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KPDS DERS NOTLARI

Bol bol pararaf okuyun. Roman veya hikaye deil, gncel haberler, bilimsel veya sosyal ierikli makaleler vs. TENSES (ZAMANLAR) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2 1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ........................................................................................................................................................ 2 2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................................................................................................................................... 2 3. SIMPLE PAST TENSE............................................................................................................................................................... 3 4. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 5. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE................................................................................................................................. 4 7. PAST PERFECT TENSE ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE....................................................................................................................................... 5 9. GOING TO / WILL / SOON (Future Tense) ............................................................................................................................... 5 10. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................................................................................................................................... 5 11. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE (Will + Have + V3) ......................................................................................................................... 5 12. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ................................................................................................................................ 5 13. FUTURE IN THE PAST ........................................................................................................................................................... 6 14. ACTIVE / PASSIVE ................................................................................................................................................................ 6 TENSE UYUMU ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 MODALS ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 1. SIMPLE MODALS .................................................................................................................................................................... 8 2. CONTINUOUS MODALS ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 3. PAST MODALS (Perfect Modals)............................................................................................................................................. 11 DETERMINERS AND QUANTIFIERS (BELRTME SIFATLARI) ............................................................................................................. 12 DETERMINERS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12 PRONOUNS (ADIL - ZAMR) ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS............................................................................................................................................................. 14 CONDITIONALS (IF CLAUSE) ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 0. ZERO CONDITIONAL (V1) ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 1. FIRST CONDITIONAL (V1) .................................................................................................................................................... 14 2. SECOND CONDITIONAL (V2)................................................................................................................................................. 15 3. THIRD CONDITIONAL (Had + V3) ......................................................................................................................................... 15 MIXED TYPE (3 2) (Cmlelerde Time expression var ise geerlidir. Yoksa kullanlmaz). ............................................................. 15 CONDITIONALS INVERSION (IF CLAUSE'NIN DEVRK HAL) ............................................................................................................ 16 1. FIRST CONDITIONAL............................................................................................................................................................ 16 2. SECOND CONDITIONAL (Present ve Future Anlamldr) ........................................................................................................... 16 3. THIRD CONDITIONAL ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 WISH CLAUSE (KEKE...) ............................................................................................................................................................... 17 PRESENT VE FUTURE ANLAM .................................................................................................................................................... 17 PAST ANLAM ............................................................................................................................................................................ 17 ADJECTIVE (SIFAT ismi niteler) / ADVERB (ZARF fiili niteler) ...................................................................................................... 18 SO THAT / SUCH THAT.................................................................................................................................................................. 18 COMPARATIVE (ki eyin karlatrlmas) / SUPERLATIVE (2 den fazla eyin karlatrlmas) ........................................................... 18 SUPERLATIVE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 19 ETLEME YAPMAK VEYA BOZMAK ................................................................................................................................................. 19 "THE ... , THE ..." YAPISI ............................................................................................................................................................... 20 RELATIVE CLAUSE (Sfat Cmlecikleri) ............................................................................................................................................ 20 WHICH - WHERE (Preposition + Which) Ayrm - Salamas: ....................................................................................................... 21 NDRGEME (REDUCTION)............................................................................................................................................................. 23 NOUN CLAUSE .............................................................................................................................................................................. 24 1) Object konumunda noun clause ............................................................................................................................................ 24 2) Subject konumunda noun clause ........................................................................................................................................... 24 URGENCY FLLER (SUBJUNCTIVE - ekimsiz fiil yaplar) ............................................................................................................... 25 ADVERBIAL CLAUSE (Zarf cmlecikleri bir eit bala) .................................................................................................................. 26 AS/LIKE ................................................................................................................................................................................... 28 IF ANLAMI VEREN ADVERBIALLER ................................................................................................................................................. 29 QUESTION TAGS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 29 SHORT REPLIES "Ben de" .............................................................................................................................................................. 30 NO MATTER HOW (,)..................................................................................................................................................................... 30 SENTENCE CONNECTORS (Cmle balayclar) ................................................................................................................................ 31 INFINITIVE / GERUND ................................................................................................................................................................... 33 PERFECT INFINITIVE (to + have + V3), PERFECT GERUND (having + V3) ....................................................................................... 34 PARTICIPLES (Adverbial Clauselerin indirgemesi) ............................................................................................................................ 35 INVERSION (DEVRK CMLE YAPISI) ............................................................................................................................................. 36 CAUSATIVE (ETTRGEN) ................................................................................................................................................................ 37 JUST VE ALREADY FARKI ............................................................................................................................................................... 38 EVR, CMLE TAMAMLAMA, ANLAMI BOZAN CMLE, PARARAF SORULARI .................................................................................. 38 A) EVRLER: ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38 B) CMLE TAMAMLAMALAR: ..................................................................................................................................................... 38 C) PARARAFTA ANLAMI BOZAN CMLE: .................................................................................................................................. 38 D) PARARAF TAMAMLAMA: ..................................................................................................................................................... 39 E) DURUMA UYGUN DEN CMLEY BULMAK: ......................................................................................................................... 39 F) DYALOG TAMAMLAMA: ........................................................................................................................................................ 39 G) YAKIN ANLAMLI CMLEY BULMA:........................................................................................................................................ 40 H) READING (PARARAF SORULARI): ....................................................................................................................................... 40 I) CLOZE TESTLER ................................................................................................................................................................... 40 GENEL BLGLER - YAPILAR - KALIPLAR ......................................................................................................................................... 40
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TENSES (ZAMANLAR) 1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE Gnlk hayat, Alkanlk I smoke ten cigarettes a day. Sreklilik bildirir. Time Expressionlar Zaman belirler. They go to the cinema every Sunday. On Saturday (Sreklilik yok) On Saturdays (Sreklilik belirtir) Simple present tense ile kullanlabilen zaman zarflar Once Twice Three times Day Week Month Year

Haftada bir, ayda bir ...

Always (present cont.) Often (Past Tense) Already, usually, sometimes(=occasionally), never ,rarely, scarcely, seldom, frequently Doal gerekler (Natural facts) Water boils at 100C Doal gerekler tense uyumuna uymaz. (Bkz Tense Uyumu-Sayfa 5) Newton discovered that water boils at 100C Time Table (Balang ve biti saati belli olaylar) ile kullanlr Our class finishes at 12:50 PM (Saat u an 12:00 PM) Future anlam olmasna ramen Simple Present kullanlr. 2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Ksa sreli yaplan ilerde kullanlr.

Now
Balang Biti

Tense uyumunda Simple present <- -> Present continuous deiimi olabilir. Now At the moment At present Right now For the time being = Now *Currently (imdi, Bu gn) This time Presently Just this time

Were studying English

*Currently we are working on a project. (Currently grnce hemen Present cont. Konulacak) NOT: Bir Time Expression; arkasndan gelen cmleleri de etkiler (Yeni bir time expressionlu cmle gelene kadar) (cloze testlerde bu durum nemlidir) Present Continuous Tense ile Future Anlam Normalde Future Tenseler Planlanm ve Planlanmam gelecek anlamlar verir. Present Continuous Tense ile Planlanm Gelecek Anlam verilir. (Time expression kullanlmas arttr) Were having a party on Saturday night Theyre coming home tomorrow [Going to V1] kalb ile ayn manada kullanlr. Zihinsel eylemlerde Ving kullanlmaz (I have a car)

Fiziksel eylemlerde Ving kullanlr. (I am having a breakfast)* *Normalde Ving formda kullanlmayan baz fiiller Ving formda kullanldklarnda "Fiziksel eylem" anlatr. Understand, Know, Love, Believe, Hear, Think 3. SIMPLE PAST TENSE Bu Tensede Time Expressionlar ok nemlidir. Kesinlikle time expression ierirler. Gemite olan ve bitmi olaylar iin kullanlr. (Bir olayn olu zaman iin kullanlr) Last month, Last year (Tm zaman birimleri ) On Friday Ago n time, date (in 1980)

She went to Italy

Past

Now

imdi ile balants yok ise Pasttr. Hayali durumlar ile birlikte kullanlr If Clause, Wish Clause 4. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Gemite seilen bir nokta zerinde sregelen olaylardr.

Past

Now

What were you doing at 8 PM last night? I was watching TV at 8 PM last night. Gemite o noktada o ii yapmaya devam ediyor. Gemiteki bir srete tek bir noktay anlatr. While my wife was cooking dinner, I was reading my papers. While I was studying, my friends came (kesien eylem) Past continuous tense genelde 2 li cmle kalb kullanr. (tens uyumuna dikkat: past continuous tense, simple past tense) When my wife come, we were working on the car * For: Asla past continuous tense ile kullanlmaz!: I was studying english for 4 hours Time expression olarak At the time kullanlabilir. 5. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Gemite balam etkisi halen devam eden bir olay anlatrken kullanlr. Olayn sonucu u an da grlmektedir. (Gemiteki bir olay bu gne balar) Tecrbe- deneyim bildiren durumlarda kullanlr. Already, just kullanlabilir. Yet: olumsuz ve soruda kullanlr. I havent finished it yet. She worked hard. Yet, she failed again (Yet cmle banda ise bala grevindedir. Present Perfect tense bildirmeyebilir)

Past

Now

* Present perfect tensede zaman nemli deildir. nemli olan olayn gnmze balanmasdr. Indefinite time (belirsiz zaman) olarak da bilinir. * Simple past tense ve Present perfect tense arasnda pheye dlen durumlarda; cmlenin time expressionu yok ise Present perfect tense olma ihtimali olduka yksektir. * cmlenin time expressionu yok ise Present perfect tense tercih edilmelidir.
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I have been in Ankara

for 30 years since 1980 Ever since up to now up till now lately recently so far Past few night in over Past the for Last during

Two years

* Ever since kesinlikle present perfecttir. * For tek bana baklarak Present perfect demek yanltc olur. rnek: He worked as a waiter for 3 years and then he moved to stanbul (simple past) * Cmlenin devam past iken ncesi Present Perfect olamaz. * Sinceden sonra past tense var ise ncesi mutlaka present perfect tensedir. (Present perfect + Since + past) SMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT FARKI: Someone broke the window (simple past) (cam krlm fakat yenisi taklmtr) Someone has broken the window (Present perfect) (cam halen krk, grnyor) * Present perfectte olayn kendisi nemlidir, zaman deil. 6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Birok durumda Present perfect tense ile ayndr. I have worked here for 2 years (Present Perfect) I have been working here for 2 Years (Present Perfect Continuous) Perfect ve perfect continuous fark: She has been cleaning her house for 4 hours present perfect continuous tense (4 saattir-sre-sreklilik-sre belirtir) She has cleaned 2 rooms so far present perfect tense (Ne kadar, ka tane?) * Just, Already, Yet hari tm time expressionlar alabilir. * Continuous tenseler ile Just, Already, Yet kullanlmaz. 7. PAST PERFECT TENSE
Early Past

Past

Now

. * I had gone there (Tek bana byle bir cmle kullanlmaz) Mutlaka bir past cmlesi ile beraber kullanlr ki bu genelde simple past tenseli bir cmledir. When we got there, the film had already started. (simple past, past perfect) * Past perfect olmad zamanlarda simple past ayn ii grr. After I had finished... yerine After I finished... gibi By the time I arrived at the hall, they had finished preparations. (By the time = by : nce, o an itibariyle...) By the time [simple past] [past perfect-(simple past)] By 1950, the government had started 3rd economic reform * By ile tarih kullanlr, by the time ile cmle kullanlr * By ve by the time ile past perfect veya future perfect kullanlr.

