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NAVAAN, DORJPALAMYN (1925) Mongolian famous archeologist and doctor, professor Navaan is one of the first Mongolian archeologists.

He wrote books titled The Bronze Age of Eastern Mongolia, Early Mongolian historical monuments, Traces of Ancient People and Kharkhorin. He excavated graves of the Bronze Age and 13th century Mongolia. He found a pair of golden hairclips from the Tevsh Mountain in Bogd sum, Uvurkhangai province and a golden belt from a tomb at the Dadart Mountain, Songinokhairkhan district of Ulaanbaatar. (KH.L) NAIMAN The Naimans tribe settled near the Altai and Khangai Mountains in the early 9th century. It bordered the Zaisan Lake and Khar Khurem to the west. It is believed that the Naimans were a clan of Yav state in 40s of the 9th century. It got the name Naiman and grew bigger in the middle of the 9th century. They attacked the Jin Dynasty in the 12th century. The Naimans became stronger during the period of Inach Khan and occupied a large territory. After his death in the middle of the12th century, his two sons, Tayang and Buyrug, fought for their fathers power. Therefore, the Naimans were divided in two parts. A half of them that settled around the Erchis River were led by Buyrug and the other half around the Orkhon River was led by Tayang. (Kh.Sh) EIGHT LIGHT BAY GELDINGS One day, when the eight horses, the light bay geldings, were standing by the yurt, thieves stole and the horses of Temujin and fled. Being on foot, Temujin and his brothers were left behind and could only watch. Belgutei had ridden off to go hunting for marmot on a bald-tailed chestnut horse. Those thieves were well aware of the situation because they had observed the herd for a while. The horses were beautiful and attractive. The number of Chinggis Khans horses counting either eight or nine has a symbolic meaning. Mongolians respect for Eight Horses of Happiness may have originated from Temujins eight light bay geldings. Mongolian traditional paintings usually depict eight horses grazing freely in a beautiful pasture. It is believed that there is happiness and harmony where such a painting is hanging. The number eight is a respected number. There is an eight channels theory in Mongolian shamanism, and eight types of offerings are offered to the Heaven. The color bay is also a respected color for horses. Bay horses are usually featured in Mongolian folktales and stories. Therefore, horses of Temujin are collectively named eight light bay geldings after the symbolism of number eight and the folklore traditions. However, it may be wrong to assume that he had only eight horses. (J.S) NAMNANDORJ, OCHIRYN (1905-1989) O. Namnandorj was born on the 25th day of the first month of winter, 1905 in Mishig Gun Banner of Sain Noyon Khan province (currently Delgerkhaan sum of Tuv aimag). He was one of the first young Mongolians of the new generation who pursued knowledge and education. He was among the first scholars who laid the foundations of science and education in his homeland. Namnandorj

taught in Mongolian secondary schools for about 20 years, authored about 1000 articles and 80 books while also completing three universities in his lifetime. He demonstrated to the next generation what a man is able to achieve if he is committed to his goals. Namnandorj was the scientist who first copied and publicized (1952) the petroglyphs of the Khoid Tsenkher cave which is one of the most prominent places containing the artifacts of primitive human beings. In 1951, he discovered a 184 sm tall memorial erected on the 25th day of the last month of summer, 1257 to Mongke Khan. The memorial weighing one cubic ton was found under the ruins of a palace. The monument is now placed in the Central Museum of Mongolia. His research report about this monument cites Sagan Setsens Precious Chronicle, The History of the Yuan Dynasty as well as accounts of Wilhelm de Rubruk and Plano Carpini and is a useful handbook for scholars. His work, Historical Names, based on a thorough study of Chinggis Khan and his descendants is a guide book for researchers of Chinggis Khan. NANITSZIN was the southern capital of the Jin Dynasty. Other names were Byanling and Kaifen. Mongols call it Nanjin. The city was occupied by soldiers of Ogodei Khan in 1234. Latitude 340 and longitude 1140. (O.S) NANISHANI is a mountain range located in western China. Latitude 940-1040, longitude 360-400. It was the territory of the Xia Dynasty during the time of Chinggis Khan. (Kh.Sh) NARATU SHITUEN Chinggis Khan and Wang Khan jointly attacked Tatars led by Megujin Suult who had built a barricade in Khustu Shuteen and Naratu Shuteen along the Ulz River. Khustu and Naratu Shuteen were a worshipped place from ancient times. Megujin Suult and other Tatars had built a barricade near this place. Joint forces of Chinggis Khan and Toghril Khan attacked them and killed Megujin Suult before Vanging-changsang, a commander of the Jin who were fighting with the Tatars arrived. While plundering the camp at Naratu shuteen where the Tatars had raised their barricade, Chinggis Khans soldiers found a small, abandoned boy. He had golden earrings, a nose-ring, and a waistcoat of satin lined with sable. Chinggis Khan gave him to his mother Oelun. Oelun said: He must be the son of a noble man. The mans family probably had good origins. He became the sixth son, the younger brother of her five sons. She named him Shigihutag and raised him. Naratu shuteen is on the edge of Norovlin sum of Khentii province and Bayan-uul sum of Dornod province. (O.S) TABLE OF NASIROV (TABAQAT-I-NASIRI) It is a medieval text originated in Central Asia and is an important source of Chinggis Khan Studies. The authors full name is Minhaj uddin abu Omar Osman Siraj uddin Mohammed alJuzjan. He was born in 1193. He was in Afghanistan and witnessed Chinggis Khans raid on the Khwarazm. He even took part in protection of one of the fortresses. (O.S)

NATIGAI See Nachigai. (O.S) NAKHICHEVANI is a city in current Armenia. Latitude 390, longitude 450. (Kh.Sh) NAKHU BAYAN (NAKHU THE RICH) was the father of Boorchi, a companion and commander of Chinggis Khan. He was from the Arulad clan. After Boorchi and Temuujin met and made friends, they arrived at Nakhu-bayans yurt. Thinking that he had lost his son Boorchi, Nakhu-bayan was sniveling and weeping. On seeing his son suddenly arrive, he alternately cried and scolded. After he realized what had happened, he said: You two look after one another. Do not abandon one another. He killed a fat lamb for Temujin and gave it to him to eat on the way. They fastened a leather bag of meal to the front of his saddle and saw him off to his home. (O.S) NAKHU GUN (The Secret History of the Mongols, 195 and 196) Tayan Khan finally decided to fight against Chinggis Khan and he arrived at Tsakhir Mogod crossing the Orkhon and passing by the foot of Nakhu Gun to the east. But their watchmen were attacked by warriors of Chinggis Khan. So they withdrew from Tsakhir Mogod and lined up on the southern side of Nakhu-gun, along the foot of the mountain. It is described in particular details in The Secret History of the Mongols about how Nakhu Gun battle took place and ended. Our watchmen then pursued the Naiman watchmen until they reached and rejoined their main army on the southern side of Nakhu Gun. Tayan Khan saw the pursuit and arrival of his men. Jamukha was with the Naimans, having joined Tayan Khan along with his soldiers. Tayan Khan asked Jamukha: Why are these (men) chasing the sheep into the sheep-pen, like so many wolves? Jamukha said: My sworn brother Temujin has four hounds, raised on human flesh and they have been chained and tied but now they pursue our watchmen. Did you Naiman companions not say that when you saw the Mongols you would leave them with not even the skin of a kids hoof? Look at them now! Tayang Khan replied: Let us climb further up the mountain and stay there. After telling in this way to Tayan Khan, Jamukha left the Naimans and stood apart from them. He then sent a message to Chinggis Khan saying: Tayang Khan was scared to death by my words. In his terror, he has struggled upwards. Frightened by my talking of his death, he has climbed the mountain. Sworn brother, be steadfast. They have climbed the mountain and will offer no resistance. I myself have left the Naimans. It was late and the sun was setting when Chinggis Khan surrounded the Nakhu Gun, so they spent the night where they were. That night, the Naimans tried to escape. While moving, they rolled down from the summit of Nakhu Gun piling on top of one another. Their bones were smashed and fell to pieces, crushed like rotten logs; thus they died. The following day, Chinggis Khan finished Tayang Khan off. Chinggis Khan realized that he had a few people; therefore, he listened to his wise officer Dodoi Cherbis advice: We should attack the Naimans watchmen after refreshing our horses and pursue them to reach their main army, and fight with

