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Manu Auto 1: PLC Programming

Introduction A Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC, is more or less a small computer with a built-in operating system (OS). This OS is highly specialized to handle incoming events in real time, i.e. at the time of their occurrence. The PLC has input lines where sensors are connected to notify upon events (e.g. temperature above/below a certain level, liquid level reached, etc.), and it has output lines to signal any reaction to the incoming events (e.g. start an engine, open/close a valve, etc.) The system is user programmable. It uses a language called "Relay Ladder" or RLL (Relay Ladder Logic). The name of this language implies the fact that the control logic of the earlier days, which was built from relays, is being simulated. The PLC is primarily used to control machinery. A program is written for the PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal program. In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer. However, a PLC is designed to be programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed. In fact, a crafty programmer could use a PLC to control not only simple devices such as a garage door opener, but their whole house, including turning lights on and off at certain times, monitoring a custom built security system, etc. Most commonly, a PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial environment. A PLC can run an automatic machine for years with little human intervention. They are designed to withstand most harsh environments a PLC will encounter. When the first electronic machine controls were designed, they used relays to control the machine logic (i.e. press "Start" to start the machine and press "Stop" to stop the machine). A basic machine might need a wall covered in relays to control all of its functions. There are a few limitations to this type of control.

Relays fail. The delay when the relay turns on/off. There is an entire wall of relays to design/wire/troubleshoot.

A PLC overcomes these limitations; it is a machine controlled operation. PLCs are becoming more and more intelligent. In recent years PLCs have been integrated into electrical networks i.e. all the PLCs in an industrial environment have been plugged into a network which is usually hierarchically organized. The PLCs are then supervised by a control centre. There exist many proprietary types of networks. One type which is widely known is SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition).

Objective Programming a PLC to drive the movement an x-y type machine powered by a pneumatic. Learn the equipment used to control an object using PLC. To practice rewiring a PLC based controlled object for specific purpose.

Equipment X-Y Pneumatic Model

X-Y Solenoid Actuator of Pneumatic Model

PLC Training Kit Procedures 1. 2. 3. 4. The X-Y Pneumatic Model equipment is connected to PLC training kit. Run PLC with installed program. The movement of Machine is recorded. A new movement of the model is designed. The Ladder diagram for that design is created.

Result
Traffic Light PLC Program with PLC Step 1: Sequence for Green Light a. If 0000= ON Then System Traffic Light is Active. Green Light in Position A = ON b. If 0000= ON And (1000 = ON or T003 = ON) And 1002 = OFF Then 1001 = ON (Hold ON) And T000 Activated. Green Light in Position C = ON c. If 0000= ON And T000= ON And 1003 = OFF Then 1002 = ON (Hold ON) And T001 Activated. Green Light in Position D = ON d. If 0000= ON And T001= ON And 1004= OFF Then 1003= ON (Hold ON) And T002 Activated. Green Light in Position B = ON e. If 0000= ON And T002= ON And 1001= OFF Then 1004= ON (Hold ON) And T003 Activated. f. If T003= ON And Go to Step 1.a. Setting Timer Traffic Light = 2 minutes:

Step 2: Sequence for Red Light a. If 0000= ON And (1002 = ON Or 1003 = ON Or 1004 = ON) Then 1005 = ON. b. If 0000= ON And (1001 = ON Or 1002 = ON Or 1003 = ON) Then 1006 = ON. c. If 0000= ON And (1001 = ON Or 1003 = ON Or 1004 = ON) Then 1007 = ON. d. If 0000= ON And (1001 = ON Or 1002 = ON Or 1004 = ON) Then 1008 = ON. Step 3: Output PLC a. If 0000= ON And 1005 = ON Then 0500 = ON. b. If 0000= ON And 1001 = ON Then 0501 = ON. c. If 0000= ON And 1006 = ON Then 0502 = ON. d. If 0000= ON And 1004 = ON Then 0503 = ON. e. If 0000= ON And 1007 = ON Then 0504 = ON. f. If 0000= ON And 1002 = ON Then 0505 = ON. g. If 0000= ON And 1008 = ON Then 0506 = ON. h. If 0000= ON And 1003 = ON Then 0507 = ON.

Recommendation and Suggestion Student should carefully design the machine so that is would not produce any mistake and would run the program.

Conclusion In this experiment, we have learned how to use PLC Programming and designing a program with it. To learn PLC programming one must have a background in creating ladder diagram of control engine. Because the basic level of PLC ladder is equal the control engine ladder diagram. When learning PLC programming, the difficult concept is to understand the difference between the physical component and the component programs. We will connect physical components (switches, lights, Relays, etc) to the terminal outside the PLC. Then, all components connected to the PLC will be represented on the program as program components.

References MME 3124 Manufacturing Lab IV Manual http://program-plc.blogspot.com/2010/03/traffic-light-plc-program-with-plc.html