8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Sreci anlatr


Early Past

Past

Now

Time expression sre belirtiyor ise bu past perfect continuousdur. When we arrived in izmir, we had been travelling for 8 hours * Bu tensein olmazsa olmaz %90 for dur * Time expression kullanlmas zorunludur. (stte "for 8 hours") "We were driving.." (past continuous tense)den fark udur: past continuousda zaman sresi belirtilmiyor. 9. GOING TO / WILL / SOON (Future Tense) Going to: Planlanm gelecek Will: Planlanmam gelecek Im going to visit my uncle at weekend Im hungry, I will have a sandwich Prediction (Tahmin) I think he wont be successfull (Muhtemel)(Wont=Will not) He is going to fall down. (because he is a drunken) (htimali yksek, kesin) 10. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

Now

Future

Planl gelecek zaman I will be lying on the beach this time (next week) Do not call me tonight Ill be studying for my exam. *FOR asla kullanlmaz: She will be studying for her test for 4 hours 11. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE (Will + Have + V3) Gelecekte bitecek olan bir eylem iin kullanlr. Gelecek zamanda belli bir noktadan nce bir ii bitirmi olmak (Deadline-Biti Tarihi belirtir.)

Now

Future

When (by the time) you get home, (Simple present tense)

we will have finished decorating your room. Future perfect tense (veya baka bir future tense)

When you finish your Project, we will have already submitted ours. By 2012, they will have finished the tunnel. * by veya by the time (when) yoksa Future Perfect Tense kullanlmaz ! 12. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Gelecek Ay itibariyle 2 sene olacak I will have been working here for 2 years next month. Past

Now

Future

Ill have been living in Ankara for 15 years next week. * (Mutlaka zaman sresi verilmelidir) * FOR olmadan kullanlmaz.
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13. FUTURE IN THE PAST Gemite karar verilip yaplmayan mazeret bildirimi = (was/were going to) Gemite karar verilip yaplan= (would) They were going to get (V1) married last month (fakat evlenemediler) I was going to call (V1) you but I had unexpected... * would tek bana kullanlmaz. ncesinde mutlaka past olmaldr. 14. ACTIVE / PASSIVE * zne eylemi yapamyor ise bu cmle pasif bir cmledir. * Passive fiilden sonra bir isim geliyorsa bu isim ounlukla ii yapan kii konumundadr. Ve cmlede fiilden sonra bir preposition olur. Bu da ounlukla by dr. Our house was built by my father. Be Am Is Are Was Were Been

Said Believed Thought Reported

To ...(be in USA)

"It is said to be in USA" "Amerikada olduu sylenir".

TENSE UYUMU NEML: * kili veya daha fazla cmle topluluunda birbirini izleyen cmlelerin Tense (Zaman belirten)leri uyumlu olmaldr. Present ise sonraki cmle present, past ise takip eden cmle de past olmaldr. * Balayan cmlenin time expressionu sonraki gelen cmlelerin zamann belirler. * Ne zaman yeni bir time expression gelir o zaman o time expression zaman bakmndan sonraki cmlelere hakim olur. **BALALAR VE TENSE UYUMLARI** CMLE 1 Present Perfect Tense (YOK) PRESENT TENSELER Simple present Present continuous Present Modal FUTURE PAST TENSELER Simple past Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Past Modal WOULD BALA Continuous yap ile kulanlabilen balalar When While As Just as (while) Continuous yap ile kulanlamayan balalar After Before By the time By Once As soon as The moment (when) Until CMLE 2 Present Perfect Tense PRESENT TENSELER Simple present Present continuous Present Modal FUTURE (YOK) PAST TENSELER Simple past Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Past Modal WOULD (YOK)

*ok nemlidir. Birden fazla cmleli yaplarda Tense uyumuna mutlaka dikkat edilmelidir. CMLE 1 - BALA - CMLE 2 yaps yukarda gsterilmitir. BALA CMLE 2 CMLE 1 eklinde de olsa ayn kural geerlidir. *YOK: Kullanlamaz demektir. n artllar: Past Perfect Continuous FOR Future Perfect Contiunous Future Perfect BY / BY THE TIME Past Perfect Would have V3 IF + PAST PERFECT * After ve Before den sonra Continuous tenseler kullanlmaz!

Past few night Ever since: Ago Could Would have

Present Perfect Simple past Past gsterir Past perfect

Past
Realised Understood Discovered Found Whenever n case =ihtimaline kar

Now

(that) Past Perfect Simple Present / Simple past Simple present Simple past Should Olaydan daha nceki zamanlar anlatr

Because

* If veya If anlam grmeden "Would have + V3" kullanmayn! * would if li cmlede deil, dier cmlede kullanlr. f ...., Might have been Could have been

By By the time (By l ifadelerde i bitmitir. Devam etmez.) Soon Earlier (Daha nce) It is the first time It was the first time Whenever Future Perfect by the time Simple Present By then (-den nce) Past few night In a few (days, years) As soon as So far By the time +

Past Perfect, Future Perfect Future Tense Past Perfect Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Present Simple Past Past Present Perfect tense Future Tense Present Perfect Simple present Future Perfect Simple Past Past Perfect Simple past Simple Future

Ardk ve time expression iermeyen cmlelerde Simple past then Simple past yaps izlenir. (Eer Simple past ile balad ise) Gemie ait ak tarih verilen cmlelerde simple past kullanlr. *Because ile gelen cmleler sebep-sonu cmleleridir. Becausedan nce gelen cmle sonu, sonraki cmle ise sebeptir. (Sonu + Because + Sebep) *Yaayan kiilerin eserleri vb. hakknda konuurken Present perfect (Bugne balant kuruyor) *len kiilerin hakknda konuurken Past Tense kullanlr. *Still grldnde present zaman dnlmelidir. * kilemelerde (More and more) Present tense kullanlr. * s.past + as if + past perfect * s.past + as if + s.past

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MODALS Kendi anlam da olan Yardmc fiillere denir. (be fiilleri gibi fakat bunlarn kendi anlamlar da vardr) 1. Simple Modals 2. Continuous Modals 3. Past Modals 1. SIMPLE MODALS 1. Ability Can Could be able to (modal like)

Normalde bir modal baka bir modalla veya baka bir tense ile kullanlmaz. Baka bir tense ile kullanlaca zaman Modal Likeler kullanlr. I can play the guitar (imdi u anda gitar alyorum) (Sreklilik belirtir) I could write when I was 6. We were able to rescue 5 people after the accident We could rescue 5 people after the accident (Tek seferlik) (Srekli bu i oluyormu gibi) (Normalde Kullanlmaz)

He was able to swim for 50 km when the boat sank You will be able to speak fluently when you finish this course 2. Obligation (Zorunluluk) Must Have to, Has to (Modal like) Have got to (Konuma dilinde) You Must be at home by 11 PM. FATHER Must SON Have to FRIEND Baba Must Kullanr, Olu arkadana anlatrken ayn cmleyi Have to ile ifade eder. I dont have to be at home by 11 PM. Saat 11 de evde olmam gerekmiyor. I mustnt be at home by 11 PM Mustnt ise Saat 11 de evde olmamalym manas veriyor. * Have to: kanunlarda da kullanlr. PAST I had to get up early yesterday I didnt have to ... Past Olumsuz. Must un past ise yine Had to dur. FUTURE You will have to study hard when you start university CONTINUOUS TENSEde have to kullanm yoktur. PASSIVE This book had to be republished last year. 3. Possiblity (ihtimal-olaslk) May Might Could

Modal cmlesinden nceki ve sonraki cmleler bizim iin nemlidir. Modal tespit etmek iin bu cmlelere bakarz. Where is John? He is in his room (%100) *%100 olaslk ancak stteki cmledeki gibi is ile salanabilir. %100 olasl hibir modal salamaz !

Im not sure, I dont know It is not definite.. gibi

he may might could be in his room (%50)

It is not definite university might build a new swimming pool. * Grld zere Could: Past Ability veya Present Possibility gsterir. (Modals Madde 1 ve 3) 4. Probability Should Ought to Must

5. Deduction (kanta dayal karm-tahmin yapmak)

Where is John? There is light in his room, he must be in his room (%90-95) Its rainy outside, he cant be outside (%90-95 orannda darda olmas imkansz) Alt izili cmleler kant cmleleridir. * Deduction kullanmnda must un olumsuzu cant dr. (Musn't Deil !) 6. Past Habit Used to would

nceden yapp imdi yapmadmz iler iin kullanlr. (Past tense bildirir) nceden yapardm imdi yapmyorum manas verir. I used to live in zmir (Daha nce izmirde yaadm. Artk yaamyor..) I didnt used to live in zmir. (Daha nce zmirde yaamyordum ama imdi yayorum. ) Would ile fark: My father would take me to fishing every Sunday. Olay dzenli aralklarla yaplyor. Yukardaki gibi bir time expression var ise would kullanlr. Yok ise used to kullanlr. * be used to kalbyla (Alkanlk bildiren) kartrma ! Be Used to Ving Get I am used to living in zmir. (zmirde yaamaya alknm)(Alkanlk bildirir) I used to live in zmir. (Daha nce izmirde yaadm. Artk yaamyor..) I was used to + Ving I got used to + Ving I cant get used to + Ving I will get used to + Ving 7. Neccessity (Gereklilik) Need to Lack of Neccessity (Gerekli deillik) Dont need to Neednt

You need to study hard when you go to Harvard Olumsuzu dont need to dur. Neednt kullanld zaman Neednt to deildir. * Simple modallar Verb den nce to almaz (can, must,could, should). Bunun yerine modal like lar to alr (Have to) 8. Expectation (Beklenti) Be supposed to Be to (ayn anlamda fakat daha kuvvetli)

You are supposed to do the tests (Testleri yapmanz bekleniyor). You are to do the tests (Testleri yapman bekleniyor - zorundasn) 9. Advice (Tavsiye, -melisin) Should Ought to (az kullanlr) Had better stop smoking

We

should ought to
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We had better stay at home, otherwise we wil get frozen We had better not stay at home. (* not to stay at home deil !) 10. Suggestions (neri) Shall we ...? Lets (let us) Why dont ...? What about...? How about ...?

Lets go out tonight? Shall we try the new restaurant tonight? Why dont we stay at home? What about How about Eating out tonight?

Lets not Cevap niteliinde olumsuz (Gitmesek..?) Can Could May Will Would Be allowed to Would you mind Do you mind

11. Request 12. Offer 13. Permission

Rica Teklif zin

Offer: Can Could May

I help you?

* Shall; I ve We ile kullanlr. Yukardan aaya kibarlk derecesi artar (informal to formal) Request: Can Could You help me? Will Would May (Kullanlmaz) Would you mind (do you mind) opening the window? Permission: Can I use your phone? Could may Would you mind if I opened the window? (Cam amamn bir sakncas var m?) Be allowed to: (mustnt gibi) You are not allowed to smoke in this building. Nobody can allow you to use this computer (aktif cmle) Would you let me go out? Let me know: (Bana haber ver) 2. CONTINUOUS MODALS Ving alr ve szkonusu eylemin "o anda" olma olasln verir. Present modallardan tek fark fiillerin Ving olmasdr. Where is John? I dont know. Might be He Could May

Studying

in his room (%50)

What are they doing? Im not sure, they might be watching TV.