them. At first Zebe, Khubilai, Zelme and Subedei reached their destination, attacked and pursued the Naimans watchmen. Then Chinggis Khan himself joined the vanguard of a thousand soldiers led by Arkhai Khasar. After him, the main force headed by Khavt Khasar came. Temuge Otchigin supported them with soldiers and horses in reserve. Temujin pursued the Naiman watchmen, taking off at Tsakhir Muguurs in the morning and passing by Buduunii Mountain. After about 60 kilometers, the Naiman watchmen reached their main army at the Nakhu Gun where Chinggis Khan attacked the Naimans main force by surprise. Tayang Khan retreated and his army stayed in a small area up in the Nahu Gun Mountain. Chinggis Khan used this condition wisely and besieged the Naimans before the night, mking them unable to maneuver. Tayans son Khuchulug did not hurry to help his father, which made Tayans defeat more obvious. The enemy had more people and stronger horses. If the battle had continued for a longer period, Chinggis Khan would have been at risk. Therefore, Chinggis Khan used a strategy to attack the Naimans by surprise, giving them no chance to retreat. When the Nakhu Gun battle started, Naimans all soldiers havent gathered together yet, Naimans didnt have a plan or strategy to fight and Tayang Khans not practiced and arrogant character shows the end of the battle and Jamukha expected how it will finish and Tayang Khan is going to defeat. Thus he decided to escape before Chinggis Khan come near. He messaged Chinggis Khan current condition of Naimans preventing from chase after him. Sometimes it is said that Jamukha was working for Chinggis Khan. It is not studied comprehensively whether Jamukha was Chinggis Khans enemy or not. Chinggis khan considered and studied well a place to fight. Although he had less force than Naimans, he used smart strategy on this fight and won a great victory in later month of summer1204.This victory cleared any other obstacles to found The Great Mongol Empire. If Chinggis Khan didnt win this fight, The Great Mongol Empire may not be founded. This victory is a classic case of military strategy to win against huge force by less force. It is also example of wise preparation for battle in short time. Nahu Gun mountain where important battle to create Mongolian State took place is Lah Bayan mountain of Dashinchilen sum, Bulgan province in the modern day. Lah Bayan mount is bigger than other mountains around and it looks very beautiful. (O.S) The Battle at Nahu Gun It is where Chinggis Khan attacked and occupied the Naimans in 1204. The reasons to fight were: the Naimans tried to attack soldiers of Chinggis with soldiers of HugseuSabragin 1199; - United tribes against Chinggis Khan with itself; - Decided to attack Chinggis Khan dealing with Ongud. Chinggis Khan prepared well and did complex options such as organized Great Khural /state meeting/ three times, studied the Naimans organized his soldiers again, expanded his soldiers of the centre, developed fight strategy and worshipped his spirit to win this last Battle to found the Great Mongol Empire. Chinggis Khans plan to attack and to reorganize the soldiers to march in bushclump formation, stand in lake array, and attack with the chisel. (dividingthe soldiers into

numerous small groups that kept contact with each other but maintained a low profile as they advanced, sending waves of men to surround and attack the enemy on all sides and direct hand-tohand combat) The Naimans were besieged by soldiers of Cinggis Khan in Nahu Mountain and defeated. Jamukha and Khuchulug escaped with few people. The Naimans defeated because of: - The North and South Naimans were conflicted. Tayan Khan made wrong decision, couldnt organized his population and soldier and his personal arrogant character affected. Chinggis Khan won because of: -Great skills and power of his commanders, -United Ongud with himself, -Reorganized and expanded his soldiers and did preparation well. The ratio between soldiers of Chinggis Khan and Tayang Khan was 4.5:5.5 ten thousand. It means all soldiers of Mongolian took part from both sides. (Kh.Sh) Natsagdorj Sharav (1918-199) He is a Mongolian famous author and historian. He is member of Scientific Academy and awarded the State Prize. He is doctor, professor of history and academician. He authored books named The Test/Sorilt/, Country of Sugaavaad, The way of life, The Mongolian woman, Mandukhai Queen/MandukhaiTsetsen/, Bolor toli and Biography of Chinggis /Chingisiin Tsadig/. He writes most about historic subject. Also he wrote books named Mongolian history of feudalism, The History of Khalkh, Public movement of Outter Mongol, Leader hero Damdinsuren, The originator of Mongolian State and Red cheeked on topic of historical studies. He awarded State Prize by his writing of D.Sukhbaatars biography. Academician D.Natsagdorj started first studies of Chinggis Khan in Mongolia and wrote books such as Chinggis Khanii Tsadig, The fight of Khasar and The basic path of Mongolian feudalism.He is one of originators who found the center of studies of Chingis Khan. His writings about Bogd Khan were translated in more than 20 languages such as Russian, English, French, Japanese, Germanic, Chinese and Fritz. It has important contribution to spread studies of Chinggis Khan on abroad. Nachigai Nachigai is the name of spirit which is worshipped by Mongolians during the time of Chinggis Khan. It is a spirit of land and water and covers children, livestock and foods under its auspices. Every family respected and pray for him. They shaped the spirit with his wife and child by felt and cloth. Every family had it their home and they put his wife on the left s and his child in front of him and family members prayed for the spirit. They had to give them first the best of food, tea before they have a meal. (O.S) Naya

He is the youngest son of old man Shireet of Baarin clan and younger brother of Alagnoyon /lord/. Shireet man and his two sons captured Targutai Khiriltug was escaping in the forest when Taichuud was attacked by Chinggis Khan on the side of Onon River in 1200. Naya said: We had better release Targutai and send him back. We ourselves will go to Chinggis Khan and let us tell him: We have come to serve you. We captured Tarqutai and were bringing him to you, but we could not forsake our rightful Khan. Therefore we released him and sent him away, and thought to come and offer you our might.Nayas father and brother agreed to these words and they released Targutai Khiriltug at Khutukhul and sent him away. When they came to Chinggis Khan and said words above, Chinggis Khan said: Had you laid hands on your own Khan, Targutai, had you laid hands on your rightful Khan, I should have executed all of you and your clan. But you were unable to forsake your rightful Khan; your warm heart was right.Since that time, Naya joined and served for Chinggis Khan with his great deed of founding The Great Mongol Empire. He had Chinggis Khans trust and approved by bringing queen Khulan with no favour for her and her body born by the destiny of Heaven to her father and mother. Naya took charge and became a lord of the ten thousand /tumen/ of the centre in 1206. Naya took part in attacks of Tangud, Altan and Sartuul and is praised serving for Mongolian State during the period of Chinggis Khan, Ugudei Khan and Munkh Khan. (O.S) Nehru Javkharlal He, statesman and enlightener of India, studied history of Chinggis Khan with much interests and emphasized what great affection and obligation Chinggis has to the history of India and Asia in his books, articles, letters and words. Neru emphasized repeatedly Chinggiss rank in world history and his example to 20th century. Nerus some works printed in Mongolian. Jack Weatherford, Professor of Macalester College, US wrote an article named Chinggis Khan and Nehru in English. He wrote: They had developed a way of life of their own and had an intricate organization. If they won great victories on the field of battle, it was not because of their numbers, but because of their discipline and organization. For Chinggis, he is, without doubt, the greatest military genius and leader in history. Alexander and Caesar seem petty before him. Chinggis was not only himself a great commander, but also he trained many of his generals and made them brilliant leaders. (Kh.L) Nesep It is Qarshi city of Uzbekistan in the modern time.It is also named Nekhshab and Karsh.Chinggis Khan spent a summer in 1220 here. Later it became a summer camp of kings of The State of Tsagadai and built to city and named Nesep. Kharshi means contrary and not matching in Mongolian /kharsh/. It locates latitude 380and longitude 650. Conquer to Nisiopur city Shah Muhammad escaped and came to Nesa city in January 18, 1220. He persuaded If Mongolians came, they will kill all of us. If we escape now, we will be survived. He was tried to

let people followed him. But there was no one to leave their country. Therefore Muhammad ordered: We need neither knights nor a castle. All we have to do is to elevate the fort. So they all got worked when Tului came. Zev and Subedei came to Nesa city and demanded to give up. Their officer said If you kill Sultan then you will have all things and gave them foods. Mongolian soldiers were getting foods from the city. A thousand of soldiers of Toguchar came to Nesa in the late of February, 1221. Residents of the city attacked them and killed Toguchar because Toguchars soldiers was a few. Deputy of Toguchar Burkhei commanded the soldiers and besieged the city. Then soldiers of Tului came to Nesa from Maru and double besieged the city. They set up 3000 arrowed soldiers and 3000 men who throw stones on the fort. Soldiers of Tului occupied the city in April, 10, 1221. They got 400 craftsmen and killed rest others for vengeance of Toguchar. Nesa (Nisopur) city is a center of one of Khorasan circles. It is north side of Iran in the modern day. Latitude 360, longitude 580. (Kh.Sh) A dogs fight/NokhoiKherel/ It is a kind of tactic of fight of Mongolian soldiers. It means a pretence retreat, followed by a sudden turning and attack. It is named from dogs technique to attack. Mongolian dogs attack like passing, turning back and getting forwards and backwards when they attack to a horse man. The Naimans planned to fight in this tactic when they attack against Chinggis Khan in 1204 but they didnt executed. Preparation for the next statesman and lord Temuujin prepared his future lords since long ago. Mother Oelun managed it and guided school of sons. Khuchu, khuchu, Borohul and Shikhikhutag are example of this preparation. Oelun mother cared for and raised them since they were little and they became lords of thousands in 1206. From seeing The Secret History of Mongolians, Chinggis Khan didnt look after every abandoned single boy. There was a requirement to admit Oelun mothers school. There were: 1. They take origins of boys into consideration. For example: they cared for Shikhikhutag because they deemed that he is a son of noble. 2. They consider presence of boys and choose if they have fire in his eyes and light in his face /good side of man, impassioned, vigorous etc./ 3. Looking after and caring for orphans. Chinggis Khan expected that orphans cared for by himself will serve honestly from its heart to his state. So they choose boys by three requirements above. As a consequent of studying his way of preparing future lords and statesmen, it can be made followings: One.Main requirements of Chinggis Khan to choose statesmen were honest, humanist and generous character of a person.

