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# X-Ray Transmission and Moseleys Law

## Mohd Faiz Mohd Zin

West Virginia University (Dated: March 12, 2012) Our experimental data have failed to obey Moseleys law but we have managed to develop a Maltese cross shape photolm and also the hidden object photolm. Then we also have succeded in measuring 0.930.01 mm for tenth value of thickness for aluminum in linear absorption experiment. We have performed x-ray scattering to plot the graph of the ratio of intensity against the Atomic number but our graph have many kink that does not show the linearity of the ratio with Atomic weight of the element. However, we did see the dierence of having changing the position between Nickel and Cobalt as we have lesser kink by reversing their position.

I.

INTRODUCTION

II.

THEORY

X-ray is a highly penetrating rays that were emitted when high energy electrons struck metal target. The strength of its penetration is because of its high frequency electromagnetic energy which is at 3 1016 .[1] X-rays can be produced by two atomic processes, one is from Bremstrahlung radiation and the other is by xray uorescence which is produced when electrons make transitions between lower atomic energy leves in heavy elements. This kind of x-ray is known as characteristics x-rays which have denite energies that can be determined by the atomic energy level.[? ]
FIG. 1. Occurence of characteristic x-ray

The maximum photon energy, h is equal to the maximum available electron kinetic energy, eV. So, the minimum x-ray wavelength is given by:[3] min = hc/eV (1)

Then Moseley had observed that the characteristic wavelength decreased as the atomic number of target material increased.[3] For shortest characteristic x-ray, K line, it follows the relationship: 1 1 1 = R(Z s)2 ( 2 2 ) n1 n2 (2)

Characteristic x-ray occurs when incident high energy electron from outside ejected and scattered the electron bound in an atom as shown in FIG1. After the electron bound ejected from the shell, there is a vacant in the energy level. So, the electron from high energy level will occupied this vacancy and there will be emission of characteristic x-ray which contains energy that is associated with the dierence between the atomic energy levels of the targeted atom. In this experiment the main focus is on the x-ray uorescence which we want to observe Moseleys law which the square root of frequency of characteristic x-rays is proportional to the atomic number of the elements, Z where is the frequency of characteristic x-rays and Z is the atomic number of the elements.[3] We also used features in the combination absorption and scattered spectra of various materials to construct a Moseley type plot.

where n1 = 1; n2 = 2; R: Rydberg constant; s: screening constan and Z: characteristic integer which is an atomic number. Through this technique, Moseley were able to discovered the incorrect ordering of some atoms in the periodic table and that some atoms were missing from the periodic table. By plotting the square root of the x-ray frequency versus the atomic number, a Moseley plot can be constructed.[3]

III.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Contact: mmohdzin@mix.wvu.edu

For the setup of this experiment, we used TEL-XOMETER as our x-ray sources and Geiger-Mller tube as a detector. Scaler monitor is connected to measure the count rate per second that is detected by the GM tube. The rst thing we did in this experiment is performing and checking the alignment of the TEL-X-OMETER according to the instruction manual. Then we perform the photographic process by taking developing an x-ray photo of both Maltese Cross and the hidden object in the slide. Then we measure linear absorption by passing x-rays through dierent thickness of aluminum and measure the counts per second. For x-ray scattering, we reect x-rays o of various elements and directing the reected beam through lter of various elements and record the counts per second.

2 And the last part will be the analyzing of the elements absorption lines to observed the Moseleys law. Take note that as we did not manage to complete both linear absorption and x-ray scattering due to technical diculty, we have taken the data with the courtesy of other researcher prior to us in order to continue our analyzation of the data to study the Moseleys law.[? ]
IV. RESULT AND ANALYSIS Photographic Process TABLE I. The count rates that determine the intensity of radiation with dierent thickness by having dierent slides used with the logarithmic value used [5] Slide Number E.S. Total Intensity Log I LogIo /I

Thickness(mm) (cps)(10) (1.0) 562.033 562.017 562.018 562.019 562.018 562.019 562.020 562.018 562.020 562.018 562.019 562.020 562.021 562.020 562.021 562.019 562.020 562.021 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 4 0.00 0.10 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.75 1789 872 444 266 217 159 131 79 3.2 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9

IV.1.

## 0.310.03 0.600.06 0.830.08 0.920.09 1.100.10 1.100.10 1.400.10

We managed to develop a lm containing the shape of Maltese cross and also the hidden object in the slide as shown in both of FIG. 2 and FIG. 3. The white area inside the lm is the region where the x-radiation werent able to fall on as it cant penetrate the Maltese cross shape and hidden object shape slides while the black region is where the tracing of the x-ray formed.
FIG. 2. Picture of a Maltese cross Film

78 42 19

## 1.400.10 1.600.20 2.000.20

With the value of Intensity (cps), we plot the data against the total thickness (mm) as shown in FIG.4.
FIG. 4. The exponential graph of intensity (cps) with the total thickness (mm) FIG. 3. Picture of a hidden object Film
1800 Intensity,I(cps) vs. Thickness,t(mm) Gaussian Fit 1600

1400

1200 Intensity,I(cps)

1000

800

600

400

200

IV.2.