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You should be studying for your exam, instead of watcing TV here. (Tv izlemek yerine ders alman bekleniyor. Fakat o tv izliyor) You ought to be studying ... They should be typing those letters not chatting (instead of chatting) Deduction: (karm yapmak. Kanta dayal sonuca ulamak) Where is John? There comes music from his room, he must be listening to music. * must olumsuzu olarak cant kullanlr. Mustnt deil There is no snow, he cant be skiing at this time of the year. She must be studying, there is light in her room. 3. PAST MODALS (Perfect Modals) *Dier modalardan fark; Eylemin gemite olmasdr. Have + V3 yaps kullanlr. May Might Could

They

Have

Gone

They might have gone out, there is no answer (Dar km olabilirler) (Past) They Might go out (Dar kabilirler) (Present) She may have left her book on the bus He could have started doing the experiment Could have in baka bir anlam: (yapabilirdi, fakat yapmad) He could have become (V3) the manager of that company but he chose to have his own business You could have passed your exam but you didnt study enough. Should have V3: (Yapmalydn, fakat yapmadn) You should have thanked her for her contribution. (Teekkr etmeliydin fakat etmedin) You shouldt have shouted at her in front of everybody. (barmamalydn fakat bardn) * Ought to(=should have) nun olumsuzu ought not to dur They ought to have infomed us about their financial problems. (onlar bize finansal problemlerinden bahsetmeliydiler. fakat bahsetmemiler-) * Must have ile should have ayrm nemli They must have moved to another city (Tanm olabilirler) (%95) Should have V3 (Tanmalydlar ama tanmadlar) * Simple yapdaki kullanm haricinde mustun dier yaplarnda zorunluluk bildirimi yoktur. She cant have (couldnt have) gone to the library, because it is closed today. Cant have impossiblity (Yapm olamazsn) *** mustnt + have + V3 kk grrsek direk eleyeceiz. Byle birey normalde kmaz. * Would + have + V3 : if condition tarz birey grmeden kullanlmaz. *Must ile Must have i kartrma ! Would rather: Would rather (d rather) I Would rather have I

Stay Stayed

At home tonight (Present) At home last night (Past)

I would rather you stayed at home tonight (Present) (You znesi gelince Keke anlam verdi) Id rather you had stayed at home last night (Past) Alternatif sunmak May As well Might
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Would you be so kind = would you mind gibi kibar bir ifadedir. DETERMINERS AND QUANTIFIERS (BELRTME SIFATLARI) DETERMINERS A. Saylabilenler All Both Few (-) Afew (+) Many Most No Half Several Quite a few A good many(=many) A great many(=many)

Of
i Belirginle tirmek in kullanlr

None of

The These Those My His Her ...

oul isim Students

oul Fiil are

I have a few friends in Ankara (Ankarada birka arkadam var) I have few friends in Ankara (Ankarada neredeyse hi arkadam yok) Either (2 ey) Neither (2 ey) None (2 den fazla) Each (2 den fazla) The These Those My, Your,... oul isimTekil Yardmc fiil Is Has

Of

Neither of these teachers is from Adana. None of my students + Tekil Fiil * None; arkasndan bir isim geliyor ise "of" suz kullanlmaz. * No off diye bir kullanm ekli olmaz ! Either (Herhangi bir -2 ey) Neither (Hibir -2 ey) Many a (Many) Each (Herbir -2den fazla ey) Tekil isim child Tekil Yardmc fiil Is Tekil Fiil here

Neither student wants higher wages. Either ... or= Ya o, ... ya bu Neither ... nor= Ne o, ... ne de bu Kendi yapsnda "of" olan yaplar: oul isim oul Fiil A lot of Plenty of (bolca) Students A couple of (bir ift) Dont want to come here Lots of The, these, those ile de kullanlabilirler. * A lot: Adverb olarak kullanldnda of olmadan kullanlabilir. She studied a lot to get to scholarship. * Very + Adjective (Sfat) * Very + Adverb (Zarf) *Very + Noun (sim) olmaz. Bazen istisnai durumlarda olabilir. (This is the very book I choosed. tam olarak anlamnda) B. Saylamayanlar: Little (-) A little (+) Much Of (Of kullanlmaya da bilir) The My His Her Saylamayan isim Tekil fiil

A little of the money will be spent on furniture. Much Money is needed No Any One Body Tekil isim

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Some Thing Every Where Nobody is here. A great deal of A large amount of A great quantity of A lot of (Plenty of ) Lots of Saylamayan isim Money Tekil fiil is needed for the project

* A great deal of: Soyut isimlerde sadece bu determiner kullanlr. Effort : Soyut saylamayan isim (Gayret) Rice : Somut saylamayan isim (Pirin) C. Some / Any Saylabilen ve saylamayanlarla beraber kullanlabilirler. Some (baz) oul isim (students) oul fiil Any A lot of (Plenty of ) Saylamayan isim (Money) Lots of rnek: Some students have diet A lot of Money has been needed Some of these people Some people Any: olumsuz ve soru cmlelerinde kullanlr. I dont have any friends in Ankara Any + olumlu cmle Any + olumsuz soru Tekil oul Tekil fiil

* Any normalde cmleye olumsuz anlam vermez. You can take any box (tekil) you like. (Olumlu bir cmle) *Some person olmaz (Someboy, somegirl istisnadr). ** Some / Any + (a , an, the) kullanlmaz !. "some a book" Yanltr. Anyone Anybody Somebody Everybody Nobody (-) Herhangi biri Hi kimse (Soru anlam), kimse (Pozitif anlam) Biri Herkes Hi kimse

* The number of = Tekil * A number of = ouldur (the) one (the) one (the) one the other (2 eyden birisi ve dieri) Another Another Another the other

Toplam say belli ise sonuncusu the other the others veya other students each other (2 eyin etkileimi) One another (2 den fazla eyin etkileimi)

I have two hands. One is my right and the other is left I tried 4 pairs of shoes. One was red, another one was yellow, another was white and the other was black. I have 5 students, one is from Ankara, the others (the other students) are from Aydn. They have been writing to each other for 25 years Farkl kullanmlar ve kalplar 1. There is a bus to my hometown every other day. (gn ar anlamnda) 2. Are there any other questions? (baka soru anlamnda). 3. This job will take another ten days. (bir 10 gn daha gerekecek) 4. Im busy, Please come back some other time.(baka bir zaman)
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5.

I will be busy tomorrow morning, can we meet at another time

He will graduate in another two years (Takip eden 2 yl ierisinde.... )Now 2 years 2 years ... PRONOUNS (ADIL - ZAMR) SUBJECT I You We They He She It + VERB + OBJECT
Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun

Me My Mine You Your Yours Us Our Ours Love Them Their Theirs His His Him Her Her Hers It Its (X) * Mine, Yours .... grubunun kullanlabilmesi iin nceki cmlede nesnenin belirtilmesi gerekir. My car is red. What color is yours ? gibi * Kendilerinden sonra bir nesne almazlar Yours car gibi bir cmle yanltr. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Myself Yourself (sen) / yourselves (siz) Ourselves Themselves Himself Herself Itself ("I didn't it myself") * Reflexive prononuns da; Aktif cmlede ii yapan kii ile refleksivi ayn kiidir. Pasif cmlede refleksivi objectin olandr. I did it (by) myself = I myself did it. I was told by the manager himself A child himself England She (Bazen "it", bazen "She" olarak kullanlyor) Ship She

CONDITIONALS (IF CLAUSE) 0. ZERO CONDITIONAL (V1) (Natural Facts "Doal Gerekler") Simple Present Tense Kullanlr. f + Simple present Simple present

If you heat water, it boils at 100C If you put meat in the deep freeze, it freezes * if yerine whenever koyulabiliyor ise zero conditionaldr. 1. FIRST CONDITIONAL (V1) Real Present veya Real Future Anlamldr. Gerek bir olaslktan bahseder. f + Present Tenses (May, might hari tm present modals) (Future Tense kullanlmaz) Present / Future Modals / imperative (emir) Will, can, could, may, might

If you study hard (,) you will pass your exam. If she comes early, we can catch the plane *Tense uyumu Conditional'da da geerlidir. If you can join us, we will be very happy. If you don't want to come with us, stay at home (Emir cmlesi)

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*If'li blmde will kullanlmaz. If anyone should call me, please take me a message. ("Should" ihtimali dryor) f he is not in Office, he might /could be in the lab. (might ve could present probabilityde kullanlabildii iin uygun)

2. SECOND CONDITIONAL (V2) Unreal Present ve Unreal Future anlamldr. Unreal=gerek olmayan anlam verir. Hayali durum olmas arttr ! f + simple past + past continuous Would Could Might

1 ) Tm znelerle birlikte "were" kullanlr. (Normalde I was .. uygun gibi grnebilir fakat conditional iin I were kullanlr) If I were a rich man, I would buy a Ferrari. (Zengin olsam, Ferrari alrm. "fakat zenginlik hayal") If I were you, I wouldn't miss that chance. (Senin yerinde olsam, bu ans karmam. "fakat onun yerinde deil") If she were here, he could help us. 2 ) kinci cmlede modal + V1 (would, could, might) kullanlabilir. Were kullanmadan conditional yaps gstermek mmkn. Bunun iin past bir modal kullanlr. If I could play the piano very well, I would be a musician. 3 ) Veya past fiil kullanlr If you won the lottery, what would you do? If they were playing chess, they wouldn't join us * hayali durumlarda hep 1 Past kullanlr. 4) Time Expressionlar burada grn ile deil, anlam ile uyumlu olmaldr. She is in italy. f she were here now, she could help us. (cmlede grnt olarak her ne kadar now yerine yesterday uygun dursa da anlama bakldnda now uygundur) 3. THIRD CONDITIONAL (Had + V3) Unreal Past anlamldr. Sulayc cmlelerde, yaplmayan eyi sonucu ile birlikte syleyen cmlelerde kullanlr. f Had + V3 (Past Perfect) Could have + V3 Would Could might

Have + V3

f she had told us the truth, we could have saved her. f I could have given the amount you asked for, I would have been very happy. If I hadn't known that you were ill, I wouldn't have come here. (Would + have + V3) Could have Would have If they Might have May have (Kullanlmaz !) If he hadn't left the party early, he might have met my friend. had called us earlier, we * If grr grmez Tense Uyumuna baklacak * If clause yok ise kesinlikle "would have" kullanlmaz. O kk eleyin. MIXED TYPE (3 2) (Cmlelerde Time expression var ise geerlidir. Yoksa kullanlmaz). Would Could Might Now Today (Present Time Expression)

Helped them

+ Past Perfect

* If bulunmayan tarafta mutlaka bugne balayan bir Time expression (burada now) olmaldr. If you hadn't drunk so much wine last night , you wouldn't have felt terrible (33 durumu) (Her iki cmle de gemite, bugne balanan bir durum yok) Fakat; If you hadn't drunk so much, you wouldn't feel terrible now (32) f bulunan ksma now eklenerek mixed type olmas saland
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If she _____ (be) in her office now, ... (bu soru mixed type deil, nki now time expressionu if li ksmda yer almakta) * Zero ve First conditionalda: Unless = if not (-medike) Unless I tell you to go out, do not go out of the Office. * Zero ve First conditionalda: But I would have joined you, but I was busy = I would have joined you, if I hadnt been busy But olan ksm if olarak dnlr. Ve cevap bir zaman geriye ekilir. * Zero ve First conditionalda: Otherwise (aksi takdirde) Stop making that noise; otherwise, I will call the police. Butun aksine otherwise olmayan taraf if olarak dnlr. ZET TABLO: "Zero conditional dndakilerin Continuous yaplar da kullanlmaktadr". Zero Conditional If Simple Present (,) Simple Present First Conditional Can May Simple Present Will Present Continuous Should Present Perfect If (,) Must Can Had better Should (ihtimali drr) .. Will (KULLANILMAZ) Could Might Second Conditional Simple Past Would Past Continuous If (,) Could + V1 Could Might Would (KULLANILMAZ) Third Conditional Past Modals + have Would have If Past Perfect (,) + V3 Could have Might have Mixed Type (3 - 2) Past Modals Could If Past Perfect (,) + V1 + (now, today,..) Would Might CONDITIONALS INVERSION (IF CLAUSE'NIN DEVRK HAL) 1. FIRST CONDITIONAL If that patient should get worse, call me immediately (Normal) Should that patient get worse, (Devrik,- Sadece if li cmle inversiyona urar) Soru klarnda (Could, will, can, did) bulunabilir. Bu klarn hepsi yanltr. If anyone should call me, please take a message Should anyone call me, please take a message. 2. SECOND CONDITIONAL (Present ve Future Anlamldr) * Devrii Were ile yaplr. If I were you, I would apply for this job (Normal) Were I you, I would apply for this job (Devrik) * Devrii Were ile yaplr If I won (V2) the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari Were I to win (V1), I would buy a Ferrari If they had a car Were they to have a car * Should hari, dier tm modallarn If clause inversiyonu yoktur.