Two. Managed state works with skillful few lords. Three. Prepared future statesmen from they were younger orphans. Four. His such experience is still valued in state policy in the modern day. (Kh. L) Bow and Arrow It is a personnel weapon of Chinggis soldiers which is named Horn Bow. It was made from horn Mongolians used this horn bow in the 13th century. It is written in materials of the time that Mongolian bow shoots an arrow at longer distance comparing to Asian and European bows. (Kh.Sh) Bow Key It is a fight tactic of ancient Mongolians. They use natural force such as river, mountain and forest as bowstring and encircle them. Chinggis Khans warriors used this tactic in Buur Kheer Battle of 1179 and in Shin River Battle of 1221. (Kh. Sh) The Battle at Nuur Bair It is a term that Chinggis Khan defined his tactic to attack the Naimans in 1204. It means building barricades and encircling their enemy, then hit. (Kh. Sh) What happened on the road of moving Temuujin followed Jamukha and remained companions forone year and half in Khorkhunag Jibur in 119 after Buur Kheer Battle. Temuujins object of following Jamukha was to be under Jamukhas patronage and have Jamukhas followers are joined with himself. While Jamukha thinks that he will use Temuujin to become Khan/king/ of Khamag Mongol. Temuujin used all ways to attract leaders of influential tribes in order to have united his fathers servants. Chinggis Khans main equipment was love and friendship relation. By middle of 1881, Jamukha realized that he loses his status to Temuujin and taught that he is better to separate from him and Temuujin was waiting impatiently a result of the hidden contest of over year and a half. But the meaning of Temuujin and Jamukhas talk on the road of moving was mainly lets forsake. That night Temuujin forsook Jamukha and over 20 tribes followed Temuujin. There were agitators of Temuujin in Jamukhas servants. It will be proved by some people such as Khorchi persuaded Temuujin is the only person who can become a king in the future. This hidden contests winner was Temuujin. (O.S) Pouring on the face It is a term of Mongolian warriors battle tactic. They first move back and suddenly turn back and attack against the enemy. It is same as counter-attack or counterblow tactic in the modern day. The

Naimans planned to use this method to fight against Chinggis, however they retreated from their plan. (Kh.Sh) Negun It is a part of Khongirad and Ikhiris clan. See Butu. (O.S) Multi-colored banner with single base Demos worshipped this mulit-colored banner which is combination of black and white banners. They worshipped multi-colored banner three times a year. The Plough is sculpted on top representing the Blue sky. (Kh.L) Neudei Tsagaan Gua Clan of Chinos. He followed Chinggis Khan and took part in 13 Khuree battle leading one of his Khuree. Jamukha captured him, cut off his head and draw from horse tail. (O.S) NekhunWater Both the Van Khan and Sengum abandoned their people and escaped from Chinggis Khan. After they had gone, the Van Khan, being thirsty, went [down to drink] at the NeKhn Water in Didegsakhal and came across Khorisu-bechi, a watchman of the Naimans. Khorisu-bechi captured Van Khan. The Van Khan told who he was, saying: I am the Van Khan. But Khorisu-bechi failed to recognise him or to believe him, and killed him. Sengum had not accompanied with Van Khan to the Nekun Water and searched water at Didegsakhal desert. Gurbesu mother of Tayang Khan of the Naimans, said: The Vankhan was formerly the great old Khan. Bring in his head. If it really is his, we will make an offering to it. She sent an emissary to Khorisu-bechi and had him cut off the head and brought it. When the head arrived, she recognized it and placed it on a white felt carpet. She got her daughters-in-law to perform the rites of a daughters-in law. Ceremonial wine was offered. Holding a cup, she made an offering to the head. The head smiled in response to the offering. It smiled, said Tayang Khan, and trampled the head to pieces. Khokhseu-sabrag then said: You have had the dead Khans head cut off and brought to you, yet you trample it to pieces, how can you justify your action? The sound of our dogs barking foretells misfortune. Inanchabilge Khan said: My wife is young and I am growing old. I begot this Tayang by means of prayers. My son was born stupid. Will he be able to look after and keep together my many people with their many bad qualities? The dogs barking is getting closer. The rule of Gurbesu,our Khatun, has turned harsh. You are weak, my stupid KhanTayang. You have no skills or desire other than falconry and hunting. Thus he rebuked Tayang.

Tayang Khan responded: From what I have been told, there are a Few Mongqols to the East. Khokhseu-sabrag responded: You use big words. Is it right to do so, you lazy Khan? You should keep such words to yourself. In spite of Khokhseu-sabrags warning, Tayang sent an emissary named Torbitashi to say to Alakhush Digitkhuri of the Onguds: I am told that there are a few Mongols to the east. You act as my right flank, and I will join the attack from here. We will take their quivers. Such was his message. Alakhush Digitkhuri replied: I am unable to act as your right flank. Nekhun Water where Van Khan Tooril was killed is an oasis named Ekhiin Gol /Mother River/ in Shine Jinst sum of Bayankhongor province in the present day. There are some graves of the 13th century behind this oasis. One of these graves may be have headless body of Van khan. (O.S) To pursue (nekhekh) It is kind of pursuing the enemy. It means (nekhekh) chasing after the enemy and attacking if the enemy escape. (Kh.Sh) Nylkha (Little, newborn) Sengum He is a son of Khereids Van Khan. NyalKha Sengum means commander in Chinese. When Van Khan left Temuujin at the Baidrag River in 1199 and he hit by Khugseu-Sabrag in 1199. KhugseuSabrag plundered Nylha Sengum and took Sengums wife and son, together with Van Khans people and his clan. As Van Khans begging, Chinggis Khan sent his four war-horses (Boorchi, Mukhulai, Borokhul and Chuluun Baatar) and the four war-horses rescued him andrestored to him his people, clan, wives, and children. Thereafter Chinggis Khan and Van Khan rejoined. Chinggis Khan asked Sengums younger sister, Chaur-begi as a wife for his son Zuchi, in exchange for which he would give his daughter Khojin-begi to Sengums son Tusahu in order to enforce his relation with Van Khan. However Sengum refused his ask and decided to kill Chinggis Khan in collusion with Jamukha, it couldnt be executed. Thus the relationship between Khereid and Khamag Mongol broke up and caused Battle of Mau Height and Jejeer Height. After all Kheried broke down. Nyalkha Sengum escaped and reached Tangud, but he left there. Then when he reached Kashgar, their leader Khirilchi Khar killed him. (O.S) NyambuuKhand /1942-1997/ He is an ethnographer. He was born in Adaatsag sum of Dundgovi province and completed National University of Mongolia (NUM) in1965. He started his academic work from an Institute of History of Mongolian Academy of Sciences. He was chairman of Sociology sector of Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, chairman of Social Sciences Department of University of Teachers in Khovd province, and chairman of Research Center of Ethnography in NUM since 1992. He became Doctor of History by dissertation thesis History of Mongolian Clothes in 1993. He supported to make movies such as Mandukhai Setsen Queen, Under the Immortal Sky and Legend of Ergune Gun with historical studies. (Kh.L)

Nyam-OsorNamsrai (1995-) He is a politician and businessman. He is from Batshireet sum of Khentii province. He is director of newspaper Zar, Chief executive of the Hunnu company and the inventor of Goodness movement. Patriotic, loved his national history and religion he founded Ikh Zasag University in 1994 and established ChinggisSosei incorporating with Japan and China. He had leader participation in work of 840th Anniversary of the birth of Chinggis Khan. Also he participated actively in establishing Academy of Nomadic civilization and culture, Academy of Law and State and Chinggis Khan Corporation. He is distinguished instructor and patriotic with warm heart who founded idol of Chinggis Khan in Delgerkhaan sum of Khentii province. (Kh.L) Honorable colors of the Clan People during the time of Chinggis Khan called the clan their fathers family. Each clan had their honored color. For example, Borjigin the Mongol tribe honors the blue color meaning that their forefathers are from sky. So Mongolian State of the period of Chinggis Khan is named The Blue State/Khukh Tur/, and history is named The Blue History or The Blue Sutra. (Kh. L) Cheating Fire The fire was not only equipment of households but also equipment of a battle. It was useful for flashing, giving somebody a signal, firing the cities and make smoke cloud. Their enemy thinks that they are in great number and frightened, if they make many fires and thinks that they are a few and feel excited, if they make a few fire. Also they use to bring their enemy at wrong place that they burn a fire at night and move away (making burnt offering). Using fire to cheat their enemy is named cheating fire or burnt offering. The example is that commander Zelme made burnt offering fire to Khereids and Van Khan made burnt offering fire to Chinggis Khan and leaved him at Baidrag River. (Kh.Sh) Conquered Oin Irged /Forest people/ Chinggis Khan had Zuchi ride out with the soldiers of the right flank against the people of the forest, Khutuga who are against Chinggis Khan since 1200, guided by Bukha in 1207. KhutugaBehi of the Oirats had come to submit ahead of the rest of the ten thousand Oirats. He led Zuchi to Shiqshid and Zuchi made the Oirat, Buriyad, Barqun, Ursut, Khabkhanas Khankhas, and Tubas peoples submit.When he arrived at the ten thousand Kirgis, the Kirgis lords joined to Zuchi and gave white gerfalcons, white geldings, and black sables. Thus Zuchi made forest people submit and came back. When he arrived, Chinggis Khan appreciated much and said: You, the eldest of my sons, have left the home for the first time.525 Your journey has been smooth. Without losing or harming either men or geldings, you subdued the fortunate forest people and returned. I wish to bestow these people on you.

