work contract shall establish that, taking into account the specificity of the work, the employee does not perform the job in one workplace. In that case, the employee shall enjoy supplementary benefits in money or in kind. (2) The amount of the supplementary benefits in money or in kind is specified in the individual labour contract Art. 26. [confidentiality clause] (1) Under the confidentiality clause, the parties shall agree, on the entire length of the individual work contract and after its cessation, not to transmit data or information they took knowledge of during the performance of the contract, under conditions laid down in rules of procedure, collective work agreements or individual work contracts. (2) Breach of this clause by any of the parties shall incur the obligation of the guilty party to pay damages. Art. 27. [mandatory medical certificate upon employment] (1) A person may only be employed on the basis of a medical certificate, certifying that the person concerned is able to carry out that activity. (2) The breach of the provisions in paragraph (1) shall void the individual work contract. (3) Revoked. (4) The competence and procedure of issuing the medical certificate, and the penalties applicable to the employer when employing or changing the place or type of work without a medical certificate shall be laid down in special laws. (5) The request, before employment, of pregnancy tests, shall be forbidden. (6) When employing in the health, food and beverage, education and other fields laid down in regulatory documents, specific medical tests may also be required.

Art. 25. [clauza de mobilitate] (1) Prin clauza de mobilitate prile n contractul individual de munc stabilesc c, n considerarea specificului muncii, executarea obligaiilor de serviciu de ctre salariat nu se realizeaz ntr-un loc stabil de munc. n acest caz salariatul beneficiaz de prestaii suplimentare n bani sau n natur. (2) Cuantumul prestaiilor suplimentare n bani sau modalitile prestaiilor suplimentare n natur sunt specificate n contractul individual de munc Art. 26. [clauza de confidenialitate] (1) Prin clauza de confidenialitate prile convin ca, pe toat durata contractului individual de munc i dup ncetarea acestuia, s nu transmit date sau informaii de care au luat cunotin n timpul executrii contractului, n condiiile stabilite n regulamentele interne, n contractele colective de munc sau n contractele individuale de munc. (2) Nerespectarea acestei clauze de ctre oricare dintre pri atrage obligarea celui n culp la plata de daune-interese. Art. 27. [obligativitatea avizului medical la angajare] (1) O persoan poate fi angajat n munc numai n baza unui certificat medical, care constat faptul c cel n cauz este apt pentru prestarea acelei munci. (2) Nerespectarea prevederilor alin. (1) atrage nulitatea contractului individual de munc. (3) Abrogat. (4) Competena i procedura de eliberare a certificatului medical, precum i sanciunile aplicabile angajatorului n cazul angajrii sau schimbrii locului ori felului muncii fr certificat medical sunt stabilite prin legi speciale. (5) Solicitarea, la angajare, a testelor de graviditate este interzis. (6) La angajarea n domeniile sntate, alimentaie public, educaie i n alte domenii stabilite prin acte normative se pot solicita i teste medicale specifice.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 28. [mandatory medical certificate Art. 28. [obligativitatea avizului medical special cases] situaii speciale]

Medical certificate shall also be compulsory in the following cases: a) when resuming the activity after a pause in excess of 6 months, for the workplaces exposed to professional noxious agents, and 1 year, in all other cases; b) in the case of secondment or transfer to another workplace or another activity, should the work conditions change; c) at the beginning of a mission, for the employees employed under a temporary work contract; d) in the case of apprentices, interns, pupils and students, when they are to be trained in trades or professions, and also when changing the trade during the training; e) periodically, for those exposed to professional noxious agents, according to the regulations of the Ministry of Health and Family; f) periodically, for those carrying out activities entailing the risk of transmitting diseases and those working in the food and zootechnics sector, in drinking water supply plants, children communities, health units, according to the regulations of the Ministry of Health and Family; g) periodically, for those working in organizations with no risk factors, by medical examinations differentiated according to age, sex, and health status, according to the regulations in the collective work agreements. Art. 29. [skill verification] (1) An individual work contract shall be concluded after prior verification of the professional and personal skills of the person applying for employment. (2) The methods to accomplish the verification provided for in paragraph (1) shall be laid down in the collective work agreement, in the personnel statute be it professional or disciplinary and in the rules of procedure, unless otherwise specified in the law. (3) The information requested, in any form, by the employer, from the person requesting

Certificatul medical este obligatoriu i n urmtoarele situaii: a) la renceperea activitii dup o ntrerupere mai mare de 6 luni, pentru locurile de munc avnd expunere la factori nocivi profesionali, i de un an, n celelalte situaii; b) n cazul detarii sau trecerii n alt loc de munc ori n alt activitate, dac se schimb condiiile de munc; c) la nceperea misiunii, n cazul salariailor ncadrai cu contract de munc temporar; d) n cazul ucenicilor, practicanilor, elevilor i studenilor, n situaia n care urmeaz s fie instruii pe meserii i profesii, precum i n situaia schimbrii meseriei pe parcursul instruirii; e) periodic, n cazul celor care lucreaz n condiii de expunere la factori nocivi profesionali, potrivit reglementrilor Ministerului Sntii i Familiei; f) periodic, n cazul celor care desfoar activiti cu risc de transmitere a unor boli i care lucreaz n sectorul alimentar, zootehnic, la instalaiile de aprovizionare cu ap potabil, n colectiviti de copii, n uniti sanitare, potrivit reglementrilor Ministerului Sntii i Familiei; g) periodic, n cazul celor care lucreaz n uniti fr factori de risc, prin examene medicale difereniate n funcie de vrst, sex i stare de sntate, potrivit reglementrilor din contractele colective de munc

Art. 29. [verificarea aptitudinilor] (1) Contractul individual de munc se ncheie dup verificarea prealabil a aptitudinilor profesionale i personale ale persoanei care solicit angajarea. (2) Modalitile n care urmeaz s se realizeze verificarea prevzut la alin. (1) sunt stabilite n contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, n statutul de personal - profesional sau disciplinar - i n regulamentul intern, n msura n care legea nu dispune altfel. (3) Informaiile cerute, sub orice form, de ctre angajator persoanei care solicit angajarea cu ocazia verificrii prealabile a aptitudinilor nu pot

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII the employment upon the prior verification of the skills shall have no other objective than to assess the ability to fill in the position concerned, and the professional skills. (4) The employer may request information about the the person applying for employment from the former employers, but only regarding the activities performed and the length of employment and only with the prior information of the person in question. Art. 30. [contest/examination]

avea un alt scop dect acela de a aprecia capacitatea de a ocupa postul respectiv, precum i aptitudinile profesionale. (4) Angajatorul poate cere informaii n legtur cu persoana care solicit angajarea de la fotii si angajatori, dar numai cu privire la activitile ndeplinite i la durata angajrii i numai cu ncunotinarea prealabil a celui n cauz.

Art. 30. [concursul/examenul] (1) ncadrarea salariailor la instituiile i autoritile publice i la alte uniti bugetare se face numai prin concurs sau examen, dup caz. (2) Posturile vacante existente n statul de funcii vor fi scoase la concurs, n raport cu necesitile fiecrei uniti prevzute la alin. (1). (3) n cazul n care la concursul organizat n vederea ocuprii unui post vacant nu s-au prezentat mai muli candidai, ncadrarea n munc se face prin examen. (4) Condiiile de organizare i modul de desfurare a concursului/examenului se stabilesc prin regulament aprobat prin hotrre a Guvernului.

(1) The employment of the employees in public institutions, public authorities and other government units can only take place by contest or examination, as appropriate. (2) The vacancies on the organization chart shall be open to contest, in accordance to the needs of every organization provided for in paragraph (1). (3) When no more than one applicant registers at the contest organized to fill in a vacancy, the employment shall be decided by an examination. (4) The organization and performance of the contest/examination shall be laid down in a regulation approved by Government Decision. Art. 31. [period of probation] (1) In order to verify the skills of the employee, a trial period of maximum 90 calendar days for the executive positions and maximum 120 calendar days for the managerial positions may be agreed at the conclusion of the individual labour contract. (2) The verification of the professional skills when hiring persons with disabilities shall be done exclusively in the form of a trial period of of maximum 30 calendar days. (3) During or at the end of the trial period, the individual labour contract may only be terminated by a written notification, without notice period, at the initiative of any party, without requiring its motivation. (4) During the trial period, the employee shall enjoy all rights and has all the obligations provided for in the labour

Art. 31. [perioada de prob] (1) Pentru verificarea aptitudinilor salariatului, la ncheierea contractului individual de munc se poate stabili o perioad de prob de cel mult 90 de zile calendaristice pentru funciile de execuie i de cel mult 120 de zile calendaristice pentru funciile de conducere. (2) Verificarea aptitudinilor profesionale la ncadrarea persoanelor cu handicap se realizeaz exclusiv prin modalitatea perioadei de prob de maximum 30 de zile calendaristice. (3) Pe durata sau la sfritul perioadei de prob, contractul individual de munc poate nceta exclusiv printr-o notificare scris, fr preaviz, la iniiativa oricreia dintre pri, fr a fi necesar motivarea acesteia. (4) Pe durata perioadei de prob salariatul beneficiaz de toate drepturile i are toate obligaiile prevzute n legislaia muncii, n contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, n regulamentul intern, precum i n contractul

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII legislation, the collective labour agreement, the internal rules and the individual labour contract. (5) For the graduates of higher education institutions the first 6 months from the date of starting the activity in proffesion shall be considered contribution stage period (in Romanian perioada de stagiu). As an exception of the above mentioned rule are considered the occupations which are governed by special legal provisions. At the end of the stage period, the employer has the obligation to provide the certificate which is approved by the competent territorial labour inspectorate from the employers headquarters. (6) The means of performing the stage period (in Romanian stagiu) provided by paragraph (5) will be regulated by specific rules.

individual de munc. (5) Pentru absolvenii instituiilor de nvmnt superior, primele ase luni dup debutul n profesie se consider perioad de stagiu. Fac excepie acele profesii n care stagiatura este reglementat prin legi speciale. La sfritul perioadei de stagiu, angajatorul elibereaz obligatoriu adeverina care este vizat de Inspectoratul Teritorial de Munc n a crui raz teritorial de competen acesta i are sediul. (6) Modalitatea de efectuare a stagiului prevzut la alin. (5) se va reglementa prin lege special.

Art. 32. [single period of probation] (1) During the execution of an individual work contract, only one period of probation may be established. (2) By way of exception, the employee may be subject to a new period of probation if he/she enters a new position or profession at the same employer or is to perform the activity in a difficult, unhealthy or dangerous workplace. (3) Revoked. (4) The period of probation shall be included in the length of service.

Art. 32. [unicitatea perioadei de prob] (1) Pe durata executrii unui contract individual de munc nu poate fi stabilit dect o singur perioad de prob. (2) Prin excepie, salariatul poate fi supus la o nou perioad de prob n situaia n care acesta debuteaz la acelai angajator ntr-o nou funcie sau profesie ori urmeaz s presteze activitatea ntr-un loc de munc cu condiii grele, vtmtoare sau periculoase. (3) Abrogat (4) Perioada de prob constituie vechime n munc. Art. 33. [limitarea perioadelor de prob] Perioada n care se pot face angajri succesive de prob a mai multor persoane pentru acelai post este de maximum 12 luni. Art. 34. [registrul general de eviden a salariailor] (1) Fiecare angajator are obligaia de a nfiina un registru general de eviden a salariailor. (2) Registrul general de eviden a salariailor se va nregistra n prealabil la autoritatea public competent, potrivit legii, n a crei raz teritorial se afl domiciliul, respectiv sediul

Art. 33. [limits of periods of probation] The maximum period during which are made successive trial employment (in Romanian: Angajari successive de proba) of different persons on the same position is of 12 months. Art. 34. [general employee register] (1) Each employer shall establish a general employee register. (2) The general employee register shall be registered beforehand at the competent public authority, according to the law, within whose precinct the headquarters,

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII respectively the residence of the employer is located, thus becoming an official document. (3) The general registry for the employees evidence shall be filled in and communicated to the territorial labour inspectorate according to the order of employment and shall contain the identification data of all employees, the date of employment, the position/occupation according to the specification of the Classification of Occupations in Romania or other regulatory documents, the type of the individual labour contract, the wage, the extra- payments and their amount, the period and the causes for the suspension of the individual labour contract, the secondment period and the date of termination of the individual labour contract. (4) The general employee register shall be kept at the domicile, respectively the headquarters of the employer, and shall be made available to the labor inspector or any other authority requesting it, under the terms of the law. (5) At the request of the employee or a former employee, the employer is obliged to issue a document stating the activity carried out by him/her, the duration of the activity, the wage, the length of employment with respect to its profession and its specialization. (6) In case of cessation of the activity of the employer, the general employee register shall be submitted to the competent public authority, according to the law, within whose precinct is located the headquarters or the residence of the employer, as the case may be. (7) The methodology necessary to prepare the general employee register, the records to be made and any other elements regarding their preparation shall be laid down by Government Decision.

angajatorului, dat de la care devine document oficial. (3) Registrul general de eviden a salariailor se completeaz i se transmite inspectoratului teritorial de munc n ordinea angajrii i cuprinde elementele de identificare ale tuturor salariailor, data angajrii, funcia/ocupaia conform specificaiei Clasificrii ocupaiilor din Romnia sau altor acte normative, tipul contractului individual de munc, salariul, sporurile i cuantumul acestora, perioada i cauzele de suspendare a contractului individual de munc, perioada detarii i data ncetrii contractului individual de munc. (4) Registrul general de eviden a salariailor este pstrat la domiciliul, respectiv sediul angajatorului, urmnd s fie pus la dispoziie inspectorului de munc sau oricrei alte autoriti care l solicit, n condiiile legii. (5) La solicitarea salariatului sau a unui fost salariat, angajatorul este obligat s elibereze un document care s ateste activitatea desfurat de acesta, durata activitii, salariul, vechimea n munc, n meserie i n specialitate. (6) n cazul ncetrii activitii angajatorului, registrul general de eviden a salariailor se depune la autoritatea public competent, potrivit legii, n a crei raz teritorial se afl sediul sau domiciliul angajatorului, dup caz. (7) Metodologia de ntocmire a registrului general de eviden a salariailor, nregistrrile care se efectueaz, precum i orice alte elemente n legtur cu ntocmirea acestora se stabilesc prin hotrre a Guvernului.

Art. 35. [plurality of positions] (1) An employee shall have the right to work for different employers or to the same employer, on the basis of individual labour contracts, receiving the corresponding wage

Art. 35. [cumulul de funcii] (1) Orice salariat are dreptul de a munci la angajatori diferii sau la acelai angajator, n baza unor contracte individuale de munc, beneficiind de salariul corespunztor pentru fiecare dintre

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII for each of them. (2) The cases where the law provides for incompatibilities regarding the right to hold a plurality of certain positions shall be excepted from the provisions of paragraph (1). (3) Revoked.

acestea. (2) Fac excepie de la prevederile alin. (1) situaiile n care prin lege sunt prevzute incompatibiliti pentru cumulul unor funcii. (3) Abrogat.

Art. 36. [employment of foreign nationals Art. 36. [angajarea strinilor i apatrizilor] and stateless persons] The foreign and stateless citizens may conclude an individual labour contract on the basis of the work authorization or the residence permit for work purposes, issued according to the law. Art. 37. [principle of negotiation ] The rights and obligations regarding the work relations between the employer and the employee shall be established according to the law, by negotiation, within collective work agreements and individual work contracts. Art. 38. [prohibition to waive legal rights] The employees may not waive the rights granted by law. Any transaction designed to waive the rights granted by law to the employees or to abridge these rights shall be void. Cetenii strini i apatrizii pot fi angajai prin contract individual de munc n baza autorizaiei de munc sau a permisului de edere n scop de munc eliberat/eliberat potrivit legii.

Art. 37. [principiul negocierii] Drepturile i obligaiile privind relaiile de munc dintre angajator i salariat se stabilesc potrivit legii, prin negociere, n cadrul contractelor colective de munc i al contractelor individuale de munc. Art. 38. [interdicia renunrii la drepturile prevzute de lege] Salariaii nu pot renuna la drepturile ce le sunt recunoscute prin lege. Orice tranzacie prin care se urmrete renunarea la drepturile recunoscute de lege salariailor sau limitarea acestor drepturi este lovit de nulitate.

Art. 39. [main rights and obligations of Art. 39. [principalele drepturi i obligaii ale the employee] salariatului] (1) An employee shall have, mainly, the following rights: a) right to wage for the activity carried out; b) right to daily and weekly rest; c) right to annual leave; d) right to equal opportunities and treatment; e) right to dignity at work; f) right to health and safety at work; g) right to access to vocational training; h) right to information and consultation; i) right to participate to the establishment and improvement of the working conditions and environment; j) right to protection in case of dismissal; (1) Salariatul are, n principal, urmtoarele drepturi: a) dreptul la salarizare pentru munca depus; b) dreptul la repaus zilnic i sptmnal; c) dreptul la concediu de odihn anual; d) dreptul la egalitate de anse i de tratament; e) dreptul la demnitate n munc; f) dreptul la securitate i sntate n munc; g) dreptul la acces la formarea profesional; h) dreptul la informare i consultare; i) dreptul de a lua parte la determinarea i ameliorarea condiiilor de munc i a mediului de munc; j) dreptul la protecie n caz de concediere; k) dreptul la negociere colectiv i individual; 15

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII k) right to collective and individual bargaining; l) right to participate to collective actions; m) right to set up or join a trade union; n) Other rights provided by the law or by the applicable collective labour contract. (2) An employee shall have, mainly, the following obligations: a) obligation to achieve the work quotas or, as the case may be, to fulfill the tasks assigned according to the job description; b) obligation to comply with the labor discipline; c) obligation to comply with the provisions contained in the rules of procedure, in the applicable collective work agreement and in the individual work contract; d) obligation of loyalty towards the employer at the workplace; e) obligation to comply with the work safety and health measures within the organization; f) obligation to observe the business secret; g) other obligations provided by the law or by the applicable collective labour contract

l) dreptul de a participa la aciuni colective; m) dreptul de a constitui sau de a adera la un sindicat. n) alte drepturi prevzute de lege sau de contractele colective de munc aplicabile. (2) Salariatului i revin, n principal, urmtoarele obligaii: a) obligaia de a realiza norma de munc sau, dup caz, de a ndeplini atribuiile ce i revin conform fiei postului; b) obligaia de a respecta disciplina muncii; c) obligaia de a respecta prevederile cuprinse n regulamentul intern, n contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, precum i n contractul individual de munc; d) obligaia de fidelitate fa de angajator n executarea atribuiilor de serviciu; e) obligaia de a respecta msurile de securitate i sntate a muncii n unitate; f) obligaia de a respecta secretul de serviciu; g) alte obligaii prevzute de lege sau contractele colective de munc aplicabile

Art. 40. [main rights and obligations of Art. 40. [principalele drepturi i obligaii ale the employer] angajatorului] (1) An employer shall have, mainly, the following rights: a) to lay down the organization and operation of the unit; b) to establish the corresponding duties for each employee, under the legal provisions; c) to issue orders with a compulsory character for the employee, subject to their legality; d) to exert control over the performance of the tasks; e) to assess the misbehaviors and apply the corresponding penalties, according to the law, the applicable collective work agreement and the rules of procedure; f) to establish the individual performance objective, as well as the evaluation criteria of their accomplishment. (2) An employer shall have, mainly, the following obligations: a) to notify the employees of the working conditions and of the issues regarding the work relations; (1) Angajatorul are, n principal, urmtoarele drepturi: a) s stabileasc organizarea i funcionarea unitii; b) s stabileasc atribuiile corespunztoare pentru fiecare salariat, n condiiile legii; c) s dea dispoziii cu caracter obligatoriu pentru salariat, sub rezerva legalitii lor; d) s exercite controlul asupra modului de ndeplinire a sarcinilor de serviciu; e) s constate svrirea abaterilor disciplinare i s aplice sanciunile corespunztoare, potrivit legii, contractului colectiv de munc aplicabil i regulamentului intern; f) s stabileasc obiectivele de performan individual, precum i criteriile de evaluare a realizrii acestora. (2) Angajatorului n revin, n principal, urmtoarele obligaii: a) s informeze salariaii asupra condiiilor de munc i asupra elementelor care privesc desfurarea relaiilor de munc;

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII b) to permanently ensure the technical and organizational conditions taken into account when preparing the work standards and the corresponding working conditions; c) to grant the employees all rights arising from law, applicable collective work agreements and individual work contracts; d) to periodically notify the employees of the economic and financial situation of the organization, except for sensitive or classified information whose disclosure is likely to harm its activity. The periodicity of the notification shall be established by negotiation within the applicable collective work agreement; e) to consult the trade union or, as appropriate, the representatives of the employees on the decisions liable to substantially affect their rights and interests; f) to pay all contributions and taxes due, and to retain and transfer the contributions and taxes owed by the employees, under the terms of the law; g) to establish the general employee register and enter the records provided for in the law; h) to issue, upon request, all documents stating the quality of employee of the claimant; i) to ensure the confidentiality of the employee data having a personal character.

b) s asigure permanent condiiile tehnice i organizatorice avute n vedere la elaborarea normelor de munc i condiiile corespunztoare de munc; c) s acorde salariailor toate drepturile ce decurg din lege, din contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil i din contractele individuale de munc; d) s comunice periodic salariailor situaia economic i financiar a unitii, cu excepia informaiilor sensibile sau secrete, care, prin divulgare, sunt de natur s prejudicieze activitatea unitii. Periodicitatea comunicrilor se stabilete prin negociere n contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil; e) s se consulte cu sindicatul sau, dup caz, cu reprezentanii salariailor n privina deciziilor susceptibile s afecteze substanial drepturile i interesele acestora; f) s plteasc toate contribuiile i impozitele aflate n sarcina sa, precum i s rein i s vireze contribuiile i impozitele datorate de salariai, n condiiile legii; g) s nfiineze registrul general de eviden a salariailor i s opereze nregistrrile prevzute de lege; h) s elibereze, la cerere, toate documentele care atest calitatea de salariat a solicitantului; i) s asigure confidenialitatea datelor cu caracter personal ale salariailor.

CHAPTER 3 - Amendments to the individual work contract Art. 41. [amendment of the work contract] (1) An individual work contract may only be amended with the agreement of the parties. (2) By way of exception, the unilateral amendment of the individual work contract shall be possible in the cases and under the conditions provided for in this code. (3) The amendment of the individual work contract regards any of the following: a) length of the contract; b) place of work; c) type of work; d) working conditions; e) wage; f) work time and rest time.

CAPITOLUL 3 - Modificarea contractului individual de munc Art. 41. [modificarea contractului de munc] (1) Contractul individual de munc poate fi modificat numai prin acordul prilor. (2) Cu titlu de excepie, modificarea unilateral a contractului individual de munc este posibil numai n cazurile i n condiiile prevzute de prezentul cod. (3) Modificarea contractului individual de munc se refer la oricare dintre urmtoarele elemente: a) durata contractului; b) locul muncii; c) felul muncii; d) condiiile de munc; e) salariul; f) timpul de munc i timpul de odihn.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 42. [unilateral change of work place]

Art. 42. [modificarea unilateral a locului de munc] (1) Locul muncii poate fi modificat unilateral de ctre angajator prin delegarea sau detaarea salariatului ntr-un alt loc de munc dect cel prevzut n contractul individual de munc. (2) Pe durata delegrii, respectiv a detarii, salariatul i pstreaz funcia i toate celelalte drepturi prevzute n contractul individual de munc. Art. 43. [delegarea] Delegarea reprezint exercitarea temporar, din dispoziia angajatorului, de ctre salariat, a unor lucrri sau sarcini corespunztoare atribuiilor de serviciu n afara locului su de munc. Art. 44. [durata delegrii] (1) Delegarea poate fi dispus pentru o perioad de cel mult 60 de zile calendaristice n 12 luni i se poate prelungi pe perioade succesive de maxim 60 de zile calendaristice, numai cu acordul salariatului.Refuzul salariatului pentru prelungirea delegrii nu poate constitui motiv pentru sancionarea disciplinar a acestuia. (2) Salariatul delegat are dreptul la plata cheltuielilor de transport i cazare, precum i la o indemnizaie de delegare, n condiiile prevzute de lege sau de contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil.

(1) The place of the work may be unilaterally modified by the employer by delegating or seconding the employee to another workplace than that provided for in the individual work contract. (2) During the delegation or the secondment, the employee shall keep his/her position and all rights provided for in the individual work contract. Art. 43. [delegation ] A delegation is the temporary exercise by the employee, on employers order, of works or tasks similar to his/her usual tasks, outside his/her workplace. Art. 44. [duration of delegation] (1) The delegation may be ordered for a period of maximum 60 calendar days during a period of 12 months and may be extended with succesive periods of maximum 60 calendar days, only under the employees consent. The employees refuse regarding the delegations extension may not be considered a reason for disciplinary sanctions. (2) A delegated employee shall have the right to payment of transport and accommodation expenses, and a delegation benefit, under the terms provided for in the law or the applicable collective work agreement. Art. 45. [secondment] A secondment is an act by which the employer orders the temporary change of the workplace to another employer, for the execution of certain works in its interest. By way of exception, the type of work may be changed during the secondment, but only with the written agreement of the employee.

Art. 45. [detaarea] Detaarea este actul prin care se dispune schimbarea temporar a locului de munc, din dispoziia angajatorului, la un alt angajator, n scopul executrii unor lucrri n interesul acestuia. n mod excepional, prin detaare se poate modifica i felul muncii, dar numai cu consimmntul scris al salariatului. Art. 46. [durata detarii]

Art. 46. [duration of secondment]

(1) A secondment may be ordered for a (1) Detaarea poate fi dispus pe o perioad de cel period of maximum one year. mult un an. (2) By way of exception, the period of the (2) n mod excepional, perioada detarii poate fi 18

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII secondment may be extended every 6 months, with the agreement of both parties, for objective reasons that require the presence of the employee at the employer where the secondment was ordered. (3) An employee may refuse the secondment ordered by his/her employer only by way of exception and for good personal reasons. (4) A delegated employee shall have the right to the payment of transport and accommodation expenses, and a delegation benefit, under the terms provided for in the law or the applicable collective work agreement.

prelungit pentru motive obiective ce impun prezena salariatului la angajatorul la care s-a dispus detaarea, cu acordul ambelor pri, din 6 n 6 luni. (3) Salariatul poate refuza detaarea dispus de angajatorul su numai n mod excepional i pentru motive personale temeinice. (4) Salariatul detaat are dreptul la plata cheltuielilor de transport i cazare, precum i la o indemnizaie de detaare, n condiiile prevzute de lege sau de contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil.

Art. 47. employee]

[protection

of

seconded Art. 47. [protecia salariatului detaat] (1) Drepturile cuvenite salariatului detaat se acord de angajatorul la care s-a dispus detaarea. (2) Pe durata detarii salariatul beneficiaz de drepturile care i sunt mai favorabile, fie de drepturile de la angajatorul care a dispus detaarea, fie de drepturile de la angajatorul la care este detaat. (3) Angajatorul care detaeaz are obligaia de a lua toate msurile necesare pentru ca angajatorul la care s-a dispus detaarea s i ndeplineasc integral i la timp toate obligaiile fa de salariatul detaat. (4) Dac angajatorul la care s-a dispus detaarea nu i ndeplinete integral i la timp toate obligaiile fa de salariatul detaat, acestea vor fi ndeplinite de angajatorul care a dispus detaarea. (5) n cazul n care exist divergen ntre cei doi angajatori sau nici unul dintre ei nu i ndeplinete obligaiile potrivit prevederilor alin. (1) i (2), salariatul detaat are dreptul de a reveni la locul su de munc de la angajatorul care l-a detaat, de a se ndrepta mpotriva oricruia dintre cei doi angajatori i de a cere executarea silit a obligaiilor nendeplinite.

(1) The rights due to the seconded employee shall be granted by the employer where the secondment was ordered. (2) During the secondment, the employee shall enjoy the rights more favorable to him/her either the rights at the employer ordering the secondment, or the rights at the employer he/she is seconded to. (3) The seconding employer shall take all measures necessary so that the employer where the secondment was ordered achieves completely and in good time all obligations towards the seconded employee. (4) Should the employer where the secondment was ordered fail to fulfill completely and in good time all obligations towards the seconded employee, those obligations shall be fulfilled by the employer having ordered the secondment. (5) Should any divergence arise between the two employers or should none of them fulfill its obligations according to the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2), the seconded employee shall have the right to return to his/her workplace provided by the seconding employer, to sue any of the two employers and to request the compulsory execution of the unfulfilled obligations. Art. 48. [unilateral change of place and type of work] An employer may temporarily change the place and type of work, without the consent

Art. 48. [modificarea unilateral a locului i felului muncii] Angajatorul poate modifica temporar locul i felul muncii, fr consimmntul salariatului, i n

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII of the employee; it can also change them in cases of acts of God, or as a disciplinary sanction or an employee safety precaution, in the cases and under the terms provided for in this code.

cazul unor situaii de for major, cu titlu de sanciune disciplinar sau ca msur de protecie a salariatului, n cazurile i n condiiile prevzute de prezentul cod.

CHAPTER 4 - Suspension individual work contract

of

the CAPITOLUL 4 - Suspendarea contractului individual de munc Art. 49. [felurile i efectele suspendrii] (1) Suspendarea contractului individual de munc poate interveni de drept, prin acordul prilor sau prin actul unilateral al uneia dintre pri. (2) Suspendarea contractului individual de munc are ca efect suspendarea prestrii muncii de ctre salariat i a plii drepturilor de natur salarial de ctre angajator. (3) Pe durata suspendrii pot continua s existe alte drepturi i obligaii ale prilor dect cele prevzute la alin. (2), dac acestea sunt prevzute prin legi speciale, prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, prin contracte individuale de munc sau prin regulamente interne. (4) n cazul suspendrii contractului individual de munc din cauza unei fapte imputabile salariatului, pe durata suspendrii acesta nu va beneficia de nici un drept care rezult din calitatea sa de salariat. (5) De fiecare dat cnd n timpul perioadei de suspendare a contractului va interveni o cauz de ncetare de drept a contractului individual de munc, cauza de ncetare de drept va prevala. (6) n cazul suspendrii contractului individual de munc se suspend toate termenele care au legtur cu ncheierea, modificarea, executarea sau ncetarea contractului individual de munc, cu excepia situaiilor n care contractul individual de munc nceteaz de drept.

Art. 49. [types and effects of suspension] (1) The suspension of the individual work contract may occur by right, by agreement of the parties or by unilateral act of one of the parties. (2) Following the suspension of the individual work contract, the employee shall suspend the provision of work and the employer shall suspend the payment of wage rights. (3) During the suspension, rights and obligations of the parties, other than those provided for in paragraph (2), may subsist, should they be specified in special laws, in the applicable collective work agreement, in individual work contracts or in the rules of procedures. (4) In case of individual work contract suspension due to an act ascribable to the employee, he/she shall not enjoy any right arising from his/her quality of employee during the suspension. (5) Each time when, during the suspension of the individual labour contact, shall occur o cause of termination of the contract by law, the cause of termination by law shall prevail. (6) In case the individual labour contract is suspended will be suspended all the terms related to the individual labour contracts conclusion, amendment, execution or termination, with the exception of the situations when the individual labour contract is terminated by law. Art. 50. [suspension by right] An individual work contract shall be suspended by right in the following cases: a) maternity leave; b) temporary disability leave; c) quarantine;

Art. 50. [suspendarea de drept] Contractul individual de munc se suspend de drept n urmtoarele situaii: a) concediu de maternitate; b) concediu pentru incapacitate temporar de munc;

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII d) Revoked; e) exercise of a function within an executive, legislative or judicial authority, on the entire length of the mandate, unless the law provides otherwise; f) employment in a paid trade union management position; g) an act of God; h) when an employee is taken into preventive custody, under the terms of the Code of Criminal Procedure; h1) from the expiration period for which all the notices, authorizations or the necessary certificates were issued, for the profession exercise. If within 6 months the employee did not renew the approvals, authorizations or the necessary certificates in order to execise his/her proffesion, the individual labour contact will be terminated by law; i) in other cases expressly provided for in the law.

c) carantin; d) Abrogat; e)exercitarea unei funcii n cadrul unei autoriti executive, legislative ori judectoreti, pe toat durata mandatului, dac legea nu prevede altfel; f) ndeplinirea unei funcii de conducere salarizate n sindicat; g) for major; h) n cazul n care salariatul este arestat preventiv, n condiiile Codului de procedur penal; h1) de la data expirrii perioadei pentru care au fost emise avizele, autorizaiile ori atestrile necesare pentru exercitarea profesiei. Dac n termen de 6 luni salariatul nu i-a rennoit avizele, autorizaiile ori atestrile necesare pentru exercitarea profesiei, contractul individual de munc nceteaz de drept; i) n alte cazuri expres prevzute de lege.