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3. THIRD CONDITIONAL If she had come (V3) early, she might not have had a quarrel with her boss Had she come (V3) early, . . . If they had gone to the party, they could have enjoyed Had they gone to the party, . . . WISH CLAUSE (KEKE...) PRESENT VE FUTURE ANLAM I wish I were in zmir now She wishes she had a baby They wish they were on the beach now I wish I could speak French I wish I had a car I wish you I wish I Would Could Could
(zneler ayn iken would kullanlmaz)

Present Anlam

Come to my wedding next week go to his wedding next week

* Present anlam iin Past yap, Past anlam iin Past Perfect yap kullanlr. PAST ANLAM Duyulan pimanlk anlatlr. I wish I hadn't gone to that film She wishes she had told the truth They wish they hadn't bought that house IF ONLY = (I WISH, WE WISH) (Bu iki wish yaps yerine If only tercih edilir) (Only If="Ancak", demektir. Kartrma!) If only we knew her address, we could invite her, too (Olay daha dramatik hale sokar) (2nd conditional) If only you had informed us earlier, we could have helped you. (3rd conditional) Virglden sonraki cmleler 2nd ve 3rd conditional gibi devam edebiliyor. * if + would have + V3 olamaz ! WISH N BR TUZAK SORUSU She didn't accept their offer, but now she wishes she had accepted it (Burada Now yanltmak amacyla konulmu) She wishes she were in a hotel now. * Tm bu conditionallarn Continuouslar iin be Ving gelir. * Present anlam iin Past yap, Past anlam iin Past Perfect yap kullanlr. Present ve future anlam iin: Simple past wish Past continuous Modals (could, would, might) Past anlam iin: Past Perfect wish Past modals + V3 Past modals + V3: Could have + V3 Would have + Might have + v3 * Wish clause arkasndan Present Tense kullanlamaz. (Present Perfect tense dahil,May, can dahil) I wish I can play the guitar She is here now KULLANILAMAZ !

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ADJECTIVE (SIFAT ismi niteler) / ADVERB (ZARF fiili niteler) He is a clever boy Our house is a big one * Adjective ismin nnden gelir She played the piano very well He studied hard for his exam * Adverb fiilin arkasndan gelir. Adjective'lerin fiil ile kullanm: He looks angry. Aslnda "he is angry" dir. Look, seem, smell gibi baz fiillerde bu durum oluur. It smells delicious TOO / ENOUGH It is too hot to go out (too + Adjective + to + V1) * to yerine kesinlikle that gelmez She is too young to get married. (Negatif bir anlam veriliyor) He runs too slowly to catch the burglar Too many (Too abartl anlam veriyor. O kadar ok ki..) Cmleyi negatif anlaml yapyor * She is too clever that OLMAZ! Cevap klarnda too / that var ise direk elenecek. * Enough un kendisi negatif bir anlam katmaz You are not old enough to walk here * to yerine kesinlikle "that" gelmez T.S.E Kural: (Too Sfat Enough) (Too sfattan nce, Enough ise sfattan sonra gelir) SO THAT / SUCH THAT Much Little Many Few (saylamayan) + noun + that (Saylabilen)

So Such

So + Sfat + That: She is so clever that her teachers admire her. t is so hot that you can't walk in the garden. Such + sim + That: She is such a clever girl that her teachers admire her. t is such nice weather that I want to go outside. So'nun fiili niteleme durumu (Zarf): She played the piano so beautifully that everybody burst into tears. They finished the work so quickly that we all got shocked. * "Such That" kalb Adverb (Zarf-Fiili niteler) ile kullanlmyor. She played the piano so (such) beautifully that . COMPARATIVE (ki eyin karlatrlmas) / SUPERLATIVE (2 den fazla eyin karlatrlmas) Ankara is cheaper than stanbul. ("-er than" ekleniyor) She is more beautiful than her brother. (ok heceli sfatlarn bana more ekleniyor, -er eki kaldrlyor) * Hem more, hem de er -ier eki ayn anda kullanlamaz. She is more beautifuler than ... (Yanl)

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Ne ile neyi karlatrdmz ok nemli. Restaurants in stanbul are more expensive than Restaurants . . . Restaurant . . . Ankara Those of Ankara That of (YANLI) Bu cmlede istanbuldaki restoranlarla Ankarann (ehir olarak) kendisi karlatrlyor. (DORU) oul (DORU) Tekil

Ksaltma; Zamanlar Ayn ise yaplr (Tense Uyumuna Uygun ise) you He runs faster than you do They worked harder than we had expected. Fiil ve Adverb ile Comparative Yaps: She can speak more fluently than a native speaker. Comparative Pekitiren Yaplar: Much Daha Far Daha Slightly Az bir miktar daha Even Daha da Rather A lot A little Yesterday was hot, Today is even hotter. The exam was far more difficult than we had expected. He is slightly taller than you. . Twice as much as ... SUPERLATIVE stanbul is the most beautiful city in Turkey. Of all he is the laziest student. (the best player) One of the ... He is one of the most well-known authors of our age. * Of all yaps ok sorulan bir superlative sorusudur. Of all cmle sonunda da gelebilir. * Superlative yaps Adverb ile (Fiili niteleyen) kullanlamaz. Superlative Pekitiren Yaplar: By far Ak ara Quite Olduka He is by far the most clever scientist among them. ... far too difficult. I quite like him. (Grld gibi Quite, adverb (Zarf - Fiili niteler) ile de kullanlyor) She is very beautiful (Beautiful: Adjective) I love you very much (Much: Adverb) * Very bir fiili nitelendiremez. His best, Its best, her best...=The best (Superlative yapda iyelik eki var ise "the" kullanlmaz. "His the best" veya "The his best" KULLANILAMAZ) "The most" un arkasndan noun (isim) gelmez, Adjective (sfat) gelir. The most beautiful (+) The most people (X) (Kullanlmaz)

ETLEME YAPMAK VEYA BOZMAK As adjective / adverb as So adjective / adverb as He is as old as your father. * Alt izili yap ne comparative ne de superlative olmamaldr. (as older as veya as oldest as gibi birey olamaz) Our Team played as well as the other team.
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Kadar (eitleme anlam verir)

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She is not

As So

Beautiful

As As

Her sister

*Pozitif cmlelerde as... as yaps kullanlr *Negatif cmlelerde (not) ise hem as... as, hem de so... as yaps kullanlabilir. *Fiil var ise so ... as yaps kullanlr. "Nothing so scared him as being left alone in the dark Rakamsal ifadelerde karlatrma: More than Half of our budget was As much as As many as

Beautiful Adjective (Sfat)

-ly Adverb (Zarf)

Adjective genelde "to be" fiilleri ile kullanlr. Helen types more accurately than her. Helen is typing quickly Little / Less / The least (Little'n Comparative ve superlative hali) So much noise that (O kadar ok grlt ki) Look much stronger than (Daha gl grnyor) (Look: Durum bildiren bir fiildir. Adjective ile nitelendirilir-Adverb ile deil) Strongly kullanmadk. Olumlu anlaml cmlelerde kullanlr Olumsuz anlaml cmlelerde kullanlr Quite a lot of. Quite what= Tam, pek de It was not quite what I wanted (Pek de istediim gibi deildi) (Genelde olumsuz cmlelerde kullanlr) Comparative Fairly Rather Superlative =Quite

"THE ... , THE ..." YAPISI Sadece Comparative yaplarda kullanlr. Superlative yapda kullanlmaz. The more you study, the more successful you will be. "ne kadar alrsan, o kadar baarl olursun" The faster you run, the earlier you get tired. The more they spend on this Project, the less they can spare for themselves

RELATIVE CLAUSE (Sfat Cmlecikleri) Relative clause'leri "cmle" olarak deil de "sfat " olarak dnmek gerekir. Who Which That Whom Whose Where When To whom it may concern = ilgili makama I bought a book last week, it was very expensive. ("a book" ve "it" ayn eyi gsteriyor) Canl m cansz m? (Canl ise Who, Cansz ise Which) I bought a book last week which was very expensive. (ekline dnr) My friend is coming to visit us, He lives in zmir. My friend who lives in zmir is coming to visit us. * simden sonra gelirler (My friend who ...) * Bir relative clause cmlesinde toplam fiil says-1 adet relative clause bulunmaldr. (2 fiil var ise 1 relative clause gibi...) * kinci fiile kadar olan ksm relative clausedir. (... lives in zmir is coming to visit us) * ki cmle arasnda virgl yok ise that dahil tm relative pronounlar kullanlabilir. Fakat virgl varsa that kullanlamaz !

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* Virglden sonra "That" gelmez. * Relative clauseden nce gelen ismi relative clause yerine koyabiliyor isek doru seimi yapmz demektir My friend who lives in zmir. My friend lives in zmir. Which My brother mended belongs to our boss That (virgl yoksa) Kardeimin tamir ettii araba patronumuza aittir. (nce relative cmlesi > sonra >"patronumuza aittir") The car Do you know that man Who That Won the first gold medal in the olympic games

Whom Who I stayed with when I was in Bursa is going to abroad That * Relative Pronoun arkasndan zne geliyor ise Whom olur. (Whom=Who) Sadece arkasndan zne geldii zamanlarda Whom kullanlr. "Whom I stayed with..." My friend With Whom Kullanlr With who With that Kullanlamaz. (X) For that My friend with whom I stayed is going to abroad. (Beraber kaldm arkadam darya gidiyor) The office Which That He is responsible for is very clean

The office for

Which That (X)

He is responsible is very clean

The hotel was wonderful. We had our honeymoon at this hotel The hotel which we had our honeymoon at was wonderful. The hotel at which (=where) we had our honeymoon was wonderful Where= Preposition + Which (Edat + Which) = (in which, on which, at which) * There is, there are var ise where=in which kullanlr. Place * Situation Condition Position Case Stage Athmosphere Occasion (Durum) Reason zne (Bazen "Place + That" olabilir) + where (Mekanlar iin) + Prep. + which (in,on,at + which)

On which when Why + zne That + fiil

+ That (Eer bu that zneden bahsedecek ise)