Chinggis Khan approved Khutuga-Bekhi and gave Checheyigen to his son Inalchi and Zuchis daughter Oluyikhan to Inalchis elder brother Turolchi. It was a consequential matter in strengthened right border of the Great Mongol Empire that they had forest people submitted. (O.S) Oirat They lived around right side of Baigal where it has both forest and taiga, the end of the Selenge River, hump of the tagna Soyon and on the Gorlog Altai mountain range in the early 13th century. They were herders as well as hunters. They are named also Khori Tumed, Baruud, Bulgachin, Kheremchin and Uriankhaid in the history. Khutuga-Bekhi was leading the Oirats in that time and it was one of the influential big Mongol tribes. (Kh.L) Olgoi It was north side of Tangud during the time of Chinggis Khan. Other name is Valokhoi. It is on the bank of Khatan River and north side of Alasha Mountain. International Money System Next Khans of Chinggis Khan organized and standardized money system of their country and continued Chinggis Khans policy of supporting trade. Mongolians were in China understood that paper money was much better to do business. Mongolians wanted to expand that system and tried to implement in Persia, but local people of Persian resisted because they wasnt habitual to paper money. Chinese eliminated Mongolian paper money after they hit by Min state. Marco Polo realized advantage of paper money when he was traveling to The Great Mongol Empire and said comprehensively about paper money when he was back to Europe. It was tried again later but it wasnt used much as it was used in the Great Mongol Empire till 19th century. (Kh.L) Developed an International Law Chinggis Khan allowed people of his great empire to live on their own way, culture and tradition. But he realized that people live on the land of the great empire muust be under integrated one law in order to exist and live effectively. Just customs are not enough. He issued a decree that to legislate and follow effectively these customs. Therefore famous law named Ikh Zasag (Great Yasa) made. It is written in Uighurjin old Mongolian script and translated into language of other countries of the great empire and delivered to all. Consequently the law was recognized by everyone of the great empire. Chinggis Khan assigned Shikhikhutag as an arbiter and a controller of criminal, civil and administration law in order to control the Ikh Zasag Law. Emissariesfrom European countries came in Mongolia wrote admirably about Mongolian law system and less crime to compare with their own country. Thus Ikh zasag law made by Chinggis Khan was valued to the whole world. (Kh.L)

Chronology It is a historian material of Chinggis Khan and Mongolian History. The author is Ibnal-Asir(11601233). He had witnessed that Chinggis Khans warriors attacked to Buhkar in Samarkand and wrote notes about what real things happened. He wrote in Arabic. (Kh.L) Building of a Tomb /Ongod Khuuriin Barilga/ Scholar Yonsoch named Ongod Khuuriin Barilga building of underground tomb of ancient great kings. It is said ongoloh in The Secret History of Mongol meaning to bury. Some people say that Chinggis Khan was buried/ongoloh/ in Burkhan Khaldun Mountain. Some others say he was buried at backside of the Altai Khan and front side of Khentii Khan. (Kh.L) Buried or Sanctified (Ongolson ni) It is mentioned in Taivus story of History of Yuan Dynasty. In accordance with the story, the kings dead body clothed white hat, white deel and shoes and put into a rosewood coffin. After that the coffin was covered and wrapped by golden ring. People killed sheep as a sacrificing and worshipped his body with it for three days. On the 4th day, they carried his coffined body on carriage covered with white carpet, white felt and brocade to IKh Khorig. They buried his body and tramped out by horses for several days. Also they worshipped his bury by killing new born camel in front of his mother camel. When its time to worship kings bury later, they found it by bringing the mother camel. Because if they bring the camel, she came to the place where bury was. In other source: The kings dead body was coffined with shoes, fur hat and deel. The coffin was made by wood with nice smell. They put golden cup and dishes into his coffin and wrapped by golden ring it. They sacrificed with sheep for three days. On the 4th day they went to a targeted place to bury. The Bury or Spirit (Ongon) Mongolians sanctify (ongoloh) and adore respectfully their loved people, especially kings and high status people. For example, Chinggis Khans bury is very respectful for Mongolians. Therefore Chinggis Khansbury was named Ongon. They made a god named Ongon because Mongolians believe that dead ones spirit affects well or badly. Also they name any man or animal that they respect and adore Ongon. But every spirit cant be Ongon. Ones spirit who was a good or bad one becomes Ongon. The most respectful and powerful spirit within the spirits Ongod is Mongolian Great Kings spirit. Either a man who is dead and alive can be sanctified. If one is sanctified when alive s/he becomes protected and respected to the others. It is said that the spirit is eternal. (KH.L) Rite or Worship of the Spirits (Ongonii Tailga) Mongolians celebrated different kinds of rite ceremonies. The one is immolation ceremony of eight white palaces which was protected by Darkhads (one of the Mongolian tribes) and other one is rite

ceremony of Ikh Khorig which is protected by Uriankhais (one of the Mongolians tribes). Mongolian scholars wrote several articles about rite ceremony at Ordos. From the source The Pearl Chaplets written by Russian man, Great Khan Khubilai ordered to worship hereditarily royal family of Chinggis Khan for good on the 36th year of his reign. He appointed 8 people Oelun Cherbi / a son of Borchi/, Bintu Zaisan / a younger brother of Borchi/, Ilgugsan commander, Oirtu Cherbi, and reciter Bintegu to execute and manage the rite and moralized. It is written in a book named White (holy) history of Ten Goodness that the spirit of Chinggis Khan was worshipped four times a year and celebrated following ceremony in four seasons.
1. Celebration of Chinggis Khans born on of 3rd day of first month in winter of traditional

Mongolian calendar(celebration of healed bellybutton); 2. Celebration of sacrificing the best of mares first milk to Chinggis Khan and to the sky in the last month of spring (June, 21);
3. Celebration of airag (fermented mare milk)fermentation time on the 15th of middle month

of summer ; 4. 21 of middle month of autumn. There is a history material named Golden Note (Altan Bichig) which has rule and customs of celebrations and rites of spirit, recites and praises and names of great khans written on it. The Golden Note is considered a secret source that it is kept with hair of Chinggis Khan and clothes of his great queen in a chest. (Kh.L) Worships There are many proofs of worships of Chinggis Khan in Mongolia. Particularly, in 1930, Simukov A.D (Shar Damdinsuren/Yellow Damdinsuren) and Dendev.N gave a worship made by white stallion tail and have three arrows on its top that have been worshipped from generation to generation and saved in Shankh monestary-West Khuree in Khar Khorum sum of UvurKhahangai province to The National History Museum. Also, academician Renchin.B probed the worshipped places that ancient portrait of Chinggis Khan, his queens and 9 war horses had saved in The Armory monastery and The White Armory that was worshipped by Eljgen Khalkh people of Luu commander Gun province at UndurKhangai sum of Uvs province in the present day. In 1949, ethnographer Vitkina.K.V of Soviet Union of Russian noted that there was a carriage with a dome in Uzemchins who migrated to Mongolia in 1945, when he was working as exploratory in Dornod province of Mongolia. The Buriats a clan Uzemchins have protected this worship for 30th generation. Another worshipped place is the Bury of Chinggis Khan, located in Khan Taishir mountain of Gobi-Altai province. Author Surya.D published a story that: When Chinggis Khan

died, his bury delivered to Ordos and had a ceremony that the three small box sealed by silver and buried the one in there and delivered the rest two boxes to the back Mongolia in local tail that the Baarin, Darkhaduud-Darkhad, Sood, Bisad, Smal Darkhad, Tayichiuts, Olkhonuud, Jalair, Uriankhai tribes who know their tribe name and live around the Khan Taishir chine, appointed to protect this worship. Smirnov.V.A had written There are total 12 human statute same size as adult body consist that Chinggis Khan, his own children and his 9 war-horses in Armory monastery, located brim of Kherlen River. Their clothes are same as 700 years before Mongolian and Chinggis Khan wears straw colored deel. Their tools and accessories are lance, sword, blade, arrow and arrow case, panoply and box of Chinggis Khans stamp. (KH.L) Head of Onon River In the modern day, three rivers- fell down to north-east from Ongoljin Dava, fell down from Ikh Dava and joined with it and fell down north to south from Beryaa Sardig- are head rivers of Onon River. It lies 20 kilometers from Ikh Davaa to the Khaluun Rashaan, 60 kilometers Khaluun Rashaan to the end of Tars River. Sukhbaatar.O and Badandash.D wrote that The Great Assembly took place and Temujin became a Khan of Great Mongol Empire within total of 80 kilometers in 3 and 4th volumes of Chinggis Khan study journal. (Kh.L) Onon River Chinggis Khans life, especially early time was deeply connected with Onon River. Chinggis Khanwas born with his destiny ordained by Heaven above. It is mentioned at the first of the Secret History of MOngolas that he was descended from Burte Chino and Goo-maral, who crossed the lake, settled at the source of the Onon River at the source of Onon River and gave birth to Batachi. Batachi became a khan. Batachi Khan had lived 550 years before Chinggis Khan and his 22th generation father. Batachi Khan had lived in around 600. It is said Onon River in that time and today its name hasnt changed. Bodonchar Mungqaq got no share and was not counted as a member of his family. Therefore he thought to himself: Why have I lived here? If I am to die, he said, let me die. If I am to live, let me live. And he gallopped off down the Onon River. On the island of Baljun, he built a grass yurt and lived there. While spending the winter, he produced his plan to found a state. His brother Bukha-Khatagi came searching for him and brought him back to the Burkhan Khaldun Mountain when spring arrived. It was happened in around 900. Yesukheibaatar was flying hawks on the Onon River when he met Ikh-chiledu of the Mergids, who was just starting out for home with an Okhunuut girl he had married. Then he saw their carriage there was most beautiful girl and he decided to return with his older brother Negun taij and his younger brother Daritai Otchigin. Their arrival frightened Chiledu, who beat his swift dun horse on the thigh and fled across a hill pursued by the three men. Chiledu crossed the spur of the hill to his cart. Lady Oelun, who was waiting in the cart, said: Did you see the look on the faces of those men? They wish to kill you. As long as you remain alive, there will be girlson the front seats of carts and women in the black-covered wooden carts. If