Art. 51. [suspension on the initiative of Art. 51. [suspendarea the employee] salariatului] (1) An individual work contract may be suspended on the initiative of the employee in the following cases: a) leave for rearing of child less than 2 years old or, in the case of a disabled child, up to the age of 3 years; b) leave for care of sick child under 7 years old or, in the case of a disabled child, for intercurrent diseases, up to the age of 18 years; c) parental leave; d) vocational training leave; e) exercise of elective offices within professional bodies established at central or local level, on the entire length of the mandate; f) participation to strike; g) repealed. (2) An individual work contract may be suspended in case of employee absences without leave, under the terms provided for in the applicable collective work agreement, individual work contract, and the rules of procedure.

din

iniiativa

(1) Contractul individual de munc poate fi suspendat din iniiativa salariatului, n urmtoarele situaii: a) concediu pentru creterea copilului n vrst de pn la 2 ani sau, n cazul copilului cu handicap, pn la mplinirea vrstei de 3 ani; b) concediu pentru ngrijirea copilului bolnav n vrst de pn la 7 ani sau, n cazul copilului cu handicap, pentru afeciuni intercurente, pn la mplinirea vrstei de 18 ani; b) concediu paternal; d) concediu pentru formare profesional; e) exercitarea unor funcii elective n cadrul organismelor profesionale constituite la nivel central sau local, pe toat durata mandatului; f) participarea la grev; g) abrogat (2) Contractul individual de munc poate fi suspendat n situaia absenelor nemotivate ale salariatului, n condiiile stabilite prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, contractul individual de munc, precum i prin regulamentul intern.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 52. [suspension on the initiative of the employer] (1) An individual work contract may be suspended on the initiative of the employer in the following cases: a) during the preliminary disciplinary hearing, under the terms of the law; b) Revoked; c) if the employer has lodged a criminal complaint against the employee or he/she was prosecuted for criminal acts incompatible with the position occupied, until a final judgment has been issued; d) In case of temporary interruption of the activity or temporally decrease of the activity, without the termination of the employment relationship for economic, technological, structural reasons or other similar reasons; e) during the secondment; f) during the suspension, made by the competent authorities, of the approvals, authorizations or necessary certifications for the exercise of the professions. (2) In the cases provided in paragraph (1) (a) and (c), if the the person in question is proved innocent, the employee shall restart the prior activity and shall receive an indemnification equal to the wage and the other rights he/she was deprived during the suspension of the contract, under the rules and principles of contractual civil liability (3) In the case of temporary decrease of the activity for economical, technological, structural or similar reasons for period of time higher than 30 working days, the employer shall have the possibility to reduce the working schedule from 5 days to 4 days per week, with the corresponding decrease of the wage, until the moment when the circumstances which determined the change of the working programme finishes, after the consultation with the respective trade union from the employers level or the employees representatives, as appropriate. Art. 53. [interruption of employer's activity]

Art.52.[suspendarea din iniiativa angajatorului] (1) Contractul individual de munc poate fi suspendat din iniiativa angajatorului n urmtoarele situaii: a) pe durata cercetrii disciplinare prealabile, n condiiile legii; b) Abrogat; c) n cazul n care angajatorul a formulat plngere penal mpotriva salariatului sau acesta a fost trimis n judecat pentru fapte penale incompatibile cu funcia deinut, pn la rmnerea definitiv a hotrrii judectoreti; d) n cazul ntreruperii sau reducerii temporare a activitii, fr ncetarea raportului de munc pentru motive economice, tehnologice, structurale sau similare; e) pe durata detarii; f) pe durata suspendrii de ctre autoritile competente a avizelor, autorizaiilor sau atestrilor necesare pentru exercitarea profesiilor. (2) n cazurile prevzute la alin. (1) lit. a) i c), dac se constat nevinovia celui n cauz, salariatul i reia activitatea anterioar i i se pltete, n temeiul normelor i principiilor rspunderii civile contractuale, o despgubire egal cu salariul i celelalte drepturi de care a fost lipsit pe perioada suspendrii contractului. (3) n cazul reducerii temporare a activitii, pentru motive economice, tehnologice, structurale sau similare pe perioade care depesc 30 zile lucrtoare, angajatorul va avea posibilitatea reducerii programului de lucru de la 5 zile la 4 zile pe sptmn, cu reducerea corespunztoare a salariului, pn la remedierea situaiei care a cauzat reducerea programului, dup consultarea prealabil a sindicatului reprezentativ de la nivelul unitii sau a reprezentanilor salariailor, dup caz.

Art. 53.[ntreruperea activitii angajatorului]

(1) Pe durata reducerii i/sau a ntreruperii (1) During the temporary reduction and/or temporare a activitii, salariaii implicai n interruption of the employers activity, the activitatea redus sau ntrerupt, care nu mai employees involved in the reduced or desfoar activitate, beneficiaz de o

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII interrupted activity, who does not performed any more his/her activity, shall benefit for an allowance, paid from the wage fund, which may not be lower than 75% of the basic wage corresponding to the position held, excepting the situations provided by Article 52 paragraph (3). (2) During the temporary reduction and/or interruption of the employers activity provided by the paragraph (1), the employees shall be available to the employer, which can order the activity to be resumed at any time. Art. 54. [suspension with the agreement of the parties]

indemnizaie, pltit din fondul de salarii, ce nu poate fi mai mic de 75% din salariul de baz corespunztor locului de munc ocupat, cu excepia situaiilor prevzute la art. 52 alin. (3). (2) Pe durata reducerii i/sau ntreruperii temporare prevzute la alin. (1) salariaii se vor afla la dispoziia angajatorului, acesta avnd oricnd posibilitatea s dispun renceperea activitii.

Art. 54. [suspendarea prin acordul prilor]

Contractul individual de munc poate fi An individual work contract may be suspendat, prin acordul prilor, n cazul suspended, with the agreement of the concediilor fr plat pentru studii sau pentru parties, in case of leaves of absence without interese personale. pay for studies or personal interests. Art. 55. [types of individual work Art. 55. [felurile contract cessation] individual de munc] An individual work contract may cease as follows: a) by right; b) after the agreement of the parties, on the date agreed upon by them; c) after the unilateral decision of one party, in the cases and under the terms restrictively provided for in the law. ncetrii contractului

Contractul individual de munc poate nceta astfel: a) de drept; b)ca urmare a acordului prilor, la data convenit de acestea; c) ca urmare a voinei unilaterale a uneia dintre pri, n cazurile i n condiiile limitativ prevzute de lege.

SECTION 1 - Cessation by right of the individual work contract

SECTIUNEA 1 - ncetarea de drept a contractului individual de munc drept a

Art. 56. [cases of cessation by right of the Art. 56. [cazurile ncetrii de individual work contract] contractului individual de munc] An individual work contract shall cease by right: a) on the death date of employee or of the employer natural person, as well as in case of dissolution of the employer, legal person, starting with the date when the employer has ceased to exist; b) the date of the irrevocable court decision declaring the death or placing under interdiction of the employee or of the employer, the natural person; c) repealed;

Contractul individual de munc nceteaz de drept: a) la data decesului salariatului sau al angajatorului persoan fizic, precum i n cazul dizolvrii angajatorului persoan juridic de la data la care angajatorul i-a ncetat existena conform legii; b) la data rmnerii irevocabile a hotrrii judectoreti de declarare a morii sau a punerii sub interdicie a salariatului sau a angajatorului persoan fizic; c) abrogat; 23

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII d) ) on the date of fulfillment of both conditions for age retirement and of a minimum period of contribution for retirement; on the communication date of the retirement decision in case of pension for disability, in advance partial pension, in advance pension, pension for age limit with the reduction of the standard age of retierement; e) following the establishment of the absolute nullity of the individual work contract, from the date the nullity was established by agreement of the parties or by final judgment; f) when the demand of reinstatement in the position detained by a person unlawfully or groundlessly dismissed has been admitted, from the date of the final reinstatement judgment; g) following the conviction to a prison term, from the date of the final judgment; h) from the date the competent authorities or bodies withdraw the approvals, authorizations or attestations necessary for the exercise of the profession; i) following the interdiction to practice a profession or a function, as a safety measure or complementary punishment, from the date of the final interdiction judgment; j) at the end of the individual work contract of limited duration; k) from the withdrawal of the agreement of the parents or legal representatives, for the employees between 15 and 16 years old.

Art. 57. [nullity of the work contract] (1) The breach of any legal condition necessary for the valid conclusion of the individual work contract shall void it. (2) The establishment of the nullity of the individual work contract shall take effect for the future. (3) The nullity of the individual work

d) la data ndeplinirii cumulative a condiiilor de vrst standard i a stagiului minim de cotizare pentru pensionare; la data comunicrii deciziei de pensie n cazul pensiei de invaliditate, pensiei anticipate pariale, pensiei anticipate, pensiei pentru limit de vrst cu reducerea vrstei standard de pensionare; e) ca urmare a constatrii nulitii absolute a contractului individual de munc, de la data la care nulitatea a fost constatat prin acordul prilor sau prin hotrre judectoreasc definitiv; f) ca urmare a admiterii cererii de reintegrare n funcia ocupat de salariat a unei persoane concediate nelegal sau pentru motive nentemeiate, de la data rmnerii definitive a hotrrii judectoreti de reintegrare; g) ca urmare a condamnrii la executarea unei pedepse privative de libertate, de la data rmnerii definitive a hotrrii judectoreti; h) de la data retragerii de ctre autoritile sau organismele competente a avizelor, autorizaiilor ori atestrilor necesare pentru exercitarea profesiei; i) ca urmare a interzicerii exercitrii unei profesii sau a unei funcii, ca msur de siguran ori pedeaps complementar, de la data rmnerii definitive a hotrrii judectoreti prin care s-a dispus interdicia; j) la data expirrii termenului contractului individual de munc ncheiat pe durat determinat; k) retragerea acordului prinilor sau al reprezentanilor legali, n cazul salariailor cu vrsta cuprins ntre 15 i 16 ani. Pentru situatiile prevazute la lit. d) - k), constatarea cazului de incetare de drept a contractului individual de munca se face in termen de 5 zile lucratoare de la intervenirea acestuia, in scris, prin decizie a angajatorului, si se comunica persoanelor aflate in situatiile respective in termen de 5 zile lucratoare. (introdus prin legea 49/2010). Art. 57. [nulitatea contractului individual de munc] (1) Nerespectarea oricreia dintre condiiile legale necesare pentru ncheierea valabil a contractului individual de munc atrage nulitatea acestuia. (2) Constatarea nulitii contractului individual de munc produce efecte pentru viitor. (3) Nulitatea contractului individual de munc

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII contract may be cancelled only by the subsequent fulfillment of the conditions imposed by the law. (4) Should a clause be affected by nullity, because it established rights or obligations for the employees contrary to imperative statutory provisions or applicable collective work agreements, it shall be replaced by right with the statutory provisions or the provisions of the collective agreement, and the employee shall have the right to indemnification. (5) A person having carried out an activity under a voided individual work contract shall have the right to remuneration, according to the execution of job. (6) The establishment of the nullity and, according to the law, of its effect may be done by agreement of the parties. (7) Should the parties fail to agree, the nullity shall be pronounced in court.

poate fi acoperit prin ndeplinirea ulterioar a condiiilor impuse de lege. (4) n situaia n care o clauz este afectat de nulitate, ntruct stabilete drepturi sau obligaii pentru salariai, care contravin unor norme legale imperative sau contractelor colective de munc aplicabile, aceasta este nlocuit de drept cu dispoziiile legale sau convenionale aplicabile, salariatul avnd dreptul la despgubiri. (5) Persoana care a prestat munca n temeiul unui contract individual de munc nul are dreptul la remunerarea acesteia, corespunztor modului de ndeplinire a atribuiilor de serviciu. (6) Constatarea nulitii i stabilirea, potrivit legii, a efectelor acesteia se pot face prin acordul prilor. (7) Dac prile nu se neleg, nulitatea se pronun de ctre instana judectoreasc.

SECTION 2 - Dismissal

SECTIUNEA 2 - Concedierea

Art. 58. [legal definition and types of Art. 58. [definiia legal i felurile concedierii] dismissal] (1) A dismissal is the cessation of the individual work contract on the initiative of the employer. (2) A dismissal may be decided for reasons related to the person of the employee or reasons not related to the employee. Art. 59. [prohibition dismissal ] of (1) Concedierea reprezint ncetarea contractului individual de munc din iniiativa angajatorului. (2) Concedierea poate fi dispus pentru motive care in de persoana salariatului sau pentru motive care nu in de persoana salariatului.

permanent Art. 59. [interzicerea concedierii cu caracter permanent] Este interzis concedierea salariailor: a)pe criterii de sex, orientare sexual, caracteristici genetice, vrst, apartenen naional, ras, culoare, etnie, religie, opiune politic, origine social, handicap, situaie sau responsabilitate familial, apartenen ori activitate sindical; b)pentru exercitarea, n condiiile legii, a dreptului la grev i a drepturilor sindicale.

The dismissal of the employees shall be forbidden: a) based on sex, sexual orientation, genetic characteristics, age, national affiliation, race, color, ethnicity, religion, political option, social origin, disability, family situation or responsibility, trade union affiliation or activity; b) based on the exercise, under the terms of the law, of the rights to strike and to unionization.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 60. [prohibition of temporary Art. 60. [interzicerea concedierii cu caracter dismissal] temporar]

(1) The dismissal of the employees may not be decided: a)during the temporary disability, as certified by a medical certificate according to the law; b) during the suspension of the activity caused by the quarantine; c) during the pregnancy of the employee, insofar as the employer took knowledge of it prior to issuing the dismissal decision; d) during the maternity leave; e) during the leave for rearing of child under 2 years old or, in the case of a disabled child, up to the age of 3 years; f) during the leave for rearing of child under 7 years or in the case of a disabled child, for intercurrent diseases, up to the age of 18 years; g) Revoked; h) during the exercise of an elective office in a trade union, except for the case where the dismissal is decided for serious or repeated misbehavior of that employee; i) during the leave. (2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of dismissal due to reasons related to the reorganization, bankruptcy or dissolution of the employer, under the terms of the law. SECTION 3 - Dismissal for reasons related to the person of the employee

(1) Concedierea salariailor nu poate fi dispus: a) pe durata incapacitii temporare de munc, stabilit prin certificat medical conform legii; b) pe durata suspendrii activitii ca urmare a instituirii carantinei; c) pe durata n care femeia salariat este gravid, n msura n care angajatorul a luat cunotin de acest fapt anterior emiterii deciziei de concediere; d) pe durata concediului de maternitate; e) pe durata concediului pentru creterea copilului n vrst de pn la 2 ani sau, n cazul copilului cu handicap, pn la mplinirea vrstei de 3 ani; f) pe durata concediului pentru ngrijirea copilului bolnav n vrst de pn la 7 ani sau, n cazul copilului cu handicap, pentru afeciuni intercurente, pn la mplinirea vrstei de 18 ani; g) Abrogat; h) pe durata exercitrii unei funcii eligibile ntrun organism sindical, cu excepia situaiei n care concedierea este dispus pentru o abatere disciplinar grav sau pentru abateri disciplinare repetate, svrite de ctre acel salariat; i) pe durata efecturii concediului de odihn. (2) Prevederile alin. (1) nu se aplic n cazul concedierii pentru motive ce intervin ca urmare a reorganizrii judiciare, a falimentului sau dizolvrii angajatorului, n condiiile legii

SECTIUNEA 3 - Concedierea pentru motive care in de persoana salariatului

Art. 61. [cases of dismissal for subjective Art. 61. [cazurile concedierii pentru motive reasons] subiective] An employer may decide the dismissal for reasons related to the person of the employee in the following cases: a) when the employee has perpetrated a serious or repeated misbehavior related to the labor discipline rules or the rules laid down in the individual work contract, applicable collective work agreement or rules of procedure, as a disciplinary sanction; b) when the employee is taken into preventive custody for more than 30 days, under the terms of the Code of Criminal Angajatorul poate dispune concedierea pentru motive care in de persoana salariatului n urmtoarele situaii: a) n cazul n care salariatul a svrit o abatere grav sau abateri repetate de la regulile de disciplin a muncii ori de la cele stabilite prin contractul individual de munc, contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau regulamentul intern, ca sanciune disciplinar; b) n cazul n care salariatul este arestat preventiv pentru o perioad mai mare de 30 de zile, n condiiile Codului de procedur penal; c) n cazul n care, prin decizie a organelor

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Procedure; c) when, by decision of the competent expert medical report bodies, a physical and/or mental inability of the employee is assessed, not allowing him/her to fulfill the duties corresponding to the position owned; d) when the employee is not professionally fit to the workplace where he/she is employed; e) when the employee fulfils the standard age and period of contribution conditions and has not requested retirement, under the terms of the law.

competente de expertiz medical, se constat inaptitudinea fizic i/sau psihic a salariatului, fapt ce nu permite acestuia s i ndeplineasc atribuiile corespunztoare locului de munc ocupat; d) n cazul n care salariatul nu corespunde profesional locului de munc n care este ncadrat. e) n cazul n care salariatul ndeplinete condiiile de vrst standard i stagiu de cotizare i nu a solicitat pensionarea n condiiile legii;

Art. 62. [dismissal decision] (1) Should the dismissal be caused by one of the reasons provided for in Article 61 (b)(d), the employer shall issue the dismissal decision within 30 calendar days from the establishment of the cause of the dismissal. (11) Should the dismissal be caused by the reason provided for in Article 61 (a), the employer may issue the dismissal decision only under the provisions of Articles 263268. (2) The decision shall be issued in writing and, at the risk of absolute nullity, shall be motivated in fact and in law and shall specify the appeal deadline and the appeal court. Art. 63. [preliminary hearing] (1) The dismissal caused by serious or repeated misbehavior against the labor discipline rules may only be decided after the employer achieves the preliminary disciplinary hearing and within the deadline laid down in this code. (2) The dismissal of the employee for the reason provided in Article 61 (d) may be decided only after a prior evaluation of the employee, according to the assessment procedure established by the applicable collective labour contract, or, in its absence, by the internal rules. Art.64.[mandatory redistribution proposal]

Art. 62. [decizia de concediere] (1) n cazul n care concedierea intervine pentru unul dintre motivele prevzute la art. 61 lit. b)-d), angajatorul are obligaia de a emite decizia de concediere n termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data constatrii cauzei concedierii. (11) n cazul n care concedierea intervine pentru motivul prevzut la art. 61 lit. a), angajatorul poate emite decizia de concediere numai cu respectarea dispoziiilor art. 263-268. (2) Decizia se emite n scris i, sub sanciunea nulitii absolute, trebuie s fie motivat n fapt i n drept i s cuprind precizri cu privire la termenul n care poate fi contestat i la instana judectoreasc la care se contest. Art. 63. [cercetarea prealabil] (1) Concedierea pentru svrirea unei abateri grave sau a unor abateri repetate de la regulile de disciplin a muncii poate fi dispus numai dup ndeplinirea de ctre angajator a cercetrii disciplinare prealabile i n termenele stabilite de prezentul cod. (2) Concedierea salariatului pentru motivul prevzut la art. 61 lit. d) poate fi dispus numai dup evaluarea prealabil a salariatului, conform procedurii de evaluare stabilite prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau n lipsa acestuia prin regulamentul intern. Art. 64.[obligativitatea ofertei de redistribuire n munc]

(1) When the dismissal is decided for the (1) n cazul n care concedierea se dispune pentru reasons provided for in Article 61 (c) and motivele prevzute la art. 61 lit. c) i d), precum i (d) or when the individual work contract n cazul n care contractul individual de munc a

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII ceases by right on the basis of Article 56 (f), the employer shall propose the employee other vacant positions in the organization, compatible with his/her professional background or, as the case may be, with the work capacity as established by the occupational medicine physician. (2) If the employer has no vacancy in the meaning of paragraph (1), it shall request the support of the local public employment office in order to reallocate the employee, according to his/her professional background and/or, as the case may be, according to the work capacity established by the occupational medicine physician. (3) An employee shall have a deadline of three working days from the notification of the employer, according to the provisions of paragraph (1), in order to express his/her written agreement on the newly offered workplace. (4) If the employee does not express his/her agreement within the deadline provided for in paragraph (3), and after notifying the local public employment office of the case according to paragraph (2), the employer may dismiss the employee. (5) In case of dismissal for the reason provided for in Article 61 (c), the employee shall receive a benefit, under the terms of the applicable collective work agreement or the individual work contract, as the case may be. SECTION 4 - Dismissal for reasons not related to the person of the employee

ncetat de drept n temeiul art. 56 lit. f), angajatorul are obligaia de a-i propune salariatului alte locuri de munc vacante n unitate, compatibile cu pregtirea profesional sau, dup caz, cu capacitatea de munc stabilit de medicul de medicin a muncii. (2) n situaia n care angajatorul nu dispune de locuri de munc vacante potrivit alin. (1), acesta are obligaia de a solicita sprijinul ageniei teritoriale de ocupare a forei de munc n vederea redistribuirii salariatului, corespunztor pregtirii profesionale i/sau, dup caz, capacitii de munc stabilite de medicul de medicin a muncii. (3) Salariatul are la dispoziie un termen de 3 zile lucrtoare de la comunicarea angajatorului, conform prevederilor alin. (1), pentru a-i manifesta n scris consimmntul cu privire la noul loc de munc oferit. (4) n cazul n care salariatul nu i manifest consimmntul n termenul prevzut la alin. (3), precum i dup notificarea cazului ctre agenia teritorial de ocupare a forei de munc conform alin. (2), angajatorul poate dispune concedierea salariatului. (5) n cazul concedierii pentru motivul prevzut la art. 61 lit. c) salariatul beneficiaz de o compensaie, n condiiile stabilite n contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau n contractul individual de munc, dup caz.

SECTIUNEA 4 - Concedierea pentru motive care nu in de persoana salariatului Art. 65. [concedierea pentru motive obiective] (1) Concedierea pentru motive care nu in de persoana salariatului reprezint ncetarea contractului individual de munc determinat de desfiinarea locului de munc ocupat de salariat, din unul sau mai multe motive fr legtur cu persoana acestuia. (2) Desfiinarea locului de munc trebuie s fie efectiv i s aib o cauz real i serioas. Art. 66. [felurile concedierii pentru motive obiective]

Art. 65. [dismissal for objective reasons] (1) A dismissal for reasons not related to the person of the employee is the cessation of the individual work contract determined by the suppression of the workplace of the employee, for one or several reasons not connected to employees person. (2) The suppression of the workplace must be effective and have a real and serious cause. Art. 66. [types of dismissal for objective reasons]

The dismissal for reasons not related to the Concedierea pentru motive care nu in de person of the employee may be individual persoana salariatului poate fi individual sau or collective. colectiv.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

Art. 67. [rights of employees dismissed Art. 67. [drepturile salariailor concediai for objective reasons] pentru motive obiective] The employees dismissed for reasons not related to their person shall benefit from active measures designed to fight unemployment and may enjoy compensations under the terms of the law and the applicable collective work agreement. SECTION 5 - Collective redundancy.Employee information and consultation and collective redundancy procedure Salariaii concediai pentru motive care nu in persoana lor beneficiaz de msuri active combatere a omajului i pot beneficia compensaii n condiiile prevzute de lege i contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil. de de de de

SECTIUNEA 5 - Concedierea colectiv. Informarea, consultarea salariailor i procedura concedierilor colective

Art. 68. [legal definition of collective Art. 68. [definiia legal a concedierii colective] redundancy] (1) Prin concediere colectiv se nelege (1) Collective redundancy means the concedierea, ntr-o perioad de 30 de zile dismissal, within a timeframe of 30 calendar calendaristice, din unul sau mai multe motive care days, on one or several reasons not related nu in de persoana salariatului, a unui numr de: to employees person, of a number of: a) cel puin 10 salariai, dac angajatorul care a) at least 10 employees, when the disponibilizeaz are ncadrai mai mult de 20 de dismissing employer has more than 20 salariai i mai puin de 100 de salariai; employees, but less than 100 employees; b) cel puin 10% din salariai, dac angajatorul a) at least 10% of the employees, when the care disponibilizeaz are ncadrai cel puin 100 dismissing employer has at least 100 de salariai, dar mai puin de 300 de salariai; employees, but less than 300 employees; c) cel puin 30 de salariai, dac angajatorul care a) at least 30 employees, when the disponibilizeaz are ncadrai cel puin 300 de dismissing employer has at least 300 salariai. employees. (2) La stabilirea numrului efectiv de salariai (2) When establishing the actual number of concediai colectiv, potrivit alin. (1), se iau n employees under collective redundancy, calcul i acei salariai crora le-au ncetat according to paragraph (1), the employees contractele individuale de munc din iniiativa whose individual work contracts ceased on angajatorului, din unul sau mai multe motive, fr employers initiative, on one or several legtur cu persoana salariatului, cu condiia reasons not related to employees person, existenei a cel puin 5 concedieri. shall also be taken into account, provided that at least 5 dismissals exist. Art. 69. [notification of the intended Art. 69. [notificarea inteniei de concediere collective redundancy] colectiv] (1) In case the employer considers a collective redundancy, it shall initiate, in good time and in order to reach an agreement, under the terms provided for in the law, consultations with the trade union or, as the case may be, with the representatives of the employees, on at least (1) n cazul n care angajatorul intenioneaz s efectueze concedieri colective, acesta are obligaia de a iniia, n timp util i n scopul ajungerii la o nelegere, n condiiile prevzute de lege, consultri cu sindicatul sau, dup caz, cu reprezentanii salariailor, cu privire cel puin la: a) metodele i mijloacele de evitare a 29

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII the following: a) methods and means to avoid the collective redundancies or to reduce the number of employees to be dismissed; b) mitigation of the collective redundancy consequences by relying on social measures aiming, among others, at the retraining and professional redeployment of the dismissed employees. (2) During the consultations, according to paragraph (1), to allow the trade union or the representatives of the employees to draft proposals in good time, the employer shall provide all relevant information and notify them in writing of the following: a) the total number and categories of employees; b) the reasons leading to the considered collective redundancy; c) the number and categories of employees to be affected by dismissal; d) the criteria taken into account, according to the law and/or collective work agreements, for prioritizing the dismissals; e) the measures considered in order to limit the number of dismissals; f) the measures to reduce the consequences of the collective redundancy and the compensations to be granted the dismissed employees, according to the legal provisions and/or the applicable collective work agreement; g) the date or timeframe of the dismissals; h) the deadline for the proposals of the trade union or, as the case may be, of the representatives of the employees, to avoid or reduce the number of dismissed employees. (21)The criteria mentioned in paragraph (2) letter (d), shall be applied for categorizing the employees by measuring the achievement of performance. (3) The obligations provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be observed no matter whether the decision determining the collective redundancy is taken by the employer or an enterprise controlling the employer. (4) Should the decision determining the collective redundancy be taken by an enterprise controlling the employer, the latter cannot invoke, in not observing the

concedierilor colective sau de reducere a numrului de salariai care vor fi concediai; b) atenuarea consecinelor concedierii prin recurgerea la msuri sociale care vizeaz, printre altele, sprijin pentru recalificarea sau reconversia profesional a salariailor concediai. (2) n perioada n care au loc consultri, potrivit alin. (1), pentru a permite sindicatului sau reprezentanilor salariailor s formuleze propuneri n timp util, angajatorul are obligaia s le furnizeze toate informaiile relevante i s le notifice, n scris, urmtoarele: a) numrul total i categoriile de salariai; b) motivele care determin concedierea preconizat; c) numrul i categoriile de salariai care vor fi afectai de concediere; d) criteriile avute n vedere, potrivit legii i/sau contractelor colective de munc, pentru stabilirea ordinii de prioritate la concediere; e) msurile avute n vedere pentru limitarea numrului concedierilor; f) msurile pentru atenuarea consecinelor concedierii i compensaiile ce urmeaz s fie acordate salariailor concediai, conform dispoziiilor legale i/sau contractului colectiv de munc aplicabil; g) data de la care sau perioada n care vor avea loc concedierile; h) termenul nuntrul cruia sindicatul sau, dup caz, reprezentanii salariailor pot face propuneri pentru evitarea ori diminuarea numrului salariailor concediai. (21) Criteriile prevzute la alin. (2) lit. d) se aplic pentru departajarea salariailor dup evaluarea realizrii obiectivelor de performan. (3) Obligaiile prevzute la alin. (1) i (2) se menin indiferent dac decizia care determin concedierile colective este luat de ctre angajator sau de o ntreprindere care deine controlul asupra angajatorului. (4) n situaia n care decizia care determin concedierile colective este luat de o ntreprindere care deine controlul asupra angajatorului, acesta nu se poate prevala, n nerespectarea obligaiilor prevzute la alin. (1) i (2), de faptul c ntreprinderea respectiv nu i-a furnizat informaiile necesare.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII obligations provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2), the fact that the enterprise has not provided it the necessary information.

Art. 70. [communication of the intended Art. 70. [comunicarea notificrii inteniei de collective redundancy to the authorities] concediere colectiv ctre autoriti] An employer shall forward a copy of the notification provided for in Article 69 (2) to the territorial labor inspectorate and the local public employment office on the same date it has been forwarded to the trade union or, as the case may be, to the representatives of the employees. Art. 71. [employee consultation ] (1) The trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees, may propose the employer measures to avoid the dismissals or to reduce the number of dismissed employees, within 10 calendar days after receiving the notification. (2) The employer shall give a written and grounded answer to the proposals prepared according to the provisions of paragraph (1), within 5 calendar days from their reception. Art. 711. [notification redundancy] of Angajatorul are obligaia s comunice o copie a notificrii prevzute la art. 69 alin. (2) inspectoratului teritorial de munc i ageniei teritoriale de ocupare a forei de munc la aceeai dat la care a comunicat-o sindicatului sau, dup caz, reprezentanilor salariailor. Art. 71. [consultarea salariailor] (1) Sindicatul sau, dup caz, reprezentanii salariailor pot propune angajatorului msuri n vederea evitrii concedierilor ori diminurii numrului salariailor concediai, ntr-un termen de 10 zile calendaristice de la data primirii notificrii. (2) Angajatorul are obligaia de a rspunde n scris i motivat la propunerile formulate potrivit prevederilor alin. (1), n termen de 5 zile calendaristice de la primirea acestora.

collective Art. 711. [notificarea concedierii colective] (1) n situaia n care, ulterior consultrilor cu sindicatul sau reprezentanii salariailor, potrivit prevederilor art. 69 i 71, angajatorul decide aplicarea msurii de concediere colectiv, acesta are obligaia de a notifica n scris inspectoratul teritorial de munc i agenia teritorial de ocupare a forei de munc, cu cel puin 30 de zile calendaristice anterioare datei emiterii deciziilor de concediere. (2) Notificarea prevzut la alin. (1) trebuie s cuprind toate informaiile relevante cu privire la intenia de concediere colectiv, prevzute la art. 69 alin. (2), precum i rezultatele consultrilor cu sindicatul sau reprezentanii salariailor, prevzute la art. 69 alin. (1) i art. 71, n special motivele concedierilor, numrul total al salariailor, numrul salariailor afectai de concediere i data de la care sau perioada n care vor avea loc aceste concedieri. (3) Angajatorul are obligaia s comunice o copie a notificrii prevzute la alin. (1) sindicatului sau

(1) In case that, following the consultations with the trade union or the representatives of the employees, according to the provisions of Articles 69 and 71, the employer decides to apply the collective redundancy measure, it shall notify in writing the territorial labor inspectorate and the local public employment office, at least 30 calendar days before issuing the dismissal decisions. (2) The notification provided for in paragraph (1) shall contain all relevant information concerning the intended collective redundancy, as provided for in Article 69 (2), and the outcome of the consultations with the trade union or the representatives of the employees, as provided for in Article 69 (1) and 71, in particular the reasons of the dismissals, the total number of employees, the number of

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII employees affected by dismissal and the date or timeframe of the dismissals. (3) An employer shall forward a copy of the notification provided for in paragraph (1) to the trade union or the representatives of the employees, on the same date it has been forwarded to territorial labor inspectorate and the local public employment office. (4) The trade union or the representatives of the employees may forward their potential opinions to the territorial labor inspectorate. (5) At the grounded request of any party, the territorial labor inspectorate, after the opinion of the local public employment office, may order the reduction of the time provided for in paragraph (1), without prejudice to the individual rights concerning the notice period. (6) The territorial labor inspectorate shall notify within 3 working days the employer and the trade union or the representatives of the employees, as the case may be, of the reduction or the extension of the time provided by paragraph (1) and of the reasons of such decision.

reprezentanilor salariailor, la aceeai dat la care a comunicat-o inspectoratului teritorial de munc i ageniei teritoriale de ocupare a forei de munc. (4) Sindicatul sau reprezentanii salariailor pot transmite eventuale puncte de vedere inspectoratului teritorial de munc. (5) La solicitarea motivat a oricreia dintre pri, inspectoratul teritorial de munc, cu avizul ageniei teritoriale de ocupare a forei de munc, poate dispune reducerea perioadei prevzute la alin. (1), fr a aduce atingere drepturilor individuale cu privire la perioada de preaviz. (6) Inspectoratul teritorial de munc are obligaia de a informa n termen de 3 zile lucrtoare angajatorul i sindicatul sau reprezentanii salariailor, dup caz, asupra reducerii sau prelungirii perioadei prevzute la alin. (1), precum i despre motivele care au stat la baza acestei decizii. .