The town which you recommended us to see was wonderful (the town) The town where he was brought up is very big (in the town) Which Preposition + + zne Whom Where + zne WHICH - WHERE (Preposition + Which) Ayrm - Salamas: 1- Relative Clause cmlesinden sonra (Parantezle gsterilen) where-which eklenir. Anlaml olan seilir. The town ( ______ my father was born) is in Greece. "(My father was born) the town" Anlamsz bir cmle oldu. "(My father was born) in the town Anlaml oldu (in the town=in which=Where Kullanlr)
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The town ( ______ my friend told about) is wonderful "(My friend told about) the town Anlaml oldu (the town=which) 2- Relative Clause cmlesi ile ikinci cmle arasnda zne varsa Where kullanlr. Of lu yaplar bu kurala uymaz. Some of which, many of whom ... This is the town where I was born (I was born in the town salamasn gsterir. ) This is the town which is the cradle of civilisation. Eer bolua where eklemek istersek boluktan sonra mutlaka zne olmas gerekir. --Three man came to my office. I had seen none of them before. Three man none of whom I had seen before came to my office. eklinde yazlr. Genelde bu ekilde sorulan bir soruda. klarda; a) none of them (YANLI) b) none of who (YANLI) c) none of that (YANLI) d) none of whom (DORU) * of lu yaplar iin bu kural geerlidir. Some of.. Either of Each of Many of Two of I was given three books. I had seen two of them before. I was given three books two of which I had seen before (Relative Clause den sonra zne "I" kullanldna dikkat et) Some of whom + Cmle Of whom + zne Whom + zne Three man came to my office. None of them was from USA. Three man none of whom was from USA come to my office. (Relative Clause nin kendisi cmlede zne grevi ald iin arkasndan zne kullanma gerei kalkt) None of whom: canl iin None of which: cansz iin All of them All of which (ekline dnr) Wife Brother Do you know the man whose Nobody has seen before? Sister ... Don't sit on this table whose legs are not powerful enough. Don't sit on this table legs of which are not powerful enough. * whose hem canllarda hem canszlarda kullanlabiliyor. My brother who is a doctor lives in zmir (Defining) "Doktor olan kardeim izmirde yayor" My brother, who is a doctor, lives in zmir (Non defining) Kardeim zmirde yayor, (ve ki) o doktordur. It was the day. I was awarded that price on that day Preposition + which = Where olduunu grmtk. Zaman Prepositionu + which= When * Process + by which * Procedure + by which That it Him Kullanlamaz.

* which ile that arasnda pheye derseniz that i tercih edin. (Eer preposition ve That den nce virgl yok ise)

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NDRGEME (REDUCTION) 1) Relative Clause bildiricisinden sonra zne geliyor ise ve Virgl varsa (Nondefining ise) indirgeme yaplmaz. The book that which Whom Who That You gave me is wonderful

The man

I trust most is my uncle

Relative Clause bildiricisinden sonra zne geliyor ise ve virgl yoksa (Defining ise) (I, You ) Relative pronounlar atlr-indirgenir The man I trust most is my uncle. (eklini alr) * Preposition + Relative Clause yaplarnda indirgeme yaplamaz. (in which, at which ) 2) Relative Clause bildiricisinden sonra Fiil geliyor ise indirgeme hem Defining hem Nondefiningler ile yaplabilir. The girl Who is (indirgenir) Singing there is my girlfriend

The girl singing there is my girlfriend That book (,) which was written in 1960 (,) is invaluable That book , written in 1960, is invaluable Those people who live next door are going to move to Ankara Those people living next door are going to move to Ankara * stte pasif bir fiilin yardmc fiili atlmt. Which was written written (yazlm) altta ise aktif bir fiil var. Bu durumda Ving yaps alr. Who live living (Yayor) Genelde simple present, present continuous, simple past ve past continuous tenselerde yaplr. Fiil aktif halde ise Zaman (Tense) ne olursa olsun Ving ile indirgenir. Fiil pasif ise Fiil 3. hali ile kalr, Relative ksm atlr. That boy, working in our office, is very hard working. a) that working (YANLI) b) that is working (YANLI) c)is working (YANLI) d) working (DORU) * burada D kk daha fazla indirgendii iin (that da kaldrlm) A kkna tercih edilir. Ayrca virgl var. Normalde that zne yerine geecei ve zne ile nesne arasnda normal bir cmlede virgl olmayaca iin A kk yanltr. The bridge that was built in 1900 is still in use FARKLI TENSLERLE NDRGEME The next election sfat Which will + to Be held in january is very important

Burada Sfat + to yaps kullanlr. The next election to be held in january is very important. eklinde indirgenir. He was the first man to land on the moon. (Aya ayak basan ilk adamdr) The first The second The last The only The next The third The fourth The best The worst

(sfattrlar) + to infinitive

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Prof. Brown,

who is indirgenir

an outstanding scientist, is coming to give lecture.

a) is an outstanding (YANLI) b) who an outstanding (YANLI) c) an outstanding (DORU) Prof. Brown, an outstanding scientist, is coming to give lecture.

NOUN CLAUSE Noun clause cmlenin znesi veya nesnesi gibi kullanlan bir isimdir. Subject + Verb + Object (zne + Fiil + Nesne) * Dz cmle yapsnda kullanlr. Devrik veya soru cmlesi eklinde deil. 1) Object konumunda noun clause Who Whom What When Reason + why Which Whose How (long) (far) Whoever (herkim) Whomever Whatever (her ne) Whenever(her nezaman) Whichever(herhangi) However (her ne kadar, her naslsa)

;however=Fakat (Balalarda) that, the fact that = that (Yapmas, etmesi) Where she lives Her address (object) Why she is crying How she escaped

I dont know

Noun clause tek bir ismi deil de isim grubunu, fiil grubunu da tanmlayabilir. I have no idea (Aslnda bir fiildir) I have no idea I dont know Whose book this is Which book his book is Whether (if) he will join us (or not)

2) Subject konumunda noun clause What he is doing outside Who(m) he invited to the party When they will come What you are saying Whether he will come with us If (X subject ksmnda if kullanlmaz) is none of your business was not known is not definite is what Im saying doesnt concern you

That the studies english is very important The fact that women earn less money is not fair. What Whoever Who Made them angry (Verb) Wrote this poem (Verb) Killed (Verb) Was the managements ignorance Must have fallen in love The prime minister has not been identified

I dont know who broke this vase. (Virgl var ise Who olmaz) Subject konumunda kullanlan noun clause ler; What ey Who Kim Whoever Herkim Who she is is not important.

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Whoever she is(,) she is very beautiful. (Herkim) (Virgl var ise Who olmaz) S+ +O Noun Clause cmleleri yanda gsterilen ekillerden birisinde olduu iin; cmlenin S+ V + O S+ V + O V znesi ve fiili arasna, yada fiili ile nesnesi arasna virgl giremez Who Who rnek: I, am going to stanbul cmlesi gibi; I ile am arasna (,) virgl giremez (Kimin) (Kim) That ve What Genelde karr. Ayrt edilmesi u ekildedir. What my son achieved is of great importance That my son finished the project on time is of great significance (That li cmleler bir object alr. stteki cmlede "Project") I dont know what they can do in such a situation * Noun cmlesindeki fiilden sonra object (nesne) yok ise what, object var ise that kullanlr. * Noun cmlesi aktif ise bu kural geerlidir. Trouble Strange thing Reason Problem

The

is Was

that

Yaps

The trouble is that you are always late. ("Sknt, senin daima ge gelmendir !") If I knew (how (tired) you are), I wouldnt come Tired adjective dir. Object ksmnda Adjective varsa nnde How kullanlr. I dont know which car (Noun) I should buy. I should do (normal) What Where To do (indirgenmi) How To go I dont know When To use Whether To start Why To join (or not) if To go *To infinitive almayan If, that, the fact that ; noun clause yerinde kullanlamaz. Wonder + That The fact that If whether
(Ve dier soru kelimeleri)

(KULLANILAMAZ)

Wonder +

(KULLANILABLR)

URGENCY FLLER (SUBJUNCTIVE - ekimsiz fiil yaplar) Baz fiiller gizli bir "should" ierir. Ruled Demanded The judge that Advised Recomended mportant It is that Recomended

He go He (should) go demektir.

* Urgency fiilleri alan cmlenin 2.cmleciinde (that den sonra), He den sonraki fiil gizli bir should ierdiinden "goes" deil de "go" olarak kullanld. It is important that she should be here by 8:30 AM (Active) t is important that she be here by 8:30 AM. (Reduction) This book should be finished by Monday (Passive) This book be finished by Monday. (Reduction) *Subjunctive sadece V1 veya should + V1 ile yaplabilir.

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ADVERBIAL CLAUSE (Zarf cmlecikleri bir eit bala) Fiili Niteleyen balalardr. (LV=linking verb=bala) 1) (LV) + S + V + OBJ , (LV) + S + V + OBJ =ilk veya ikinci cmlenin herhangi birinde LV kullanlabilir. 2) 1) LV + Noun(isim) , S + V + OBJ "While I was walking along the street , I saw my classmate" Time Clause'lerde Tense uyumunda una dikkat edilir. Kendinden bir nceki veya sonraki tense ile dier cmle kullanlabilir. Past Perfect / Continuous Simple Past / Continuous kullanlamaz 1-TIME (Zaman) 2- PLACE (Yer - Mekan) Present Perfect T. / Continuous Simple Present T. /Present Continuous Future Tense

rnek olarak; yukarda Simple pastl bir cmle, Adverbial clause ile dier cmleye balandnda bir nceki veya bir sonraki tense'li bir cmle alabilir. Bir zorlama ile (Kesikli izgi ile gsterilen - - ) 2 sonraki Tense'li bir cmle de alsn. (Ki bu durum Time Expression yoksa normalde olamaz). Fakat daha fazla Tense fark olamaz. Time (Zaman) Contrast (ztlk) Cause effect (Sebep sonu) Purpose (maksat) When Although Since So that

Until / till, after, before, as long as, as, no sooner...than, as soon as once, by the time, the moment, whenever while when since hardly... when, scarcely... when

* Once l cmle Past continuous olamaz. Where Wherever Everywhere, anywhere 3- REASON + CMLE (Sebep) Because, since, as, for (For Her zaman 2. cmlededir) Now that (madem-ki) Seeing that (madem) Hepsi "Because" Anlamnda Because of the fact that Due to the fact that Owing to the fact that On account of the fact that In view of the fact that Inasmuch as On the grounds that, in that Because of in view of due to on account of owing to * thanks to ("sayesinde") *olumlu anlaml cmlelerde kullanlr. 1.ci cmlenin banda olur

+ Noun (,)

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* "Of" lu biten yaplar arkasndan isim alrlar. Because + cmle Because of + noun // 'cos=because (konuma dilinde) REASON YAPISI + (Because of in view of due to on account of owing to ...) SM

The rain, we couldn't go on picnic His lack of experience, he wasn't offered that job His effort, we were able to reach the town (thanks to iin)

4- DIRECT CONTRAST (Direk ztlk) (2 ayr ey karlatrlr. zneleri farkl olmaldr)

While Whereas

5- CONCESSIVE CONTRAST/OPPOSITION (Beklentinin tersi bir durum) e ramen (Despite) the fact that + cmle (Despite) + noun (isim)

Although, even though, though Despite the fact that In spite of the fact that Even if, while

* "The fact that" gelirse, arkasndan cmle yaps gelir. * Although, even though + cmle * In spite of the fact that, despite the fact that + cmle * Despite, in spite of + noun *"the fact that" eki; normalde noun alan yapy, arkasndan cmle alr hale getirmek iin kullanlyor. Despite In spite of Everything, they managed to finish the report "Hereye ramen raporu bitirebildiler"

zetleyecek olursak; -of lu kullanmlar ve despite Noun alr. Bunlarn dndakiler cmle alr. 6- RESULT (Sonu) So + adj + that So + adv + that Such + a(n) + adj + N + that "Such a careful student that" Such + adj + N (saylamayan) + that So + adj + a(n) + noun + that "so good a story that" So many ... that So few... that So much... that So little... that He is so careful that he rarely makes mistakes He writes so carefully that he rarely makes mistakes 7- PURPOSE (Maksat, ama) (-mesi ihtimaline kar) (-mesin diye)
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So that, in order that In case Lest For fear that