you live, you will perhaps find a girl or a woman for yourself. If she has another name, you can call her Oelun. Save yourself. While you live, smell my fragrance. With these words, she removed her shirt. He leaned across his horse to take it. As he did so, the three men rounded the spur of the hill towards him. He beat the thigh of his swift dun horse and fled upstream along the Onon River. The three men pursued him across seven hills before returning. Yesukheibaatar took hold of the tether of Lady Oelun. His older brother Negun-taij led, his younger brother Daritai-otchigin walked beside the cartshaft. As they proceeded, Lady Oelun said: My older brother Chiledu is one whose hair has never blown in the wind, whose belly has never hungered in the wild land. What will now become of him? Her two plaits were flung now across her back, now across her breast, as she threw herself backwards and forwards. What is happening to me? she cried. The Onon River churned and the forest echoed to the sound of her loud crying. As he walked alongside her, Daritai-otchigin said: The one you embraced has crossed many ridges. The one you cry for has crossed much water. However much you cry, from such a distance, he will not see you. However much you search for him, you will not find his road. Be still, he told her. Then Yesukhei brought Lady Oelun into his province. This is how Yesukhei took Lady Oelun. Its happened about at 1153. About 1150, Tatars caught and brought the Ambagai Khan to Altan State, As Ambagai Khan had named both Khadaan and Khutula, all the Mongols and the Taichuuds gathered together in the Khorkhonag forest by the Onon and made Khutala their Khan. Chinggis Khans born land Deluun Boldoq is located in Onon River, Its mentioned three times in the Secret History of Mongolia. The next year of Yesukhei died, Tayichiuts left Oelun with her children and moved to Onon River. Oelun lived in Onon River with her children too. They lived there for 10 years and Temujin became genius and powerful minded boy. There were happened many advantages in young Temujins life. One day, when the four brothers, Temujin, Khasar, Begter, and Belgutei, were sitting alongside one another pulling in their lines, they caught a bright fish. Begter and Belgutei snatched the small fish away from Temujin and Khasar. Temujin and Khasar went to the ger and said to their noble mother, A bright minnow bit the hook and was snatched away from us by our two brothers Begter and Belgutei. The noble mother said, Desist. Why do you, older and younger brothers, behave in such a way towards one another? Apart from our shadows we have no friends, apart from our tails we have no fat. Just when we are thinking of how to settle our score with our Tayichiut kinsmen, you behave as like Mother Alans five sons once did. Why do you not work together? You must cease to behave in such a way. Temujin and Khasar were not happy with their mothers words. They replied, Only yesterday we shot down a lark with a horn-tipped arrow and they snatched it away from us. Now they have done the same again. How can we live together? Throwing aside the door-felt, they went out. Begter was sitting on top of a small hill, watching over the horses, pale-bay geldings. Temujin stalked up from behind while Khasar stalked up from in front. As they approached, aiming their arrows, Begter saw them and said, We are unable to endure the bitterness that our Taichuud kinsmen have

caused us and ask ourselves, Which of us will settle the score?. Why make me to be dirt in your eye, a fish-bone in your mouth? At a time when Apart from our shadows we have no friends, apart from our tails we have no fat, how can you think to do this thing? Do not extinguish my hearth-fire, do not forsake Belgutei! Having spoken these words, he sat cross-legged and waited. Temujin and Khasar shot at him from in front and from behind, and then departed. Mother Oelun said we are barely hanging on Taichuud and thinking how to take revenge, why did you do to each other? And blamed them violently for what they did by Citing old sayings, quoting the words of old men, Place of Mother Oelun and her children lived is down from Khurkhag Belchir to Bayan Adarga sum in present day Khentii province. Not long after this, Targutai-khiriltug of the Tayichuuds led up his sentries and said, The lambs are shedding their the sheep are growing up. The mothers and sons and the older and younger brothers took fright and built a barricade in the thick forest. Tearing down trees and dragging them together, Belgutei built a stockade. While Khasar countered the enemys arrow-shots, the threeKhachiun, Temuge and Temulenslipped into a narrow defile and battled on. Then the Tayichiuts shouted, Send out your older brother Temujin. We have no need for the rest of you. Temujin thus summoned, they mounted him on a horse and made him escape through the forest. The Taichuuds, seeing him, gave chase. On Tergune Heights, he slipped into a thicket that the Taichuuds could not penetrate. So they surrounded the thicket and watched over it. Having spent three nights in the thicket, Temujin decided to go out. Blocked by the white rock, the size of a tent, the opening was impassable, so he cut through the trees with his arrow-makers knife and slipped his horse through. As soon as he emerged, the Taichuuds on guard captured him and took him away with them. At that time Temujin was about 20 years old. After Three Mergeds came and robbed Borte who was pregnant, Temujin asked help from Jamukha and Tooril Khan, they approved. When older brother Tooril Khan sets forth, he make his way to my sworn brother Temujin by the south side of n-Khaldun and follow the Onon River to its source at BotoKhan-boorji. Let us meet there. The ten thousand of sworn brothers people and the ten thousand will constitute twenty thousand. Following the Onon River to BotoKhan-boorji, the appointed place, we shall join forces. Then they went to make free Burte Ujing from Three Mergeds. Jamuqa had given Temujin a roebucks knucklebone and Temujin had given Jamuqa a copperknucklebone in exchange, so they had sworn brotherhood first time. After agreeing to become brothers, they had played knucklebones on the ice of the Onon River, calling each other sworn brother. The following spring, when they had competed against each other with pinewood bows, Jamuqa had given Temujin a whistling arrow head that he had

made by gluing together the horns of a two-year-old calf and boring holes into it to make it sing. In exchange, Temujin had given Jamuqa a horn-tipped arrow with a butt of cypress wood and they had again become sworn brothers. This is how they renewed their brotherhood on second time. Later horse man Jochidarmala killed his brother Taichar, Jamukha excused with this and attack to Chinggis Khan in Jerene khavtsal of Onon River. But it wasnt big deal for Chinggis Khan. While fighting, Chinggis Khan had been wounded in the neck. His attempts to stanch the bleeding failed, so he became anxious. After sunset, they pitched camp right next to each other, where they fought together. Zelme sucked and sucked at the clotted blood and his mouth was bloodied. Zelme did not trust others to stand guard and sat there until midnight, his mouth full of the congealed blood, which he swallowed or spat out. As midnight passed, Chinggis Khan returned to consciousness and said: The bleeding has stopped. I am thirsty. Zelme stripped off his clothes, his hat, and his boots, and ran half-naked in his underpants into the midst of the enemy, alongside the position. He climbed up onto a cart belonging to the adjacent camp in search of kumiss, but he couldnt find anything. The people who had fled in panic had released the mares without milking them. Unable to find any kumiss, he took a large bowl of fermenting curds from their cart and took it back to Chinggis Khan. No one had seen him either come or go. Heaven had protected him. After taking back the fermenting curds, Zelme fetched some water and mixed it with the curds. The Khan then said: We were fighting at Koyiten, slowly forcing each other to give ground, and deploying our troops when, from on top of that range, came an arrow that broke the nape of my yellow warhorse with the white mouth. Zev replied: I shot the arrow from the mountain top. If I am to be put to death by the Khan, then I shall be left to rot on a piece of ground the size of the palm of a hand. But if I am granted mercy, then I shall go ahead on behalf of the Khan. I will attack for you: I will slash the deep waters and erode the shining stone. At your word, I will go forwards and smash the blue stones. If you order me to attack, I will smash the black stones. I will attack for you. Chinggis Khan said: Faced with those he has killed and with his enemies, the enemy hides and tells lies. However, the contrary is true. Faced with those he has killed and with his enemies, this man does not deny his feelings and his actions. On the contrary, he admits them. This is a man to have as a companion. His name was Zurgadai, but because he shot at the nape of my yellow warhorse with the white mouth, he shall be called Zev and I shall use him as an arrow. So he was called Zev and ordered to walk at my side. This is how Zev left the Tayichiuts and became Chinggis Khans companion. The battle at north side of Onon River, Chinggis Khan found his famous general Zurgadai that he approved his arrowed the Khans neck, Khan had showed mercy to him and also approved him to stay with himself. At that time it was easy to find a man who had made Chinggis Khan got injured and who used the arrow that shot. So there was not any chance to run for Zurgadai. Decision of Chinggis Khan that to show mercy to Zurgadai and made him his trusted man was genius. Great Chinggis Khan united the all Mongols, worshipped the white banner with nine pennants and honored as Chinggis Khan at Onon River in 1206 the tiger year. And Mukhulai honored the Van. Then he sent to Zev to chasing after Quchulug Khan of Naiman. Having finally imposed order on the Mongol peoples, Chinggis Khan issued the following decree: I wish to bestow favours on those of you who have served together with me in establishing this nation by forming units of one thousand households and appointing you as their commanders.