## Measuring linear absorption

0.5

1.5 2 Thickness,t(mm)

2.5

3.5

In Table I is the result of our measured the intensity (count per second) with dierent total thickness (mm) obtained by putting up dierent slides at dierent E.S. Then we calculate its logarithmic value and for slides more than 0.00mm thickness, we calculate the subtraction between Log I with Log I0 where log I0 is the logarithmic value of the intensity where total thickness is zero.

From FIG.4, the exponential curve formed where: I = I0 et and then we can obtain: = log II0 t (4) (3)

3 For FIG.4, we have the equation of t as given: x b2 2 x b1 2 ) + a2 exp((( ) f (x) = a1 exp((( c1 c2 (5)
TABLE II. The count rates for Blank slide with eight dierent element[5] Blank slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 60 97 58 93 77 127 56 49 10 10 10 10 10 9.9 10 10 6.0 9.7 5.8 9.3 7.7 12.8 5.6 4.9 Time(s) intensity(cps)10

Where a1 = 9.278e20 ; b1 = -8.211; c1 = 1.282; a2 = 1.778e6 ; b2 = -19.56; c2 = 6.783. Then we tabulate and plot the graph of Log (I0 /I) as a function of t as shown in FIG. 5. FIG.5 shows that the
FIG. 5. The graph of Log(I0 /I) with the total thickness,t (mm)

TABLE III. The count rates for Zinc Filter slide with eight dierent elements [5] Zinc Filter slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 10 20 20 36 22 34 14 20 intensity I/I0 (cps)10 1.0 2.0 2.0 3.6 2.2 3.4 1.4 2.0 0.20.3 0.20.5 0.30.8 0.40.5 0.30.4 0.30.6 0.20.8 0.40.9

graph of Log (I0 /I) as a function of t with gaussian t of two terms as given: f (x) = axb + c (6) where a = 1.556 2.263, b = 0.3152 0.4717, c = -0.433 2.162. It can be observed that FIG.5 has the curvee that is more inclined to fall away at greater values of thickness,t (mm). Since log I0 /I) is smaller than the correct exponential value, then I alone must be responsible for the deviation and is larger than the theory predicts. So we can infer that the x-radiation is becoming more penetrating as it passes through the aluminum. This is consistent with the law of conservation of energy if not just one homogenous wavalength but a heterogenous mixture of wavelengths comprises the primary x-ray beam. Then we try to nd the tenth value thickness for aluminum. Using equation of t (5), we can use a tenth value of intensity which is 1789/10 = 178.9 cps into the equation and determine the x value. We have measure our tenth value thickness for aluminum is at 0.93 0.01 mm. The accepted value for 30kV radiation is ablout 0.9mm which we can say that our experimental value is agreeable with the accepted value.[3]
IV.3. X-Ray Scattering and Moseleys Law

For this part, we have measured the count rates at nine dierent slides with eight dierent rotary radiator

elements. FIG.6 to FIG.13 shows the plot of the graph with the ratio of I/I0 against eight dierent elements with increasing atomic weight. According to Moseleys law, we should have obtained a linear increase of the ratio intensity with the increase of atomic weight. In FIG. 6 we can see the increase only rose from Chromium to Iron and the linearity of the graph is disrupted by the value of Nickel and Cobalt while we would see the linear proportion back from Copper to Zinc. For FIG.7, there exists two kink on the graph for Copper Filter Slide although there is an increase in the ratio throughout those elements. In this gure, VanadiumChromium and Nickel-Cobalt are the cause of the kink on the graphs. For FIG. 8, Chromium and Iron form kink between two elements while from Nickel, the ratio drops down until Copper and increase back for Zinc. For FIG. 9 in Nickel Filter, Chromium and NickelCobalt form kink on the graph. For other gures of other element lters, we can see the same pattern of kink which usually form by Vanadium-Chromium and NickelCobalt.

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TABLE IV. The count rates for Copper Filter slide with eight dierent elements[5] Copper Filter slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 20 14 14 20 28 36 16 28 intensity I/I0 (cps)10 2.0 1.4 1.4 2.0 2.8 3.6 1.6 2.8 0.31.6 0.11.0 0.21.7 0.21.1 0.40.8 0.31.3 0.31.7 0.61.8 TABLE VI. The count rates for Cobalt Filter slide with eight dierent elements[5] Cobalt Filter slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 24 28 26 36 44 36 6 10 intensity I/I0 (cps)10 2.4 2.8 2.6 3.6 4.4 3.6 0.6 2.8 0.41.6 0.31.0 0.51.6 0.41.0 0.60.7 0.31.2 0.11.8 1.02.0