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So that In order that In case In case of

+ cmle (Could, would, may...) + cmle + noun (isim)

In case of emergency (Acil durumda) In case; simple present, simple past ve should ile kullanlr. In the event of his father's death, he will inherit 100.000 $ 8- MANNER (Tavr, davran) As (Mmkn) As if (as though) (Mmkn deil)

AS/LIKE She works like a nurse (Gerekte hemire deil Hemire gibi) She works as a nurse (Gerekte Hemiredir.) * Like + noun=Gibi * As + noun = "Olarak" As + cmle="Gibi" anlam verir. rnek: she speaks as her mother does (Annesi gibi) * As if ; hem mmkn hem de mmkn olmayan durumlar bildirebilir. You looks as if (as though) you are tired. ("Yorgun gibi grnyorsun") (Mmkn) He treats us as if (as though) we were his own slaves. ("Kleleri gibi muamele ediyor") (Mmkn deil) Fiil + As if (eklinde kullanlr) As if= as though (Formal-resmi) Gerek durumlarda her iki cmlede de Tense Uyumu olur. Hayali durumlarda genelde tense uyumu olmaz. 9- DEGREE (PROPORTION) (Derece - Oran) The... er, the ... er The more ..., the more... To the extent that To the degree that in so far as As, so To what extent are you satisfied with your job? To what extent= "hangi oranda, ne lde" soru cmlesi kalbdr. He contributed to our project to such an extent that we won the competition. * mtihanda byle bir soruda (Such) kelimesini sorarlar. /* Relative Clause, Noun Clause ve Adverbial clause 'nin farklar : 1) The town where he was born is a small one (RELATIVE) Where; ismi nitelendiren sfat cmlecii yapyor. simden sonra geliyor 2) I don't know where she's going (NOUN CLAUSE) Where fiilden sonra geliyor, dolaysyla isim cmlecii oluturuyor. 3) where there a lot of people (,) crime rates will be high (ADVERBIAL) ki cmle arasnda virgl var ve cmlelerin ikisi de S + V + Obj yapsnda */ To In order to So as to Oranda, lde, derecede, oranda

We went to the cinema early

Buy our ticket

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IF ANLAMI VEREN ADVERBIALLER 0-1 conditional As long as So long as (-dii srece) you drive carefully, you can take my car -durumunda, olmas halinde artyla

0-1 conditional

In the event that Providing (that) Provided (that)

Provided that there is no objection, we can postpone the meeting. "itiraz olmamas artyla toplanty erteyebiliriz" 1-2 conditional Assume (that) Assuming (that) Suppose (that) Supposing (that) "varsayalm" "varsayalm"

2-3 conditional

Assume that you win the election, what will you do? Suppose that you won the lottery, would you go to hawaii? In the event that you fail in the final exam, you can take proficiency in september QUESTION TAGS He isn't here, is he? olumsuz ise,- olumlu They have a car, don't they? olumlu ise,- olumsuz yap kullanlr. * YAN CMLECKLER, BALALI CMLECKLER yanltc olabilir. Ana cmleyi (zneyi) bulup o znenin yardmc fiilini kullanmalyz. (balal cmlecik, yan cmleciktir. Biz ana cmleye gre sorumuzu sorarz) He has never been abroad, has he? (burada never bizi yanltabilir) (Has never = hasn't gsterdiinden dolay...) They liked none of the books, did they? (They didn't like anlamndadr) If you don't study, you will fail, won't you? (If li cmle balal- yan cmleciktir) * OUL YAPI Tekil Somebody Anybody called me Everybody Someone is here Noone Anyone oul , didn't they aren't they

* ZEL DURUMLAR * lk cmle olumlu veya olumsuz olsun farketmez. Yine de ikinci cmle deimez sabit kalan durumlardr. I'm right, aren't I ? Lets iin: Let's go out, shall we ? (2. cmle hep aren't I) (2. cmle hep shall we)

Emir cmleleri iin: Fetch me a glass of water, will, would, could you ?(Emir cmlesi "Bana bi bardak su kap getir !") *Would ve could daha az kullanlr. * Emir ve suggestionlarn pozitif negatif olmas fark etmez. Question ksm hep pozitif alnr. There is nobody, is there? (nobody=olumsuz bir yapdr. Olumsuz ,olumlu?) Everything is OK, isn't it? They aren't coming, are they? That book was written in 1960, wasn't it?

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SHORT REPLIES "Ben de" OLUMLU CMLE I like reading So do I So does she "I do, too" "she does, too" (virgll kullanlr) "me, too" (virgll veya virglsz) But I don't I haven't finished it yet. Neither has my brother. A: Did you see the film last night? B: yes I did A: I did not admire B: I didn't, either * en son B: cevabndan "did" ve "either" ksmlar bize A:'nn cevabn verir. (didn'tdidn't zamann s.past-, either ise beenip beenmediini verir). *Short repliesde de Tense Uyumuna dikkat etmek gerekir. RNEK: A: Did you wathc the film last night? B: Yes, I did. __________________ A: Neither, did I. a) I wasnt b) c) I liked it very much d) e) I didnt like the end OLUMSUZ CMLE She hasn't finished it yet Neither have I Nor have I Nor has he "I haven't, either" "Me neither" But I have rnek Cmle Ayn Fikirde

Ayn Fikirde Deil

I finished abruptly I dont like these types of films

* That clause cmlelerinde short replies; that clause gre deil, ana cmleye gre yaplr. NO MATTER HOW (,) No matter how hard you study (,) you can't catch up with him. (ne kadar alrsan al, onu yakalayamazsn) How, However What, Whatever No matter Which, = Whichever Who, Whoever When, Whenever * Sadece "No matter how" veya "however" hemen arkasndan Adjective ve Adverb alabilir. Dierleri Normal cmle alr. No matter how hard you study, you cannot win the scholarship.(hard: adjective) No matter what she did, she couldnt persuade him to join club. (she cmle) How + Sfat However Little free time he has No matter how Cmleden sonra (,) varsa "how" kullanlmaz.

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SENTENCE CONNECTORS (Cmle balayclar) Genelde 2. cmlenin banda kullanlrlar. 1. cmle banda kullanlanlar ok snrldr. (At first..) 1. CONTRAST a. Direct contrast However On the other hand Conversely In contrast Whereas Cmlelerin zneleri farkldr. Fakat, yada, oysa (Ak ile Kara gibi farkldrlar)

b. Denial of expectation /concessive contrast However Yet Still Nonetheless Nevertheless Even so In spite of this

Beklentinin boa kmas Buna ramen, yine de

Although (event though) he tried hard, (but) nevertheless, he wasn't able to persuade him. Genelde (;) nevertheless(,) olarak kullanlyor. zne + (,) on the other hand (,) + Fiil zne + (,) however (,) + Fiil 2. RESULT As a consequence Accordingly For this reason Therefore As a result Consequently Hence Thus Sonu olarak

Bylece Bu yzden

3. ADDITION /LISTING (Ekleme ve Listeleme) ADDITION Also Besides -de da, Furthermore Buna ilaveten, ek olarak In addition What's more LISTING Firstly (first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, for one thing) secondly (second, in the second place, lk olarak, son olarak, ... for another thing) thirdly.. finally (lastly, last of all) * The former ve the latter: Bahsedilen 2 ey var ise, birincisi former, ikincisi latter ile tarif edilir. "cars and bicycles have their own advantages. The former is convenient for you if you travel long distances. The latter is suitable for short distances" 4- TIME At first Afterwards Later Then In the meantime, Meanwhile,
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Balangta, nceleri Daha sonra Bu esnada, bu srada, o zaman gelene kadar (2. cmlenin banda kullanlrlar)

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After I finished reading the morning paper, I had my breakfast Afterwards I finished reading the morning paper Later (,) I had my breakfast Then RNEKLEME rnein;

5- EXEMPLIFICATION For instance For example To illustrate 6- PARTICULARIZATION In particular Particularly Specifically Especially 7- EXPLANATION That is Namely In other words That is to say e.g 8- SIMILARITY Likewise Similarly Correspondingly In the same way

"zellikle..." zellikle

AIKLAMA, ZAH Yani, yleki, dier bir deyile

BENZERLK Ayn ekilde, benzer ekilde

9- EMPHASIS In fact Indeed As a matter of fact Actually

VURGU Aslnda, gerekte...

*Bu Connectorler ile balanan cmleden nce de yine ayn konudan bahsediliyordur. (Okuma Paralarnda nemli) 10- REFUTATION On the contrary Gzle grnen durumun tersi, reddetmek Tam aksine (2 cmlenin zneleri ayndr) DORULAMA Daha dorusu

11- CORRECTION Rather To be more precise

Rather: "daha dorusu" (Dorulama) Rather than: "daha ziyade" (Tercih) 12- TRANSITION As for As to With regard to With respect to As regards Regarding As far as .. is concerned GE -e gelince...

gz nne alndnda..

As far as comfort is concerned. Konfor gz nne alndnda Comfort Quality As far as is concerned. Cost SOMETHING I know I understand Im concerned I remember Bana gre -kadaryla I think

As far as

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As far as I know. Bildiim kadaryla As far as I remember. Hatrladm kadaryla 13- ALTERNATIVE Altervatively ALTERNATF Alternatif olarak... AKS ART, DURUM Aksi takdirde ZET / SONU Ksaca zet olarak

14- NEGATIVE CONDITION (,) Or else (.;) Otherwise

15- SUMMATION /CONCLUSION In summary In brief In short To be brief In conclusion To sum up All in all

Sonu olarak

After all= Ne de olsa... Above all= Her eyden te... At all= hi At all costs= ne pahasna olursa olsun Incidentally, by the way= bu arada, aklma gelmiken All the same=Nevertheless=Buna ramen, yine de Anyway, anyhow, in any case= zaten, her neyse, Bover! Instead, instead of= bunun yerine... Mary did not answer. Instead, she looked out of the taxi window Instead of answering, mary looked out of the taxi window. Regardless= -e aldrmakszn Regardless of the time, he smokes two cigarettes successively Now that= Madem Never mind=Aldrma ! As a matter of fact = Aslnda As yet= henz LIKE ALIKE FARKI. Alike= benzer (Cmle sonunda kullanlr) My father an my mother are alike in that they both like music. INFINITIVE / GERUND I want to be a doctor. (Infinitive) She likes listening to music (Gerund) 1. AKTF PASFTE: Aktif: I want to invite her to the party onu partiye davet etmek istiyorum. Pasif:I want to be invited to the party onun tarafndan partiye davet edilmek istiyorum. Aktif: I hate laughing at peoples mistakes. Pasif:I hate being laughed at peoples mistakes 2. ADJECTIVE TO + V1 Adjective var ise kesinlikle cmle infinitivedir. (istisna: busy + Ving alr) 3. PREPOSITION Ving Prepositiondan sonra her zaman -ing (istisna: About + Ving de olabilir, to about to) 4. VERB + SOMEONE TO +V1 He asked me to help him

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Have Make Let Help Get

stisna: + SOMEONE + V1 (To almazlar) To + SOMEONE + V1

I wil help you to do your homework. *(Have ve Get; ayn zamanda Ettirgendir causative) 5. See Hear Find Catch SEE / HEAR + SOMEONE + Do (olayn tamam izlenmi) Doing (olayn bir ksm grlm) Doing