There is a tale which should be studied. It is noted that The Great Mongol Empire and Chinggis Khan honored the Great Khan of Great Mongol Empire at Onon River is Mongol Tolgoi at Batshieret sum of Khentii Province in the modern day. Actions happened at Onon River are should be red from the articles 202-235 of the Secret History of Mongolia. (O.S) Forest of Onon River Chinggis Khan grew up fishing and picked fruit in Forest of Onon River. Zurchidei and Khuildar who disliked the Jamukhas harmful doings came to unit with Chinggis Khan. Because of this Jamuqas power decreased but Chinggis Khans power increased. It was very influenced to Chinggis Khans power to increase that Khonkhatans Menlik came with Zurchidei and Khuildar. Because shaman Khukhuchus power who Menliks first son was increased very well, at that time. Chinggis Khan was very pleasure that many people followed him. Chinggis Khan, Lady Oelun, and Khasar, together with Sacha-bekhi, Taichu, and others of the Jurkhins, decided to hold a feast in the forest of the Onon. At the feast, a first jug of kumiss was poured for Chinggis Khan, Lady Oelun, Khasar, Sacha-bekhi, and others. Next, a first jug was poured for Sacha-bekhis little mother, Ebegei. We were not first. Why was first poured for Ebegei? asked Khorijin queen and Khuurchin quuen, and beat the cook, Shikhikhur. Why was I beaten? Because Yesukhei- baatar and Nekun-taishi are both dead, the cook wailed. It was prohibited that hit the cook in ancient Mongolia. Belgutei, who was holding Chinggis Khans geldings had been in charge of Chinggis Khans side of the feast. On the Jurkhin side, Buri-boko was in charge. A Qadagid man stole a tether from the place where our horses were tethered and captured. Belgutei had been a wrestler. He was in the habit of removing his right sleeve and thus baring his arm. He removed his sleeve again now, whereupon Buri-boko slashed his naked shoulder with his sword. Ignoring the cut, Belgutei let the blood flow. Chinggis Khan, sitting in the shade, watched them from the feast. He emerged and said: What has been done to us? The wound is not much, said Belgutei. Let us not fall out with our kinsmen on my account. I am not upset. I shall soon mend. Abstain from acting rashly, older brother, at a time when we are getting on well with our kinsmen. For now, let things rest. Instead of following Belguteis advice, Chinggis Khanpulling branches from the trees and snatching the wooden paddles from the leather bags, fought with the Jurkhins and defeated them. They captured Khorijin quuen and Khuurchin quuen. This means Belgutei was very patient and Buri-boko was very aggressive and rude. Chinggis Khanrevealed that to protect Belgutei and wont show mercy to Buri-bokh by this. After from fighting at Onon River no one dare to com between Belgutei and Chinggis Khan and Khasar. Even it was shaman Khukhuchu couldnt dare. For Belgutei, he served honestly to his brother Chinggis Khan and Great Mongol Empire for all his life. (O.S) Battle at Sand of Onon River It is a battle between Taichuuds and Chinggis Khan, Van Khan. It was time which little tribes chiefs were against to Chinggis Khan. In 1199, Merkits Togtoa Bekh decided to attack with Taichuuds to Chinggis Khan Tungalag Lake. At Tungalag Lakes conspiracy included Khodun Orchan, Aguchu batar, Kharildai batar, Khududar, Torgudai Khirultuk and Khorilar. Chinggis Khanheard about this and considered with Khasar beside made a decision to let Van Khan know about this then attack before they prepare to battle. As planned as, Chinggis Khanmet at Saari Qeer with Van Khan and stopped by at Mt BurkhanKhaldun then went to Onon River. Taichuuds was

preparing there. They ran back to Ongon Tulas immediately because cooperation army attacked very hard. And they chasing after Qududar and killed him. Aguchu batar, Khodun Orchar ran to Bargujin Tuqum, Khorilar ran to Naiman. (Kh.Sh) The incredible man His empire was huge than Alexander, Tamerlan, Great Khairy two times. It was the biggest in the history. His empire was sevenfold huge than Napoleons empire. He was a great conqueror and a talented administrator. Often kings empire straggled with them as Alexander and Napoleon. But his empire being for a long time even he died. Mongol hadnt protected with wall. It was developed empire that basic on knowledge and communication. He didnt conquer the countries for value and treasure but he has understood that value must be in trade. When his conquer time he hadnt save in palace but brought in trade. Chinggis Khan made a direct communication between the Europe and eastern Asia. He made a post system that from far of Mediterranean in Turkey to ocean Caspian in Korea. His established empire being for 150 years and his descendants led for 6 centuries. He destroyed feudalism and created the new network among in people. He united small countries to create based in trade system and modern life type that based in political or trade not a religion, noble heir and custom. And he was understood a reign is not old power, trepidation and isolated system but communication, organization and news. Chinggis Khan didnt build the Pyramid for himself like Egypt Pharaohs and he didnt build any bridge or door like arc at Rome and Paris for his success. He didnt name any city like Alexander. He changed the whole world and left it. His architecture was not in rock or statue but it was in his people and nationality. Short time in life Mongolians created the system and rule of new world. Humans are never separated far again. There was a globalization. Modern life and modern world began at that time. We have been lived like his heirs in the world that Chinggis Khan had made. (Kh.L) Onchtan Ono means shoot the arrow far than length of foundation. Ontdokh means shoot the arrow same as foundation length. There was scene that Chinggis Khanorganized th champion of Ontdokh. Kheltegei Cliffs at Or-nuga Genghis is Khan then moved downstream along the Khalkha River after lose to Nylkh-Seunggum and Van Khan. He starved there because being far from his people. They hunted for provisions along the way. Khuyildars wound had not yet healed, but still he joined in chasing after the wild beasts, despite Chinggis Khans warning. His wounds reopened and he died. Chinggis Khan buried him on the Kheltegei Cliffs at Or-nuga on the Khalkha River. When Chinggis Khan got a message about Naimans attack plan and discussing with Belgutei noyan said we must be attack against them first. Chinggis Khan approved Belgutei-noyans words. After returning from the hunt, he moved from Abjigakhodekherig and set up camp at Kheltegei Cliffs at Or-nuga on the Khalqa River. He counted his soldiers and formed them into thousands. He appointed the leaders of thousands, the leaders of hundreds, the leaders of tens and the six cherbisDodai-cherbi, Dokholkhu-cherbi, Ogele-cherbi, Tolun-cherbi, Bucharan-cherbi, and Soyiketu-cherbi. When he had set up the thousands, hundreds, and tens, he chose eighty nightguards and seventy sentries and sent them to their posts in shifts.

He chose the sons and younger brothers of the leaders of the thousands and the hundreds as well as the sons and younger brothers of the senior free people and assigned them to their posts. He chose those who were skilful, strong, and handsome. He then issued a decree favouring Arqai-Khasar: Let him choose heroes for a unit of one thousand. On battle days, let them stand in front of me and fight. On the many ordinary days, let them guard me in shifts. He also said: Let Ogele-cherbi command the seventy sentries, and let him consult with Khudus-Khalchan. Again, Chinggis Khan issued a decree: The quiver bearers, sentries on shift duty, cooks, doorkeepers, and equerries will go to their posts for the day shift. Before the sun sets, they will yield to the night-guards and spend the night with their geldings. At night, the night-guards will make those who are to lie down next to my ger to so lie, and those who are to stand at the door in shifts to so stand. While we eat our early morning broth, the quiver-bearers and sentries will report to the night-guards. The quiver-bearers, sentries, cooks, and door-keepers will carry out their duties in their assigned places. Those on the three-day and three-night shift will change shifts after they have completed that shift and spent three nights and days on leave. They will become the night-guards that same night, and spend the night lying alongside my ger. In this way, Chinggis Khanset up his thousands; he appointed the cherbis and sent the eighty night-guards and the seventy sentries to their posts in shifts. He chose heroes for Arqai-Khasar and rode out against the Naiman people from the Keltegei Cliffs at Or-nuu on the Khalkha River. Red full day that 16th of First month of summer year of Rat (1204) they had worshipped the banner. Chinggis Khan had legislated the rule and laws for civilization and soldiers when Chinggis Khan was stopped at Kheltegei Cliffs at Or-nuga on the Khalkha River. It was strengthen In the future. He has done the preparation to battle with Naiman for short time. He was great general and genius political. Kheltegei Cliffs at Or-nuga is located Ikh Burkhan-t near to the Khalkha River in Khalqa Gol sum of Dornod province in the modern day. Period of Toktokh Tur Van, one and half centuries before people built up by rock the picture of the Burkhanon Kheltegei Cliffs, then it became Ikh Burkhan-t. Or-nuga is champaign that according to Khalqa River. Its seems like Khuyildars tombstone used when people built up the Ikh Burkhan-t. Orbo The half drumstick that called a mount of the spirit in Black shaman culture is named Orbo. It is covered by foot hide of a black buck. The shamans explain that it is representative of black buck killed by Chinggis Khan with shot. While Chinggis Khan was hunting with his 9 commanders, the buck ran away from just front of him and he shot with arrows. He fried and ate it because it was spirit of Taichuuds. Then he killed 500 Taichuuds. Thereafter mongols used the spirit of their enemies as debasing wether they won or lost. Worship of Ordos Chinggis Khan and his 4 queens Burte, Qulan, Yesui and Yesuigens treasures worshipped still at Ordos. Chinggis Khan and Burte queens worship located together at host worship accordance with Worship of Ordos. It is called great Ezen. Khulan queens worship located at little host worship, southwest from the host worship. Worship of Esui and Esuigen is on the left side and named Worship of the Left. These four queens and their followers lived in four separate palaces during the period of Chinggis Khan. Its still worshipped Chinggis Khan in Bayan Chonkhug of Ordost Van Khoshuu in Inner Mongolia. 500 previleged people were charged to protect all the worship.