Art. 712. [postponement of collective redundancy] (1) During the period provided for in Article 711 (1), the local public employment office shall explore solutions for the issues raised by the intended collective redundancy and notify them in good time to the employer and the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees. (2) At the grounded request of any party, the territorial labor inspectorate, after consulting the local public employment office, may order the postponement of the decision with at most 10 calendar days, in case the issues related to the collective redundancy envisaged may not be solved within the deadline set in the collective redundancy notification provided for in Article 711 (1) as the date of the dismissal decisions. (3) The territorial labor inspectorate shall notify in writing the employer and the trade union or the representatives of the employees, as the case may be, of the postponement of the dismissal decisions, and of the reasons of such decision, before

Art. 712. [amnarea concedierii colective] (1) n perioada prevzut la art. 711 alin. (1), agenia teritorial de ocupare a forei de munc trebuie s caute soluii la problemele ridicate de concedierile colective preconizate i s le comunice n timp util angajatorului i sindicatului ori, dup caz, reprezentanilor salariailor. (2) La solicitarea motivat a oricreia dintre pri, inspectoratul teritorial de munc, cu consultarea ageniei teritoriale de ocupare a forei de munc, poate dispune amnarea momentului emiterii deciziilor de concediere cu maximum 10 zile calendaristice, n cazul n care aspectele legate de concedierea colectiv avut n vedere nu pot fi soluionate pn la data stabilit n notificarea de concediere colectiv prevzut la art. 711 alin. (1) ca fiind data emiterii deciziilor de concediere. (3) Inspectoratul teritorial de munc are obligaia de a informa n scris angajatorul i sindicatul sau reprezentanii salariailor, dup caz, asupra amnrii momentului emiterii deciziior de concediere, precum i despre motivele care au stat la baza acestei decizii, nainte de expirarea perioadei iniiale prevzute la art. 711 alin. (1).

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII the end of the original period provided for in Article 711 (1).

Art. 72. [employment of new personnel Art. 72. [noi angajri dup concedierea after the collective redundancy] colectiv] (1) Within 45 calendar days from the date of dismissal, the employee dismissed by the collective dismissal has the right to be rehired with priority on the position refounded in the same activity, without exam, competition or trial period. (2) In the situation when in the period foreseen by the paragraph (1) the same activities are restarted, the employer will send to the employees who were dismissed from the positions whose activity is restarted, in the same conditions of professional competence, a written communication by which they are informed about the restarted activity. (3) The employees shall express their consent in written with respect to the job offered within a maximum 5 days from the date of the employers communication, as provided in par. (2) (4) In the situation when the employees who have the right to be rehired, in accordance with paragraph (2), does not express their consent in written within the time foreseen by the paragraph (3), or they refuse the job offered, the employer may hire other persons on the vacant positions. (5) The provisions of Articles 68-712 are not applicable to the employees of public institutions and public authorities. (6)The provisions of Articles 68-712 are not applicable for the individual labour contracts concluded for a limited period of time, with the exception of the cases when these dismissals are made prior the individual labour contracts expiration date. SECTION 6 - Right to notice Art. 73. [notice] (1) The persons dismissed on the basis of Article 61 (c) and (d), 65 and 66 shall have the right to a notice of at least 20 working days. (1) In termen de 45 de zile calendaristice de la data concedierii, salariatul concediat prin concediere colectiva are dreptul de a fi reangajat cu prioritate pe postul reinfiintat in aceeasi activitate, fara examen, concurs sau perioada de proba. (2) In situatia in care in perioada prevazuta la alin.(1) se reiau aceleasi activitati, angajatorul va transmite salariatilor care au fost concediati de pe posturile a caror activitate este reluata in aceleasi conditii de competenta profesionala, o comunicare scrisa prin care sunt informati asupra reluarii activitatii. (3) Salariatii au la dispozitie un termen de maximum 5 zile calendaristice de la data comunicarii angajatorului, prevazuta la alin.(2) pentru a-si manifesta in scris consimtamantul cu privire la locul de munca oferit. (4) In situatia in care salariatii care au dreptul sa fie reangajati potrivit alin.(2) nu isi manifesta in scris consimtamantul in termenul prevazut la alin.(3) sau refuza locul de munca oferit, angajatorul poate face noi incadrari pe locurile de munca ramase vacante. (5) Prevederile art. 68-712 nu se aplic salariailor din instituiile publice i autoritile publice. (6) Prevederile art. 68-712 nu se aplic n cazul contractelor individuale de munc ncheiate pe durat determinat, cu excepia cazurilor n care aceste concedieri au loc nainte de data expirrii acestor contracte.

SECTIUNEA 6 - Dreptul la preaviz Art. 73. [preavizul de concediere] (1) Persoanele concediate n temeiul art. 61 lit. c) i d), al art. 65 i 66 beneficiaz de dreptul la un preaviz ce nu poate fi mai mic de 20 zile lucrtoare.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (2) The persons in a period of probation, and dismissed under Article 61 (d), shall be excepted from the provisions of paragraph (1). (3) When the individual work contract has been suspended during the notice period, the term of notice shall be suspended accordingly, except for the case provided for in Article 51 (2).

(2) Fac excepie de la prevederile alin. (1) persoanele concediate n temeiul art. 61 lit. d), care se afl n perioada de prob. (3) n situaia n care n perioada de preaviz contractul individual de munc este suspendat, termenul de preaviz va fi suspendat corespunztor, cu excepia cazului prevzut la art. 51 alin. (2).

Art. 74. [contents of dismissal decision ] (1) A dismissal decision shall be communicated in writing to the employee and shall contain: a) the reasons leading to the dismissal; b) the length of notice; c) the dismissal priority criteria, according to Article 70 (2) (d), only in the case of collective redundancy; d) the list of all workplaces available in the organization and the deadline within which the employees may choose to fill in a vacancy, under the terms of Article 64. (2) Revoked. Art.75. [efective decision] date of

Art. 74. [continutul deciziei de concediere] (1) Decizia de concediere se comunic salariatului n scris i trebuie s conin n mod obligatoriu: a) motivele care determin concedierea; b) durata preavizului; c) criteriile de stabilire a ordinii de prioriti, conform art. 69 alin. (2) lit. d), numai n cazul concedierilor colective; d) lista tuturor locurilor de munc disponibile n unitate i termenul n care salariaii urmeaz s opteze pentru a ocupa un loc de munc vacant, n condiiile art. 64. (2) Abrogat. efectelor deciziei de

dismissal Art.75. [nceputul concediere]

A dismissal decision shall take effect from Decizia de concediere produce efecte de la data the date it has been notified to the comunicrii ei salariatului. employee. SECTION 7 - Control and punishment of unlawful dismissals Art. 76. [effects of unlawful dismissal ] SECTIUNEA 7 - Controlul i sancionarea concedierilor nelegale Art. 76. [efectele concedierii nelegale]

A dismissal decided by infringing the Concedierea dispus cu nerespectarea procedurii procedure provided for in the law shall be prevzute de lege este lovit de nulitate absolut. null and void. Art. 77. [motivation of the dismissal decision] In case of labor dispute, the employer may not plead in court other reasons in fact or law than those mentioned in the decision of dismissal. Art. 77. [motivarea deciziei de concediere] n caz de conflict de munc angajatorul nu poate invoca n faa instanei alte motive de fapt sau de drept dect cele precizate n decizia de concediere.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 78. [effects of dismissal cancellation Art. 78. [efectele anulrii concedierii cu privire on the employees] la salariat]

(1) If the dismissal was groundless or illegal, the court shall order its cancellation and shall require the employer to pay a compensation equal to the indexed, increased and updated wages and other rights the employee would have benefited from. (2) At the request of the employee, the court having ordered the cancellation of the dismissal shall put the parties back in the state before issuing the dismissal act. (3) In case the employees does not request the reinstatement of the prior situation before the notice of dismissal was issued, the individual labour contract will be terminated by law on the date when the court decison will be final and enforceable SECTION 8 - Resignation

(1) n cazul n care concedierea a fost efectuat n mod netemeinic sau nelegal, instana va dispune anularea ei i va obliga angajatorul la plata unei despgubiri egale cu salariile indexate, majorate i reactualizate i cu celelalte drepturi de care ar fi beneficiat salariatul. (2) La solicitarea salariatului instana care a dispus anularea concedierii va repune prile n situaia anterioar emiterii actului de concediere. (3) n cazul n care salariatul nu solicit repunerea n situaia anterioar emiterii actului de concediere, contractul individual de munc va nceta de drept la data rmnerii definitive i irevocabile a hotrrii judectoreti

SECTIUNEA 8 - Demisia

Art. 79. [legal definition, procedure and Art. 79. [definiia legal, procedura i efectele effects of the resignation] demisiei] (1) Resignation means the unilateral act of the employee who, by a written notification, communicates the employer the cessation of the individual work contract, after the fulfillment of a term of notice. (2) The employer is obliged to register the employees resignation. The refusal of the employer to register the resignation shall give the employee the right to prove it by any means of evidence. (3) An employee shall have the right not to motivate his/her resignation. (4) The term of notice shall be that agreed upon by the parties in the individual labour contract or, as appropriate, that provided for in the applicable collective labour agreements and can not exceed 20 working days for the employees in execution positions, respectively can not exceed 45 working days for the employees in management positions. (5) During the notice, the individual work contract shall continue to take full effect. (6) If the individual work contract has been suspended during the notice period, the term (1) Prin demisie se nelege actul unilateral de voin a salariatului care, printr-o notificare scris, comunic angajatorului ncetarea contractului individual de munc, dup mplinirea unui termen de preaviz. (2) Angajatorul este obligat s nregistreze demisia salariatului. Refuzul angajatorului de a nregistra demisia d dreptul salariatului de a face dovada acesteia prin orice mijloace de prob. (3) Salariatul are dreptul de a nu motiva demisia. (4) Termenul de preaviz este cel convenit de pri n contractul individual de munc sau, dup caz cel prevzut n contractele colective de munc aplicabile i nu poate fi mai mare de 20 zile lucrtoare pentru salariaii cu funcii de execuie, respectiv nu poate fi mai mare de 45 de zile lucrtoare pentru salariaii care ocup funcii de conducere. (5) Pe durata preavizului contractul individual de munc continu s i produc toate efectele. (6) n situaia n care n perioada de preaviz contractul individual de munc este suspendat, termenul de preaviz va fi suspendat corespunztor. (7) Contractul individual de munc nceteaz la data expirrii termenului de preaviz sau la data

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII of notice shall be suspended accordingly. (7) The individual work contract shall cease at the end of the term of notice or at the date of total or partial renunciation to that term by the employer. (8) An employee may resign without notice if the employer has not met his/her obligations assumed in the individual work contract.

renunrii totale ori pariale de ctre angajator la termenul respectiv. (8) Salariatul poate demisiona fr preaviz dac angajatorul nu i ndeplinete obligaiile asumate prin contractul individual de munc.

CHAPTER 6 - The individual work CAPITOLUL 6 - Contractul individual de contract of limited duration munc pe durat determinat Art. 80. [form and conditions of the Art. 80. [forma i condiiile contractului individual work contract of limited individual de munc pe durat determinat] duration ] (1) By way of exception to the rule provided for in Article 12 (1), the employers shall have the possibility to employ, in the cases and under the terms of this code, personnel under an individual work contract of limited duration. (2) An individual work contract of limited duration may be concluded only in writing, expressly mentioning its length. (3) An individual labour contract of limited duration may be extended, under the conditions provided by the article 81 beyond its original term, with the written agreement of the parties, during the project, program or studys period. (4) The same parties may successively conclude at most 3 individual labour contracts for a limited period of time. (5) The individual labour contracts for a limited period of time, concluded within 3 months from the termination of the labour contract concluded for a limited period of time shall be considered successive contracts and each of them can not exceed 12 months. (1) Prin derogare de la regula prevzut la art. 12 alin. (1), angajatorii au posibilitatea de a angaja, n cazurile i n condiiile prezentului cod, personal salariat cu contract individual de munc pe durat determinat. (2) Contractul individual de munc pe durat determinat se poate ncheia numai n form scris, cu precizarea expres a duratei pentru care se ncheie. (3) Contractul individual de munc pe durat determinat poate fi prelungit, n condiiile prevzute la art. 81 i dup expirarea termenului iniial, cu acordul scris al prilor, pentru perioada realizrii unui proiect, program sau lucrri. (4) ntre aceleai pri se pot ncheia succesiv cel mult 3 contracte individuale de munc pe durat determinat. (5) Contractele individuale de munc pe durat determinat, ncheiate n termen de 3 luni de la ncetarea unui contract de munc pe durat determinat sunt considerate contracte succesive i nu pot avea o durat mai mare de 12 luni fiecare. .

Art. 81. [cases when an individual work Art. 81. [cazurile de ncheiere a contractului contract of limited duration may be individual de munc pe durat determinat] concluded] An individual work contract may be concluded for a limited duration only in the following cases: a) replacement of an employee when his/her work contract has been suspended, unless Contractul individual de munc poate fi ncheiat pentru o durat determinat numai n urmtoarele cazuri: a) nlocuirea unui salariat n cazul suspendrii contractului su de munc, cu excepia situaiei n

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII that employee participates to a strike; b) temporary increase and/or change of the employers structure of activity; c) performance of a seasonal activity; d) when it has been concluded under legal provisions issued in order to temporarily benefit certain categories of unemployed persons; d1) employment of a person who, within 5 years from the date of employment, fulfils the old age retirement conditions; d2) filling in an elective position within trade unions, employers' organizations or non-governmental organizations, during the mandate; d3) employment of retired persons who, under the terms of the law, may cumulate the retirement benefit with the wage; e) in other cases expressly provided for in special laws or for the achievement of works, projects or programs.

care acel salariat particip la grev; b) creterea i/sau modificarea temporar a structurii activitii angajatorului; c) desfurarea unor activiti cu caracter sezonier; d) n situaia n care este ncheiat n temeiul unor dispoziii legale emise cu scopul de a favoriza temporar anumite categorii de persoane fr loc de munc; d1) angajarea unei persoane care, n termen de 5 ani de la data angajrii, ndeplinete condiiile de pensionare pentru limit de vrst; d2) ocuparea unei funcii eligibile n cadrul organizaiilor sindicale, patronale sau al organizaiilor neguvernamentale, pe perioada mandatului; d3) angajarea pensionarilor care, n condiiile legii, pot cumula pensia cu salariul; e) n alte cazuri prevzute expres de legi speciale ori pentru desfurarea unor lucrri, proiecte sau programe.

Art. 82. [length and cessation of the Art. 82. [durata i ncetarea contractului individual work contract of limited individual de munc pe durat determinat] duration] (1) An individual labour contract for a limited period of time may not exceed 36 months. (2) If the individual work contract of limited duration has been concluded in order to replace an employee whose individual work contract has been suspended, the contract shall end when the reasons determining the suspension of the individual work contract of the tenured employee have ceased to exist. Art. 83. [length of period of probation for the individual work contract of limited duration] An employee with an individual work contract of limited duration may be subject to a period of probation, which shall not exceed: a) 5 working days for a length of the individual work contract of less than 3 months; b) 15 working days for a length of the individual work contract between 3 and 6 months; c) 30 working days for a length of the (1) Contractul individual de munc pe durat determinat nu poate fi ncheiat pe o perioad mai mare de 36 de luni. (2) n cazul n care contractul individual de munc pe durat determinat este ncheiat pentru a nlocui un salariat al crui contract individual de munc este suspendat, durata contractului va expira la momentul ncetrii motivelor ce au determinat suspendarea contractului individual de munc al salariatului titular. Art. 83. [durata perioadei de prob n cazul contractului individual de munc pe durat determinat] Salariatul ncadrat cu contract individual de munc pe durat determinat poate fi supus unei perioade de prob, care nu va depi: a) 5 zile lucrtoare pentru o durat a contractului individual de munc mai mic de 3 luni; b) 15 zile lucrtoare pentru o durat a contractului individual de munc cuprins ntre 3 i 6 luni; c) 30 de zile lucrtoare pentru o durat a contractului individual de munc mai mare de 6 luni; d) 45 de zile lucrtoare n cazul salariailor

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII individual work contract exceeding 6 ncadrai n funcii de conducere, pentru o durat a months; contractului individual de munc mai mare de 6 d) 45 working days for the employees in a luni. management position, for a length of the individual work contract exceeding 6 months.

Art. 84. [mandatory employment for an Art. 84. [obligativitatea angajrii pe durat unlimited duration] nedeterminat] Revoked Abrogat.

Art. 85. [access to employment of Art. 85. [accesul la angajarea pe durat unlimited duration] nedeterminat] (1) The employers shall notify the employees with individual labour contracts of limited duration of the current or future vacancies, according to their professional background, and ensure their access to these workplaces in conditions equal to those of the employees with an individual labour contract of unlimited duration. This notification shall be done through an announcement posted at employers headquarters. (2) A copy of the announcement provided for in paragraph (1) shall be forthwith forwarded the trade union or the representatives of the employees. (1) Angajatorii sunt obligai s informeze salariaii angajai cu contract individual de munc pe durat determinat despre locurile de munc vacante sau care vor deveni vacante, corespunztoare pregtirii lor profesionale, i s le asigure accesul la aceste locuri de munc n condiii egale cu cele ale salariailor angajai cu contract individual de munc pe perioad nedeterminat. Aceast informare se face printrun anun afiat la sediul angajatorului. (2) O copie a anunului prevzut la alin. (1) se transmite de ndat sindicatului sau reprezentanilor salariailor.

Art. 86. [common legal status of the Art.86. [regimul juridic comun al contractului individual work contract of unlimited individual de munc pe durat determinat] duration] (1) As regards the employment and working conditions, the employees with an individual work contract of limited duration shall not be treated less favorably than the similar permanent employees, just due to the duration of the individual work contract, except for the cases where the differentiated treatment is grounded on objective reasons. (2) For the purposes of paragraph (1), the similar permanent employee is the employee whose individual work contract has been concluded for an unlimited duration and who performs the same activity or a similar one, in the same establishment, with due regard to qualification/professional skills. (3) When there is no employee who (1) Referitor la condiiile de angajare i de munc, salariaii cu contract individual de munc pe durat determinat nu vor fi tratai mai puin favorabil dect salariaii permaneni comparabili, numai pe motivul duratei contractului individual de munc, cu excepia cazurilor n care tratamentul diferit este justificat de motive obiective. (2) n sensul alin. (1), salariatul permanent comparabil reprezint salariatul al crui contract individual de munc este ncheiat pe durat nedeterminat i care desfoar aceeai activitate sau una similar, n aceeai unitate, avndu-se n vedere calificarea/aptitudinile profesionale. (3) Atunci cnd nu exist un salariat cu contract individual de munc ncheiat pe durat nedeterminat comparabil n aceeai unitate, se au

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII concluded an individual labour contract for n vedere dispoziiile din contractul colectiv de an undetermined period in the same unit, the munc aplicabil sau, n lipsa acestuia, provisions of the applicable collective reglementrile legale n domeniu. labour agreement or, in its absence, the special legal provisions shall be taken into account.

CHAPTER 7 - Employment by temporary employment agency

CAPITOLUL 7 - Munca prin agent de munc temporar

Art. 87. [legal definition: work, employee, Art. 87. [definiii legale: munc, salariat, agent, agency, user] utilizator] (1) The employment by temporary employment agency is an activity performed by a temporary employee who concluded a temporary work agreement with a temporary employment agency and is made available to the user for working temporary under the latters observation and mange. (2) A temporary employee is a person who concluded a temporary work agreement with a temporary employment agency and is made available to the user to work temporary under the latters observation and mange. (3) A temporary employment agency is the legal person, authorized by the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Solidarity which concludes temporary individual labour contracts with temporary employees, to make them available to the user, to work during the period established by the lease contract (in Romanian: Contract de punere la dispozitie) under his supervision and direction. The operation conditions of the temporary employment agency and the authorization procedure shall be established by Government Decision. (4) A user is the natural or juridical person for whom and under whose supervision and direction works a temporary employee, made available by the temporary work agent. (5) The mission of temporary work is the period in which the temporary employee is made available to the User in order to work temporary under the supervision and direction of this one, to perform a specific and temporary task. (1) Munca prin agent de munc temporar este munca prestat de un salariat temporar care a ncheiat un contract de munc temporar cu un agent de munc temporar i care este pus la dispoziia utilizatorului pentru a lucra temporar sub supravegherea i conducerea acestuia din urm. (2) Salariatul temporar este persoana care a ncheiat un contract de munc temporar cu un agent de munc temporar, n vederea punerii sale la dispoziia unui utilizator pentru a lucra temporar sub supravegherea i conducerea acestuia din urm. (3) Agentul de munc temporar este persoana juridic, autorizat de Ministerul Muncii, Familiei i Proteciei Sociale, care ncheie contracte de munc temporar cu salariai temporari, pentru a-i pune la dispoziia utilizatorului, pentru a lucra pe perioada stabilit de contractul de punere la dispoziie sub supravegherea i conducerea acestuia. Condiiile de funcionare a agentului de munc temporar precum i procedura de autorizare se stabilesc prin hotrre a Guvernului. (4) Utilizatorul este persoana fizic sau juridic pentru care i sub supravegherea i conducerea cruia muncete temporar un salariat temporar pus la dispoziie de agentul de munc temporar. (5) Misiunea de munc temporar nseamn acea perioad n care salariatul temporar este pus la dispoziia utilizatorului pentru a lucra temporar sub supravegherea i conducerea acestuia, pentru executarea unei sarcini precise i cu caracter temporar.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

Art. 88. [legal definition of temporary Art. 88. [definiia legal a misiunii de munc work mission] temporar] Un utilizator poate apela la ageni de munc temporar pentru executarea unei sarcini precise i cu caracter temporar, cu excepia cazului prevzut la art. 92. A user may resort to temporary employment agencies for the performance of precise and temporary tasks, with except the case provided by article 92.

Art. 89. [length of temporary work Art. 89. [durata misiunii de munc temporar] mission] (1) Misiunea de munc temporar se stabilete (1) A temporary employment mission shall pentru un termen care nu poate fi mai mare de 24 be established for a period that may not luni. exceed 24 months; (2) Durata misiunii de munc temporar poate fi (2) The duration of the temporary prelungit pe perioade succesive care, adugate la employment mission may be extended for durata iniial a misiunii, nu poate conduce la successive periods which, added to the initial depirea unei perioade de 36 de luni. duration of the mission, may not exceed a (3) Condiiile n care durata unei misiuni de period of 36 months. munc temporar poate fi prelungit sunt (3) The conditions under which a prevzute n contractul de munc temporar sau temporary employment mission may be pot face obiectul unui act adiional la acest extended shall be provided for in the contract. temporary work contract or may be subject to an addendum to that contract Art. 90. [employee lease contract] (1) A temporary employment agency provides the user an employee under a temporary work contract, on the basis of an employee lease contract concluded in writing. (2) An employee lease contract shall contain: a) the duration of the mission; b) the characteristics of the position, in particular the necessary skills, the location of the mission and the work schedule; c) the actual working conditions; d) the work and personal protection equipment that the temporary employee is required to use; e) any other services and facilities benefiting the temporary employee; f) the value of the commission concluded with the temporary employment agency, and the remuneration the employee is entitled to; g) the condition under which the User may refuse a temporary employee made available by a temporary employment Art. 90. [contractul de punere la dispoziie] (1) Agentul de munc temporar pune la dispoziie utilizatorului un salariat angajat prin contract de munc temporar, n baza unui contract de punere la dispoziie ncheiat n form scris. (2) Contractul de punere la dispoziie trebuie s cuprind: a) durata misiunii; b) caracteristicile specifice postului, n special calificarea necesar, locul executrii misiunii i programul de lucru; c) condiiile concrete de munc; d) echipamentele individuale de protecie i de munc pe care salariatul temporar trebuie s le utilizeze; e) orice alte servicii i faciliti n favoarea salariatului temporar; f) valoarea comisionului de care beneficiaz agentul de munc temporar, precum i remuneraia la care are dreptul salariatul; g) condiiile n care utilizatorul poate refuza un salariat temporar pus la dispoziie de un agent de munc temporar.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII agency. (3) Orice clauz prin care se interzice angajarea (3) Any clause forbidding the user to hire de ctre utilizator a salariatului temporar dup the temporary employee after the fulfillment ndeplinirea misiunii este nul. of the mission shall be null and void.

Art. 91. [equal treatment] (1) The temporary employees shall have access to all services and facilities granted by the user, under the same conditions as the latters other employees. (2) The user shall provide the temporary employee with work and personal protection equipment, except for the case when the employee lease contract provides that this lies with the temporary employment agencys account.

Art. 91. [egalitatea de tratament] (1) Salariaii temporari au acces la toate serviciile i facilitile acordate de utilizator, n aceleai condiii ca i ceilali salariai ai acestuia. (2) Utilizatorul este obligat s asigure salariatului temporar dotarea cu echipamente individuale de protecie i de munc, cu excepia situaiei n care prin contractul de punere la dispoziie dotarea este n sarcina agentului de munc temporar.

Art. 92. [circumstance prohibiting the Art. 92. [cauz prohibit pentru angajarea employment of a temporary employee] salariatului temporar] A user may not enjoy the services of the temporary employee if it intends in this way to replace one of its employees whose work contract has been suspended as a result of the participation to strike. Art. 93. [temporary work contract] (1) A temporary work contract is an individual labour contract concluded in writing between the temporary employment agency and the temporary employee, during the length of a mission. (2) A temporary work contract shall contain, besides the elements provided for in Articles 17 and 18 (1), the conditions of mission performance, the length of the mission, the identity and headquarters of the user, and the quantum and way of the remuneration of the the temporary employee. Utilizatorul nu poate beneficia de serviciile salariatului temporar dac urmrete s nlocuiasc astfel un salariat al su al crui contract de munc este suspendat ca urmare a participrii la grev. Art. 93. [contractul de munc temporar] (1) Contractul de munc temporar este un contract individual de munc ce se ncheie n scris ntre agentul de munc temporar i salariatul temporar, pe durata unei misiuni. (2) n contractul de munc temporar se precizeaz, n afara elementelor prevzute la art. 17 i art. 18 alin. (1), condiiile n care urmeaz s se desfoare misiunea, durata misiunii, identitatea i sediul utilizatorului, precum i cuantumul i modalitile remuneraiei salariatului temporar.

Art. 94. [temporary work contract Art. 94. [contractul de munc temporar concluded for several missions] multi-misiune] (1) A temporary work contract may also be concluded for several missions, subject to the duration provided for in Article 89 (2). (2) The temporary employment agency may conclude with the temporary employee an individual labour contract for unlimited (1) Contractul de munc temporar se poate ncheia i pentru mai multe misiuni, cu respectarea termenului prevzut la art. 89 alin. (2). (2) Agentul de munc temporar poate ncheia cu salariatul temporar un contract de munc pe 41

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII period in this case, the period of between two missions the temporary employee will be at the of the temporary employment agency. (3) For each new mission, between the parties shall be concluding a temporary work contract, which shall detail all elements provided for in Article 93 (2). (4) A temporary work contract shall cease at the end of the mission for which it was concluded or, in the case that the User renounce at his services before the end of the mission, according the lease contract. Art. 95. [payment of temporary employee wage]

durat nedeterminat situaie n care n perioada dintre dou misiuni salariatul temporar se afl la dispoziia agentului de munc temporar. (3) Pentru fiecare nou misiune, ntre pri se ncheie un contract de munc temporar, n care vor fi precizate toate elementele prevzute la art. 93 alin. (2). (4) Contractul de munc temporar nceteaz la terminarea misiunii pentru care a fost ncheiat sau dac utilizatorul renun la serviciile sale nainte de ncheierea misiunii, n condiiile contractului de punere la dispoziie. Art. 95. [plata salariului salariatului temporar] (1) Pe toat durata misiunii salariatul temporar beneficiaz de salariul pltit de agentul de munc temporar. (2) Salariul primit de salariatul temporar pentru fiecare misiune se stabilete prin negociere direct cu agentul de munc temporar i nu poate fi mai mic dect salariul minim brut pe ar garantat n plat. (3) Abrogat. (4) Agentul de munc temporar este cel care reine i vireaz toate contribuiile i impozitele datorate de salariatul temporar ctre bugetele statului i pltete pentru acesta toate contribuiile datorate n condiiile legii. (5) n cazul n care n termen de 15 zile calendaristice de la data la care obligaiile privind plata salariului i cele privind contribuiile i impozitele au devenit scadente i exigibile, iar agentul de munc temporar nu le execut, ele vor fi pltite de utilizator, n baza solicitrii salariatului temporar. (6) Utilizatorul care a pltit sumele datorate potrivit alin. (5) se subrog, pentru sumele pltite, n drepturile salariatului temporar mpotriva agentului de munc temporar.

(1) During the entire mission, the temporary employee shall enjoy the wage paid by the temporary employment agency. (2) The wage received by the temporary employee for each mission will be established by direct negociations with the temporary employment agency and cannot be less than the gross minimum wage guaranteed at the national level. (3) Revoked. (4) The temporary employment agency shall retain and transfer all contributions and taxes owed by the temporary employee to the state budgets and pay all his/her contributions owed under the terms of the law. (5) Should the temporary employment agency fail to execute the obligations regarding the payment of the wage and the contributions and taxes within 15 calendar days from the date when they became outstanding and due, they shall be paid by the user, after the request of the temporary employee. (6) The user having paid the amounts owed according to paragraph (5) shall subrogate, for the amounts paid, in the rights of the temporary employee against the temporary employment agency.

Art. 96. [period of probation for the Art. 96. [perioada de prob pentru salariatul temporary employee] temporar] A period of probation for the fulfillment of Prin contractul de munc temporar se poate the mission may be established in the stabili o perioad de prob pentru realizarea temporary work contract, whose duration misiunii, a crei durat nu poate fi mai mare de:

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII may not exceed: a) 2 working days, when the temporary work contract has been concluded for a period shorter or equal to one month; b) 5 working days, when the temporary work contract has been concluded for a period between one and 3 months; c) 15 working days, when the temporary work contract has been concluded for a period between 3 and 6 months; d) 20 working days, when the temporary work contract has been concluded for a period exceeding 6 months; e) 30 working days for the employees in management positions, for a period of the temporary work contract exceeding six months. Art. 97. [temporary employee protection]

a) 2 zile lucrtoare, n cazul n care contractul de munc temporar este ncheiat pentru o perioad mai mic sau egal cu o lun; b) 5 zile lucrtoare, n cazul n care contractul de munc temporar este ncheiat pentru o perioad cuprins ntre o lun i 3 luni; c) 15 zile lucrtoare, n cazul n care contractul de munc temporar este ncheiat pentru o perioad cuprins ntre 3 i 6 luni; d) 20 zile lucrtoare, n cazul n care contractul de munc temporar este ncheiat pentru o perioad mai mare de 6 luni; e) 30 de zile lucrtoare n cazul salariailor ncadrai n funcii de conducere, pentru o durat a contractului de munc temporar mai mare de 6 luni. . Art. 97. [protecia salariatului temporar] (1) Pe parcursul misiunii utilizatorul rspunde pentru asigurarea condiiilor de munc pentru salariatul temporar, n conformitate cu legislaia n vigoare. (2) Utilizatorul va notifica de ndat agentului de munc temporar orice accident de munc sau mbolnvire profesional de care a luat cunotin i a crei victim a fost un salariat temporar pus la dispoziie de agentul de munc temporar.