+ SOMEONE +

They caught him stealing the project 6. 7. 8. 9. SPEND / WASTE + SOMETHING (Time, Money) + DOING VERB + TO HAVE / HAVING + V3 ADJ., ADV.,NOUN + TO V1 CMLEYE ASLA TO HAVE + V3 ile balanmaz. To have smoked is dangerous. OLMAZ! 10. POSSESIVE ADJ. (My, your, his,) + Ving My friends + Ving 11. Future Tense'de Sfat + to yaps kullanlr. (Bkz. ndirgeme) "The next election to be held in january is very important." The girl living (who lives) here is a nurse The course (which is) given here is for adults only Let Have V Drive V1

My father doesn't

me

His car

* Genelde fiilden sonra gelen object kii ise fiil "to" alr. "to ask you"

PERFECT INFINITIVE (to + have + V3), PERFECT GERUND (having + V3) TO + INFINITIVE (To + V1) LE: 1) He is said to be rich

Now

Is said Be rich 2) He was said to be rich

Past

Now

was said Be rich 3) He is said to have been rich (last year)

Past

Now

Rich

Is said

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4) He was said to have been rich


Early Past

Past

Now

Rich

Was said

Aslnda stteki cmlenin ak hali: People said that he had been rich earlier GERUND LE (Ving): 1) I like listening to music 2) I liked listening to music when ... 3) He denies having taken the money ( last year) 4) He denied having taken the money * Baz fiiler gerund (Ving), bazlar ise to infinitive (to + V1) halinde kullanlr. Agree on something, Agree with someone Need to be V3 (Aktif), need Ving (pasif) What ve Who dndakiler (Whom, Which, Whose, ) + to infinitive Prefer Ving Would Prefer to V1 Vould rather V1 PARTICIPLES (Adverbial Clauselerin indirgemesi) 1 ) AKTF CMLELERN NDRGEMES 1. The girl who is singing there is my girlfriend. (Aktif) 2. The girl singing there is my girlfriend. 1. While I was listening to music, I was studying for maths exam. (E zamanl) 2. While listening to music, ... 3. Listening to music, ... * whereas hari tm adverbial clauselerin indirgemesi mmkndr. * indirgemeler her zaman balal cmleye uygulanr. "When they were playing in the garden, they were talking about the new project." 1. When he entered the room, he saw his wife on the floor. 2. Entering the room, he saw his wife on the floor. On entering upon entering when entering (Bu ok yaygn deildir)

eklinde de kullanlabilir.

When he opened the drawer, he came across the gun. On (upon) opening the drawer, he .... 2 ) PASF CMLELERN NDRGEMES When the house was painted white, it looked as if it had been new. When painted white, the house looked as if it had been new. * the house was (pasif zne) atlr. * it yerine zne (the house) gelir. When the car was serviced, it started the run smoothly When serviced, the car started ... 3 ) K CMLES FARKLI TENSELERDE SE KULLANIM EKL: After he had finished his homework, he went out. A) Aktif 1. having finished his homework, he went out. (Having + V3) kullanlr.
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2. After finishing his homework, he went out (bu yap kullanlrsa; bata Preposition After- kullanm zorunludur) After she had completed the task, she... 1. Having completed the task, she... 2. After completing the task, she... B) Passive After the book had been written, it was sent to the editor. 1. Having been written, the book ... 2. After being written, the book... (After being... yaps daha az kullanlr) After the bridge was constructed, it was opened to the public use 1. Having been constructed, ... 2. After being constructed, ... Because I had seen the film earlier, I didnt go to the movie with my friends. Having seen the film earlier, ... 4 ) OLAY E ZAMANLI SE: As was ill, I didnt go to work. Being ill, I ... 5 ) CMLELERN ZNELER FARKLI SE: As the teacher was ill, the lesson was cancelled. The teacher being ill, the lesson was cancelled. * Burada "The teacher" kullanm zorunludur. Yoksa "Dersler hasta olunca" manas kyor ! INVERSION (DEVRK CMLE YAPISI) nversion u Adverbler (Zarf) ile kullanlr. (Negatif Adverbs). Inversion cmleleri bunlarla balamal. Hardly Never Not only ... but also Not until No sooner than Hardly ... when Hardly any On no account Only If Once when

Sadece o deil bu da..

I have never seen such a terrible film. Never have I seen such a terrible film. Adverb cmle bana geldi. Yardmc fiil ile zne yer deitirdi. She can hardly walk. Hardly can she walk. We had hardly gone out when the bomb exploded. Hardly had we gone out when the bomb exploded. No sooner had we gone out then the bomb exploded. Tam evden kmtk ki bomba patlad Not only did he break his leg, but also he broke his arm. * When, until vb. Time clause kullanlan cmle ksm inversiyon devrik yaplmaz. Not until we arrived at the airport, did we realise that we had forgotten our passport * 2. cmle inversiyon yapld. nk 1. cmlede until time expressionu var. * Not until ..., yapsnda; Not until taraf deil de dier cmle devrik yaplr. PUCU:

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Yardmc Fiil + zne yaps; ya devrik cmlelerde yada soru cmlelerinde kullanlr. (Did we ...) Cmle sonunda soru iareti yok ise bunun devrik cmle olduuna karar veririz. * Not only _____ but also ______ Her iki cmle yaps benzerlik gstermelidir. /* I regret to tell that your application has not been accepted. unu sylemekten znt duyuyorum ki bavurunuz kabul edilmedi * Bu cmle to + have + V3 eklinde kesinlikle kullanlamaz. To have told kesinlikle olmaz. Past tense ile kullanm ekli: Margaret regretted telling him that.. Syledii iin pimand Can Could Cant Couldnt Afford Mali gc yetmek Stand (Birine, bireye) katlanmak Bear (ounlukla negatiflerle kullanlrlar) Help

Wonder + how (Kullanlr) Wonder + that (Kullanlamaz) Am s Are Was Were Been

Said Thought Believed Reported

To + V1 To + have + V3 (Continuous ve Passive leri de dahil)

Avoid + Ving Great Crucial Vital Importance Significance

Of

="Very important"

Vulnerable + to = incinebilir, hassas. Present Perfect (Continuous) + Eversince + Simple Past For doing= Bir aygtn kullanm To do= ama belirliyor. " to do some shopping" CAUSATIVE (ETTRGEN) "Yaptrmak" mtihanda Causative ile ilgili soru kmyor. Fakat cmleleri ve pararaflar anlamak iin gereklidir. 1) Have Something Done (V3) (by somebody) Get I got the room cleaned (by the maid) "Oday hizmetiye temizlettirdim" I will Have Get My house Painted. "Evimi boyatacam"

* Her tense ile kullanlabilirler. She is getting (Having) her hair cut (O san kestirtecek)(Bakasna san kestirtiyor) 2) Have Get

Someone

Do (V1) To do (V1)

I'm having my brother clean my car. (Kardeime arabam ykatyorum) She got her husband to wash the dishes (Kocasna bulaklar ykatyor) Make ve Let "Have + someone + do (V1) " yapsndadr. My father always makes me study. (Zorlama anlam ierir)(Babam daima beni almaya zorlar-altrr) Passive yapda to infinitive kullanlr. I'm always made me to study. (Daima almaya zorlanyorum)
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My mother doesn't let me go (zin verme anlam ierir) JUST VE ALREADY FARKI

Past

Already

Just Now

He has Just finished it. He has already finished it. EVR, CMLE TAMAMLAMA, ANLAMI BOZAN CMLE, PARARAF SORULARI A) EVRLER: 1. Ana cmlenin zne ve fiilini bulun 2. Ana cmlenin fiili aktif mi pasif mi? 3. Kelimesi kelimesine eviri istenir. (Ne eksik ne fazla) Bu durumda; a) Keywordler (Anahtar kelimeler) nemlidir. Mesela; "slightly" varsa eviri cmlesinde de bu kelimeyi ararz. , b) Time Expressionlar aranr. c) Balalara baklr. 4. Relative clause'lere dikkat edilir. Relative clause neyi tanmlyor ise o cmlenin nnde evrilirler. (Relative Clause'ler sfattrlar) 5. ngilizce trke eviride Relative clause baa Trke ingilizce eviride Relative clause sona getirilir. (Tanmlad nesnenin). Yani relative clause'nin yeri deitirilir. RNEK: The site of Troy was discovered = "Truva'nn yeri kefedildi" 1. "Truva'nn yeri" Bu tamlamay cevaplarda bulmamz lazm. 2. "Was discovered" Pasiftir. eviride de pasif halde bulunmaldr. "Kefedildi" n shakespares age . Kendinden sonra baka bir Time Expression yok ise tm cmleyi etkiler ve past yapdadr. B) CMLE TAMAMLAMALAR: 1. ki cmle karlatrlr. kisinin de Tense'i olur. Tense uyumuna baklr. (>%80 Tense uyumu olur) zellikle time clause'li bir bala varsa %100 tense uyumu vardr. 2. Balalara baklr. "Because, After vb. " * Because ztlk vermez. * Although sebep vermez. 3. If clause- Wish clause yaplarna dikkat edilir. 4. Relative clause'ler aranr. That is the man (where, that, who...) 5. Aklama cmlesi + That This Those These Such Problem; ... Issue ...

Bu kelimelerden nce bir aklama cmlesi mutlaka vardr. (He, she, it) iin de durum ayndr.

C) PARARAFTA ANLAMI BOZAN CMLE: Pararaf yaps: Topic Sentence Major Supportive Sentence Giri cmlesi Gelime

Concluding Sentence Sonu

Her pararafta Giri ve Gelime cmleleri bulunur. Genelde Sonu cmlesi en son pararafta-cmlede olur.

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Pararafta yazlm cmlelerin bir nceki ve bir sonraki ve Giri cmlesi ile balantl olmas gerekir. * Giri cmlesi avantajlarndan bahsetti ise tm cmleler de avantajlarndan bahsetmek zorundadr. * Pozitif anlaml ise Pozitif anlaml devam etmeleri gerekmektedir. * This, that, these, those, such, he, she it var ise kendinden nceki cmlelerde de bu terimlerin karl olmaldr. Problemden Bahsediyor (,) Problemden Bahsetmiyor (Anlam bozan cmle budur. ) This Problem ...

They had some problems. (Problemden bahsediyor) They managed to increase their exports (Problemden bahsetmiyor) These problems prevented them to plan. * Her iki cmlede de problemden bahsetmiyor ise; kendisi anlam bozan cmledir. Ayn durum balalar iin de geerlidir. For example, Also vb... tm sentence connectors (cmle balayclar) iin geerlidir bu kural. * Cmle balayclar ile pararaf balamaz ! * "ilk cmle de anlam bozan cmle olamaz" diye bir kural YOKTUR.

Kitap yazm

Kitapla ilgili eyler

Bay X
Actually Also In fact In deed Moreover

Bay X'in baka bir aktivitesi Anlam bozan cmledir

nceki cmleyi daha da aklar. Devamdr.

D) PARARAF TAMAMLAMA: Pararafta anlam bozan cmleyle ayn ekildedir. Boluk cmlesi (istenen cmle) kendinden nce ve sonraki cmleyle balantldr. Bu balant; Balalarla Such, these, those, that... vb. le olabilir. Tense uyumuna dikkat edilir.

E) DURUMA UYGUN DEN CMLEY BULMAK: Bu durumda sen ne dersin? * Kim, Kime neyi, nasl sylyor. Arkada m resmi biri mi? Kzgn m deil mi? Teekkr ifadesi mi deil mi?, gibi artlara dikkat edilir.