Head of these people was a descendant of Boorchi who is one of the commanders of Chinggis Khan. It is written in Blue History. Orkhon ( 105, 115, 195) Dair-Usun of the Uvas Mergeds one of three Mergeds who attacked against Chinggis Khan while he was at Burgi Ereg and captured Burte who was pregnant settled between Orkhon and Selenge. Dair-Usun with few people ran away downstream along the Selenge to Barqujin when Chinggis Khan, Van Khan, Jamukha and Jakhakhambu joined their forces and invaded to Togtoa. They plundered Dair-Usuns household and Jamukha looted Dair-Usuns golden sash and the fomous steed. Chinggis Khan, Van Khan and Jamuqa together withdrew from Island between Orkhon and Selenge and headed to their land. Orkhon River is the longest river of Mongolia which pours from Khangai range and flows into Selenge River. Its name hasnt changed even now. (O.S) Chinggis Khan the Conqueror of World Freanch author Rene Grousset wrote reasonably and determined life if Chinggis Khan in a way of comparing reason and result. Evethough he had fought only as Mongolians (Mongolian technique) he is a founder of history who is equal to a great man of the earth. Chinggis Khan fought for justice, the truth. He punished people who encroached on someones right and free trade. Chinggis Khan was a half-god and image of being generous, noble, calm and humanity. The book Conqueror of the World was published in Paris in 1944 and boomed in the West. It was translated into Mongolian by Baatar (editor Odkhuu.S).Ch in 2003. (O.S) Orshun Khabul Khan ruled over all the Mongols. Although Khabul Khan had seven sons of his own, Senggum-bilges son Ambagai Khan ruled over all the Mongols after Khabul Khan, because Khabul Khan so wished it. Ambagai Khan hadnt give paid any tax to Altan State like Khabul Khan. Ambagai Khan tried to make a relationship with Tatars to disclaimer the Altan States goal, Ambagai Khan gave his daughter to the AyiriutBuiruut Tatar people, on the Urshiun River between Lake Buyur and Lake Klen. [to them], he was captured by the Jyin. Tatar pepople and taken to the Altan-Khan of the Kitads. While conducting her Using a Bestei man, Balaqachi, as messenger, Ambagai Khan sent word to Qutula, the middle of Khabul Khans seven sons, and to Qadaan-taishi, one of his own ten sons, to say: I became the Khan of all, the Lord of the Nation. While escorting my own daughter, I have been captured by the Tatar people. Do not follow my example. Strive until the nails of your five fingers splinter and your ten fingers drop from your hands to avenge me. So saying, he dispatched the messenger. Khabul Khan first son Oqin Barqag died like this before. Oshun gols name hadnt changed until today. Orshun River is branch with Khalkha River, confluence to sea Khulun-Barga. Its length is 15 kilometer in Mongolian territory. (O.S) Otrar It is an ancient city that its disruption located near to Thimur railway station. It is in Kazakhstan, west side of Syr Darya River at Aliyas River bank. (O.S) Besieged Otrar Soldiers of Ugudei and Tsagadai attacked and besieged Otrar from November 1219 to Februray 1220 under decree of Chinggis Khan. After encircled and fough for five month, a commander and

mayor of the city Kharachi Khas Khachib came out of the city with thousand soldiers, fought against them and defeated. Then Mongol soldiers invaded the outside city. Inlachug with twi thousand soldiers protected the inside city and let soldiers fight against them fifty by fifty for a month. At the end, he had only two soldiers and stayed alone finally. All his weapons wasted and he used bricks to fight. Then he captured while fighting with his fist. He was delivered to Chinggis Khan and killed. They got craftsmen and used young men of Otrar to fight Samarkand and Urgench.(Kh.Sh) Otchigin He is Yesukhei-baaturs youngest son, Chinggis Khans youngest brother. Temuge named Otchigin. Chinggis Khan gave the land of outside Khyangan back to Alchidai and Otchigin. Otchigin built many towns and cities. He stayed at home land and organized the Korean and Lyaodung when Chinggis Khan went to conquer to Sartuul. He had beaver with Yuli Chutsai to Ugudei Khan get the crown. He was worried that the empire when Durgene Queen was ruled. Then he had arrived Khara Khorum with his army for correct the policy of Durgene queen. So Guyug Khan blamed him harmfully for this. He died soon. Ochirbat Punsalmaa Mongolian first president /1990-1997/. Doctor of Technical, Tudewtei sum of ZavKhan Province and authored Time of Heaven. He made the presidential decree of 59 and 115 to build and immortalize the Memorial Industrial of Chinggis Khan. Ugduukh This is term of Chinggis Khans war tactic. First, they attack with few soldiers to enemy and bring the enemy to their main army. In 1209, he had abducted General Wei Menggun of Manggud and his army to Kei Ming post far about 40 kilometers from Yargai city and destroyed them. In 1213, Zev commander had abducted to army of Altan State to Tsabchaal post and suddenly retreat and destroyed them. In 1220, Zev and Subedei used this tactic in Qunan hill. In 1223, Zev and Subedei had abducted to king of Khebchag, Russians army to Khalkha River and destroyed them too. (Kh.Sh) Uglugch Fort It is a fort named Uglugch fort that locates 45 kilometers far from center of Batshireet sum of Khentii province, 8-10 kilometers far from bight of joint of Bayan River and Uglugch River and built that lean to mountain without mud at Mt Daichin Mountain. About 3 kilometers, two doors in southern and its informing eastern and southern side the built up wall with leftover of embankment inside. And its hard to see difference from the land. In 1926, length of fort wall scientist in Kondratiev.S view of Russian Federation it was 2,5-4,5 meter, but now, its 2.5-3,2 meter length and 2,5 meter thick. There is no mark of any building and there was moulding with wall inside the fort. In Kondratiev.S view it was archers fort in 12-14th

century. But Perlee.Kh said it was in period Khyatan because of findings. Some scientist thinking its related with Chinggis Khan but it has not any proof. (Kh.L) Ogodei Khan (1186-1241) He is Chinggis Khanand Burte qatans third son and second Khan of Great Mongol Empire. He got wounded in fight to soldiers of Van Khan in 1203. He led soldiers of one of the sides with Zuchi and Tsagadai when attacks to Altan state. He conquered Otrar with Tsagadai when attacks to Khwarezm, attacked Samarkand and commanded all soldiers of Zuchi and Tsagadai brothers when attacks to Urgench. He ruled the state in 1229-1241 after his father. He continued his fathers work, obeyed and kept the law Ikh Zasag, defeated Altan State, conquered and pacified Orusuts, Khibchag and Caucasus, fought Korea and expanded his territory to all towards. He ordered and imposed taxations and expanded the relay station. Also he built and expanded Kharkhorum, supported the poor people, orphans and family of the deads in war and did a lot of work to let the public live safely and quietly. He died in December 11 of 1241. (Kh.L) Olgii Bulag After separated Temuujin and Jamukha, Jamukhas younger brother Taichar Jalama was on the south side of Mount Jalama at Olgii-bulag and went to steal the herd of horses of Chinggis Khan. Olgii-bulag is a River which goes about 30 km from Saalinchit hill at Tuv and selenge province and joins Kharaa River. Its name hasnt changed for over 800 years. Sometimes it is named Shatan River with its next River Shatan. (O.S) Southern Sung Dinesty (1127-1279) Chinas Sung Dinesty was founded in 960. They was attacked and lost capital Nangjin to Altan State in the early 12th century in 1126. They had no other way but to give the north side of terrirtory to Zurchid and pay tribute to them to have friendly relation. Then they moved to the east and named them Southern Sung Dinesty, capital city as Quangzhou. Its population was about 6 million people and international seaport was developed high. Safety of eastern Sung Dinesty was endangered that Altan uls left Beijin, migrated Hebei to Henan and had Nangjin their capital city. At that time Great Mongol Empire and Eastern Sung Dinesty had same wish to attack together against Altan Uls. Chinggis Khan sent Zowkhan to Eastern Sung Dinesty and as soon as they made a secret agreement, Eastern Sung dinesty stopped to pay the tribute to Altan State. After that Chinggis Khan sent the Khooshan Bat to Eastern Sung Dinesty 4 times to attack together against Altan State. But Nengjuan Khan of Eastern Sung Dinesty refused. Then Chinggis Khan took back his soldiers and Altan State prosecuted to Eastern Sung Dinesty for didnt pay thtribute. The war between the Altan State and Eastern Sung Dinesty began in 1217. Eastern Sung Dinesty aimed to get their northern territory and three capital cities back from Altan Staets. The emissary of Sung Dinesty Jao-Khun contracted with Goo Wan Mukhulai in 1221, and Khyu Menyu met Chinggis Khan and made agreement in 1221, 1223. In accordance with the will of