(1) During the mission, the user shall be responsible to ensure the working conditions of the temporary employee, according to the legislation in force. (2) The user shall forthwith notify the temporary employment agency of any accidents at work or occupational diseases it took knowledge of and whose victim was a temporary employee supplied by the temporary employment agency. Art. 98. [extension employee work] of

temporary Art. 98. [continuarea muncii salariatului temporar] (1) La ncetarea misiunii salariatul temporar poate ncheia cu utilizatorul un contract individual de munc. (2) n cazul n care utilizatorul angajeaz, dup o misiune, un salariat temporar, durata misiunii efectuate se ia n calcul la stabilirea drepturilor salariale, precum i a celorlalte drepturi prevzute de legislaia muncii. (3) Abrogat.

(1) At the end of the mission, the temporary employee may conclude an individual work contract with the user. (2) Should the employer hire a temporary employee after a mission, the length of the mission performed shall be taken into account when assessing the wage rights and other rights provided for in the labor legislation. (3) Revoked. Art. 99. [temporary employee dismissal] A temporary employment agency dismissing the temporary employee before the deadline provided for in the temporary work contract, for other reasons than disciplinary, shall observe the legal

Art. 99. [concedierea salariatului temporar] Agentul de munc temporar care concediaz salariatul temporar nainte de termenul prevzut n contractul de munc temporar, pentru alte motive dect cele disciplinare, are obligaia de a respecta reglementrile legale privind ncetarea

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII regulations regarding the cessation of the contractului individual de munc pentru motive individual work contracts for reasons not care nu in de persoana salariatului. related to the person of the employee.

Art. 100. [temporary employee equal Art. 100.[egalitatea de tratament a salariailor treatment] temporari] Except for contrary special provisions, provided for in this chapter, the legal provisions, the internal rulesprovisions and the provisions contained in the collective labour contracts applicable to the employees working for the user under an individual labour contract of unlimited duration shall equally apply to the temporary employees during the mission to the user. Article 1001 : The temporary employment agencies do not charge any fees to the employees in exchange of the approaches for recruiting them by the user or for concluding a temporary employment contract. Cu excepia dispoziiilor speciale contrare, prevzute n prezentul capitol, dispoziiile legale, prevederile regulamentelor interne precum i cele ale contractelor colective de munc aplicabile salariailor angajai cu contract individual de munc pe durat nedeterminat la utilizator se aplic n egal msur i salariailor temporari pe durata misiunii la acesta. Articolul 1001 : Agenii de munc temporar nu percep nici o tax salariailor temporari n schimbul demersurilor n vederea recrutrii acestora de ctre utilizator sau pentru ncheierea unui contract de munc temporar.

CHAPTER 8 - The individual part-time work contract Art. 101. [concept of part-time employee]

CAPITOLUL 8 - Contractul individual de munc cu timp parial Art. 101. [noiunea de salariat cu fraciune de norm] Salariatul cu fraciune de norm este salariatul al crui numr de ore normale de lucru, calculate sptmnal sau ca medie lunar, este inferior numrului de ore normale de lucru al unui salariat cu norm ntreag comparabil.

A part - time employee is an employee whose number of normal working hours, calculated weekly or as a monthly average, is lower than the number of normal working hours of a similar full-time employee.

Art. 101.1. [definition of individual work contract]

part-time Art. 1011. [definiia contractului individual de munc cu timp parial] (1) Angajatorul poate ncadra salariai cu fraciune de norm prin contracte individuale de munc pe durat nedeterminat sau pe durat determinat, denumite contracte individuale de munc cu timp parial. (2) Contractul individual de munc cu timp parial se ncheie numai n form scris. (3) Salariatul comparabil este salariatul cu norm ntreag din aceeai unitate, care are acelai tip de contract individual de munc, presteaz aceeai 44

(1) An employer may hire part-time employees with individual work contracts of an unlimited duration or limited duration, called part-time individual work contracts. (2) An individual part-time work contract shall be concluded only in writing. (3) A similar employee is a full-time employee in the same establishment, having the same type of individual work contract, performing the same activity or a similar

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII one as the employee hired under a part-time individual work contract, with due regard to other issues too, such as the length of service and the qualification/professional skills. (4) When there is no similar employee in the same unit, the provisions in the applicable collective labour contract or, in its absence in the legal regulations, shall be taken into account.

activitate sau una similar cu cea a salariatului angajat cu contract individual de munc cu timp parial, avndu-se n vedere i alte considerente, cum ar fi vechimea n munc i calificarea/aptitudinile profesionale. (4) Atunci cnd nu exist un salariat comparabil n aceeai unitate, se au n vedere dispoziiile din contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau, n lipsa acestuia, reglementrile legale n domeniu.

Art. 102. [special clauses ] (1) An individual part-time work contract shall contain, besides the elements provided for in Article 17 (2), the following: a) the length of the activity and the distribution of the work schedule; b) the cases when the work schedule may be amended; c) overtime work prohibition, except for acts of God or other urgent works intended to prevent the accidents or to eliminate their consequences. (2) Should an individual part-time work contract fail to contain the elements mentioned in paragraph (1), the contract shall be deemed a full-time contract. Art. 103. [equal treatment] (1) An employee hired under a part-time work contract shall enjoy the rights of the full-time employees, under the terms of the law and the applicable collective work agreements. (2) The wage rights shall be granted in proportion to the time actually worked, in connection with the rights established for the normal work schedule. (3) Revoked.

Art. 102. [clauze speciale] (1) Contractul individual de munc cu timp parial cuprinde, n afara elementelor prevzute la art. 17 alin. (2), urmtoarele: a) durata muncii i repartizarea programului de lucru; b) condiiile n care se poate modifica programul de lucru; c) interdicia de a efectua ore suplimentare, cu excepia cazurilor de for major sau pentru alte lucrri urgente destinate prevenirii producerii unor accidente ori nlturrii consecinelor acestora. (2) n situaia n care ntr-un contract individual de munc cu timp parial nu sunt precizate elementele prevzute la alin. (1), contractul se consider a fi ncheiat pentru norm ntreag. Art. 103. [egalitatea de tratament] (1) Salariatul ncadrat cu contract de munc cu timp parial se bucur de drepturile salariailor cu norm ntreag, n condiiile prevzute de lege i de contractele colective de munc aplicabile. (2) Drepturile salariale se acord proporional cu timpul efectiv lucrat, raportat la drepturile stabilite pentru programul normal de lucru. (3) Abrogat

Art. 104. [accessibility of part time work ] Art. 104. [accesibilitatea muncii cu fraciune de norm] (1) An employer shall, as far as possible, take into account the demands of the (1) Angajatorul este obligat ca, n msura n care employees to transfer either from a full-time este posibil, s ia n considerare cererile workplace to a part-time workplace, or from salariailor de a se transfera fie de la un loc de a part-time workplace to a full-time munc cu norm ntreag la unul cu fraciune de workplace, or to increase their work norm, fie de la un loc de munc cu fraciune de schedule, should such opportunity arise. norm la un loc de munc cu norm ntreag sau (2) An employer shall notify in time the de a-i mri programul de lucru, n cazul n care

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII availability of part-time or full-time workplaces, in order to facilitate the transfers from full-time positions to parttime positions and vice versa. Such notification shall be done through an announcement posted at employers headquarters. (21) A copy of the announcement provided for in paragraph (2) shall be forthwith forwarded to the trade union or the representatives of the employees. (3) An employer shall ensure, as far as possible, the access to part-time workplaces at every level.

apare aceast oportunitate. (2) Angajatorul este obligat s informeze la timp cu privire la apariia unor locuri de munc cu fraciune de norm sau cu norm ntreag, pentru a facilita transferurile de la norm ntreag la fraciune de norm i invers. Aceast informare se face printr-un anun afiat la sediul angajatorului. (21) O copie a anunului prevzut la alin. (2) se transmite de ndat sindicatului sau reprezentanilor salariailor. (3) Angajatorul asigur, n msura n care este posibil, accesul la locuri de munc cu fraciune de norm la toate nivelurile.

CHAPTER 9 - Home working Art. 105. [legal definition and special features] (1) The employees performing, at their domicile, the specific tasks of their position shall be considered home workers. (2) In order to perform the assigned tasks, the home workers shall establish their own work schedule. (3) An employer shall have the right to check the activity of the home worker, under the terms laid down in the individual work contract. Art. 106. [home working contract ] An individual home working contract shall be concluded only in writing and shall contain, besides the elements provided for in Article 17 (2), the following: a) an explicit notice stating that the employee works from home; b) the interval within which the employer has the right to control the employee activity and the actual way the control is performed; c) the obligation of the employer to ensure the transport to and from the residence of the employee, as appropriate, of the raw materials and consumables used in the activity, and of the finished goods he/she produces.

CAPITOLUL 9 - Munca la domiciliu Art. 105. [definiia legal i caractere speciale] (1) Sunt considerai salariai cu munca la domiciliu acei salariai care ndeplinesc, la domiciliul lor, atribuiile specifice funciei pe care o dein. (2) n vederea ndeplinirii sarcinilor de serviciu ce le revin, salariaii cu munca la domiciliu i stabilesc singuri programul de lucru. (3) Angajatorul este n drept s verifice activitatea salariatului cu munca la domiciliu, n condiiile stabilite prin contractul individual de munc. Art. 106. [contractul de munc la domiciliu] Contractul individual de munc la domiciliu se ncheie numai n form scris i conine, n afara elementelor prevzute la art. 17 alin. (2), urmtoarele: a) precizarea expres c salariatul lucreaz la domiciliu; b) programul n cadrul cruia angajatorul este n drept s controleze activitatea salariatului su i modalitatea concret de realizare a controlului; c) obligaia angajatorului de a asigura transportul la i de la domiciliul salariatului, dup caz, al materiilor prime i materialelor pe care le utilizeaz n activitate, precum i al produselor finite pe care le realizeaz.

Art. 107. [equal treatment]

Art. 107. [egalitatea de tratament] 46

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

(1) A home worker shall enjoy all rights recognized by law and collective work agreements applicable to the employees whose workplace is at employers headquarters. (2) A collective labour contract and/or an individual labour contract may also contain other specific conditions regarding home working, according with the legal provision in force.

(1) Salariatul cu munca la domiciliu se bucur de toate drepturile recunoscute prin lege i prin contractele colective de munc aplicabile salariailor al cror loc de munc este la sediul angajatorului. (2) Prin contractele colective de munc i/sau prin contractele individuale de munc se pot stabili i alte condiii specifice privind munca la domiciliu, n conformitate cu legislaia n vigoare.

TITLE III - Work time and rest time

TITLUL III - Timpul de munc i timpul de odihn CAPITOLUL 1 - Timpul de munc SECTIUNEA 1 - Durata timpului de munc

CHAPTER 1 - Work time SECTION 1 - Length of the work time

Art. 108. [legal definition of the work Art. 108. [definiia legal a timpului de munc] time] Timpul de munc reprezint orice perioad n care The work time is any period during which salariatul presteaz munca, se afl la dispoziia the employer performs the work, is at the angajatorului i ndeplinete sarcinile i atribuiile disposal of the employer and fulfils his/her sale, conform prevederilor contractului individual tasks, according to the provisions of the de munc, contractului colectiv de munc individual work contract, the applicable aplicabil i/sau ale legislaiei n vigoare. collective work agreement and/or the legislation in force. Art. 109. [normal length of the work Art. 109. [durata normal a timpului de time] munc] (1) The normal length of the work time for the full-time employees is 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week. (2) In the case of young people under 18 years, the length of the work time is 6 hours per day and 30 hours per week. (1) Pentru salariaii angajai cu norm ntreag durata normal a timpului de munc este de 8 ore pe zi i de 40 de ore pe sptmn. (2) n cazul tinerilor n vrst de pn la 18 ani durata timpului de munc este de 6 ore pe zi i de 30 de ore pe sptmn.

Art. 110. [distribution of the work time Art. 110. [repartizarea timpului de munc n within the week] timpul sptmnii] (1) The distribution of the work time within the week shall, usually, be uniform, of 8 hours per day for 5 days, with 2 days of rest. (2) According to the specific features of the organization or activity performed, an uneven distribution of the work time may be chosen, while observing the normal length of the work time of 40 hours per week. (1) Repartizarea timpului de munc n cadrul sptmnii este, de regul, uniform, de 8 ore pe zi timp de 5 zile, cu dou zile de repaus. (2) n funcie de specificul unitii sau al muncii prestate, se poate opta i pentru o repartizare inegal a timpului de munc, cu respectarea duratei normale a timpului de munc de 40 de ore pe sptmn. 47

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

Art. 111. [maximum length of the work Art. 111. [durata maxim a timpului de time] munc] (1) The maximum legal length of the work time may not exceed 48 hours per week, including the overtime. (2) By way of exception, the length of the work time, including the overtime, may be extended beyond 48 hours per week, provided that the average work hours, calculated over a reference period of four calendar months, do not exceed 48 hours per week. (3) For certain activities or professions listed in the applicable collective work agreement, reference periods for more than four months, but not exceeding six months, may be negotiated in the applicable collective work agreement. (4) Subject to the regulations on employees health and safety, for objective reasons, technical or labor organization, the collective work agreements may provide derogations from the reference period provided in par. (3), but for the reference periods which, in any case, should not exceed 12 months. (5) When setting the reference periods provided for in par. (2)-(4), the length of the annual leave and the individual labour contract suspensions shall not be taken into account. (6) The provisions of par. (1) - (4) shall not apply to young persons under 18 years. Art. 112. [special length of the work time] (1) For certain economic sectors, organizations or professions, the collective or individual negotiations or the specific legal provisions may specify a daily length of the work time below or above 8 hours. (2) A 12 hour daily length of the work time shall be followed by a rest period of 24 hours. Art. 113. [uneven work schedule] (1) The actual organization of the uneven work schedule within the working week of 40 hours, and within the compressed work week, shall be negotiated in the collective (1) Durata maxim legal a timpului de munc nu poate depi 48 de ore pe sptmn, inclusiv orele suplimentare. (2) Prin excepie, durata timpului de munc, ce include i orele suplimentare, poate fi prelungit peste 48 de ore pe sptmn, cu condiia ca media orelor de munc, calculat pe o perioad de referin de 4 luni calendaristice, s nu depeasc 48 de ore pe sptmn. (3) Pentru anumite activiti sau profesii stabilite prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, se pot negocia, prin contractul colectiv de munc respectiv, perioade de referin mai mari de 4 luni, dar care s nu depeasc 6 luni. (4) Sub rezerva respectrii reglementrilor privind protecia sntii i securitii n munc a salariailor, din motive obiective, tehnice sau privind organizarea muncii contractele colective de munc pot prevedea derogri de la durata perioadei de referin stabilit la alin. (3), dar pentru perioade de referin care n nici un caz s nu depeasc 12 luni. (5) La stabilirea perioadelor de referin prevzute la alin. (2) - (4) nu se iau n calcul durata concediului de odihn anual i situaiile de suspendare a contractului individual de munc. (6) Prevederile alin. (1) (4) nu se aplic tinerilor care nu au mplinit vrsta de 18 ani.

Art. 112. [durata special a timpului de munc] (1) Pentru anumite sectoare de activitate, uniti sau profesii se poate stabili prin negocieri colective sau individuale ori prin acte normative specifice o durat zilnic a timpului de munc mai mic sau mai mare de 8 ore. (2) Durata zilnic a timpului de munc de 12 ore va fi urmat de o perioad de repaus de 24 de ore. Art. 113. [programul de lucru inegal] (1) Modul concret de stabilire a programului de lucru inegal n cadrul sptmnii de lucru de 40 de ore, precum i n cadrul sptmnii de lucru comprimate va fi negociat prin contractul colectiv

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII work agreement at the level of the employer or, in its absence, shall be provided in the rules of procedure. (2) The uneven work schedule may only operate if it is expressly specified in the individual work contract.

de munc la nivelul angajatorului sau, n absena acestuia, va fi prevzut n regulamentul intern. (2) Programul de lucru inegal poate funciona numai dac este specificat expres n contractul individual de munc.

Art. 114. [employee notification of work Art. 114. [informarea salariailor cu privire la schedule] programul de munc] The work schedule and its distribution Programul de munc i modul de repartizare a among days shall be notified to the acestuia pe zile sunt aduse la cunotin employees and shall be posted in salariailor i sunt afiate la sediul angajatorului. employers headquarters. Art. 115. [individualized work schedule] (1) An employer may establish individualized work schedules with the agreement or at the request of the respective employee. (2) The individualized work schedules shall involve a flexible organization of the work time. (3) The daily length of the work time shall be divided into two periods: a fixed period where the entire personnel is simultaneously present at the workplace and a variable, mobile period where the employee chooses the time of arrival and departure, in compliance with the daily work time. (4) The individualized work schedule may operate only in compliance with the provisions of Articles 109 and 111. Art. 116. [working hours records] The employer shall record the working hours of each employee and subject the records to the control of the labor inspectorate, whenever requested. Art. 115. [programul de lucru individualizat] (1) Angajatorul poate stabili programe individualizate de munc, cu acordul sau la solicitarea salariatului n cauz. (2) Programele individualizate de munc presupun un mod de organizare flexibil a timpului de munc. (3) Durata zilnic a timpului de munc este mprit n dou perioade: o perioad fix n care personalul se afl simultan la locul de munc i o perioad variabil, mobil, n care salariatul i alege orele de sosire i de plecare, cu respectarea timpului de munc zilnic. (4) Programul individualizat de munc poate funciona numai cu respectarea dispoziiilor art. 109 i 111.

Art. 116. [evidena timpului de munc] Angajatorul are obligaia de a ine evidena orelor de munc prestate de fiecare salariat i de a supune controlului inspeciei muncii aceast eviden ori de cte ori este solicitat. SECTIUNEA 2 - Munca suplimentar

SECTION 2 - Overtime work

Art. 117. [legal definition and conditions Art. 117. [definiia legal i condiiile muncii of overtime work] suplimentare] (1) The work performed besides the normal length of the weekly work time, provided for in Article 109, shall be considered overtime work. (1) Munca prestat n afara duratei normale a timpului de munc sptmnal, prevzut la art. 109, este considerat munc suplimentar. (2) Munca suplimentar nu poate fi efectuat fr 49

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (2) The overtime work may not be performed without the agreement of the employee, except for acts of God or urgent works intended to prevent or to eliminate the consequences of an accident. Art. 118. [limits of overtime work]

acordul salariatului, cu excepia cazului de for major sau pentru lucrri urgente destinate prevenirii producerii unor accidente ori nlturrii consecinelor unui accident. Art. 118. [limitrile muncii suplimentare] (1) La solicitarea angajatorului salariaii pot efectua munc suplimentar, cu respectarea prevederilor art. 111 sau 112, dup caz. (2) Efectuarea muncii suplimentare peste limita stabilit potrivit prevederilor art. 111 sau 112, dup caz, este interzis, cu excepia cazului de for major sau pentru alte lucrri urgente destinate prevenirii producerii unor accidente ori nlturrii consecinelor unui accident.

(1) At the request of the employer, the employees may perform overtime work, in compliance with the provisions of Articles 111 or 112, as the case may be. (2) The performance of overtime work beyond the limit laid down according to the provisions of Articles 111 or 112, as the case may be, shall be forbidden, except for cases of acts of God or other urgent works intended to prevent or to eliminate the consequences of an accident.

Art. 119. [compensation of overtime work Art. 119. [compensarea muncii suplimentare through paid hours off] prin ore libere pltite] (1) The overtime work shall be compensated by hours off paid in the next 60 calendar days after its performance. (2) Under the circumstances, the employee shall benefit by the wage corresponding to the hours performed beyond the normal work schedule. (3) In the periods when the employers activity is reduced, the employer is able to grant paid days off from which may be compensated the overtime which will be performed in the next 12 months. (1) Munca suplimentar se compenseaz prin ore libere pltite n urmtoarele 60 de zile calendaristice dup efectuarea acesteia. (2) n aceste condiii salariatul beneficiaz de salariul corespunztor pentru orele prestate peste programul normal de lucru. (3) n perioadele de reducere a activitii angajatorul are posibilitatea de a acorda zile libere pltite din care pot fi compensate orele suplimentare ce vor fi prestate n urmtoarele 12 luni. .

Art. 120. [compensation of overtime work Art. 120. [compensarea muncii suplimentare through extra pay] prin acordarea unui spor la salariu] (1) If the compensation by paid hours off is not possible within the deadline provided for in Article 119 (1) in the next month, the overtime work shall be paid the employee by adding an extra pay according to its length. (2) The extra pay for overtime work, granted under the conditions provided for in paragraph (1), shall be established by negotiation, within the collective work agreement or, as the case may be, within the individual work contract, and shall not be lower than 75% of the basic pay. (1) n cazul n care compensarea prin ore libere pltite nu este posibil n termenul prevzut de art. 119 alin. (1) n luna urmtoare, munca suplimentar va fi pltit salariatului prin adugarea unui spor la salariu corespunztor duratei acesteia. (2) Sporul pentru munca suplimentar, acordat n condiiile prevzute la alin. (1), se stabilete prin negociere, n cadrul contractului colectiv de munc sau, dup caz, al contractului individual de munc, i nu poate fi mai mic de 75% din salariul de baz.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 121. [prohibition of overtime work Art. 121. [interzicerea muncii suplimentare for underage persons] pentru minori]

The young people under 18 years may not Tinerii n vrst de pn la 18 ani nu pot presta perform overtime work. munc suplimentar. Art. 122. [legal definition and length of Art. 122. [definiia legal i durata muncii de night work ] noapte] (1) The work performed between 22:00 and 06:00 hours shall be considered night work. (11) A night employee is, as the case may be: a) an employee performing night work at least 3 hours of his/her daily work time; b) an employee performing night work amounting to at least 30% of his/her monthly work time. (2) The normal length of the work time, for the night employee, shall not exceed an average of 8 hours a day, calculated over a reference period of maximum 3 calendar months, in compliance with the legal provisions on the weekly rest. (21) The normal length of the work time, for the night employees whose activity takes place in special or distinct working conditions, shall not exceed 8 hours within any 24 hour period, only if the increase of this duration is provided in the applicable collective agreement, and only in the event that such provision is not contrary to the express provisions of the employment contract set higher. (22) In the situation foreseen by the art. (21) , the employer is obliged to grant equivalent compensatory rest periods or money compensation for the night hours worked over the duration of 8 hours (3) An employer frequently using night work shall notify the territorial labor inspectorate thereof. Art. 123. [compensation of night work] The employees who perform night work shall benefit: a)either of a work schedule with an hour shorter than the normal length of the workday, for the days when the employees who perform at least 3 hours of night work, without this leading to a decrease of the (1) Munca prestat ntre orele 22:00 i 06:00 este considerat munc de noapte. (11) Salariatul de noapte reprezint, dup caz: a) salariatul care efectueaz munc de noapte cel puin 3 ore din timpul su zilnic de lucru; b) salariatul care efectueaz munc de noapte n proporie de cel puin 30% din timpul su lunar de lucru. (2) Durata normal a timpului de lucru, pentru salariatul de noapte, nu va depi o medie de 8 ore pe zi, calculat pe o perioad de referin de maximum 3 luni calendaristice, cu respectarea prevederilor legale cu privire la repausul sptmnal. (21) Durata normal a timpului de lucru, pentru salariaii de noapte a cror activitate se desfoar n condiii speciale sau deosebite de munc nu va depi 8 ore pe parcursul oricrei perioade de 24 de ore, dect n cazul n care majorarea acestei durate este prevzut n contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, i numai n situaia n care o astfel de prevedere nu contravine unor prevederi exprese stabilite n contractul colectiv de munc ncheiat la nivel superior. (22) n situaia prevzut la alin. (21), angajatorul este obligat s acorde perioade de repaus compensatorii echivalente sau compensare n bani a orelor de noapte lucrate peste durata de 8 ore. (3) Angajatorul care, n mod frecvent, utilizeaz munca de noapte este obligat s informeze despre aceasta inspectoratul teritorial de munc.

Art. 123. [compensarea muncii de noapte] Salariaii de noapte beneficiaz: a) fie de program de lucru redus cu o or fa de durata normal a zilei de munc, pentru zilele n care efectueaz cel puin 3 ore de munc de noapte, fr ca aceasta s duc la scderea salariului de baz; b) fie de un spor pentru munca prestat n timpul

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII basic wages; b)either a wage benefit of at least 25% of the basic wages, if the work time performed represents at least 3 hours of night work from the normal worktime. Art. 124. [medical examination for night work]

nopii de 25% din salariul de baz, dac timpul astfel lucrat reprezint cel puin 3 ore de noapte din timpul normal de lucru.

Art. 124. [examenul medical pentru munca de noapte] (1) Salariaii care urmeaz s desfoare munc de noapte n condiiile art. 122 alin. (11) sunt supui unui examen medical gratuit nainte de nceperea activitii i dup aceea, periodic. (2) Condiiile de efectuare a examenului medical i periodicitatea acestuia se stabilesc prin regulament aprobat prin ordin comun al ministrului muncii i solidaritii sociale i al ministrului sntii i familiei. (3) Salariaii care desfoar munc de noapte i au probleme de sntate recunoscute ca avnd legtur cu aceasta vor fi trecui la o munc de zi pentru care sunt api.

(1) The employees performing night work under the conditions of Article 122 (11) shall be subject to a free medical examination before starting the activity and periodically thereafter. (2) The conditions to perform the medical examinations and their periodicity shall be established by a regulation approved by Joint Order of the Minister of Work and Social Solidarity and the Minister of Health and Family. (3) The employees performing night work and having problems acknowledged to be connected to it shall be transferred to a day work they are capable of.

Art. 125. [prohibition of night work for Art. 125. [interzicerea muncii de noapte pentru underage persons, pregnant women and minori, gravide i mame care alpteaz] breastfeeding mothers] (1) Tinerii care nu au mplinit vrsta de 18 ani nu (1) The young people under 18 years may pot presta munc de noapte. not perform night work. (2) Femeile gravide, luzele i cele care alpteaz (2) Pregnant women, childwives and nu pot fi obligate s presteze munc de noapte. breastfeeding mothers may not be required to perform night work. Art. 126. [legal definition and contents] A work quota is the amount of work necessary for a person with the appropriate skills, working with normal intensity, under the conditions of determined technological and work processes, to perform certain operations or works. The work quota comprises the productive time, the time for breaks imposed by the technological process, and the time for legal breaks within the work schedule. SECTION 4 - Work quota Art. 127. [types of work quotas] Art. 126. [definiia legal i coninutul] Norma de munc exprim cantitatea de munc necesar pentru efectuarea operaiunilor sau lucrrilor de ctre o persoan cu calificare corespunztoare, care lucreaz cu intensitate normal, n condiiile unor procese tehnologice i de munc determinate. Norma de munc cuprinde timpul productiv, timpul pentru ntreruperi impuse de desfurarea procesului tehnologic, timpul pentru pauze legale n cadrul programului de munc. SECTIUNEA 4 - Norma de munc Art. 127. [tipuri de norme de munc]

The work quotas are classified, depending Norma de munc se exprim, n funcie de upon the characteristics of the production caracteristicile procesului de producie sau de alte process or other standardized activities, as activiti ce se normeaz, sub form de norme de 52

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII time quotas, output quotas, personnel quotas, scope of competence or as other forms corresponding to the specific features of every activity. Art. 128. [scope of work quotas]

timp, norme de producie, norme de personal, sfer de atribuii sau sub alte forme corespunztoare specificului fiecrei activiti.

Art. 128. [domeniul de aplicare a normelor de munc] The output quotas shall apply to all Normarea muncii se aplic tuturor categoriilor de categories of employees. salariai. Art. 129. [preparation and review of Art. 129. [elaborarea work quotas] normelor de munc] The work quotas shall be drafted by the employer, according to the regulations in force or, in case there are no regulations the work quotas shall be prepared by the employer after the discussions with the trade union or, if the case may be, with the employeesrepresentatives. CHAPTER 2 - Periodic rests SECTION 1 - Lunch break and daily rest Art. 1291. [rest period] i reexaminarea

Normele de munc se elaboreaz de ctre angajator, conform normativelor n vigoare, sau, n cazul n care nu exist normative, normele de munc se elaboreaz de ctre angajator dup consultarea sindicatului reprezentativ ori, dup caz, al reprezentanilor salariailor.

CAPITOLUL 2 - Repausuri periodice SECTIUNEA 1 - Pauza de mas i repausul zilnic Art. 1291. [perioada de repaus]

The rest time is any period that is not work Perioada de repaus reprezint orice perioad care time. nu este timp de munc. Art. 130. [lunch break and other breaks] (1) Should the daily length of the work time exceed 6 hours, the employees shall have the right to a lunch break and other breaks, under the terms provided for in the applicable collective work agreement or the rules of procedure. (2) The young people under 18 years shall enjoy a lunch break of at least 30 minutes, should the daily length of the work time exceed 4 and half hours. (3) Except for the contrary provisions in the applicable collective work agreement and the rules of procedure, the breaks shall not be included in the normal daily length of the work time. Art. 131. [daily rest] Art. 130. [pauza de mas i alte pauze] (1) n cazurile n care durata zilnic a timpului de munc este mai mare de 6 ore, salariaii au dreptul la pauz de mas i la alte pauze, n condiiile stabilite prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau prin regulamentul intern. (2) Tinerii n vrst de pn la 18 ani beneficiaz de o pauz de mas de cel puin 30 de minute, n cazul n care durata zilnic a timpului de munc este mai mare de 4 ore i jumtate. (3) Pauzele, cu excepia dispoziiilor contrare din contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil i din regulamentul intern, nu se vor include n durata zilnic normal a timpului de munc.

Art. 131. [repausul zilnic]

(1) The employees shall have the right, (1) Salariaii au dreptul ntre dou zile de munc between two working days, to a rest period la un repaus care nu poate fi mai mic de 12 ore that may not be shorter than 12 consecutive consecutive. 53

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII hours. (2) Prin excepie, n cazul muncii n schimburi, (2) By way of exception, in the case of shift acest repaus nu poate fi mai mic de 8 ore ntre work, that rest period between the shifts schimburi. may not be shorter than 8 hours.

Art. 131.1. [shift work] (1) Shift work is any method to organize the work schedule, according to which the employees follow each other at the same workplace, according to a schedule, including a rotational schedule, of continuous or discontinuous type, requiring the employee to perform an activity within different time ranges in relation to a daily or weekly period, established in the individual work contract. (2) A shift employee is any employee whose work schedule is of the shift work schedule type. Art. 132. [weekly rest] (1) The weekly rest shall be granted in two consecutive days, usually Saturday and Sunday. (2) Should the rest during Saturday and Sunday be detrimental to the public interest or the normal course of the activity, the weekly rest may also be granted in other days laid down in the applicable collective work agreement or in the rules of procedure. (3) In the case provided for in paragraph (2), the employees shall enjoy an extra pay, as laid down in the collective work agreement or, as the case may be, the individual labour contract. (4) In exceptional cases, the weekly rest days may be granted on a cumulative basis, after a continuous activity that may not exceed 14 calendar days, with the authorization of the territorial labor inspectorate and with the agreement of the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees. (5) The employees whose weekly rest is granted under the conditions of paragraph (4) shall have the right to the double of the compensations provided for under Article 120 (2). Art. 133. [suspension of weekly rest]

Art. 1311. [munca n schimburi] (1) Munc n schimburi reprezint orice mod de organizare a programului de lucru, potrivit cruia salariaii se succed unul pe altul la acelai post de munc, potrivit unui anumit program, inclusiv program rotativ, i care poate fi de tip continuu sau discontinuu, implicnd pentru salariat necesitatea realizrii unei activiti n intervale orare diferite n raport cu o perioad zilnic sau sptmnal, stabilit prin contractul individual de munc. (2) Salariat n schimburi reprezint orice salariat al crui program de lucru se nscrie n cadrul programului de munc n schimburi. Art. 132. [repausul sptmnal] (1) Repausul sptmnal se acord n dou zile consecutive, de regul smbta i duminica. (2) n cazul n care repausul n zilele de smbt i duminic ar prejudicia interesul public sau desfurarea normal a activitii, repausul sptmnal poate fi acordat i n alte zile stabilite prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau prin regulamentul intern. (3) n situaia prevzut la alin. (2) salariaii vor beneficia de un spor la salariu stabilit prin contractul colectiv de munc sau, dup caz, prin contractul individual de munc. (4) n situaii de excepie zilele de repaus sptmnal sunt acordate cumulat, dup o perioad de activitate continu ce nu poate depi 14 zile calendaristice, cu autorizarea inspectoratului teritorial de munc i cu acordul sindicatului sau, dup caz, al reprezentanilor salariailor. (5) Salariaii al cror repaus sptmnal se acord n condiiile alin. (4) au dreptul la dublul compensaiilor cuvenite potrivit art. 120 alin. (2).