TABLE V. The count rates for Copper Filter slide with eight dierent elements[5] Zinc Filter slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 20 14 14 20 28 36 16 28 intensity I/I0 (cps)10 2.0 1.4 1.4 2.0 2.8 3.6 1.6 2.8 0.31.6 0.11.0 0.21.7 0.21.1 0.40.8 0.31.3 0.31.7 0.61.8

TABLE VII. The count rates for Nickel Filter slide with eight dierent elements[5] Nickel Filter slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 24 28 26 36 44 36 6 10 intensity I/I0 (cps)10 2.4 2.4 1.6 2.8 3.0 3.8 2.2 0.6 0.41.6 0.21.0 0.31.6 0.31.0 0.40.8 0.31.2 0.41.7 1.02.0

IV.4.

## Changing position between Cobalt and Nickel

Thus, we can generalize that there is something wrong for our arrangement of the graph. As the atomic weight increases, so the total atoms in the elements increases and this account for the rise to an increase in the intensity of scattered radiation following inelastic collision. From Cobalt lter to Nickel lter, we can observe the

discontinuity from Nickel to Copper element. Moseley perceived that if we reverse the classication of Nickel and Cobalt, the experimental result can have a simple progression. To determine whether this is true for our data, we reverse that as shown in FIG.14 to FIG.16 and for Zinc and Copper lter we could see a progression from Chromium to Iron and a discontinuity from Nickel to Copper while have shown a less kink compared with initial graph. For Cobalt lter, there is a discontinuity

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TABLE VIII. The count rates for Vanadium Filter slide with eight dierent elements[5] Vanadium Filter slide Rotary Radiator Atomic Counts Element Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Nickel Cobalt Copper Zinc Weight 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.71 58.93 63.54 65.37 24 28 26 36 44 36 6 10 intensity I/I0 s 2.4 2.8 2.6 3.6 4.4 3.6 0.6 (cps)10 0.41.6 0.31.0 0.51.6 0.41.0 0.60.7 0.31.2 0.11.8 FIG. 11. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Iron Filter slide 2.8 1.02.0 FIG. 10. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Vanadium Filter slide

## FIG. 8. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Cobalt Filter slide

FIG. 12. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Manganese Filter slide

## FIG. 9. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Nickel Filter slide

FIG. 13. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Chromium Filter slide

between Nickel and Copper but there still exist a kink from Iron to Nickel. Based on our graphs, we can see that the ratio of Vanadium is always higher than Chromium and this should not be true theoretically. We cannot think of any reason other than taking account of that as the error in performing the experiment. Also the error bar for the ratio is quite big in relative with its value which is average in the factor of 2 and so the resolution for our graph is not ideal in observing the Moseleys law. So, while we still able to glimpse a little bit of linearity between the ratio of intensity with the atomic weight, the

graph we obtain is very vague and did not show truly the proportionality between atomic weight and the ratio of

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FIG. 14. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Zinc Filter slide

intensity.

V.

ERROR ANALYSIS

FIG. 15. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Copper Filter slide

In this experiment, we have a random error with our scaler monitor and GM tube in measuring the intensity (count per second) with 10. This error is large by a factor of 8 or 9 compare with its value. This error is then account for our ratio intensity that yields a larger range of data that we consider to make our data points does not yield to Moseleys law. For example, Vanadium have the range of error that is overlap with the Chromiums value and so it may be in this account that we have failed to obtain the exact value of dierences between those two values. Next time, we should have increasae our resolution of data and try to account more signicant gures into our data as calculation can reduce our data resoulution. For linear absorption, we have curve tting the exponential curve using the function in equation (5). By obtaining the statistical error of that curve tting we can take account of the error in obtaining the uncertainty of our tenth value thickness for aluminum. We obtained the thickness in the range from 0.92 to 0.94 mm.

VI. FIG. 16. I/I0 versus Atomic weight for Cobalt Filter slide

CONCLUSION

We can conclude that we werent able to observed Moseleys law by using our data. We may have observed the dierences by changing the position of Nickel and Cobalt but still the data points of Vanadium does not theoretically follow the law in our graph. The reason is in our data resolution that we have discussed in Error Analysis section. Despite all that, we were able to develop a lm that forms a good quality picture of Maltese cross and the hidden object. For linear absorption, we have measured the tenth value of the thickness to be (0.93 0.01) mm and this is considered to be agreeable with accepted value for aluminum which is around 0.9mm

[1] Melissinos A., Experiments in Modern Physics Academic Press, 1966. [2] Taylor, Zaratos, Dubson, Modern Physics Pearson, Prentice Hall, NJ, 2004.

[3] Description Folder, , West Virginia University, 2012. [4] Preston, Dietz, The Art of Experimental Physics, John Wiley and Sons, X-Ray section, 1991. [5] C. Kelly, Data points for linear absorption were taken by courtesy of C. Kelly PHYS 341 Fall 2011.