F) DYALOG TAMAMLAMA: Bolua yerletirilecek ifade ile altndaki cmle zdeletirilmelidir. Bolua nasl bir cmle koyarsam alttaki ifadeyi kullanr? So do I, either, neither gibi yaplar olumlu mu olumsuz mu cevap olduunu tespit ederek bize yardmc olur.
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G) YAKIN ANLAMLI CMLEY BULMA: En zor ksm bu ksmdr. Bire bir ayns olmayabilir. Soruya en yakn anlaml kk bulmak gerekir. 1) Bize verilen cmle hangi Tense'de If - wish clause hari kalmak zere ayn anlamdaki bir tensi kullanmalyz. 2) Pozitif anlaml m negatif anlaml m? 3) Balalar Ayn balac veya yakn anlaml balalar kullanr. 4) E anlaml kelimeleri bulun. Obviously Evidently Frankly To be Honest, honestly. Gibi, ste kullandnn e anlamlsn altta kullanabilir.

H) READING (PARARAF SORULARI): Pararafn ilk cmlesini ok dikkatli okumak gerekiyor. Doru olduunu dndmz cevap kk pasajda geiyor mu, grebiliyor muyuz? Pasajda grebiliyorsak doru ktr. Gremiyorsak yanl ktr. Kendi yorumlarnzdan uzak durun. Pararafta ne yazyorsa o dur. Mesela pasajda "kmr beyazdr" geiyor. Biz siyah olduunu bilsek bile pasajda geen dorudur ! Bir kii, isim, tarih geiyor, onunla ilgili soru soruluyor ise, cevab o cmle ierisindedir. Baka yerde aramaya gerek yok. E anlaml kelimeler iimize yarayacaktr. Pasajdaki kelimenin e anlamls cevap kknda da olacaktr. Pasajn ana fikri genelde 1. cmlenin ierisindedir.

I) CLOZE TESTLER Pararaf ierisinde Prepositionlarn, kalplarn, Phrasal verblerin eklerinin vs sorulduu boluk doldurma testleridir. * Cloze testlerde nce bir sefer pararaf okuyup sonra sorulara gemek faydal olacaktr. , 10 soruda hedef 6 dorudur. 8 doru iyidir. * Tekil-oul, aktif-pasif, Tense-Uyumuna burada da dikkat edilmelidir. GENEL BLGLER - YAPILAR - KALIPLAR mtihanda arka arkaya 3 k ayn k olamaz. Arka arkaya 3 k A olamaz mesela... Nadiren gelse bile; 4 ayn k kesinlikle alt alta gelemez. Yanl doruyu gtrmediinden, bilmediimiz sorular rastgele iaretlerken buna dikkat etmek gerekir. lack of lack in isim olarak kullanlyor ise "of" fiil olarak kullanlyor ise "in" alr.

responsible for the safety responsible to the office manager There is no point in quarreling ... (..hakknda tartmann bir anlam yok !) At which time=at which=when So far away that , but he now + Past Perfect Tense (Wish clause yaps) As far as __(be)__ concerned . "As far as I'm concerned" Make someone + do Insure against

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Formerly = "nceden" That is, = "Yani" For many, = "ou iin, bi oklar iin" Disdain=Look down on = "Hor grmek, kmsemek" Little / less / the least Search for = "Aramak" Research on = "Aratrmak" Study into what children know Study at home Beyond recognition= "Tannmayacak oranda" KPDS soru klarnda ift boluk bulunduran boluk doldurma sorularnda; ilk veya son boluk ksmlar ayn olan 2 seenek verilmez. a) by / by ise b) by / which olmaz. By hem a da hem b kknda kullanlmaz ! It It Would be Will be is A mistake "Hata Olurdu..." A mistake "Hata olacaktr" "Hatadr" Hayali bir durum verir. Kesinlik verir.

* .. at that moment = "O anda" Simple Past Tense Zaman ifadesidir. (Time expression) * Previously=Earlier Past Perfect tense Zaman ifadesidir. * Simple past / Past Perfect yaps ok kullanlan bir cmle yapsdr. * Recently= Present Perfect Tense gsterir. * Never before= Perfect Tense gsterir. ** iki noun'u birletirmek iin "of" kullanlr. The Fastest rates of economic growth * a(n) belirteci ilk harfin sesli sessiz olmasna gre deil, okunuunun sesli - sessiz olmasna gre konulur. An apple, an hour ("en aur"), an honest ("en onst"), a university ("e yuniversity"). Okunur. Every + hope (Tekil) Any + hopes (oul) (=All hopes manasndadr) E anlaml kelimelerin prepositionlar da genelde ayndr. To- ForSurvey Aratrma, Deney yapmak Experiment (SRDRMEK) research In which case = in this case Carry out n ek Son ek en Make manasnda -en Sfat Large Geni White Beyaz Fiil Enlarge geniletmek Whiten Beyazlatmak

UnnimOlumsuz yapar ve irTersine evirir Disilde// Regard: gz nne almak // Regard as: ...gzyle bakmak Hardly anyone else: Negatif anlam verir. But : bir sonraki cmlenin zddn grr. Ever again= "Bir daha" Another ve Every; time expressionlarla ok kullanlr.

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Virtually every= Neredeyse hepsi Virtually all = Hemen hemen hepsi Unlikely (olumsuz anlam verir) var ise cmlede olumlu yap kullan. To be Unlike Like Unlikely Likely To do

+ Noun (veya Noun clause)

Every three weeks = 3 haftada bir Negatif Yapl cmlelerde normalde "Both" kullanlmaz. No one = Hi kimse Anything Herhangi bir ey (+)(Hepsi veya herhangi birisi) Nothing Hibirey (-) (,) if any (,)= "Eer varsa" // Earlier: Past Perfect bildirir. // For a while="bi dnem..." // for three years now Present Perfect Tense Time Expressionudur. Whatsoever = hi mi hi. (Negatif cmleyi pekitirir) Answer Reply Respond Hereye Yazl bir eye (mektup vs) Szl bir eye veya Etkiye Tepki eklinde Cevap vermek Cevap Vermek Cevap vermek He responded well to the treatment (Tedaviye iyi cevap verdi) Abruptly=Aniden Allow to Apprehension=Aama At birth=Doumda, Doumla birlikte... At their best="En iyi zamannda" Attend suicide=intihara teebbs Augment=artmak, artrmak=increase Available for = "Kullanlmas iin ayrmak" Awkwardly=Sakarca Betray=ihanet etmek Brain drain= Beyin g Break through=stesinden gelmek, engeli amak Bring about=Give rise to= Yol amak, neden olmak Bring in=ntroduce=ortaya koymak, Bring up=ocuk yetitirmek, Gndeme getirmek By which = ununla, bununla. "ununla tannr.." Call for=Require=Gerektirmek, Yardm arsnda bulunmak Cavity=Boluk, rk Cite as an example="rnek olarak gstermek" Claim to = Talep etmek, Dava amak Come along=Gelmek, Ortaya kmak Come in: Gel ! Come on: Hadi! Commit crime=Su ilemek Commit sin=Gnah ilemek Commit suicide=intihar etmek Commit=ilemek Commitment=Taahhd Compell=Zorlamak=Force Compensation for=Tazmin, dengeleme Compulsively=Srkleyici Concession=Teslim, taviz, mtiyaz, ayrcalk Concisely=Az ve z Conditional=Koullu Contemplate= Niyet etmek, tasarlamak Convict=Mahkum etmek Cope with= stesinden gelmek, baa kmak Cope with=Deal with: Ba etmek, stesinden gelmek Cross with: Ksmek Cry of protest=Protesto l Deal with stesinden gelmek, baa kmak Deceitful=Aldatc Deceive=Aldatmak Decree=Hkm, ferman Deduce=karm yapmak Demanding=Zahmetli, yorucu Denial=nkar Denounce=Sulamak Discontent=Honut olmamak. Discretion=Karar verme zgrl-hakk Dissappointed with=Hayal krklna uramak Distinguish between = "Ayrdetmek" Ebb=Dmek, ktye gitmek Engagement=Meguliyet, buluma Entitled to=Hakk olmak" Eradicate: Ortadan kaldrmak Even then="O zaman bile" Fell apart=Ayrlmak (Paralara) Fiction=Kurgu=Novel Find out=Discover=Kefetmek Five storey=5 katl For once="lk kez" From now on="Bu gnden sonra" From that time onwards= "O gnden itibaren"

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Get along with=yi geinmek Get around=Kandrmak Give rise to=Neden Olmak Give up=Brakmak, vazgemek Go along with=Srdrmek, Devam ettirmek Growing number of visitors: Tekildir. Heat spell: scak hava dalgas Held out=Srmek Hold up=Delay=Geciktirmek Immunity=Baklk In place of=... yerine In return=.. karlnda In the long run, in the long turn= "Uzun vadede" Insure against: -e kar sigortalamak Intimate=Sincere=Samimi It was not until the time of...= "..in zamanna kadar olmad" nfer=Sonu karmak ntimidate=Korkutmak Jurisdiction=Yarglama Just as=while Keep in with=Dost kalmak Keep on=Go on Keep up with=Ayak uydurmak, Ak atmak Keep up=Srdrmek, devam ettirmek Labor scarcity=gc azl Lay emphasis on=Vurgulamak Leave out=Azn aramak, Gzard etmek Let off=Release=Salvermek Liability=Sorumluluk Literary= Edeb Look down on=Hakir grmek, aalamak Look out for="Dikkatli ol" Looking forward to=Drt gzle beklemek Make Out=Understand=zmek, anlamak Make up for=Telafi etmek Make up=Yapmak oluturmak, Uydurmak Man of all ages = "Her an adam" Man of intelligence=Man of wisdom ="Akll adam" Meet the commitment=Szn tutmak Mete Out=Vermek More often than not="Hi" Nonfiction=Gerek olaylar=Novel Notoriously=Olduka, kabaca On show=On display: Gsterimde-sergide Over the years="Yllar bounca" Over this= In this Passing on to=letmek, Aktarmak Pasturage=Otlak Patriot=Yurtsever Patrol=Devriye Play down=nemsiz gibi gstermek Plot=Romandaki olay rgs

Poem=iir Presumably= I suppose Promise= sz vermek. proportion=oran Prose=Nesir, dzyaz Provide s.o with s.t Provision=Tedarik Pull out of=Bir yeri terketmek Put down=Yazmak Put off=Ertelemek, Cesaretini krmak Put on=Giymek (Elbise vb) Put up with=Katlanmak (bir eye) Raised by="Raise nin passive halinde by kullanlr" Reckon=Think= "Bence" I reckon=I think Reign=Hkmdarlk, hkm srmek Repudiate=Reddetmek Reputedly="Rivayete gre" Role in= Rol oynamak Rule out=gnore=Gzard etmek Run out of=Bitmek tkenmek Run over=stnden gemek, ezmek Run through=Gz gezdirmek, Tketmek Same as Seperate from = "iki eyi birbirinden Ayrmak" Set off= Yola kmak Setting=Olaylarn yeri - zaman Show off=Gsteri yapmak Show up=Arrive=Gelmek, varmak, kagelmek Smuggling of=Kaaklk So-called: -diye adlandrlan Sort out=zmek Stamp out=ekil vermek, ekillendirmek Stop short of=Tereddt etmek=Hesitate Suitable=Uygun Sustain=Srdrmek Take down=Not almak Take good care of=Bakm, (Salk vb) Take over=stlenmek, Ele geirmek Take up=Hobi olarak balamak Tapping out the rhythm="vurarak ritim tutmak" The one="Bir zamanlar" Try on=(Giysi vb) denemek Try out=Denemek Tecrbe etmek Turn back=Geri dnmek Turn over=Ters dnmek Turning up=Arrive=Varmak Upkeep= Maintain Vigorously=Kuvvetli iddetli Vulnerable=Hassas Waiting up for=Gece yatmayp birini beklemek Withhold information=bilgi saklamak x/y= ratio=orant

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