Art.133. [suspendarea repausului sptmnal]

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(1) In case of urgent works, whose immediate performance is necessary for the organization of rescue measures for the persons or goods of the employer, in order to avoid imminent accidents or to eliminate the effects of these accidents on the materials, installations or buildings of the organization, the weekly rest may be suspended for the personnel necessary to perform these works. (2) The employees whose weekly rest has been suspended under the conditions of paragraph (1) shall have the right to the double of the compensations provided for under Article 120 (2). SECTION 3 - Legal holidays Art. 134. [list of legal holidays] (1) The legal holidays shall be the following: a) 1st and 2nd of January; b) the first two Easter days; c) 1st of May; d) 1st of December; e) the first two Christmas days; f) 2 days for each of the two annual religious holidays, declared as such by legal religious cults, other than Christian, for the persons belonging to those religious cults. (2) The days off shall be granted by the employer.

(1) n cazul unor lucrri urgente, a cror executare imediat este necesar pentru organizarea unor msuri de salvare a persoanelor sau bunurilor angajatorului, pentru evitarea unor accidente iminente sau pentru nlturarea efectelor pe care aceste accidente le-au produs asupra materialelor, instalaiilor sau cldirilor unitii, repausul sptmnal poate fi suspendat pentru personalul necesar n vederea executrii acestor lucrri. (2) Salariaii al cror repaus sptmnal a fost suspendat n condiiile alin. (1) au dreptul la dublul compensaiilor cuvenite potrivit art. 120 alin. (2).

SECTIUNEA 3 - Srbtorile legale Art. 134. [enumerarea srbtorilor legale n care nu se lucreaz]

(1) Zilele de srbtoare legal n care nu se lucreaz sunt: a) 1 i 2 ianuarie; b) prima i a doua zi de Pati; c) 1 mai; d) 1 decembrie; e) prima i a doua zi de Crciun; f) 2 zile pentru fiecare dintre cele dou srbtori religioase anuale, declarate astfel de cultele religioase legale, altele dect cele cretine, pentru persoanele aparinnd acestora. (2) Acordarea zilelor libere se face de ctre angajator. Art. 135. [special work schedules during Art. 135. [programul special de lucru n zilele legal holidays] de srbtoare] In order to ensure the medical assistance and the supply with essential foodstuffs, appropriate work schedules for the health and food and beverage establishments shall be laid down by Government Decision, whose application shall be mandatory. Prin hotrre a Guvernului se vor stabili programe de lucru adecvate pentru unitile sanitare i pentru cele de alimentaie public, n scopul asigurrii asistenei sanitare i, respectiv, al aprovizionrii populaiei cu produse alimentare de strict necesitate, a cror aplicare este obligatorie.

Art. 136. [uninterrupted activity in Art. 136. [continuitatea activitii n cazuri special cases] speciale] The provisions of Article 134 do not apply to the workplaces where the activity cannot be interrupted due to the character of the production process or the specific features Prevederile art. 134 nu se aplic n locurile de munc n care activitatea nu poate fi ntrerupt datorit caracterului procesului de producie sau specificului activitii. 55

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII of the activity.

Art. 137. [compensation of work during Art. 137. [compensarea muncii n zilele de legal holidays] srbtoare] (1) The employees working in the organizations provided for in Article 135 and in the workplaces provided for in Article 136 shall be ensured a compensation with adequate time off in the next 30 days. (2) If no days off are granted, on duly justified grounds, the employees shall benefit, for the activity performed during the legal holidays, from an extra pay added to the basic pay, which may not be lower than 100% of the basic pay corresponding to the activity performed within the normal work schedule. (1) Salariailor care lucreaz n unitile prevzute la art. 135, precum i la locurile de munc prevzute la art. 136 li se asigur compensarea cu timp liber corespunztor n urmtoarele 30 de zile. (2) n cazul n care, din motive justificate, nu se acord zile libere, salariaii beneficiaz, pentru munca prestat n zilele de srbtoare legal, de un spor la salariul de baz ce nu poate fi mai mic de 100% din salariul de baz corespunztor muncii prestate n programul normal de lucru.

Art. 138. [establishment of other days off Art. 138. [stabilirea altor zile libere] ] The applicable collective work agreement Prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil se pot may lay down other days off too. stabili i alte zile libere.

CHAPTER 3 - Leaves SECTION 1 - Annual leave and other employee leaves Art. 139. [guarantee of paid annual leave]

CAPITOLUL 3 - Concediile SECTIUNEA 1 - Concediul de odihn anual i alte concedii ale salariailor Art. 139. [intangibilitatea dreptului la concediu de odihn]

(1) The right to paid annual leave shall be guaranteed to all employees. (1) Dreptul la concediu de odihna anual platit este (2) The right to annual leave may not be garantat tuturor salariatilor. subject to any assignment, waiving or (2) Dreptul la concediu de odihna anual nu poate abridgement. forma obiectul vreunei cesiuni, renuntari sau limitari. Art. 140. [length of annual leave] Art. 140. [durata concediului de odihn] (1) The annual leave shall have a minimum length of 20 working days. (2) The effective period of the annual leave shall be established in the individual labour contract according with the legal provisions and the applicable collective labour contract, and will be granted proportionally to the activity performed in a calendar year. (3) The legal holidays and the paid days off laid down in the applicable collective work agreement shall not be included in the length of the annual leave. (1) Durata minima a concediului de odihna nual este de 20 de zile lucratoare. (2) Durata efectiv a concediului de odihn anual se stabilete n contractul individual de munc, cu respectarea legii i a contractelor colective aplicabile i se acord proporional cu activitatea prestat ntr-un an calendaristic. (3) Sarbatorile legale in care nu se lucreaza, precum si zilele libere platite stabilite prin contractul colectiv de munca aplicabil nu sunt incluse in durata concediului de odihna anual. (4) Abrogat.* 56

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (4) Revoked.

Art. 141. [taking and compensating the Art. 141. [efectuarea annual leave] concediului de odihn] (1) The leave shall be taken each year. (2) By way of exception from the provisions of paragraph (1), the leave may only be taken in the next year in the cases expressly provided for in the law or in the applicable collective work agreement. (3) An employer shall grant a leave, until the end of the next year, to all employees who, within a calendar year, did not take the entire leave they were entitled to. (4) The compensation in money of the leave not taken shall only be allowed at the cessation of the individual work contract.

compensarea

Art. 142. [supplementary leave] (1) The employees working in difficult, dangerous or unhealthy conditions, the visually impaired persons, other disabled persons and the young people under 18 years shall enjoy a supplementary leave of at least 3 working days. (2) The number of working days corresponding to the additional annual leave for categories of employees foreseen to the article (1) shall be established by the applicable collective labour contract and will be at least 3 working days. Art. 143. [leave scheduling] (1) A leave shall be taken on the basis of a collective or individual scheduling laid down by the employer after consulting the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees, as far as the collective scheduling is concerned, or after consulting the employee, as far as the individual scheduling is concerned. The scheduling shall be done for the next year until the end of the current calendar year. (2) The collective scheduling may establish leave periods not shorter than 3 months, by categories of personnel or workplaces. (3) The individual scheduling may lay down the date the leave is taken or, as the case

(1) Concediul de odihna se efectueaza in fiecare an. (2) Prin exceptie de la prevederile alin. (1), efectuarea concediului in anul urmator este permisa numai in cazurile expres prevazute de lege sau in cazurile prevazute in contractul colectiv de munca aplicabil. (3) Angajatorul este obligat sa acorde concediu, pana la sfarsitul anului urmator, tuturor salariatilor care intr-un an calendaristic nu au efectuat integral concediul de odihna la care aveau dreptul. (4) Compensarea in bani a concediului de odihna neefectuat este permisa numai in cazul incetarii contractului individual de munca. Art. 142. [concediul de odihn suplimentar] (1) Salariatii care lucreaza in conditii grele, periculoase sau vatamatoare, nevazatorii, alte persoane cu handicap si tinerii in varsta de pana la 18 ani beneficiaza de un concediu de odihna suplimentar de cel putin 3 zile lucratoare. (2) Numrul de zile lucrtoare aferent concediului de odihn suplimentar pentru categoriile de salariai prevzute la alin. (1) se stabilete prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil i va fi de cel puin 3 zile lucrtoare.

Art. 143. [programarea concediului de odihn] (1) Efectuarea concediului de odihna se realizeaza in baza unei programari colective sau individuale stabilite de angajator cu consultarea sindicatului sau, dupa caz, a reprezentantilor salariatilor, pentru programarile colective, ori cu consultarea salariatului, pentru programarile individuale. Programarea se face pana la sfarsitul anului calendaristic pentru anul urmator. (2) Prin programarile colective se pot stabili perioade de concediu care nu pot fi mai mici de 3 luni pe categorii de personal sau locuri de munca. (3) Prin programare individuala se poate stabili data efectuarii concediului sau, dupa caz, perioada in care salariatul are dreptul de a efectua concediul, perioada care nu poate fi mai mare de

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII may be, the period within which the employee has the right to take the leave, period which may not exceed 3 months. (4) Within the periods of leave laid down according to paragraphs (2) and (3), the employee may request the leave at least 60 days before actually taking it. (5) Should the leaves be divided, the employer shall set the scheduling in such way that every employee takes at least 10 working days of uninterrupted leave in one calendar year.

3 luni. (4) In cadrul perioadelor de concediu stabilite conform alin. (2) si (3) salariatul poate solicita efectuarea concediului cu cel putin 60 de zile anterioare efectuarii acestuia. (5) n cazul n care programarea concediilor se face fracionat, angajatorul este obligat s stabileasc programarea astfel nct fiecare salariat s efectueze ntr-un an calendaristic cel puin 10 zile lucrtoare de concediu nentrerupt.

Art. 144. [taking in kind the scheduled Art. 144. [regula efecturii n natur a leave] concediului programat] An employee shall take the leave in kind within the interval it was scheduled, except for the cases expressly provided for in the law or when, for objective reasons, the leave may not be taken. Salariatul este obligat sa efectueze in natura concediul de odihna in perioada in care a fost programat, cu exceptia situatiilor expres prevazute de lege sau atunci cand, din motive obiective, concediul nu poate fi efectuat.

Art. 145. [amount and payment of leave Art. 145. [cuantumul i plata indemnizaiei de benefit] concediu] (1) During the leave, the employee shall receive a leave benefit which may not be lower than the basic pay, the benefits and permanent extra pay due for that period, as provided for in the individual work contract. (2) The leave benefit is the daily average of the wage rights provided for in paragraph (1) in the last three months before the one when the leave is taken, multiplied by the number of days of leave. (3) The leave benefit shall be paid by the employer at least 5 working days before taking the leave. (1) Pentru perioada concediului de odihna salariatul beneficiaza de o indemnizatie de concediu, care nu poate fi mai mica decat salariul de baza, indemnizatiile si sporurile cu caracter permanent cuvenite pentru perioada respectiva, prevazute in contractul individual de munca.* (2) Indemnizatia de concediu de odihna reprezinta media zilnica a drepturilor salariale prevazute la alin. (1) din ultimele 3 luni anterioare celei in care este efectuat concediul, multiplicata cu numarul de zile de concediu.* (3) Indemnizatia de concediu de odihna se plateste de catre angajator cu cel putin 5 zile lucratoare inainte de plecarea in concediu. Art. 146. [interruption and call back Art. 146. [ntreruperea concediului i from leave] rechemarea din concediu] (1) The leave may be interrupted, at the request of the employee, for objective reasons. (2) An employer may call back the employee from leave in case of an act of God or urgent matters that require the presence of the employee at the workplace. In that case, the employer shall bear all expenses of the employee and his/her family, necessary in order to return to the (1) Concediul de odihna poate fi intrerupt, la cererea salariatului, pentru motive obiective. (2) Angajatorul poate rechema salariatul din concediul de odihna in caz de forta majora sau pentru interese urgente care impun prezenta salariatului la locul de munca. In acest caz angajatorul are obligatia de a suporta toate cheltuielile salariatului si ale familiei sale, necesare in vederea revenirii la locul de munca, precum si eventualele prejudicii suferite de acesta

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII workplace, and the possible damage ca urmare a intreruperii concediului de odihna. suffered by him/her following the interruption of the leave.

Art. 147. [paid days off] (1) In case of extraordinary family events, the employees shall have the right to paid days off, not included in the length of the leave. (2) The extraordinary family events and the number of paid days off shall be laid down by law, applicable collective work agreement or rules of procedure. Art. 148. [leave of absence without pay] (1) In order to solve personal issues, the employees shall have the right to leaves of absence without pay. (2) The length of the leave of absence without pay shall be laid down in the collective work agreement or the rules of procedure. SECTION 2 - Vocational training leaves

Art. 147. [zile libere pltite] (1) In cazul unor evenimente familiale deosebite, salariatii au dreptul la zile libere platite, care nu se includ in durata concediului de odihna. (2) Evenimentele familiale deosebite si numarul zilelor libere platite sunt stabilite prin lege, prin contractul colectiv de munca aplicabil sau prin regulamentul intern. Art. 148. [concediul fr plat] (1) Pentru rezolvarea unor situatii personale salariatii au dreptul la concedii fara plata. (2) Durata concediului fara plata se stabileste prin contractul colectiv de munca aplicabil sau prin regulamentul intern.

SECIUNEA a 2-a - Concediile pentru formare profesionala

Art. 149. [types of vocational training Art. 149. [tipuri de concedii pentru formare leaves] profesional] 1) The employees shall have the right to benefit, on request, from vocational training leaves. (2) The vocational training leaves may be paid or without pay. (1) Salariatii au dreptul sa beneficieze, la cerere, de concedii pentru formare profesionala. (2) Concediile pentru formare profesionala se pot acorda cu sau fara plata.

Art. 150. [vocational training leaves Art. 150. [acordarea concediului fr plat] without pay] (1) The vocational training leaves without pay shall be granted at the request of the employee, for the length of the vocational training that the employee attends on his/her own initiative. (2) The employer may reject the employees request only if the absence of the employee will seriousely prejudice the performed activity. (1) Concediile fara plata pentru formare profesionala se acorda la solicitarea salariatului, pe perioada formarii profesionale pe care salariatul o urmeaza din initiativa sa. (2) Angajatorul poate respinge solicitarea salariatului numai dac absena salariatului ar prejudicia grav desfurarea activitii.

Art. 151. [application for and taking the Art. 151. [solicitarea i efectuarea concediului 59

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII vocational training leave]

fr plat] (1) Cererea de concediu fara plata pentru formare profesionala trebuie sa fie inaintata angajatorului cu cel putin o luna inainte de efectuarea acestuia si trebuie sa precizeze data de incepere a stagiului de formare profesionala, domeniul si durata acestuia, precum si denumirea institutiei de formare profesionala. (2) Efectuarea concediului fara plata pentru formare profesionala se poate realiza si fractionat in cursul unui an calendaristic, pentru sustinerea examenelor de absolvire a unor forme de invatamant sau pentru sustinerea examenelor de promovare in anul urmator in cadrul institutiilor de invatamant superior, cu respectarea conditiilor stabilite la alin. (1). Art. 152. [concediul cu plat pentru formare profesional] (1) In cazul in care angajatorul nu si-a respectat obligatia de a asigura pe cheltuiala sa participarea unui salariat la formare profesionala in conditiile prevazute de lege, salariatul are dreptul la un concediu pentru formare profesionala, platit de angajator, de pana la 10 zile lucratoare sau de pana la 80 de ore.* (2) In situatia prevazuta la alin. (1) indemnizatia de concediu va fi stabilita conform art. 145. (3) Perioada in care salariatul beneficiaza de concediul platit prevazut la alin. (1) se stabileste de comun acord cu angajatorul. Cererea de concediu platit pentru formare profesionala va fi inaintata angajatorului in conditiile prevazute la art. 151 alin. (1).

(1) The application for a vocational training leave without pay shall be submitted to the employer at least one month before taking it and shall state the starting date of the period of vocational training, its scope and duration, and the name of the vocational training institution. (2) A vocational training leave without pay may be taken fractionally during a calendar year, in order to take the graduation examinations of certain educational institutions or to take the end-of-year examinations within higher education institutions, in compliance with the conditions laid down in paragraph (1). Art. 152. [paid vocational training leave] (1) Should the employer fail to fulfill its obligation to ensure on its account the participation of an employee to vocational training under the terms of the law, the employee shall be entitled to a vocational training leave, paid by the employer, of up to 10 working days or up to 80 hours. (2) In the case provided for in paragraph (1), the leave benefit shall be laid down according to Article 145. (3) The period of paid leave provided for in paragraph (1) shall be established by mutual agreement with the employer. The request for a paid vocational training leave shall be submitted to the employer under the conditions provided for in Article 151 (1).

Art. 153. [effects as regards non-wage Art. 153. [efectele cu privire la drepturile rights ] nesalariale] The length of the vocational training leave may not be deducted from the length of the annual leave and shall be assimilated to an actual work period as regards the rights due to the employee, other than wages. Durata concediului pentru formare profesionala nu poate fi dedusa din durata concediului de odihna anual si este asimilata unei perioade de munca efectiva in ceea ce priveste drepturile cuvenite salariatului, altele decat salariul.

TITLE IV - Remuneration

TITLUL IV - Salarizarea

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII CHAPTER 1 - General provisions

CAPITOLUL I - Dispozitii generale

Art. 154. [legal definition of wage and Art. 154. [definiia legal a salariului i equal treatment] egalitatea de tratament] (1) A wage is the consideration of the activity performed by the employee under the individual work contract. (2) An employee shall have the right to a wage expressed in money for the activity performed under the individual work contract. (3) When setting and granting the wage, any discrimination based on sex, sexual orientation, genetic characteristics, age, national affiliation, race, color, ethnicity, religion, political option, social origin, disability, family situation or responsibility, trade union affiliation or activity shall be prohibited. Art. 155. [wage components] (1) Salariul reprezinta contraprestatia muncii depuse de salariat in baza contractului individual de munca. (2) Pentru munca prestata in baza contractului individual de munca fiecare salariat are dreptul la un salariu exprimat in bani. (3) La stabilirea si la acordarea salariului este interzisa orice discriminare pe criterii de sex, orientare sexuala, caracteristici genetice, varsta, apartenenta nationala, rasa, culoare, etnie, religie, optiune politica, origine sociala, handicap, situatie sau responsabilitate familiala, apartenenta ori activitate sindicala.

Art. 155. [elementele salariului]

A wage contains the basic pay, the benefits, Salariul cuprinde salariul de baza, indemnizatiile, the extra pay and other supplements. sporurile, precum si alte adaosuri.

Art. 156. [employee privilege]

Art. 156. [privilegiul salariatului]

The wages shall be paid before any other Salariile se platesc inaintea oricaror alte obligatii monetary obligations of the employers. banesti ale angajatorilor. Art. 157. [setting the wages] (1) The minimum wages levels will be established by the applicable collective labour contracts. (2) The individual wage will be established by individual negociations between the employer and the employees. (3) The personnel payroll system in the public authorities and institutions, financed fully or mostly from the state budget, state social security budget, local budgets and special funds budgets shall be established by law, after consulting the representative trade unions Art. 158. [wage confidentiality] Art. 157. [stabilirea salariilor] (1) Nivelurile salariale minime se stabilesc prin contractele colective de munc aplicabile. (2) Salariul individual se stabilete prin negocieri individuale ntre angajator i salariat. (3) Sistemul de salarizare a personalului din autoritile i instituiile publice finanate integral sau n majoritate de la bugetul de stat, bugetul asigurrilor sociale de stat, bugetele locale i bugetele fondurilor speciale se stabilete prin lege, cu consultarea organizaiilor sindicale reprezentative. Art. 158. [confidenialitatea salariului]

(1) The wage shall be confidential, and the (1) Salariul este confidential, angajatorul avand employer shall take the necessary actions in obligatia de a lua masurile necesare pentru order to ensure its confidentiality. asigurarea confidentialitatii. 61

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (2) In order to promote the interests of the employees and to defend their rights, the confidentiality of the wages may not be opposed against the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees, in strict connection with their interest and in their direct relation with the employer. CHAPTER 2 - National minim gross basic pay with guaranteed payment

(2) In scopul promovarii intereselor si apararii drepturilor salariatilor, confidentialitatea salariilor nu poate fi opusa sindicatelor sau, dupa caz, reprezentantilor salariatilor, in stricta legatura cu interesele acestora si in relatia lor directa cu angajatorul.

CAPITOLUL II - Salariul de baza minim brut pe tara garantat in plata*

Art. 159. [establishment and calculation Art. 159. [stabilirea i calcularea salariului de of the national minimum gross basic pay baz minim brut pe ar garantat n plat] with guaranteed payment] (1) The national minimum gross basic pay with guaranteed payment, corresponding to the normal work schedule, shall be established by Government Decision, after consulting the trade unions and employers organizations. If the normal work schedule is, according to the law, below 8 hours a day, the minimum gross hourly basic pay shall be computed by dividing the national minimum gross basic pay to the average number of monthly hours under the approved legal work schedule. (2) An employer may not negotiate and establish basic pays under the individual work contract below the national minimum gross hourly basic pay. (3) An employer shall guarantee the payment of a monthly gross wage at least equal to the national minimum gross basic pay. These provisions shall also apply when the employee is at work, within the schedule, but cannot perform his/her activity for reasons not related to him/her, except for strikes. (4) The national minimum gross basic pay with guaranteed payment shall be notified to the employees through the good offices of the employer. Art. 160. [scope of national minimum gross wage with guaranteed payment] For the employees to whom the employer, according to the collective work agreement or individual work contract, provides food, accommodation or other facilities, the amount in money due for the activity performed may not be lower than the (1) Salariul de baza minim brut pe tara garantat in plata, corespunzator programului normal de munca, se stabileste prin hotarare a Guvernului, dupa consultarea sindicatelor si a patronatelor. In cazul in care programul normal de munca este, potrivit legii, mai mic de 8 ore zilnic, salariul de baza minim brut orar se calculeaza prin raportarea salariului de baza minim brut pe tara la numarul mediu de ore lunar potrivit programului legal de lucru aprobat. (2) Angajatorul nu poate negocia si stabili salarii de baza prin contractul individual de munca sub salariul de baza minim brut orar pe tara. (3) Angajatorul este obligat sa garanteze in plata un salariu brut lunar cel putin egal cu salariul de baza minim brut pe tara. Aceste dispozitii se aplica si in cazul in care salariatul este prezent la lucru, in cadrul programului, dar nu poate sa isi desfasoare activitatea din motive neimputabile acestuia, cu exceptia grevei. (4) Salariul de baza minim brut pe tara garantat in plata este adus la cunostinta salariatilor prin grija angajatorului.

Art. 160. [domeniul salariului de baz minim brut pe ar garantat n plat] Pentru salariatii carora angajatorul, conform contractului colectiv sau individual de munca, le asigura hrana, cazare sau alte facilitati, suma in bani cuvenita pentru munca prestata nu poate fi mai mica decat salariul minim brut pe tara prevazut de lege.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII national minimum gross wage provided for in the law.

CHAPTER 3 - Payment of the wage

CAPITOLUL III - Plata salariului

Art. 161. [date, methods and forms of Art. 161. [data, modalitile i formele plii wage payment] salariului] (1) The wage shall be paid in money at least once a month, at the date laid down in the individual work contract, in the applicable collective work agreement or in the rules of procedure, as the case may be. (2) The wage may be paid by transfer into a bank account. (3) The payment in kind of a part of the wage, under the conditions laid down in Article 160, may only be possible if it has been expressly provided for in the applicable collective work agreement or in the individual work contract. (4) The unjustified delay in paying the wage or its non-payment by the employer may entail the payment of damages in order to cover the prejudice of the employee. Art. 162. [person receiving the payment] (1) The wage shall be paid directly to the employee or to the person appointed by him/her. (2) In case of employee death, the wage rights due until the date of death shall be paid, in order, to the surviving spouse, the adult children of the deceased or his/her parents. If there are no such categories of persons, the wage rights shall be paid to other heirs, under the terms of the ordinary law. Art. 163. [proof] (1) The payment of the wage shall be proven by signing the pay rolls, and by any other documentary evidence proving the payment to the entitled employee. (2) The pay rolls and the other documentary evidence shall be kept and archived by the employer in the same conditions and terms as the accounting documents, according to the law. Art. 164. [wage withholdings] (1) Salariul se plateste in bani cel putin o data pe luna, la data stabilita in contractul individual de munca, in contractul colectiv de munca aplicabil sau in regulamentul intern, dupa caz. (2) Plata salariului se poate efectua prin virament ntr-un cont bancar. (3) Plata in natura a unei parti din salariu, in conditiile stabilite la art. 160, este posibila numai daca este prevazuta expres in contractul colectiv de munca aplicabil sau in contractul individual de munca. (4) Intarzierea nejustificata a platii salariului sau neplata acestuia poate determina obligarea angajatorului la plata de daune-interese pentru repararea prejudiciului produs salariatului. Art. 162. [persoana ctre care se face plata] (1) Salariul se plateste direct titularului sau persoanei imputernicite de acesta. (2) In caz de deces al salariatului, drepturile salariale datorate pana la data decesului sunt platite, in ordine, sotului supravietuitor, copiilor majori ai defunctului sau parintilor acestuia. Daca nu exista nici una dintre aceste categorii de persoane, drepturile salariale sunt platite altor mostenitori, in conditiile dreptului comun.

Art. 163. [probaiunea] (1) Plata salariului se dovedeste prin semnarea statelor de plata, precum si prin orice alte documente justificative care demonstreaza efectuarea platii catre salariatul indreptatit. (2) Statele de plata, precum si celelalte documente justificative se pastreaza si se arhiveaza de catre angajator in aceleasi conditii si termene ca in cazul actelor contabile, conform legii. Art. 164. [reinerile din salariu] 63

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII

(1) No withholding from wage shall be operated outside the cases and conditions provided by law. (2) The withholdings as damages caused to the employer may not be operated unless the debt of the employee is outstanding, ready and due and has been established as such by a final judgment. (3) In case of several employee creditors, the following order shall be observed: a) child support, according to the Family Code; b) contributions and taxes owed to the state; c) damages caused to the public property by illegal acts; d) coverage of other debts. (4) The cumulative monthly withholdings from the wage may not exceed half of the net wage. Art. 165. [meaning of partial payment] The acceptance without reservation of a part of the wage rights or the signature of the payment documents in such situation may not be understood as the employee waiving the full wage rights due, according to the legal or contractual provisions.

(1) Nici o retinere din salariu nu poate fi operata, in afara cazurilor si conditiilor prevazute de lege. (2) Retinerile cu titlu de daune cauzate angajatorului nu pot fi efectuate decat daca datoria salariatului este scadenta, lichida si exigibila si a fost constatata ca atare printr-o hotarare judecatoreasca definitiva si irevocabila. (3) In cazul pluralitatii de creditori ai salariatului va fi respectata urmatoarea ordine: a) obligatiile de intretinere, conform Codului familiei; b) contributiile si impozitele datorate catre stat; c) daunele cauzate proprietatii publice prin fapte ilicite; d) acoperirea altor datorii. (4) Retinerile din salariu cumulate nu pot depasi in fiecare luna jumatate din salariul net. Art. 165. [semnificaia plii pariale] Acceptarea fara rezerve a unei parti din drepturile salariale sau semnarea actelor de plata in astfel de situatii nu poate avea semnificatia unei renuntari din partea salariatului la drepturile salariale ce i se cuvin in integralitatea lor, potrivit dispozitiilor legale sau contractuale.

Art. 166. [wage payment statute of Art. 166. [prescripia aciunii pentru plata limitations] salariului] (1) The right of action as regards the wage rights and the damages caused by the full or partial non-performance of the obligations regarding the payment of the wages shall be lost by statute of limitations within 3 years from the date when those rights were due. (2) The period of limitation provided for in paragraph (1) shall be suspended when the debtor has recognized the wage rights or the rights deriving from the payment of the wage. (1) Dreptul la actiune cu privire la drepturile salariale, precum si cu privire la daunele rezultate din neexecutarea in totalitate sau in parte a obligatiilor privind plata salariilor se prescrie in termen de 3 ani de la data la care drepturile respective erau datorate. (2) Termenul de prescriptie prevazut la alin. (1) este intrerupt in cazul in care intervine o recunoastere din partea debitorului cu privire la drepturile salariale sau derivand din plata salariului.

CHAPTER 4 - The guarantee fund for the payment of the claims to wages Art. 167. [reference to special law]

CAPITOLUL IV - Fondul de garantare pentru plata creantelor salariale Art. 167. [sediul materiei]

The establishment and use of the guarantee Constituirea si utilizarea fondului de garantare fund for the payment of the claims to wages pentru plata creantelor salariale se vor reglementa 64

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII shall be regulated by a special law.

prin lege speciala. Art. 168.Abrogat

Art.168.[repealed] Revoked CHAPTER V - Protection of employee rights in case of transfer of the undertaking, establishment or parts thereof Art. 169. [employee protection] (1) The employees shall enjoy the protection of their rights in case of transfer of the undertaking, establishment or parts thereof to other employer, according to the law. (2) The rights and obligations of the assignor, arising from a work contract or relation existing at the date of the transfer, shall be entirely transferred to the assignee. (3) The transfer of the undertaking, establishment or parts of it may not be a reason of individual dismissal or collective redundancy for the assignor or the assignee.

CAPITOLUL V - Protectia drepturilor salariatilor in cazul transferului intreprinderii, al unitatii sau al unor parti ale acesteia Art. 169. [protecia salariailor] (1) Salariatii beneficiaza de protectia drepturilor lor in cazul in care se produce un transfer al intreprinderii, al unitatii sau al unor parti ale acesteia catre un alt angajator, potrivit legii. (2) Drepturile si obligatiile cedentului, care decurg dintr-un contract sau raport de munca existent la data transferului, vor fi transferate integral cesionarului. (3) Transferul intreprinderii, al unitatii sau al unor parti ale acesteia nu poate constitui motiv de concediere individuala sau colectiva a salariatilor de catre cedent ori de catre cesionar. [informarea i consultarea

Art. 170. [employee notification and Art. 170. consultation] salariailor] The assignor and the assignee shall notify and consult, before the transfer, the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees regarding the legal, economic and social consequences upon the employees of the ownership transfer.

Cedentul si cesionarul au obligatia de a informa si de a consulta, anterior transferului, sindicatul sau, dupa caz, reprezentantii salariatilor cu privire la implicatiile juridice, economice si sociale asupra salariatilor, decurgand din transferul dreptului de proprietate.

TITLE V - Health and safety at work

TITLUL V - Sanatatea si securitatea in munca

CHAPTER 1 - General rules Art. 171. [employer's duties] (1) Revoked. (2) An employer shall ensure the safety and health of the employees in all regards related to work. (3) Should an employer resort to outside persons or services, it shall not be

CAPITOLUL I - Reguli generale Art. 171. [obligaiile angajatorului] (1) Abrogat. (2) Angajatorul are obligatia sa asigure securitatea si sanatatea salariatilor in toate aspectele legate de munca. (3) Daca un angajator apeleaza la persoane sau servicii exterioare, aceasta nu il exonereaza de

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII exonerated from liability in that field. (4) The obligations of the employees in the field of health and safety at work shall be without prejudice to the liability of the employer. (5) The measures regarding the health and safety at work may never generate financial obligations for the employees.

raspundere in acest domeniu. (4) Obligatiile salariatilor in domeniul securitatii si sanatatii in munca nu pot aduce atingere responsabilitatii angajatorului. (5) Masurile privind securitatea si sanatatea in munca nu pot sa determine, in nici un caz, obligatii financiare pentru salariati. Art. 172. [reglementri speciale] (1) Dispozitiile prezentului titlu se completeaza cu dispozitiile legii speciale, ale contractelor colective de munca aplicabile, precum si cu normele si normativele de protectie a muncii. (2) Normele si normativele de protectie a muncii pot stabili: a) masuri generale de protectie a muncii pentru prevenirea accidentelor de munca si a bolilor profesionale, aplicabile tuturor angajatorilor; b) masuri de protectie a muncii, specifice pentru anumite profesii sau anumite activitati; c) masuri de protectie specifice, aplicabile anumitor categorii de personal; d) dispozitii referitoare la organizarea si functionarea unor organisme speciale de asigurare a securitatii si sanatatii in munca.

Art. 172. [special regulations] (1) The provisions of this title shall be supplemented with the provisions of special laws, applicable collective work agreements, and health and safety norms and standards. (2) The health and safety norms and standards may lay down: a) general health and safety measures for the prevention of the accidents at work and occupational diseases, applicable to all employers; b) work safety precautions, specific for certain professions or activities; c) specific safety precautions, applicable to certain categories of personnel; d) provisions regarding the organization and operation of special health and safety at work insurance bodies. Art. 173. [measures and principles] (1) Within the scope of its responsibilities, the employer shall take the necessary actions to protect the safety and health of the employees, including the prevention of occupational hazards, information and training measures, and measures for the organization of the health and safety at work and its necessary facilities. (2) The following general prevention principles shall be taken into account at the adoption and implementation of the measures provided for in paragraph (1): a) risk avoidance; b) assessment of unavoidable risks; c) fighting the risks at the source; d) customization of the activity to the person, in particular as regards the design of the workplace and the choice of equipment and work and production methods, in order to reduce in particular the monotonous and

Art. 173. [msuri i principii] (1) In cadrul propriilor responsabilitati angajatorul va lua masurile necesare pentru protejarea securitatii si sanatatii salariatilor, inclusiv pentru activitatile de prevenire a riscurilor profesionale, de informare si pregatire, precum si pentru punerea in aplicare a organizarii protectiei muncii si mijloacelor necesare acesteia. (2) La adoptarea si punerea in aplicare a masurilor prevazute la alin. (1) se va tine seama de urmatoarele principii generale de prevenire: a) evitarea riscurilor; b) evaluarea riscurilor care nu pot fi evitate; c) combaterea riscurilor la sursa; d) adaptarea muncii la om, in special in ceea ce priveste proiectarea locurilor de munca si alegerea echipamentelor si metodelor de munca si de productie, in vederea atenuarii, cu precadere, a muncii monotone si a muncii repetitive, precum si a reducerii efectelor acestora asupra sanatatii; e) luarea in considerare a evolutiei tehnicii;

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII repetitive work, and its effects on health; e) accounting for technical development; f) replacing what is dangerous with what is not dangerous or less dangerous; g) prevention planning; h) adoption of collective safety precautions before individual safety precautions; i) employee notification of the appropriate instructions.

f) inlocuirea a ceea ce este periculos cu ceea ce nu este periculos sau cu ceea ce este mai putin periculos; g) planificarea prevenirii; h) adoptarea masurilor de protectie colectiva cu prioritate fata de masurile de protectie individuala; i) aducerea la cunostinta salariatilor a instructiunilor corespunzatoare.

Art. 174. [organization of health and Art. 174. [organizarea de ctre angajator a safety at work by the employer] activitii de asigurare a sntii i securitii n munc] (1) An employer shall be liable for the organization of the activity ensuring the (1) Angajatorul raspunde de organizarea health and safety at work. activitatii de asigurare a sanatatii si securitatii in (2) The rules of procedure shall contain munca. rules regarding the health and safety at (2) In cuprinsul regulamentelor interne sunt work. prevazute in mod obligatoriu reguli privind (3) When preparing health and safety securitatea si sanatatea in munca. measures, the employer shall consult the (3) In elaborarea masurilor de securitate si trade union or, as the case may be, the sanatate in munca angajatorul se consulta cu representatives of the employees, and the sindicatul sau, dupa caz, cu reprezentantii health and safety committee. salariatilor, precum si cu comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca. Art. 175. [employee accident and health Art. 175. [asigurarea salariailor pentru insurance] accidente de munc i boli profesionale] An employer shall insure all employees Angajatorul are obligatia sa asigure toti salariatii against occupational accidents and disease pentru risc de accidente de munca si boli risks, under the terms of the law. profesionale, in conditiile legii. Art. 176. [mandatory employee training] Art. 176. [obligativitatea instruirii salariailor] (1) Angajatorul are obligatia sa organizeze instruirea angajatilor sai in domeniul securitatii si sanatatii in munca. (2) Instruirea se realizeaza periodic, prin modalitati specifice stabilite de comun acord de catre angajator, impreuna cu comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca si cu sindicatul sau, dupa caz, cu reprezentantii salariatilor. (3) Instruirea prevazuta la alin. (2) se realizeaza obligatoriu in cazul noilor angajati, al celor care isi schimba locul de munca sau felul muncii si al celor care isi reiau activitatea dupa o intrerupere mai mare de 6 luni. In toate aceste cazuri instruirea se efectueaza inainte de inceperea efectiva a activitatii. (4) Instruirea este obligatorie si in situatia in care intervin modificari ale legislatiei in domeniu.

(1) An employer shall organize the employee training in the field of health and safety at work. (2) The training shall be performed periodically, in specific ways laid down by the employer together with the health and safety committee and the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees. (3) The training provided for in paragraph (2) shall be provided to new employees, those changing the workplace or type of work and those resuming their activity after a break longer than 6 months. In all these cases, the training shall be done before the actual start of the activity.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (4) The training shall also be mandatory when the underlying legislation has been amended.

CHAPTER committee

CAPITOLUL II - Comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca Art. 177. [guarantee of employee health Art. 177. [garantarea securitii i sntii and safety] salariailor] (1) The workplaces shall be organized so as to guarantee the safety and health of the employees. (2) The employer shall organize the permanent control of the state of materials, machines and substances used in the work process, in order to ensure the employee health and safety. (3) The employer shall be responsible for the facilities related to the provision of first aid in case of occupational accidents, the fire prevention, and the evacuation of the employees in special situations and imminent danger. Art. 178. [health and safety inspection] (1) Locurile de munca trebuie sa fie organizate astfel incat sa garanteze securitatea si sanatatea salariatilor. (2) Angajatorul trebuie sa organizeze controlul permanent al starii materialelor, utilajelor si substantelor folosite in procesul muncii, in scopul asigurarii sanatatii si securitatii salariatilor. (3) Angajatorul raspunde pentru asigurarea conditiilor de acordare a primului ajutor in caz de accidente de munca, pentru crearea conditiilor de preintampinare a incendiilor, precum si pentru evacuarea salariatilor in situatii speciale si in caz de pericol iminent. Art. 178. [controlui securitii i sntii n munc] (1) Pentru asigurarea securitatii si sanatatii in munca institutia abilitata prin lege poate dispune limitarea sau interzicerea fabricarii, comercializarii, importului ori utilizarii cu orice titlu a substantelor si preparatelor periculoase pentru salariati. (2) Inspectorul de munca poate, cu avizul medicului de medicina a muncii, sa impuna angajatorului sa solicite organismelor competente, contra cost, analize si expertize asupra unor produse, substante sau preparate considerate a fi periculoase, pentru a cunoaste compozitia acestora si efectele pe care le-ar putea produce asupra organismului uman. Art. 179. [constituire] (1) La nivelul fiecarui angajator se constituie un comitet de securitate si sanatate in munca, cu scopul de a asigura implicarea salariatilor la elaborarea si aplicarea deciziilor in domeniul protectiei muncii. (2) Comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca se constituie in cadrul persoanelor juridice din 68

Health

and

safety

(1) To ensure the safety and health at work, the institution established by law may restraint or prohibit the manufacture, marketing, import or use of any kind of the substances and preparations dangerous for the employees. (2) A labor inspector may, after the opinion of the occupational medicine physician, require the employer to ask the competent bodies, against payment, for analyses and expertise on products, substances and preparations deemed to be dangerous, in order to establish their composition and effects they might have on the human body. Art. 179. [establishment] (1) A health and safety committee shall be established at the level of each employer, in order to ensure the involvement of the employees in the preparation and implementation of the decisions in the field of health and safety. (2) The health and safety committee shall be

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII established within the public, private and sectorul public, privat si cooperatist, inclusiv cu co-operative legal persons, including capital strain, care desfasoara activitati pe foreign-owned legal persons, performing teritoriul Romaniei. activities on Romanian territory.

Art. 180. [mandatory establishment]

Art. 180. [obligativitatea constituirii]

(1) The health and safety committee shall be (1) Comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca se organized by legal persons with at least 50 organizeaza la angajatorii persoane juridice la employees. care sunt incadrati cel putin 50 de salariati. (2) In cazul in care conditiile de munca sunt grele, (2) Should the working conditions be vatamatoare sau periculoase, inspectorul de difficult, unhealthy or dangerous, the labor munca poate cere infiintarea acestor comitete si inspector may request the establishment of pentru angajatorii la care sunt incadrati mai putin these committees also for the employers de 50 de salariati. with less than 50 employees. (3) In cazul in care activitatea se desfasoara in (3) If the activity is carried out in unitati dispersate teritorial, se pot infiinta mai territorially dispersed units, several health multe comitete de securitate si sanatate in munca. and safety committees may be established. Numarul acestora se stabileste prin contractul Their number shall be laid down in the colectiv de munca aplicabil. applicable collective work agreement. (4) Comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca (4) The health and safety committee shall coordoneaza masurile de securitate si sanatate in coordinate the health and safety measures munca si in cazul activitatilor care se desfasoara also in the case of the temporary activities temporar, cu o durata mai mare de 3 luni. exceeding 3 months. (5) In situatia in care nu se impune constituirea (5) If the establishment of the health and comitetului de securitate si sanatate in munca, safety committee is not required, its specific atributiile specifice ale acestuia vor fi indeplinite assignments shall be taken over by the de responsabilul cu protectia muncii numit de health and safety manager, to be appointed angajator. by the employer. Art. 181. [health and safety committee Art. 181. [reglementarea comitetului regulation] securitate si sntate n munc] de

The composition, specific assignments, and Componenta, atributiile specifice si functionarea operation of the health and safety committee comitetului de securitate si sanatate in munca sunt shall be regulated by Order of the Minister reglementate prin hotarare a Guvernului. of Work and Social Solidarity.

CHAPTER 3 - Employee protection through medical services Art. 182. [mandatory medicine department]

CAPITOLUL III - Protectia salariatilor prin servicii medicale

occupational Art. 182. [obligativitatea serviciului medical de medicin a muncii]

The employers shall ensure the access of the Angajatorii au obligatia sa asigure accesul employees to the occupational medicine salariatilor la serviciul medical de medicina a department. muncii.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 183. [organization of the Art. 183. [organizarea serviciului de medicin occupational medicine department ] a muncii]

(1) The occupational medicine department may be an autonomous department organized by an employer or a service provided by an employers organization. (2) The duration of the activity performed by the occupational health physician shall be calculated according to the number of employees of the employer, according to the law. Art. 184. [occupational medicine physician] (1) An occupational medicine physician shall be an employee, certified in his profession according to the law, holder of a work contract concluded with an employer or an employers organization. (2) An occupational medicine physician shall be independent in exercising his/her profession. Art. 185. [tasks of the occupational medicine physician] (1) The main tasks of the occupational medicine physician shall be: a) prevention of accidents at work and occupational diseases; b) effective supervision of the occupational health conditions; c) ensuring the medical examination of the employees both at employment and during the course of the individual work contract. (2) To fulfill his/her duties, the occupational medicine physician may propose the employer to change the workplace or type of work of certain employees, according to their health status. (3) An occupational health physician shall be an ex-officio member of the health and safety committee. Art. 186. [better working environment] (1) Each year the occupational medicine physician shall prepare each employer a program for a better working environment as regards the occupational health. (2) The elements of the program shall be specific for each employer and shall be

(1) Serviciul medical de medicina a muncii poate fi un serviciu autonom organizat de angajator sau un serviciu asigurat de o asociatie patronala. (2) Durata muncii prestate de medicul de medicina a muncii se calculeaza in functie de numarul de salariati ai angajatorului, potrivit legii.

Art. 184. [medicul de medicin a muncii] (1) Medicul de medicina a muncii este un salariat, atestat in profesia sa potrivit legii, titular al unui contract de munca incheiat cu un angajator sau cu o asociatie patronala. (2) Medicul de medicina a muncii este independent in exercitarea profesiei sale. Art. 185. [atribuiile medicului de medicin a muncii] (1) Sarcinile principale ale medicului de medicina a muncii constau in: a) prevenirea accidentelor de munca si a bolilor profesionale; b) supravegherea efectiva a conditiilor de igiena si sanatate in munca; c) asigurarea controlului medical al salariatilor atat la angajarea in munca, cat si pe durata executarii contractului individual de munca. (2) In vederea realizarii sarcinilor ce ii revin medicul de medicina a muncii poate propune angajatorului schimbarea locului de munca sau a felului muncii unor salariati, determinata de starea de sanatate a acestora. (3) Medicul de medicina a muncii este membru de drept in comitetul de securitate si sanatate in munca. Art. 186. [mbuntirea mediului de munc] (1) Medicul de medicina a muncii stabileste in fiecare an un program de activitate pentru imbunatatirea mediului de munca din punct de vedere al sanatatii in munca pentru fiecare angajator. (2) Elementele programului sunt specifice pentru

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII subject to the opinion of the health and fiecare angajator si sunt supuse avizarii safety committee. comitetului de securitate si sanatate in munca.

Art. 187. [reference to occupational Art. 187. [sediul materiei pentru serviciile de health department regulations] medicin a muncii] A special law shall regulate the specific assignments, the organization of the activity, the inspection bodies and the specific professional status of the occupational health physicians. TITLE VI - Vocational training Prin lege speciala vor fi reglementate atributiile specifice, modul de organizare a activitatii, organismele de control, precum si statutul profesional specific al medicilor de medicina a muncii. TITLUL VI - Formarea profesional CAPITOLUL 1 - Dispoziii generale Art. 188. [obiectivele formrii profesionale] (1) Formarea profesional a salariailor are urmtoarele obiective principale: a) adaptarea salariatului la cerinele postului sau ale locului de munc; b) obinerea unei calificri profesionale; c) actualizarea cunotinelor i deprinderilor specifice postului i locului de munc i perfecionarea pregtirii profesionale pentru ocupaia de baz; d) reconversia profesional determinat de restructurri socioeconomice; e)dobndirea unor cunotine avansate, a unor metode i procedee moderne, necesare pentru realizarea activitilor profesionale; f) prevenirea riscului omajului; g) promovarea n munc i dezvoltarea carierei profesionale. (2)Formarea profesional i evaluarea cunotinelor se fac pe baza standardelor ocupaionale. Art. 189. [tipologia formrii profesionale] Formarea profesional a salariailor se poate realiza prin urmtoarele forme: a) participarea la cursuri organizate de ctre angajator sau de ctre furnizorii de servicii de formare profesional din ar sau din strintate; b) stagii de adaptare profesional la cerinele postului i ale locului de munc; c) stagii de practic i specializare n ar i n strintate; d) ucenicie organizat la locul de munc; 71

CHAPTER 1 - General provisions Art. 188. [vocational training objectives] (1) The vocational training of the employees shall have the following main objectives: a) accommodating the employee to the requirements of the job or workplace; b) acquiring a professional qualification; c) updating the knowledge and skills specific to the job and workplace and improvement of the vocational training for the basic occupation; d) professional redeployment determined by social and economic restructuring; e) acquiring advanced knowledge, modern methods and procedures, necessary for the professional activities; f) unemployment risk prevention; g) promotion and career development. (2) The vocational training and knowledge assessment shall be based on occupational standards.

Art. 189. [types of vocational training] The vocational training of the employees may be achieved through the following forms: a) attendance to courses organized by the employer or vocational training service providers in Romania or abroad; b) internships for vocational adjustment to the requirements of the job and workplace; c) internships for practical training and specialization in Romania and abroad;

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII d) on-the-job apprenticeship; e) formare individualizat; e) individualized training; f) alte forme de pregtire convenite ntre angajator f) other forms of training agreed upon i salariat. between the employer and the employee.

Art. 190. [mandatory vocational training Art. 190. [obligativitatea programelor de programs ] formare profesional] (1) An employer shall ensure the participation of all employees to vocational training, as follows: a) at least once every 2 years, if it has at least 21 employees; b) at least once every 3 years, if it has less than 21 employees. (2) The expenses related to the vocational training, provided under the terms in paragraph (1), shall be borne by the employers. Art. 191. [vocational training plan] (1) An employer that is a legal person with more than 20 employees shall develop and apply annual vocational training plans, after consulting the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees. (2) The vocational training plan prepared according to the provisions in paragraph (1) shall be annexed to the collective work agreement concluded at organization level. (3) The employees shall have the right to be notified of the content of the vocational training plan. Art. 192. [repealed] repealed Art. 193. [regulation training] (1) Angajatorii au obligaia de a asigura participarea la programe de formare profesional pentru toi salariaii, dup cum urmeaz: a) cel puin o dat la 2 ani, dac au cel puin 21 de salariai; b) cel puin o dat la 3 ani, dac au sub 21 de salariai. (2) Cheltuielile cu participarea la programele de formare profesional, asigurat n condiiile alin. (1), se suport de ctre angajatori. Art. 191. [planul de formare profesional] (1) Angajatorul persoan juridic care are mai mult de 20 de salariai elaboreaz anual i aplic planuri de formare profesional, cu consultarea sindicatului sau, dup caz, a reprezentanilor salariailor. (2) Planul de formare profesional elaborat conform prevederilor alin. (1) devine anex la contractul colectiv de munc ncheiat la nivel de unitate. (3) Salariaii au dreptul s fie informai cu privire la coninutul planului de formare profesional.

Art. 192. [abrogat] of vocational Art. 193. [reglementarea activitii de formare profesional] (1) Participarea la formare profesional poate avea loc la iniiativa angajatorului sau la iniiativa salariatului. (2)Modalitatea concret de formare profesional, drepturile i obligaiile prilor, durata formrii profesionale, precum i orice alte aspecte legate de formarea profesional, inclusiv obligaiile contractuale ale salariatului n raport cu angajatorul care a suportat cheltuielile ocazionate de formarea profesional, se stabilesc prin acordul prilor i fac obiectul unor acte adiionale la 72

(1) The participation to the vocational training may take place on either employers or employees initiative. (2) The actual vocational training method, the rights and obligations of the parties, the length of the vocational training, and any other issues related to the vocational training, including the contractual obligations of the employee in relation to the employer bearing the vocational training expenses shall be agreed upon by the parties

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII and shall be the included in addenda to the contractele individuale de munc. individual work contracts.

Art. 194. [vocational training expenses and employee rights] (1) If the participation to the vocational training courses or internships has been initiated by the employer, all expenses generated by such participation shall be borne by it. (2) During the participation to the vocational training courses or internships in accordance with the paragraph (1), the employee will benefit for all his/her rights with respect to the wage. (3) During the participation to the vocational training courses or internships, in accordance with paragraph (1), the employee shall enjoy length of employment at that workplace, and that period shall be considered period of contribution to the public social security system. Art. 195. [obligations training beneficiaries] of

Art. 194. [cheltuielile cu formarea profesional i drepturile salariatului] (1) n cazul n care participarea la cursurile sau stagiile de formare profesional este iniiat de angajator, toate cheltuielile ocazionate de aceast participare sunt suportate de ctre acesta. (2) Pe perioada participrii la cursurile sau stagiile de formare profesional conform alin. (1) salariatul va beneficia pe toat durata formrii profesionale de toate drepturile salariale deinute. (3) Pe perioada participrii la cursurile sau stagiile de formare profesional, conform alin. (1) salariatul beneficiaz de vechime la acel loc de munc, aceast perioad fiind considerat stagiu de cotizare n sistemul asigurrilor sociale de stat.

vocational Art. 195. [obligaiile beneficiarilor formrii profesionale] (1) Salariaii care au beneficiat de un curs sau un stagiu de formare profesional, n condiiile art. 194 alin.(1), nu pot avea iniiativa ncetrii contractului individual de munc pentru o perioad stabilit prin act adiional. (2) Durata obligaiei salariatului de a presta munc n favoarea angajatorului care a suportat cheltuielile ocazionate de formarea profesional, precum i orice alte aspecte n legtur cu obligaiile salariatului, ulterioare formrii profesionale, se stabilesc prin act adiional la contractul individual de munc. (3) Nerespectarea de ctre salariat a dispoziiei prevzute la alin. (1) determin obligarea acestuia la suportarea tuturor cheltuielilor ocazionate de pregtirea sa profesional, proporional cu perioada nelucrat din perioada stabilit conform actului adiional la contractul individual de munc. (4) Obligaia prevzut la alin. (3) revine i salariailor care au fost concediai n perioada stabilit prin actul adiional, pentru motive disciplinare, sau al cror contract individual de munc a ncetat ca urmare a arestrii preventive pentru o perioad mai mare de 60 de zile, a condamnrii printr-o hotrre judectoreasc

(1) The employees having enjoyed a vocational training course or an internship under the conditions of Article 194 paragraph (1), may not initiate the termination of the individual labour contract for a period established by an addendum to the individual labour contract. (2) The duration of the obligation of the employee to perform activities for the employer having borne the expenses generated by the vocational training, as well as any other issues related to the obligations of the employee, following the vocational training, shall be laid down in an addendum to the individual work contract. (3) An employee not complying with the provision of paragraph (1) shall bear all expenses related to his/her vocational training, in proportion to the time not worked during the period laid down according to the addendum to the individual work contract. (4) The obligation provided for in paragraph (3) shall also apply to employees dismissed within the period laid down in the addendum, on disciplinary reasons, or

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII whose individual work contract ceased as they were taken into preventive custody for more than 60 days, after the final judicial conviction for a criminal offence related to their work, or when a criminal court temporarily or permanently prohibited the exercise of the profession.

definitiv pentru o infraciune n legtur cu munca lor, precum i n cazul n care instana penal a pronunat interdicia de exercitare a profesiei, temporar sau definitiv.

Art. 196. [vocational employee's initiative]

training

on Art. 196. [pregtirea profesional din iniiativa salariatului] (1) n cazul n care salariatul este cel care are iniiativa participrii la o form de pregtire profesional cu scoatere din activitate, angajatorul va analiza solicitarea salariatului, mpreun cu sindicatul sau, dup caz, cu reprezentanii salariailor. (2) Angajatorul va decide cu privire la cererea formulat de salariat potrivit alin. (1), n termen de 15 zile de la primirea solicitrii. Totodat angajatorul va decide cu privire la condiiile n care va permite salariatului participarea la forma de pregtire profesional, inclusiv dac va suporta n totalitate sau n parte costul ocazionat de aceasta.

(1) If the employee initiates the participation to a vocational training form involving the removal from the field, the employer shall analyze the request of the employee, together with the trade union or, as the case may be, the representatives of the employees. (2) The employer shall decide as regards the request of the employee under paragraph (1) within 15 days from its submission. Meanwhile, the employer shall decide on the employee participation to the vocational training form, choosing whether to fully or partially bear the costs.

Art. 197. [benefits in kind for vocational Art. 197. [avantaje n natur pentru formarea training] profesional] The employees having concluded an addendum to the individual work contract regarding the vocational training may receive, besides the wage corresponding to the workplace, other benefits in kind for vocational training. Salariaii care au ncheiat un act adiional la contractul individual de munc cu privire la formarea profesional pot primi n afara salariului corespunztor locului de munc i alte avantaje n natur pentru formarea profesional.

CHAPTER 2 - Special contracts of vocational training organized by the employer

CAPITOLUL 2 - Contracte speciale de formare profesional organizat de angajator

Art. 198. [types of vocational training Art. 198. [tipuri de contracte de formare contracts] profesionala] The vocational qualification contract and Sunt considerate contracte speciale de formare the vocational adjustment contract shall be profesional contractul de calificare profesional considered special vocational training i contractul de adaptare profesional. contracts.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 199. [legal definition and length of Art. 199. [definiia legal i durata contractului the vocational qualification contract] de calificare profesional]

(1) A vocational qualification contract is the contract under which the employee undertakes to attend the training courses organized by the employer to acquire a professional qualification. (2) A vocational qualification contracts may be concluded by employees at least 16 years old, without qualification or with a qualification not allowing them to keep their job with that employer. (3) A vocational qualification contract shall be concluded for a length between 6 months and 2 years. Art. 200. authorization] [vocational

(1) Contractul de calificare profesional este cel n baza cruia salariatul se oblig s urmeze cursurile de formare organizate de angajator pentru dobndirea unei calificri profesionale. (2) Pot ncheia contracte de calificare profesional salariaii cu vrsta minim de 16 ani mplinii, care nu au dobndit o calificare sau au dobndit o calificare ce nu le permite meninerea locului de munc la acel angajator. (3) Contractul de calificare profesional se ncheie pentru o durat cuprins ntre 6 luni i 2 .

training Art. 200. [autorizarea calificrii profesionale] (1) Pot ncheia contracte de calificare profesional numai angajatorii autorizai n acest sens de Ministerul Muncii i Solidaritii Sociale i de Ministerul Educaiei i Cercetrii. (2) Procedura de autorizare, precum i modul de atestare a calificrii profesionale se stabilesc prin lege special.

(1) Only the employers authorized for this purpose by the Ministry of Labor and Social Solidarity and the Ministry of Education and Research may conclude vocational qualification contracts. (2) The authorization procedure and the method to certify the vocational qualification shall be laid down in a special law. Art. 201. [legal definition of vocational adjustment contract]

the Art. 201. [definiia legal a contractului de adaptare profesional] (1) Contractul de adaptare profesional se ncheie n vederea adaptrii salariailor debutani la o funcie nou, la un loc de munc nou sau n cadrul unui colectiv nou. (2) Contractul de adaptare profesional se ncheie o dat cu ncheierea contractului individual de munc sau, dup caz, la debutul salariatului n funcia nou, la locul de munc nou sau n colectivul nou, n condiiile legii.

(1) A vocational adjustment contract shall be concluded in order to adapt the new employees to a new position, a new workplace or a new team. (2) A vocational adjustment contract shall be concluded together with the individual work contract or, as the case may be, when the employee enters a new position, a new workplace or a new team, under the terms of the law.

Art. 202. [length of the vocational Art. 202. [durata contractului de adaptare adjustment contract] profesional] (1) A vocational adjustment contract is a contract of limited duration, which may not exceed one year. (2) At the end of the vocational adjustment contract, the employee may be subject to an (1) Contractul de adaptare profesional este un contract ncheiat pe durat determinat, ce nu poate fi mai mare de un an. (2) La expirarea termenului contractului de adaptare profesional salariatul poate fi supus

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII assessment regarding his/her ability to unei evaluri n vederea stabilirii msurii n care handle the new position, the new workplace acesta poate face fa funciei noi, locului de or the new team where he/she would work. munc nou sau colectivului nou n care urmeaz s presteze munca.

Art. 203. [trainer definition] (1) The vocational training at employer level under special contracts shall be performed by a trainer. (2) The trainer shall be appointed by the employer, chosen among the skilled employees, with a professional experience of at least 2 years in the field chosen for the vocational training. (3) A trainer may provide the simultaneous training of maximum 3 employees. (4) The activity of vocational training shall be included in the normal work schedule of the trainer. Art. 204. [trainer tasks ] (1) The trainer shall accept for training, help, inform and guide the employee during the special vocational training contract and supervise the accomplishment of the tasks corresponding to the position of the trainee. (2) The trainer shall provide the cooperation with other training bodies and shall participate to the assessment of the employee enjoying the vocational training.

Art. 203. [noiunea de formator] (1) Formarea profesional la nivelul angajatorului prin intermediul contractelor speciale se face de ctre un formator. (2) Formatorul este numit de angajator dintre salariaii calificai, cu o experien profesional de cel puin 2 ani n domeniul n care urmeaz s se realizeze formarea profesional. (3) Un formator poate asigura formarea, n acelai timp, pentru cel mult 3 salariai. (4) Exercitarea activitii de formare profesional se include n programul normal de lucru al formatorului. Art. 204. [atribuiile formatorului] (1) Formatorul are obligaia de a primi, de a ajuta, de a informa i de a ndruma salariatul pe durata contractului special de formare profesional i de a supraveghea ndeplinirea atribuiilor de serviciu corespunztoare postului ocupat de salariatul n formare. (2) Formatorul asigur cooperarea cu alte organisme de formare i particip la evaluarea salariatului care a beneficiat de formare profesional.

CHAPTER 3 - The apprenticeship contract

on-the-job

CAPITOLUL 3 - Contractul de ucenicie la locul de munc Art. 205. [definiia legal i durata] (1) Ucenicia la locul de munc se organizeaz n baza contractului de ucenicie. (2) Contractul de ucenicie la locul de munc este contractul individual de munc de tip particular, n temeiul cruia: a) angajatorul persoan juridic sau persoan fizic se oblig ca, n afara plii unui salariu, s asigure formarea profesional a ucenicului ntr-o meserie potrivit domeniului su de activitate; b) ucenicul se oblig s se formeze profesional i s munceasc n subordinea angajatorului respectiv. 76

Art. 205. [legal definition and length] (1) The on-the-job apprenticeship shall be organized on the basis of an apprenticeship contract. (2) An on-the-job apprenticeship contract is a special individual work contract, under which: a) the employer a legal person or a natural person - shall, besides paying a wage, ensure the apprentice the vocational training in a certain trade connected to its field; b) the apprentice shall participate to vocational training activities and work

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII under the supervision of the employer (3) Contractul de ucenicie la locul de munc se concerned. ncheie pe durat determinat. (3) An on-the-job apprenticeship contract shall be of limited duration.

Art. 206. Revoked Art. 207. [equal treatment] (1) A person employed under an apprenticeship contract shall have an apprentice status. (2) An apprentice shall enjoy the provisions applicable to all other employees, as far as they are not contrary to those specific to his/her status. Art. 208. Revoked Art. 209. Revoked Art. 210. Revoked Art. 211. Revoked Art. 212. Revoked

Art. 206. Abrogat Art. 207. [egalitatea de tratament] (1) Persoana ncadrat n munc n baza unui contract de ucenicie are statut de ucenic. (2) Ucenicul beneficiaz de dispoziiile aplicabile celorlali salariai, n msura n care ele nu sunt contrare celor specifice statutului su.

Art. 208. Abrogat Art.209. Abrogat Art.210. Abrogat Art.211. Abrogat Art.212. Abrogat

Art. 213. [reference to special law Art. 213. [sediul materiei pentru activitatea de regulating apprenticeship] ucenicie] The organization, performance and control Organizarea, desfurarea i controlul activitii of the apprenticeship activity shall be de ucenicie se reglementeaz prin lege special. regulated by a special law.

TITLE VII - Social dialogue

TITLUL VII - Dialogul social CAPITOLUL 1 - Dispoziii generale Art. 214. [scopul dialogului social]

CHAPTER 1 - General provisions Art. 214. [purpose of social dialogue]

In order to ensure a climate of stability and Pentru asigurarea climatului de stabilitate i pace social peace, the law shall regulate the social, prin lege sunt reglementate modalitile methods of consultation and permanent de consultri i dialog permanent ntre partenerii

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII dialogue between the social partners.

sociali.

Art. 215. [economic and social council] (1)The Economic and Social Council shall be a national interest, tripartite, autonomous public institution established for the accomplishment of the tripartite dialogue at national level. (2)The organization and the operation of the Economic and Social Council shall be established by a specific law. Art. 216. [social dialogue committees ] Committees of social dialogue, having a consultative character, shall be established within ministries and prefectures, under the terms of the law, involving the public administration, the trade unions and employers organizations. CHAPTER 2 - Trade unions

Art. 215. [Consiliul Economic i Social] (1) Consiliul Economic i Social este instituie public de interes naional, tripartit, autonom, constituit n scopul realizrii dialogului tripartit la nivel naional. (2) Organizarea i funcionarea Consiliului Economic i Social se stabilete prin lege special.

Art. 216. [Comisiile de dialog social] n cadrul ministerelor i prefecturilor funcioneaz, n condiiile legii, comisii de dialog social, cu caracter consultativ, ntre administraia public, sindicate i patronat.

CAPITOLUL 2 - Sindicatele

Art. 217. [legal definition and reference Art. 217. [definiia legal i sediul materiei] to special law] (1) The trade unions, the federations and the trade union confederations, named hereinafter trade union organizations, are created by the employees based on the right of free association in order to promote their professional, economic and social interests and also in order to defend their individual and collective rights provided by the collective and individual labour contracts or by the collective labour accords and the working relations and also provided by the national legislation, national pacts, international treaty and conventions to which Romania is part. (2) The trade unions formation, organization and functioning will be regulated by law. Art. 218. [competence] The trade unions shall participate with their own representatives, under the terms of the law, to the negotiation and conclusion of the collective work agreements, to negotiations or agreements with the public authorities (1) Sindicatele, federaiile i confederaiile sindicale, denumite n continuare organizaii sindicale, sunt constituite de ctre salariai pe baza dreptului de liber asociere n scopul promovarii intereselor lor profesionale, economice si sociale precum si a apararii drepturilor individuale si collective ale acestora prevzute n contractele colective i individuale de munc sau n acordurile colective de munc i raporturile de serviciu, precum i n legislaia naional, n pactele, tratatele i conveniile internaionale la care Romnia este parte. (2) Constituirea, organizarea i funcionarea sindicatelor se reglementeaz prin lege .

Art. 218. [competenele] Sindicatele particip prin reprezentanii proprii, n condiiile legii, la negocierea i ncheierea contractelor colective de munc, la tratative sau acorduri cu autoritile publice i cu patronatele, precum i n structurile specifice dialogului social. 78

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII and employers organizations, and to the structures specific to the social dialogue.

Art. 219. [freedom of association]

Art. 219. [libertatea de asociere]

The trade unions may freely associate, Sindicatele se pot asocia n mod liber, n under the terms of the law, in federations, condiiile legii, n federaii, confederaii sau confederations or territorial alliances. uniuni teritoriale. Art. 220. [right to unionization] The exercise of the employee right to unionization shall be recognized at the level of all employers, in compliance with the rights and liberties guaranteed in the Constitution and according to the provisions of this code and special laws. Art. 220. [libertatea sindical] Exerciiul dreptului sindical al salariailor este recunoscut la nivelul tuturor angajatorilor, cu respectarea drepturilor i libertilor garantate prin Constituie i n conformitate cu dispoziiile prezentului cod i ale legilor speciale.

Art. 221. [prohibition of restrictions on Art. 221. [interzicerea ngrdirii libertii the right to unionization] sindicale] (1) Any intervention of the public authorities, likely to abridge the right to unionization or hinder its legal exercise, shall be forbidden. (2) Any encroachment of the employers or employers organizations, directly or through their representatives or members, on the establishment of the trade unions or exercise of their rights, shall also be forbidden. (1) Este interzis orice intervenie a autoritilor publice de natur a limita drepturile sindicale sau a le mpiedica exercitarea lor legal. (2) Este interzis, de asemenea, orice act de ingerin al patronilor sau al organizaiilor patronale, fie direct, fie prin reprezentanii sau membrii lor, n constituirea organizaiilor sindicale sau n exercitarea drepturilor lor.

Art. 222. [representation of employees in Art. 222. [reprezentarea conflicts of rights] conflictele de drepturi]

salariailor

At the request of their members, the trade La cererea membrilor lor, sindicatele pot s i unions may represent them in labour reprezinte pe acetia n cadrul conflictelor de disputes, according to the law. munc, n condiiile legii. . Art. 223. [protection of trade union Art. 223. [protecia liderilor sindicali] leaders] (1) Reprezentanilor alei n organele de (1) The representatives elected in the conducere ale sindicatelor li se asigur protecia management bodies of the trade unions shall legii contra oricror forme de condiionare, be provided legal protection against any constrngere sau limitare a exercitrii funciilor form of pressure, constraint or restraint in lor. the exercise of their functions. (2) Pe toat durata exercitrii mandatului (2)During their mandate, the representatives reprezentanii alei n organele de conducere ale elected in the management bodies of the sindicatelor nu pot fi concediai pentru motive ce trade unions shall not be dismissed for in de ndeplinirea mandatului pe care l-au primit reasons related to the fulfillment of the de la salariaii din unitate. mandate received from the employees in the (3) Alte msuri de protecie a celor alei n 79

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII organization. organele de conducere ale sindicatelor sunt (3) Other measures to protect those elected prevzute n legi speciale i n contractul colectiv in the management bodies of the trade de munc aplicabil unions shall be provided in special laws and in the applicable collective work agreement.

CHAPTER 3 - Representatives of the employees Art. 224. [appointment] (1) In the case of the employers with more than 20 employees where are not set up representative trade unions according to the law, the employees interests may be promoted and defended by their representatives, elected and mandated for this purpose. (2) The representatives of the employees shall be chosen in the general assembly of the employees, with the vote of at least half of the total number of employees. (3) The representatives of the employees may not carry on activities recognized by law as belonging exclusively to trade unions. Art. 225. [eligibility, number and length of mandate] (1) May be chosen as representatives of the employees, the employees with full exercise capacity. (2) Revoked. (3) The number of elected representatives of the employees shall be established by mutual agreement with the employer, in proportion to the number of employees. (4) The mandate of the representatives of the employees shall not exceed 2 years. Art. 226. [prerogatives] The representatives of the employees shall have the following main prerogatives: a) to guard the rights of the employees, in compliance with the legislation in force, the applicable collective work agreement, the individual work contracts and the rules of procedure; b) to participate to the development of the rules of procedure;

CAPITOLUL 3 - Reprezentanii salariailor

Art. 224. [desemnarea] (1) La angajatorii la care sunt ncadrai mai mult de 20 de salariai la care nu sunt constituite organizaii sindicale reprezentative conform legii, interesele salariailor pot fi promovate i aprate de reprezentanii lor, alei i mandatai special n acest scop.. (2) Reprezentanii salariailor sunt alei n cadrul adunrii generale a salariailor, cu votul a cel puin jumtate din numrul total al salariailor. (3) Reprezentanii salariailor nu pot s desfoare activiti ce sunt recunoscute prin lege exclusiv sindicatelor.

Art. 225. [condiiile de eligibilitate, numrul i durata mandatului] (1) Pot fi alei ca reprezentani ai salariailor salariaii care au capacitate deplin de exerciiu. (2) Abrogat. (3) Numrul de reprezentani alei ai salariailor se stabilete de comun acord cu angajatorul, n raport cu numrul de salariai ai acestuia. (4) Durata mandatului reprezentanilor salariailor nu poate fi mai mare de 2 ani.

Art. 226. [atribuii] Reprezentanii salariailor au urmtoarele atribuii principale: a) s urmreasc respectarea drepturilor salariailor, n conformitate cu legislaia n vigoare, cu contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, cu contractele individuale de munc i cu regulamentul intern; b) s participe la elaborarea regulamentului intern; 80

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII c) to promote the interests of the employees as regards the wage, working conditions, work time and rest time, job stability and any other professional, economic and social interests connected to the work relations; d) to notify the labor inspectorate as regards the breach of the legal and applicable collective work agreement provisions; e) to negotiate the collective labor contract, according to the legal provisions.

c) s promoveze interesele salariailor referitoare la salariu, condiii de munc, timp de munc i timp de odihn, stabilitate n munc, precum i orice alte interese profesionale, economice i sociale legate de relaiile de munc; d) s sesizeze inspectoratul de munc cu privire la nerespectarea dispoziiilor legale i ale contractului colectiv de munc aplicabil; e) s negocieze contractul colectiv de munc, n condiiile legii. Art. 227. [stabilirea atribuiilor] Atribuiile reprezentanilor salariailor, modul de ndeplinire a acestora, precum i durata i limitele mandatului lor se stabilesc n cadrul adunrii generale a salariailor, n condiiile legii.

Art. 227. [establishment of tasks] The tasks of the representatives of the employees, their accomplishment, and the length and limits of the mandate shall be laid down in the general assembly of the employees, under the terms of the law.

Art. 228. [time assigned for mandate Art. 228. execution] mandatului] The number of hours for a normal working schedule in the case of the employeesrepresentatives, hours granted to accomplish the mandate that they have received, will be established by the applicable collective labour contract or, in its absence, based on the directly discussions with the units management. Art. 229. [protection of employee representatives] During the mandate, the representatives of the employees may not be dismissed for reasons related to the mandate received from the employees. CHAPTER 4 - Employers Art. 230. [legal definition of the employer] (1) The employers (in Romanian: patronatele), named also employers organizations (in Romanian: organizatii de angajatori), constituted according to the legal provisions are the employers organizations, autonomous without political character, registered as a private legal entity, non-profit.

[timpul

alocat

ndeplinirii

Numrul de ore n cadrul programului normal de lucru pentru reprezentanii salariailor destinat n vederea ndeplinirii mandatului pe care l-au primit se stabilete prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau n lipsa acestuia prin negociere direct cu conducerea unitii.

Art. 229. [protecia reprezentanilor salariailor] Pe toat durata exercitrii mandatului reprezentanii salariailor nu pot fi concediai pentru motive ce in de ndeplinirea mandatului pe care l-au primit de la salariai. CAPITOLUL 4 - Patronatul Art. 230. [definiia legal a patronului] (1) Patronatele, denumite i organizaii de angajatori, constituite n condiiile legii sunt organizaii ale angajatorilor, autonome, fr caracter politic, nfiinate ca persoane juridice de drept privat, fr scop patrimonial.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (2)The employers may associate in employers federations and/or confederations or other associative structures, according to the law.

(2) Angajatorii se pot asocia in federatii si/sau confederatii sau alte structure associative, conform legii. .

Art. 231. [legal definition of employers' Art. 231. [definiia legal a patronatului i organizations and freedom of association] dreptul de asociere] Revoked Art. 232. [responsibilities] Revoked Art. 233. [protection organization leaders] Revoked Art. 234. [role organizations] Revoked Art. 235. [protection organizations] of employers' Art. 235. [protecia asociaiilor patronale] Constituirea, organizarea i funcionarea patronatelor, precum i exercitarea drepturilor i obligaiilor acestora sunt reglementate prin lege special. of employers' Art. 234. [rolul patronatelor] Abrogat of Abrogat Art. 232. [atribuii] Abrogat employers' Art. 233. [protecia liderilor patronali] Abrogat

The establishment, organization, and operation of the employers organizations and the exercise of their rights and obligations shall be regulated by specific law.

TITLE VIII - Collective work agreements

TITLUL VIII Contractele colective de munca

Art. 236. [legal definition and mandatory Art. 236. [definiia legal i obligativitatea character of collective work agreement] contractului colectiv de munc] (1) The collective work agreement is the convention concluded in writing between the employer or the employers organization, of the one part, and the employees, represented by trade unions or otherwise under the law, of the other part, establishing clauses on the working conditions, remuneration, and other rights and obligations arising from the work relations. (2) The collective negociations at the unit (1) Contractul colectiv de munc este convenia ncheiat n form scris ntre angajator sau organizaia patronal, de o parte, i salariai, reprezentai prin sindicate ori n alt mod prevzut de lege, de cealalt parte, prin care se stabilesc clauze privind condiiile de munc, salarizarea, precum i alte drepturi i obligaii ce decurg din raporturile de munc. (2) Negocierea colectiv la nivel de unitate este obligatorie, cu excepia cazului n care angajatorul are ncadrai mai puin de 21 de salariai. 82

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII level shall be mandatory, unless the employer has less than 21 employees. (3) The parties shall be equal and free when negotiating the clauses and concluding the collective work agreements. (4) The collective work agreements, concluded in compliance with the legal provisions, shall constitute the law of the parties.

(3) La negocierea clauzelor i la ncheierea contractelor colective de munc prile sunt egale i libere. (4) Contractele colective de munc, ncheiate cu respectarea dispoziiilor legale constituie legea prilor.

Art. 237. [special regulations regarding Art. 237. [reglementri speciale the collective work agreements] contractului colectiv de munc]

privind

The parties, their representatives and the Partile, reprezentarea acestora si procedura de procedure for negiciation and concluding negociere si de incheiere a contractelor collective the collective labour agreements are de munca sunt stabilite potrivit legii. established according to the law Art. 238. [forbidden and minimal clauses Art. 238. [clauze prohibite i clauze minimale in the collective work agreement] n contractului colectiv de munc] Revoked Abrogat Art. 239. [scope of collective work Art. 239. [domeniul efectelor contractului agreement effects] colectiv de munc] Revoked Abrogat

Art. 240. [parts of collective work Art. 240. [prile contractului colectiv de agreement] munc] Revoked Abrogat

Art. 241. [extension of the collective work Art. 241. [ntinderea efectelor contractului agreement effects] colectiv de munc] Revoked Abrogat

Art. 242. [length of the collective work Art. 242. [durata contractului colectiv de agreement] munc] Revoked Abrogat

Art. 243. [performance of the collective Art. 243. [executarea contractului colectiv de work agreement] munc] Revoked Abrogat Art. 244. [amendment of the collective Art. 244. [modificarea contractului colectiv de work agreement] munc] Revoked Abrogat

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 245. [cessation of the collective work Art. 245. [ncetarea contractului colectiv de agreeement] munc]

Revoked

Abrogat

Art. 246. [suspension of the collective Art. 246. [suspendarea contractului colectiv de work agreement] munc] Revoked Abrogat Art. 247. [extension of the collective work Art. 247. [extinderea efectelor contractului agreement effects] colectiv de munc] Revoked Abrogat TITLUL IX - Conflictele de munc CAPITOLUL 1 - Dispoziii generale Art. 248. [definiia legal] Prin conflicte de munc se neleg conflictele dintre salariai i angajatori privind interesele cu caracter economic, profesional sau social ori drepturile rezultate din desfurarea raporturilor de munc.

TITLE IX - Labor disputes

CHAPTER 1 - General provisions Art. 248. [legal definition] The labour disputes are the conflicts between the employees and the employers regarding the interests with economic, professional or social character or the rights resulting from the development of the employment relationships. Art. 249. [reference to special law ]

Art. 249. [sediul materiei]

The labor dispute resolution procedure shall Procedura de soluionare a conflictelor de munc be laid down by a special law. se stabilete prin lege special. CAPITOLUL 2 - Greva Art. 250. [scopul]

CHAPTER 2 - Strike Art. 250. [purpose]

The employees shall have the right to strike Salariaii au dreptul la grev pentru aprarea in order to defend their professional, intereselor profesionale, economice i sociale. economic and social interests. Art. 251. [legal definition and right to strike] (1) A strike is the employee voluntary and collective cessation of the work. (2) The employee participation to the strike shall be free. No employee may be forced to participate or not to a strike. (3) The abridgement or prohibition of the right to strike may arise only in the cases Art. 251. [definiia legal i libertatea grevei] (1) Greva reprezint ncetarea voluntar i colectiv a lucrului de ctre salariai. (2) Participarea salariailor la grev este liber. Nici un salariat nu poate fi constrns s participe sau s nu participe la o grev. (3) Limitarea sau interzicerea dreptului la grev poate interveni numai n cazurile i pentru 84

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII and for the categories of employees categoriile de salariai prevzute expres de lege. expressly provided for in the law.

Art. 252. [protection of employees on Art. 252. [protecia grevitilor] strike] The participation to a strike and its organization in compliance with the law shall not be a breach of the obligations of the employees and may not lead to disciplinary sanctions against the employees on strike or the organizers of the strike. Art. 253. [reference to special law] The exercise of the right to strike, the organization, start and course of the strike, the procedure prior to the start of the strike, the suspension and cessation, and all other issues related to the strike shall be regulated by a special law. Participarea la grev, precum i organizarea acesteia cu respectarea legii nu reprezint o nclcare a obligaiilor salariailor i nu pot avea drept consecin sancionarea disciplinar a salariailor greviti sau a organizatorilor grevei.

Art. 253. [sediul materiei] Modul de exercitare a dreptului de grev, organizarea, declanarea i desfurarea grevei, procedurile prealabile declanrii grevei, suspendarea i ncetarea grevei, precum i orice alte aspecte legate de grev se reglementeaz prin lege special. TITLUL X - Inspecia Muncii Art. 254. [inspecia muncii] Aplicarea reglementrilor generale i speciale n domeniul relaiilor de munc, securitii i sntii n munc este supus controlului Inspeciei Muncii, ca organism specializat al administraiei publice centrale, cu personalitate juridic, n subordinea Ministerului Muncii i Solidaritii Sociale. Art. 255. [inspectoratele teritoriale de munc]

TITLE X - Labor Inspectorate Art. 254. [labor inspectorate] The application of the general and special regulations in the field of the work relations, and health and safety at work shall be subject to the control of the Labor Inspectorate, a specialized body of the public central administration, provided with legal personality, and subordinated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Solidarity. Art. 255. [territorial labor inspectorates ]

The territorial labor inspectorates, organized Inspecia Muncii are n subordine inspectorate in each county and in the municipality of teritoriale de munc, organizate n fiecare jude i Bucharest, shall be subordinated to the n municipiul Bucureti. national Labor Inspectorate. Art. 256. [reference to special law] Art. 256. [sediul materiei]

The establishment and organization of the nfiinarea i organizarea Inspeciei Muncii sunt Labor Inspectorate shall be regulated by a reglementate prin lege special. special law. Article 2561: Articolul 2561 :

85

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII By derogation from the provisions of article 3 paragraph (2) of the Law No. 252/2003 regarding the unique control registry, in case of inspections which have as objectives discovering the work performed without legal grounds, the labour inspectors will fill in the unique control registry after the control was performed.

Prin derogare de la prevederile art. 3 alin. (2) din Legea nr. 252/2003 privind registrul unic de control, n cazul controalelor care au ca obiectiv depistarea muncii fr forme legale, inspectorii de munc vor completa registrul unic de control dup efectuarea controlului.

TITLE XI - Legal liability CHAPTER 1 - Rules of procedure Art. 257. [preparation]

TITLUL XI - Rspunderea juridic CAPITOLUL 1 - Regulamentul intern Art. 257. [ntocmirea]

The rules of procedure shall be drawn up by Regulamentul intern se ntocmete de ctre the employer, after consulting the trade angajator, cu consultarea sindicatului sau a union or the representatives of the reprezentanilor salariailor, dup caz. employees, as the case may be. Art. 258. [contents] The internal rules of procedure shall contain at least the following categories of provisions: a) rules regarding the work protection, hygiene and safety within the organization; b) rules regarding the observance of the non-discrimination principle and the elimination of any breach of dignity; c) rights and obligations of the employer and employees; d) procedure to settle the individual requests or claims of the employees; e) actual rules regarding the labor discipline in the organization; f) misbehaviour and applicable sanctions; g) rules regarding the disciplinary proceedings; h) methods to apply other specific legal or contractual provisions; i) the criteria and the procedures for professional evaluation of the employees. Art. 259. [employee notification] (1) The rules of procedure shall be notified to the employees through the good offices of the employer and shall take effect towards the employees since their notification. Art. 258. [elemente de coninut] Regulamentul intern cuprinde cel puin urmtoarele categorii de dispoziii: a) reguli privind protecia, igiena i securitatea n munc n cadrul unitii; b) reguli privind respectarea principiului nediscriminrii i al nlturrii oricrei forme de nclcare a demnitii; c) drepturile i obligaiile angajatorului i al salariailor; d) procedura de soluionare a cererilor sau reclamaiilor individuale ale salariailor; e) reguli concrete privind disciplina muncii n unitate; f) abaterile disciplinare i sanciunile aplicabile; g) reguli referitoare la procedura disciplinar; h) modalitile de aplicare a altor dispoziii legale sau contractuale specifice; i) criteriile i procedurile de evaluare profesional a salariailor.

Art. 259. [informarea salariailor] (1) Regulamentul intern se aduce la cunotin salariailor prin grija angajatorului i i produce efectele fa de salariai din momentul ncunotinrii acestora. (2) Obligaia de informare a salariailor cu privire 86

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII (2) The obligation to notify the employees of the content of the rules of procedure shall be fulfilled by the employer. (3) The actual method of notifying every employee as regards the content of the rules of procedure shall be laid down in the applicable collective work agreement or, as the case may be, in the content of the rules of procedure. (4) The rules of procedure shall be posted in employers headquarters.

la coninutul regulamentului intern trebuie ndeplinit de angajator. (3) Modul concret de informare a fiecrui salariat cu privire la coninutul regulamentului intern se stabilete prin contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil sau, dup caz, prin coninutul regulamentului intern. (4) Regulamentul intern se afieaz la sediul angajatorulu

Art. 260. [amendment]

Art. 260. [modificarea]

Any amendment to the content of the rules Orice modificare ce intervine n coninutul of procedure shall be subject to the regulamentului intern este supus procedurilor de notification procedures provided for in informare prevzute la art. 259. Article 259. Art. 261. [review of legality] (1) A concerned employee may notify the employer of the provisions in the rules of procedure, as far as he/she proves the infringement of one of his/her rights. (2) The courts are competent to control the legality of the provisions contained in the rules of procedure, and a suit may be filed within 30 days from the date the employer communicates how the issue notified according to paragraph (1) has been solved. Art. 262. [mandatory character] (1) An employer shall prepare the rules of procedure within 60 days from the entry into force of this code. (2) In the case of employers established after the entry into force of this code, the term of 60 days provided for in paragraph (1) shall run after acquiring the legal personality. Art. 261. [controlul legalitii] (1) Orice salariat interesat poate sesiza angajatorul cu privire la dispoziiile regulamentului intern, n msura n care face dovada nclcrii unui drept al su. (2) Controlul legalitii dispoziiilor cuprinse n regulamentul intern este de competena instanelor judectoreti, care pot fi sesizate n termen de 30 de zile de la data comunicrii de ctre angajator a modului de soluionare a sesizrii formulate potrivit alin. (1). Art. 262. [obligativitatea] (1) ntocmirea regulamentului intern la nivelul fiecrui angajator se realizeaz n termen de 60 de zile de la data intrrii n vigoare a prezentului cod. (2) n cazul angajatorilor nfiinai dup intrarea n vigoare a prezentului cod, termenul de 60 de zile prevzut la alin. (1) ncepe s curg de la data dobndirii personalitii juridice.

CHAPTER 2 - Liability to disciplinary action

CAPITOLUL 2 - Rspunderea disciplinar

Art. 263. [legal definition of liability to Art. 263. [definiia legal a rspunderii disciplinary action] disciplinare] (1) The employer shall have disciplinary (1) Angajatorul dispune de prerogativ prerogatives, i.e. the right to apply, disciplinar, avnd dreptul de a aplica, potrivit 87

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII according to the law, disciplinary sanctions to its employees whenever it finds them guilty of misbehavior. (2) A misbehavior is a deed connected to the work, consisting of a willful action or lack of action of the employee, breaking the legal provisions, the rules of procedure, the individual work contract or the applicable collective work agreement, lawful commands and orders of the management.

Art. 264. [disciplinary sanctions] (1) The disciplinary sanctions the employer may apply if the employee is guilty of misbehavior are the following: a) written warning; b) Revoked; c) demotion, while paying the wage corresponding to the position where the demotion was ordered, for a length that may not exceed 60 days; d) 5-10% decrease of the basic pay for 1-3 months; e) 5-10% decrease of the basic pay and/or, as the case may be, of the management benefit, for 1-3 months; f) disciplinary cancellation of the individual work contract. (2) Should the professional statutes approved by special laws establish other sanctions, the latter shall apply. (3)The disciplinary sanction shall be cancelled by law within 12 months starting its application if in this period a new disciplinary sanction will not be applied to the employee. The cancellation of the disciplinary sanctions will be established by a decision of the employer issued in this respect, in written form

legii, sanciuni disciplinare salariailor si ori de cte ori constat c acetia au svrit o abatere disciplinar. (2) Abaterea disciplinar este o fapt n legtur cu munca i care const ntr-o aciune sau inaciune svrit cu vinovie de ctre salariat, prin care acesta a nclcat normele legale, regulamentul intern, contractul individual de munc sau contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, ordinele i dispoziiile legale ale conductorilor ierarhici. Art. 264. [sanciunile disciplinare] (1) Sanciunile disciplinare pe care le poate aplica angajatorul n cazul n care salariatul svrete o abatere disciplinar sunt: a) avertismentul scris; b) Abrogat; c) retrogradarea din funcie, cu acordarea salariului corespunztor funciei n care s-a dispus retrogradarea, pentru o durat ce nu poate depi 60 de zile; d) reducerea salariului de baz pe o durat de 1-3 luni cu 5-10%; e) reducerea salariului de baz i/sau, dup caz, i a indemnizaiei de conducere pe o perioad de 1-3 luni cu 5-10%; f) desfacerea disciplinar a contractului individual de munc. (2) n cazul n care, prin statute profesionale aprobate prin lege special, se stabilete un alt regim sancionator, va fi aplicat acesta. (3) Sanciunea disciplinar se radiaz de drept n termen de 12 luni de la aplicare dac salariatului nu i se aplic o nou sanciune disciplinar n acest termen. Radierea sanciunilor disciplinare se constat prin decizia angajatorului emis n form scris.

Art. 265. [prohibition of disciplinary Art. 265. [interzicerea amenzilor disciplinare; fines; one sanction per misbehavior] unicitatea sanciunii] (1) Disciplinary fines shall be prohibited. (1) Amenzile disciplinare sunt interzise. (2) Only one sanction may be applied for (2) Pentru aceeai abatere disciplinar se poate the same misbehavior. aplica numai o singur sanciune. Art. 266. [disciplinary sanction criteria] The employer shall disciplinary sanction establish applicable Art. 266. [criterii de stabilire a sanciunii disciplinare]

the in Angajatorul stabilete sanciunea disciplinar

88

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII proportion to the seriousness of the misbehavior of the employee, taking into account the following: a) the circumstances of the misbehavior; b) the degree of guilt of the employee; c) the consequences of the misbehavior; d) the general conduct of the employee; e) the disciplinary sanctions previously applied to him/her.

aplicabil n raport cu gravitatea abaterii disciplinare svrite de salariat, avndu-se n vedere urmtoarele: a) mprejurrile n care fapta a fost svrit; b) gradul de vinovie a salariatului; c) consecinele abaterii disciplinare; d) comportarea general n serviciu a salariatului; e) eventualele sanciuni disciplinare suferite anterior de ctre acesta. Art. 267. [cercetarea disciplinar] (1) Sub sanciunea nulitii absolute, nici o msur, cu excepia celei prevzute la art. 264 alin. (1) lit. a), nu poate fi dispus mai nainte de efectuarea unei cercetri disciplinare prealabile. (2) n vederea desfurrii cercetrii disciplinare prealabile, salariatul va fi convocat n scris de persoana mputernicit de ctre angajator s realizeze cercetarea, precizndu-se obiectul, data, ora i locul ntrevederii. (3) Neprezentarea salariatului la convocarea fcut n condiiile prevzute la alin. (2) fr un motiv obiectiv d dreptul angajatorului s dispun sancionarea, fr efectuarea cercetrii disciplinare prealabile. (4) n cursul cercetrii disciplinare prealabile salariatul are dreptul s formuleze i s susin toate aprrile n favoarea sa i s ofere persoanei mputernicite s realizeze cercetarea toate probele i motivaiile pe care le consider necesare, precum i dreptul s fie asistat, la cererea sa, de ctre un reprezentant al sindicatului al crui membru este.

Art. 267. [disciplinary hearing] (1) At the risk of absolute nullity, no action, except that provided for in Article 264 (1) (a), may be taken before performing a preliminary disciplinary hearing. (2) In order to perform the preliminary disciplinary hearing, the employee shall be summoned in writing by the person appointed by the employer to accomplish the hearing, stating the subject matter, date, time, and place of the meeting. (3) The failure of the employee to appear at the summons made under the conditions provided for in paragraph (2) without an objective reason shall give the employer the right to order the sanction, without performing the preliminary disciplinary hearing. (4) During the preliminary disciplinary hearing, the employee shall have the right to develop and submit any argument in his/her favor and provide the person appointed to perform the hearing all pieces of evidence and motivations he/she considers to be necessary, and the right to be assisted, at his/her request, by a representative of the trade union he/she belongs to.

Art. 268. [disciplinary sanction decision : Art. 268. [decizia de sancionare: termen, delay, contents, notification] coninut, comunicare] (1) The employer shall order the application of the disciplinary sanction through a written decision, within 30 calendar days from the acknowledgement of the misbehavior, but no later than 6 months after the date of the misbehavior. (2) At the risk of absolute nullity, the decision shall contain: a) the description of the misbehavior; b) the provisions of the personnel statute, (1) Angajatorul dispune aplicarea sanciunii disciplinare printr-o decizie emis n form scris, n termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data lurii la cunotin despre svrirea abaterii disciplinare, dar nu mai trziu de 6 luni de la data svririi faptei. (2) Sub sanciunea nulitii absolute, n decizie se cuprind n mod obligatoriu: a) descrierea faptei care constituie abatere disciplinar;

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII internal rules, individual labour contract or applicable collective labour contract, which were breached by the employee; c) the reasons to dismiss the defense developed by the employee during the preliminary disciplinary hearing or the reasons why, under the conditions provided for in Article 267 (3), no hearing took place; d) the legal basis to apply the disciplinary sanction; e) the appeal deadline; e) the competent court where the sanction may be appealed. (3) The sanction shall be notified to the employee no later than 5 calendar days after the date of issue and shall take effect from the date of notification. (4) The notification shall be handed over personally to the employee, with notice of receipt, or, if the reception has been refused, by registered letter, at the domicile or residence communicated by him/her. (5) The sanction may be appealed by the employee before the competent courts within 30 calendar days from the notification.

b) precizarea prevederilor din statutul de personal, regulamentul intern, contractul individual de munc sau contractul colectiv de munc aplicabil, care au fost nclcate de salariat; c) motivele pentru care au fost nlturate aprrile formulate de salariat n timpul cercetrii disciplinare prealabile sau motivele pentru care, n condiiile prevzute la art. 267 alin. (3), nu a fost efectuat cercetarea; d) temeiul de drept n baza cruia sanciunea disciplinar se aplic; e) termenul n care sanciunea poate fi contestat; f) instana competent la care sanciunea poate fi contestat. (3) Decizia de sancionare se comunic salariatului n cel mult 5 zile calendaristice de la data emiterii i produce efecte de la data comunicrii. (4) Comunicarea se pred personal salariatului, cu semntur de primire, ori, n caz de refuz al primirii, prin scrisoare recomandat, la domiciliul sau reedina comunicat de acesta. (5) Decizia de sancionare poate fi contestat de salariat la instanele judectoreti competente n termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data comunicrii. CAPITOLUL 3 - Rspunderea patrimonial

CHAPTER 3 - Liability for material damage

Art. 269. [employer liability; right of Art. 269. [rspunderea angajatorului; actiunea recourse] n regres] (1) An employer shall, on the basis of the rules and principles of civil contractual liability, indemnify the employee if he/she suffered a material damage from employers fault during the course of the job or other tasks related to the job. (2) Should the employer refuse to indemnify the employee, the latter may file a suit with the competent courts. (3) An employer having paid the compensation shall recover the corresponding amount from the employee liable for the damage, under the conditions of Article 270 and subsequent Articles. (1) Angajatorul este obligat, n temeiul normelor i principiilor rspunderii civile contractuale, s l despgubeasc pe salariat n situaia n care acesta a suferit un prejudiciu material sau moral din culpa angajatorului n timpul ndeplinirii obligaiilor de serviciu sau n legtur cu serviciul. (2) n cazul n care angajatorul refuz s l despgubeasc pe salariat, acesta se poate adresa cu plngere instanelor judectoreti competente. (3) Angajatorul care a pltit despgubirea i va recupera suma aferent de la salariatul vinovat de producerea pagubei, n condiiile art. 270 i urmtoarele.

Art. 270. [employee liability]

Art. 270. [rspunderea salariatului]

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(1) The employees are patrimonial responsible, on the basis of the rules and principles of civil contractual liability, for the material damages caused to the employer from their fault and related to their work. (2) The employees shall not be liable for the damages caused by acts of God or causes that could not be prevented and eliminated, nor for the damages within the normal risk of the job. (3) If the employer establishes that its employee caused a damage from his/her fault and related to his/her work may request the employee by a note of finding and damage evaluation, to restitute the damage value, based on the partiesmutual consent, in a term which shall be more than 30 days from the comunications date (4)The value of the prejudice recovered by the Partiesconsent, according to par. (5) cannot be higher than the equivalent of five minimum salaries per economy Art. 271. [shared employee liability]

(1) Salariaii rspund patrimonial, n temeiul normelor i principiilor rspunderii civile contractuale, pentru pagubele materiale produse angajatorului din vina i n legtur cu munca lor. (2) Salariaii nu rspund de pagubele provocate de fora major sau de alte cauze neprevzute i care nu puteau fi nlturate i nici de pagubele care se ncadreaz n riscul normal al serviciului. (3) n situaia n care angajatorul constat c salariatul su a provocat o pagub din vina i n legtur cu munca sa va putea solicita salariatului printr-o not de constatare i evaluarea pagubei, recuperarea contravalorii acesteia, prin acordul prilor, ntr-un termen care nu va putea fi mai mic de 30 de zile de la data comunicrii. (4) Contravaloarea pagubei recuperat prin acordul prilor, conform alin. (5) nu poate fi mai mare dect echivalentul a cinci salarii minime brute pe economie.

Art. 271. salariatilor]

[divizibilitatea

rspunderii

(1) Should the damage be caused by several employees, the liability quota of each of them shall be established in proportion to their contribution to its occurrence. (2) If the contribution to the damage cannot be assessed, the liability of each employee shall be established in proportion to their net wage at the date when the damage was reported and, when appropriate, according to the time actually worked from their last inventory.

(1) Cnd paguba a fost produs de mai muli salariai, cuantumul rspunderii fiecruia se stabilete n raport cu msura n care a contribuit la producerea ei. (2) Dac msura n care s-a contribuit la producerea pagubei nu poate fi determinat, rspunderea fiecruia se stabilete proporional cu salariul su net de la data constatrii pagubei i, atunci cnd este cazul, i n funcie de timpul efectiv lucrat de la ultimul su inventar.

Art. 272. [the returning of amounts and Art. 272. [restituirea sumelor nedatorate i goods not due] bunurilor necuvenite] (1) An employee having received an amount not due from the employer shall return it. (2) Should an employee receive goods not due that cannot be returned in kind or services not entitled to, he/she shall bear their equivalent value. The equivalent value of the goods or services concerned shall be established according to their value at the date of the payment. (1) Salariatul care a ncasat de la angajator o sum nedatorat este obligat s o restituie. (2) Dac salariatul a primit bunuri care nu i se cuveneau i care nu mai pot fi restituite n natur sau dac acestuia i s-au prestat servicii la care nu era ndreptit, este obligat s suporte contravaloarea lor. Contravaloarea bunurilor sau serviciilor n cauz se stabilete potrivit valorii acestora de la data plii.

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Art. 273. [wage withholdings] (1) The amount set to cover the damages shall be retained in monthly installments from the wage rights due to the person concerned, by the employer where he/she is employed. (2) The installments may not exceed one third of the net monthly wage, without exceeding, together with other amounts retained from the person concerned, half of the net wage. Art. 274. [withholdings contract cessation] after

Art. 273. [reinerile din salariu] (1) Suma stabilit pentru acoperirea daunelor se reine n rate lunare din drepturile salariale care se cuvin persoanei n cauz din partea angajatorului la care este ncadrat n munc. (2) Ratele nu pot fi mai mari de o treime din salariul lunar net, fr a putea depi mpreun cu celelalte reineri pe care le-ar avea cel n cauz, jumtate din salariul respectiv.

work Art. 274. [reinerile contractului de munc]

dup

ncetarea

(1) Should the individual work contract cease before the employee indemnifies the employer, and the person concerned joins another employer or becomes a civil servant, the withholdings from the wage shall be done by the new employer or institution or public authority, as appropriate, on the basis of the writ of execution submitted for this purpose by the harmed employer. (2) Should the person concerned fail to join another employer, on the basis of an individual work contract or as a civil servant, the damage shall be covered by legal proceedings against his/her goods, under the terms of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(1) n cazul n care contractul individual de munc nceteaz nainte ca salariatul s l fi despgubit pe angajator i cel n cauz se ncadreaz la un alt angajator ori devine funcionar public, reinerile din salariu se fac de ctre noul angajator sau noua instituie ori autoritate public, dup caz, pe baza titlului executoriu transmis n acest scop de ctre angajatorul pgubit. (2) Dac persoana n cauz nu s-a ncadrat n munc la un alt angajator, n temeiul unui contract individual de munc ori ca funcionar public, acoperirea daunei se va face prin urmrirea bunurilor sale, n condiiile Codului de procedur civil.

Art. 275. [enforcement under ordinary Art. 275. [executarea silit de drept comun] law] n cazul n care acoperirea prejudiciului prin If the damage cannot be covered by reineri lunare din salariu nu se poate face ntr-un monthly withholdings from the wage within termen de maximum 3 ani de la data la care s-a maximum 3 years from the date of the first efectuat prima rat de reineri, angajatorul se installment of withholdings, the employer poate adresa executorului judectoresc n may appeal to the bailiff under the terms of condiiile Codului de procedur civil. the Code of Civil Procedure.

CHAPTER 4 - Contraventional liability

CAPITOLUL 4 Rspunderea contravenional

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 276. [contraventions: list, Art. 276. [contravenii: enumerare, constatare establishment, punishment] i sancionare]

(1) The following shall constitute contravention and shall be punishable as follows: a) breach of the provisions regarding the guaranteed payment of the national minimum gross product, with a fine from Lei 300 to Lei 2,000; b) infringement by the employer of the provisions of Article 34 (5), with a fine from Lei 300 Lei to Lei 1,000; c) hindering or forcing, by threat or violence, an employee or a group of employees to participate to a strike or work during a strike, with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 3,000; d) including clauses contrary to the legal provisions in the individual work contract, with a fine from Lei 2,000 to Lei 5,000; e) the work acces of no more than 5 persons without an individual labour contract, according to Article 16 paragraph (1), with a fine from Lei 10,000 to Lei 20,000 for each identified person; e1) the worked performed by a person without the conclusion of an individual labour contract, with a fine from Lei 500 to Lei 1,000; f) infringement by the employer of the provisions of Articles 134 and 137, with a fine from Lei 5,000 to Lei 10,000; g) infringement of the obligation provided for in Article 135, with a fine from Lei 5,000 to Lei 20,000; h) infringement of the provisions regarding overtime, with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 3,000; i) infringement of the legal provisions regarding the weekly rest, with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 3,000; j) failure to provide the benefit provided for in Article 53 (1), should the employer temporarily suspend its activities, with the persistence of the work relations, with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 5,000; k) infringement of legal provisions concerning night work, with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 3,000. l) the infringement by the employer of the legal obligation provided by art.27 and 116,

(1) Constituie contravenie i se sancioneaz astfel urmtoarele fapte: a) nerespectarea dispoziiilor privind garantarea n plat a salariului minim brut pe ar, cu amend de la 300 lei la 2.000 lei; b) nclcarea de ctre angajator a prevederilor art. 34 alin. (5), cu amend de la 300 lei la 1.000 lei; c) mpiedicarea sau obligarea, prin ameninri ori prin violene, a unui salariat sau a unui grup de salariai s participe la grev ori s munceasc n timpul grevei, cu amend de la 1.500 lei la 3.000 lei; d) stipularea n contractul individual de munc a unor clauze contrare dispoziiilor legale, cu amend de la 2.000 lei la 5.000 lei; e) primirea la munc a pn la 5 persoane fr ncheierea unui contract individual de munc, potrivit art. 16 alin. (1), cu amend de la 10.000 lei la 20.000 lei pentru fiecare persoan identificat; e1) prestarea muncii de ctre o persoan fr ncheierea unui contract individual de munc, cu amend de la 500 la 1.000 de lei. f) nclcarea de ctre angajator a prevederilor art. 134 i 137, cu amend de la 5.000 lei la 10.000 lei; g) nclcarea obligaiei prevzute la art. 135, cu amend de la 5.000 lei la 20.000 lei; h) nerespectarea dispoziiilor privind munca suplimentar, cu amend de la 1.500 lei la 3.000 lei; i) nerespectarea prevederilor legale privind acordarea repausului sptmnal, cu amend de la 1.500 lei la 3.000 lei; j) neacordarea indemnizaiei prevzute la art. 53 alin. (1), n cazul n care angajatorul i ntrerupe temporar activitatea cu meninerea raporturilor de munc, cu amend de la 1.500 lei la 5.000 lei; k) nclcarea prevederilor legale referitoare la munca de noapte, cu amend de la 1.500 lei la 3.000 lei. l)nclcarea de ctre angajator a obligaiei prevzute la art. 27 si 116, cu amend de la 1.500 la 3.000 lei; m) nerespectarea prevederilor legale privind nregistrarea de ctre angajator a demisiei, cu amend de la 1.500 lei la 3.000 lei; n) nclcarea de ctre agentul de munc temporar a obligaiei prevzute la art. 1001, cu amend de la

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 3,000; m) the infringement of the legal provisions regarding the employers obligation to register the resignation, with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 3,000; n) the infrigment by the temporary employment agency of the obligation provided by art. 1001, with a fine from Lei 5,000 to 10,000 for each identified person, without exceeding the cumulative value of Lei 100,000; o) the infringement of the provision of the art.16 paragraph (3) with a fine from Lei 1,500 to Lei 2,000. (2) The contraventions shall be assessed by labor inspectors, who shall apply the sanctions. (3) The provisions of the legislation in force shall apply to the contraventions provided for in paragraph (1).

5.000 la 10.000 lei, pentru fiecare persoan identificat, fr a depi valoarea cumulat de 100.000 de lei; o) nclcarea prevederilor art. 16 alin. (3) cu amend de la 1.500 la 2.000 lei. (2) Constatarea contraveniilor i aplicarea sanciunilor se fac de ctre inspectorii de munc. (3) Contraveniilor prevzute la alin. (1) li se aplic dispoziiile legislaiei n vigoare.

CHAPTER 5 - Criminal liability

CAPITOLUL 5 - Rspunderea penal

Art. 277. [non-enforcement of wage Art. 277. [neexecutarea plii salariului] payment] The failure to enforce a final judgment regarding the payment of the wages within 15 days from the date of the enforcement request submitted to the employer by the interested party shall be a criminal offence and shall be punished with a prison term from 3 to 6 months or a fine. Art.278. [non-enforcement reinstatement] Neexecutarea unei hotrri judectoreti definitive privind plata salariilor n termen de 15 zile de la data cererii de executare adresate angajatorului de ctre partea interesat constituie infraciune i se pedepsete cu nchisoare de la 3 la 6 luni sau cu amend.

of Art. 278. [neexecutarea reintegrrii n munc] Neexecutarea unei hotrri judectoreti definitive privind reintegrarea n munc a unui salariat constituie infraciune i se pedepsete cu nchisoare de la 6 luni la 1 an sau cu amend.

The non-enforcement of a final judgment regarding the reinstatement of an employee shall be a criminal offence punishable with a prison term from 6 months to 1 year or a fine.

Art. 279. [launch of criminal Art. 279. [punerea n micare a aciunii penale investigation and reconciliation] i mpcarea] (1) For the criminal offences provided for in Articles 277 and 278, the criminal investigation shall be launched at the complaint of the harmed person. (2) The reconciliation of the parties shall (1) n cazul infraciunilor prevzute la art. 277 i 278 aciunea penal se pune n micare la plngerea persoanei vtmate. (2) mpcarea prilor nltur rspunderea penal. 94

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII remove the criminal liability.

Art. 280. (1) It represents a criminal offence and it is punished with a prison from 6 months to 1 year or a criminal fine, the act of the person who, frequently establishes for the employees hired under an individual labour contract, wages lower than the minimum wage guaranteed at the country level, provided by law. (2) With the punishment provided by paragraph (1) shall be sanctioned also the criminal offence consists in the frequent refuse of one person to allow the acces of the labour inspectors in any of the units spaces or to provide them the requested documents, according to the law. (3)It represents a criminal offence and it is punished with a prison from 1 to 2 years or a criminal fine, the work acces of no more than 5 persons, whatever their citizenship is, without concluding an individual labour contract.

Art. 280. (1) Constituie infraciune i se pedepsete cu nchisoare de la 6 luni la 1 an sau cu amend penal fapta persoanei, care n mod repetat stabilete pentru salariaii ncadrai n baza contractului individual de munc salarii sub nivelul salariului minim brut pe ar garantat n plat, prevzut de lege. (2) Cu pedeapsa prevzut la alin. (1) se sancioneaz i infraciunea constnd n refuzul repetat al unei persoane, de a permite, potrivit legii, accesul inspectorilor de munc n oricare dintre spaiile unitii sau de a pune la dispoziia acestora documentele solicitate, potrivit legii. (3) Constituie infraciune i se sancioneaz cu nchisoare de la 1 la 2 ani sau cu amend penal primirea la munc a mai mult de 5 persoane, indiferent de cetenia acestora, fr ncheierea unui contract individual de munc.

Art. 2801. [infringement of underage Art. 2801. [nclcarea regimului de munc al persons labor status] minorilor] (1)The employment of underage persons by infringing the legal age conditions or their use to carry on activities infringing the legal provisions concerning the working regime of the underage persons shall be a criminal offence punishable with a prison term from 1 to 3 years. (2)With the punishment provided by art.280 paragraph (3) shall be sanctioned the acces to work of a person who has an illegal domicile on the territory of Romania, knowing that he/she is a victim of the traffic of persons. (3) In case the work performed by the person mentioned by the paragraph (2) and art. 280 paragraph (3) is such as to endanger his/her life, integrity and health, the punishement is the prison from 6 months to 3 years. (4) In the case of commiting the criminal offences provided by the paragraphs (2)-(3) and art. 280 paragraph (3), the court may decide the application of one of the following complementary punishment: (1)ncadrarea n munc a minorilor cu nerespectarea condiiilor legale de vrst sau folosirea acestora pentru prestarea unor activiti cu nclcarea prevederilor legale referitoare la regimul de munc al minorilor constituie infraciune i se pedepsete cu nchisoare de la 1 la 3 ani. (2) Cu pedeapsa prevzut la art. 280 alin. (3) se sancioneaz primirea la munc a unei persoane, aflat n situaie de edere ilegal n Romnia, cunoscnd c aceasta este victim a traficului de persoane. (3) Dac munca prestat de persoana prevzut la alin. (2) i la art. 280 alin. (3) este de natur s i pun n pericol viaa, integritatea sau sntatea, pedeapsa este nchisoarea de la 6 luni la 3 ani. (4) n cazul svririi uneia dintre infraciunile prevzute la alin. (2) (3) i la art. 280 alin. (3), instana de judecat poate dispune i aplicarea uneia dintre urmtoarele pedepse complementare: a) pierderea total sau parial a dreptului angajatorului de a beneficia de prestaii, ajutoare sau subvenii publice, inclusiv fonduri ale Uniunii Europene gestionate de autoritile romne,

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII a) the total or partial loss of the employers right to benefit for prestations, aids, public subsidies, including European Unions funds managed by the Romanian authorities, for a period of no more than 5 years. b) the prohibition of the employers right to participate for assigning a public acquisition contract for a period of no more than 5 years; c) the full or partial recovery of the prestations, aids, public subsidies, including funds managed by the Romanian authorities, granted to the employer for a period of no more than 12 months prior commiting of the criminal offence; d) the temporally or permanent closing of the working point or the working points where the criminal offence was committed or the temporally or permanent withdrawal of the license granted to develop professional activity, whether this aspect may be justified by a serious breach. (5) In case of commiting one of the criminal offences provided by the paragraphs (2)-(3) and art. 280 paragraph (3), the employer will be obliged to pay the amounts representing: a) any due payment to the persons illegally hired. The quantum of the paymant is assumed to be equal to the average gross salary per economy, excepting the case when either the employer or the employee may prove the contrary; b) the value of all the taxes, fees, health insurance contributions that the employer would have paid if the person was legally hired, including delay penalties and the appropriate administrative fines; c) the expenses determined by transfer of due payments in the country where the person illegally hired has voluntarily returned or was returned according to the legal provisions. (6) In case a subcontractor commits one of the criminal offences provided by the paragraphs (2)-(3) and art. 280 paragraph (3), both the contractor and any other intermediary subcontractor, whether he/she had knowledge that the subcontractor employer hired foreign persons who had an illegal domicile on the territory of Romania,

pentru o perioad de pn la cinci ani; b) interzicerea dreptului angajatorului de a participa la atribuirea unui contract de achiziii publice pentru o perioad de pn la 5 ani; c) recuperarea integral sau parial a prestaiilor, ajutoarelor sau subveniilor publice, inclusiv fonduri ale Uniunii Europene gestionate de autoritile romne, atribuite angajatorului pe o perioad de pn la 12 luni nainte de comiterea infraciunii; d) nchiderea temporar sau definitiv a punctului ori punctelor de lucru n care s-au comis infraciunea sau retragerea temporar ori definitiv a unei licene de desfurare a activitii profesionale n cauz, dac acest lucru este justificat de gravitatea nclcrii. (5) n cazul svririi uneia dintre infraciunile prevzute la alin. (2) (3) i la art. 280 alin. (3), angajatorul va fi obligat s plteasc sumele reprezentnd: a) orice remuneraie restant datorate persoanelor angajate ilegal. Cuantumul remuneraiei se presupune a fi egal cu salariul mediu brut pe economie, cu excepia cazului n care fie angajatorul, fie angajatul poate dovedi contrariul; b) cuantumul tuturor impozitelor, taxelor i contribuiilor de asigurri sociale pe care angajatorul le-ar fi pltit dac persoana ar fi fost angajat legal, inclusiv penalitile de ntrziere i amenzile administrative corespunztoare; c) cheltuielile determinate de transferul plilor restante n ara n care persoana angajat ilegal s-a ntors de bunvoie sau a fost returnat n condiiile legii. (6) n cazul svririi uneia dintre infraciunile prevzute la alin. (2) (3) i la art. 280 alin. (3) de ctre un subcontractant, att contractantul principal ct i orice subcontractant intermediar, dac au avut cunotin de faptul c subcontractantul angajator angaja strini aflai n situaie de edere ilegal, pot fi obligai de ctre instan, n solidar cu angajatorul sau n locul subcontractantului angajator ori al contractantului al crui subcontractant direct este angajatorul, la plata sumelor de bani prevzute la alin.(5) lit. a) i c).

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII should be obliged by the court to pay the amounts provided by paragraphs (5) letter (a) and (c), jointly with the employer or for the contractor or subcontractor employer whose the direct subcontractor the employer is.

TITLE XII - Jurisdiction in industrial disputes

TITLUL XII - Jurisdicia muncii

CHAPTER 1 - General provisions Art. 281. [scope of industrial disputes] jurisdiction

CAPITOLUL 1 - Dispoziii generale in Art. 281. [obiectul jurisdiciei muncii] Jurisdicia muncii are ca obiect soluionarea conflictelor de munc cu privire la ncheierea, executarea, modificarea, suspendarea i ncetarea contractelor individuale sau, dup caz, colective de munc prevzute de prezentul cod, precum i a cererilor privind raporturile juridice dintre partenerii sociali, stabilite potrivit prezentului cod.

The scope of the jurisdiction in industrial disputes is the resolution of the labor disputes regarding the conclusion, performance, amendment, suspension and cessation of the individual work contracts or, as the case may be, collective work agreements provided for by this code, and of the demands regarding the legal relationship between the social partners, established according to this code. Art. 282. [parties to labor disputes] The following may be parties to labor disputes: a) the employees and any other person holding a right or obligation on the basis of this code, other laws or collective work agreements; b) the employers, including natural persons and/or legal persons, temporary employment agencies, users, and any other person enjoying an activity performed under the conditions of this code; c) trade unions and employers organizations; d) other legal or natural persons having this ability on the basis of special laws or the Code of Civil Procedure. Art. 283. [statute of limitations] (1) The requests to solve a labor dispute may be submitted: a) within 30 calendar days from the notification of the unilateral decision of the

Art. 282. [prile conflictelor de munc] Pot fi pri n conflictele de munc: a) salariaii, precum i orice alt persoan titular a unui drept sau a unei obligaii n temeiul prezentului cod, al altor legi sau al contractelor colective de munc; b) angajatorii - persoane fizice i/sau persoane juridice-, agenii de munc temporar, utilizatorii, precum i orice alt persoan care beneficiaz de o munc desfurat n condiiile prezentului cod; c) sindicatele i patronatele; d) alte persoane juridice sau fizice care au aceast vocaie n temeiul legilor speciale sau al Codului de procedur civil.

Art. 283. [termenele de prescripie extinctiv] (1) Cererile n vederea soluionrii unui conflict de munc pot fi formulate: a) n termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data n care a fost comunicat decizia unilateral a 97

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII employer regarding the conclusion, performance, amendment, suspension or cessation of the individual work contract; b) within 30 calendar days from the notification of the disciplinary sanction; c) within 3 years from the birth of the right to action, if the subject matter of the individual labor dispute is the payment of due wage rights or compensations to the employee, and in the case of the liability for material damage of the employees towards the employer; d) on the entire length of the contract, should the establishment of the nullity of an individual work contract, a collective work agreement or provisions thereof be requested; e) within 6 months from the birth of the right of action, in the case of nonapplication of the collective work agreement or clauses thereof. (2) In all other cases not mentioned in paragraph (1), the term shall be 3 years from the birth of the right.

angajatorului referitoare la ncheierea, executarea, modificarea, suspendarea sau ncetarea contractului individual de munc; b) n termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data n care s-a comunicat decizia de sancionare disciplinar; c) n termen de 3 ani de la data naterii dreptului la aciune, n situaia n care obiectul conflictului individual de munc const n plata unor drepturi salariale neacordate sau a unor despgubiri ctre salariat, precum i n cazul rspunderii patrimoniale a salariailor fa de angajator; d) pe toat durata existenei contractului, n cazul n care se solicit constatarea nulitii unui contract individual sau colectiv de munc ori a unor clauze ale acestuia; e) n termen de 6 luni de la data naterii dreptului la aciune, n cazul neexecutrii contractului colectiv de munc ori a unor clauze ale acestuia. (2) n toate situaiile, altele dect cele prevzute la alin. (1), termenul este de 3 ani de la data naterii dreptului.

CAPITOLUL 2 - Competena material i; CHAPTER 2 - Jurisdiction ratione loci teritorial and ratione materiae Art. 284. [competent court] (1) The courts established according to the Code of Civil Procedure shall be competent for the trial of the labor disputes. (2) The applications regarding the cases provided for in paragraph (1) shall be submitted to the competent court within whose circumscription the plaintiff has its domicile or residence or, as the case may be, headquarters. CHAPTER 3 - Special rules of court Art. 284. [instana compentent] (1) Judecarea conflictelor de munc este de competena instanelor stabilite conform Codului de procedur civil. (2) Cererile referitoare la cauzele prevzute la alin. (1) se adreseaz instanei competente n a crei circumscripie reclamantul i are domiciliul sau reedina ori, dup caz, sediul.

CAPITOLUL 3 - Reguli speciale de procedur

Art. 285. [exemption from judiciary Art. 285. [scutirea de timbraj] stamp] Cauzele prevzute la art. 281 sunt scutite de taxa The cases provided for in Article 281 shall judiciar de timbru i de timbrul judiciar. be exempted from the judiciary stamp and the judiciary stamp tax.

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII Art. 286. [speedy trial]

Art. 286. [celeritatea] (1) Cererile referitoare la soluionarea conflictelor de munc se judec n regim de urgen. (2) Termenele de judecat nu pot fi mai mari de 15 zile. (3) Procedura de citare a prilor se consider legal ndeplinit dac se realizeaz cu cel puin 24 de ore nainte de termenul de judecat.

(1) The applications regarding the resolution of the labor disputes shall be tried in emergency procedure. (2) The interval between the days of appearance shall not exceed 15 days. (3) The summoning of the parties shall be legally fulfilled when done at least 24 hours before the day of appearance. Art. 287. [burden of proof] The burden of proof in the labor disputes lies with the employers account, which shall submit the evidence for its defense by the first day of appearance. Art. 288. [administration of evidence] The evidence shall be administered under the emergency procedure, and the court shall have the right to reject the right to submit evidence to the party groundlessly delaying its administration. Art. 289. [enforceability of judgments]

Art. 287. [sarcina probei] Sarcina probei n conflictele de munc revine angajatorului, acesta fiind obligat s depun dovezile n aprarea sa pn la prima zi de nfiare. Art. 288. [administrarea probelor] Administrarea probelor se face cu respectarea regimului de urgen, instana fiind n drept s decad din beneficiul probei admise partea care ntrzie n mod nejustificat administrarea acesteia Art. 289. [fora executorie a hotrrilor]

The judgments pronounced on the merits Hotrrile pronunate n fond sunt definitive i shall be final and enforceable by right. executorii de drept. Art. 290. [reference to special law] Revoked. Art. 291. [ordinary law] Art. 290. [sediul materiei] Abrogat. Art. 291. [dreptul comun]

The provisions of this code shall be Dispoziiile prezentului titlu se completeaz cu supplemented by the provisions of the Code prevederile Codului de procedur civil. of Civil Procedure.

TITLE XIII - Final and transitional provisions Art. 292. [harmonization of labor law] According to the international obligations assumed by Romania, the labor legislation will be constantly harmonized with the standards of the European Union, the conventions and recommendations of the

TITLUL XIII - Dispozitii tranzitorii si finale Art. 292. [armonizarea legislaiei muncii] Potrivit obligaiilor internaionale asumate de Romnia, legislaia muncii va fi armonizat permanent cu normele Uniunii Europene, cu conveniile i recomandrile Organizaiei Internaionale a Muncii, cu normele dreptului 99

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII International Labor Organization, and the internaional al muncii. standards of the international labor law.

Art. 293. [asimilarea reglementrilor Uniunii Europene] Revoked. Abrogat. Art. 294. [legal definition of management Art. 294. [definiia legal a salariatului cu personnel] funcie de conducere] For the purposes of this code, the managerial positions are those which are n sensul prezentului cod, funciile de conducere defined by law or employer's internal sunt cele definite prin lege sau prin reglementri regulations. interne ale angajatorului. The present law transposes art. 16 letter b), Prezenta lege transpune art. 16 lit. b), art. 18, art. art. 18, art. 19 of the European Parliament 19 din Directiva 2003/88/CE a Parlamentului and Council Directive 2003/88/CE dated on European i a Consiliului din 4 noiembrie 2003 4 November 2003, regarding certain aspects privind anumite aspecte ale organizrii timpului of the organisation of the working time, de lucru, publicat n Jurnalul Oficial al Uniunii published in the Official Journal of the Europene nr. 299 din 18 noiembrie 2003 i art. 3, European Union No. 299 dated on 18 art. 4, art. 10 din Directiva 2008/104/CE a November 2003 and the art. 3, art. 4, art. 10 Parlamentului European i a Consiliului din 19 of the European Parliament and Council noiembrie 2008, publicat n Jurnalul Oficial al Directive 2008/104/CE dated on 19 Uniunii Europene nr. 327 din 5 decembrie 2008 November 2008, published in the Official privind munca prin agent de munc temporar. Journal of the European Union No. 327 dated on 5 December 2008, regarding the employment by temporary employment agency. Art. 293. [transposition of EU provisions] Art. 295. [ordinary law character of the Art. 295. [caracterul de dreptul comun al Labor Code] Codul muncii] (1) The provisions of this code shall be supplemented by other provisions contained in the labor legislation and, as far as they are not incompatible with the specific features of the work relations provided for in this code, the provisions of the civil law. (2) The provisions of this code shall also apply as ordinary law to those work relations not based on an individual work contract, as far as the special regulations are not complete and their application is not incompatible with the specific features of those work relations. (1) Dispoziiile prezentului cod se ntregesc cu celelalte dispoziii cuprinse n legislaia muncii i, n msura n care nu sunt incompatibile cu specificul raporturilor de munc prevzute de prezentul cod, cu dispoziiile legislaiei civile. (2) Prevederile prezentului cod se aplic cu titlu de drept comun i acelor raporturi juridice de munc nentemeiate pe un contract individual de munc, n msura n care reglementrile speciale nu sunt complete i aplicarea lor nu este incompatibil cu specificul raporturilor de munc respective.

Art. 296. [transitional provisions on the Art. 296. [dispoziii tranzitorii cu privire la length of service] vechimea n munc] (1) The length of service cumulated until December 31, 2008 shall be proven with the employment record book. (2) After the repeal of Decree no. 92/1976 (1) Vechimea n munc stabilit pn la data de 31 decembrie 2008 se probeaz cu carnetul de munc. (2) Dup data abrogrii Decretului nr. 92/1976 100

ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII on the employment record book, as subsequently amended, the length of service cumulated until December 31, 2008 shall be assessed, at the request of the person without an employment record book, by a court competent in labor disputes, based on the records or other evidence able to prove the existence of the work relations. The applications submitted before the repeal of Decree no. 92/1976, as subsequently amended, shall be solved according to the provisions of that act. (3) The employers keeping and filling in the employment record books shall release them gradually to their holders, until June 30, 2009, on the basis of an individual reception report. (4) The territorial labor inspectorate keeping the employment record books shall release them until the date provided for in paragraph (3), under the terms provided for in an Order of the Ministry of Work, Social Solidarity and Family. (5)The announcement regarding the loss of the work books issued under the Decree No. 92/1976 related to the work book, will be published in the Romanian Official Gazette, 3rd Part.

privind carnetul de munc, cu modificrile ulterioare, vechimea n munc stabilit pn la data de 31 decembrie 2008 se reconstituie, la cererea persoanei care nu posed carnet de munc, de ctre instana judectoreasc competent s soluioneze conflictele de munc, pe baza nscrisurilor sau a altor probe din care s rezulte existena raporturilor de munc. Cererile de reconstituire formulate anterior datei abrogrii Decretului nr. 92/1976, cu modificrile ulterioare, se vor soluiona potrivit dispoziiilor acestui act normativ. (3) Angajatorii care pstreaz i completeaz carnetele de munc le vor elibera titularilor n mod ealonat, pn la data de 30 iunie 2009, pe baz de proces-verbal individual de predareprimire. (4) Inspectoratele teritoriale de munc ce dein carnetele de munc ale salariailor le vor elibera pn la data prevzut la alin. (3), n condiiile stabilite prin ordin al ministrului muncii, solidaritii sociale i familiei. (5)Anunul privind pierderea carnetelor de munc emise n temeiul Decretului nr. 92/1976 privind carnetul de munc se public n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea a III-a.

Art. 297. [transitional provisions on Art. 297. [dispoziii tranzitorii cu privire la current labor disputes] judecarea cauzelor] On the date of entry into force of this code, the labor disputes underway in the courts shall continue according to the provisions applicable at the date the suit has been filed. Pe data intrrii n vigoare a prezentului cod cauzele privind conflicte de munc aflate pe rolul tribunalelor se judec n continuare potrivit dispoziiilor procesuale aplicabile la data sesizrii instanelor.

Art. 298. [entry into force; provisions Art. 298. [intrarea in vigorare; dispoziii de repealing other acts] abrogare] (1) This code shall enter into force on March 1, 2003. (2) The following acts shall be repealed after the entry into force of this code: - Labor Code of the Socialist Republic of Romania (Law no. 10/1972), published in the Official Bulletin, Part I, no. 140 of December 1, 1972, as subsequently amended and supplemented; - Law no. 1/1970 Law of labor organization and discipline in the state (1) Prezentul cod intr n vigoare la data de 1 martie 2003. (2) Pe data intrrii n vigoare a prezentului cod se abrog: - Codul muncii al R.S.R., Legea nr. 10/1972, publicat n Buletinul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 140 din 1 decembrie 1972, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare; - Legea nr. 1/1970 - Legea organizrii i disciplinei muncii n unitile socialiste de stat, publicat n Buletinul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 27 din

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ROMANIAN LABOUR CODE/CODUL MUNCII socialist establishments, published in the Official Bulletin, Part I, no. 27 of March 27, 1970, as subsequently amended and supplemented; - Decree no. 63/1981 on the recovery of damages to the public property, published in the Official Bulletin, Part I, no. 17 of March 25, 1981; - Law no. 30/1990 on the employment of employees according to their competence, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 125 of November 16, 1990; - Law no. 2/1991 on the plurality of offices, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 1 of January 8, 1991; - Law of remuneration no. 14/1991, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 32 of February 9, 1991, as subsequently amended and supplemented; - Law no. 6/1992 on the annual leave and other employee leaves, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 16 of February 10, 1992; - Law no. 68/1993 on the guaranteed payment of the minimum wage, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 246 of October 15, 1993; - Law no. 75/1996 on the establishment of the legal holidays, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 150 of July 17, 1996, as subsequently amended and supplemented; - Articles 34 and 35 of Law no. 130/1996 on the collective work agreement, as republished in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 184 of May 19, 1998; - Revoked. (3) The provisions of the Decree no. 92/1976 on the employment record book, published in the Official Bulletin, Part I, no. 37 of April 26, 1976, as subsequently amended, shall be repealed on January 1, 2009.

27 martie 1970, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare; - Decretul nr. 63/1981 privind modul de recuperare a unor pagube aduse avutului obtesc, publicat n Buletinul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 17 din 25 martie 1981; - Legea nr. 30/1990 privind angajarea salariailor n funcie de competen, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 125 din 16 noiembrie 1990; - Legea nr. 2/1991 privind cumulul de funcii, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 1 din 8 ianuarie 1991; - Legea salarizrii nr. 14/1991, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 32 din 9 februarie 1991, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare; - Legea nr. 6/1992 privind concediul de odihn i alte concedii ale salariailor, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 16 din 10 februarie 1992; - Legea nr. 68/1993 privind garantarea n plat a salariului minim, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 246 din 15 octombrie 1993; - Legea nr. 75/1996 privind stabilirea zilelor de srbtoare legal n care nu se lucreaz, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 150 din 17 iulie 1996, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare; - art. 34 i 35 din Legea nr. 130/1996 privind contractul colectiv de munc, republicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 184 din 19 mai 1998; - Abrogat. (3) Pe data de 1 ianuarie 2009 se abrog dispoziiile Decretului nr. 92/1976 privind carnetul de munc, publicat n Buletinul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 37 din 26 aprilie 1976, cu modificrile ulterioare.

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