Chinggis Khan that It is necessary to ask the road to conquer the last city of Altan State Nangjin when Ugedei Khan set up his soldiers in territory of Eastern Sung Dynasty and defeated Altan State jointly with Eastern Sung State.(Kh.Sh) The Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern world Dr Jack Weatherford, professor of Anthropology at Macalester College in USA published a book Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World in 2002. This book has introduction, 15 chapters and 368 pages. It is a research conclusion that is study of achievements and the deed of Chinggis Khan in the world history and how he recognized in the west. Dr J.Boldbator, professor and famous historian of Mongolia said this book is result of deep research, travel to mother land of Chinggis Khan and very hard work as same as to snatch the pearl from the ocean. Jack Weatherford wrote that Mongolians got back their Chinggis Khan by result of Democratic action in the last of 1980 and beginning of 1990. He wrote in the end of the last chapter of his book, Temujins action end by changed the world but its mean stayed maintain he wrote. And he summarized in introduction of this book, Genghis Qan is spearhead of this modern world and Mongolians finished the many separate cultural. After the Mongolians has done, those cultures didnt separate again and the whole world became one Peru to Siberia. Professor Jack Weatherford wrote his book very professionally as type of historical publication and essay. The tale of an orphan boy The tale of an orphan boy had an argument of wit with the nine great commanders of Chinggis is a story written in The Golden Button by Luvsandanzan, The Crystal Beads by Rashpuntsag and Biography of Chinggis Khan/Chinggis Khanii Tsadig/ in 1925. It is written other sources many times. According to author Damdinsuren, the orphan boy of this story came from folktales. He is a clever role came from imagination. (Kh.L) Breath of the Deceased Mongolians have a custom that absorb last breath of their respectful people into wool. There is a legend that Mongolians had white wool of last breath of Chinggis Khan. They put white wool on mouth and nose of Chinggis Khan and absorbed his last breath in August, 25, 1227. (O.P) Protected transport road There were difficulties lack of food and drinks for transportation in Euro Asia because of long distance, no residences. Chinggis Khan had dug wells and sent herders and farmers in order to resolve these difficulties. Thus people had protected transportation road to go to the East Asia and Europe from the furthest place in Asia for the first time in history. After Chinggis Khan ascended to Heaven, Ogodei Khan expanded Mongolian Relay Station of famous relation system. Horse

relay stations were placed at same distance from one to one and messengers stayed to overnight there. They could pass about 400 km a day by refreshing their horse faster and continuing faster their way. Mongolian army and soldiers created relay station everywhere they come. Mamluks of Egypt, Ottomans of Turkey and many other countries copied Mongolian Station and USA created Pony-express system which has many same things to Mongolian station in the middle of the 19th century. (Kh.L) Urlug Great commanders who performed well in battle named Urlug. The word Urlug used as loved and favored not the knight and hero in old Mongolian sources. (Kh.L) The Great Khan of the Western The spirit of Chinggis Khan existed for the centuries. Sometimes he seems like he is from folktales. We understand him little but he is with us every day in our life, because, he originated our modern day in the last millennium. He had a dream to create peaceful, free to religion, open trade and integrated by international fair law and rule country. He spent all his life for trying to create this country and making his dream come true. Giovanni De Carpine wrote an article about his travel to Mongolia and gave it to the Pope of Roman. Therefore Chinggis Khan was first introduced to Europe. William of Rubruck and Benedict of Poland mentioned about Chinggis Khan in an article about their journey to KharaKhorum. Marco Polo dictated about his travel to Mongolia at the time of Khubilai Khans born in 1298.He said that Chinggis Khan was a military man who has a great power, natural unique intelligence and good ability. But he wrote about Chinggis Khan and his life less and wrote more about Khubilai Khan. Musulman scholars especially Persian historians wrote significantly true information about Chinggis Khan. One example is that Ata-malik Juviany was started his book named The History of the Conquerorwhen he was an ambassador to Mongolia in 1252. Even though he didnt meet Chinggis Khan, he met many people know Chinggis Khan and found a lot of oral and written sources about Chinggis Khan. After him, Rashid ad-Din wrote Jami at-tawarikh in 1318 before he killed. His work introduced Chinggis Khan to other countries and painted miniature. These paintings are still used to describe Chinggis Khan and Mongol Empire. Persian historians gave first true information about Chinggis Khan to western people. French authors concerned about Chinggis Khan around 1700s in the period of European Renaissance and brought him to spotlight again. French author Voltaire Chao showed his play The Orphan in Paris in 1755. He named Chinggis Khan as The King of the kings and he showed little bit good aspects of Chinggis Khan to people. Western books about Chinggis Khan are only wrote about his conquer and victories of battles. They described Chinggis Khan as he is a great conqueror and occupant in the history and left out his role in the history. Owen Lattimore who wrote many books about Mongolians printed an article emphasized that Chinggis Khan was a skillful leader and a master organizer in American academic publication in

1963. This publication had changed above understandings about Chinggis Khan. Wei Kwei Sun published The Secret History of Mongols in English first time in India and based on Chinese sources much. F.W.Cleaves was translating too when Wei Kwei Sun was working on his translation. But he didnt publish his translation although he has finished when Wei Kwei Sun published. F.W.Cleaves published his book in later 1982 in Harvard University. Many other books about Mongolia were published in later 20th century. (Kh.L) A Slave /Utug Bool/ Utug Bool was stated in The Secret History of Mongolia as following: Chinggis Khan said to tell younger brother Tooril: The reason I call you younger brother is Tumbinai and Charkhai Lingkhua brought a slave, Ogda, that they had captured.The slave Ogdas son was the slave Subekhei; the slave Subekheis son was Kokochu-khirsaan; Kokochu-khirsaan was Yekhei-khontagar. You, Tooril, are the son Yekhei-khontagar. You go around flattering whose people do you want to get? My people, and Altan and Quchar, will be governed by no one. So I call you younger brother my great-great-grandfathers threshold slave, and my great-grandfathers personal slave of the door. Such is my message to you. Oulen He is one of Chinggis Khans warriors and a younger brother of Chinggiss sworn friend Boorchi. He left the Arulats and came to join his older brother when Temuujin forsakes Jamukha (1178) and served to Temuujin from his honest since that time. Chinggis Khan appointed Oulen as a lord of Cherbi and assigned to guide Chinggiss bodyguard army. Oulen became one of six officers in 1204. Having become Chinggis Khan, he allowed Oulen Cherbi to a lord of thousand. (O.S) Oulen Mother A mother of Chinggis Khan came from Olkhonu tribe (in modern day of Dornod province). Chiledu of Mergid engaged with Oulen was pursued by Yesukhei baatar a father of Chinggis Khan. Then Yesukhei baatar brought Oulen to his home. Oulen gave birth to Yesukhei baatar four sons named Temuujin, Khasar, Khachiun and Temuge and a daughter named Temulen. SinceYesukhei baatar was harmed by Tatars in 1171 and Taichud and other tribes of Yesukhei baatar forsook Oelun alone with his orphan little children, Oelun mother overcame hard times and grew up his children by herself over 10 years. Oulen mother was the most intelligent adviser to

Chinggis Khan. Oelun mother was a great instructor. She educated his children for life, state and military. Also they raised four orphan boys Shikhikhutag, Borokhul, Khuchu and Khukhuchu. Chinggis Khan gave thousand households to her mother when he became Chinggis Khan. Oulen mother was one of the people who have a great honour and performance to create Mongol Empire. Oulen mother outlived till around 1220s. (O.S) Ukhurt Forest Temuujin, Tooril Khan, Jamukha and Jakha Khambu released Borte-Ujin from Megeds and withdrew. Van Khan Tooril withdrew by way of the Ukhurt Forest, the northern side of BurkhanKhaldun, passed the Gachuurt-subchit and the Uliat-subchit heading for the Black Forest on the Tuul River. Ukhurtu Forest is Zaanii River which is headed from Asralt Khairkhan and poured to Terelj River and placed in Erdene sum of Tuv province in modern day. (O.S) Paghman Paghman is a hill on the north side of Kabul, Afghanistan in the present day. It locates on latitude 340 and longitude 680. Warriors of Chinggis Khan attack it in 1221. (Kh.Sh) The Tag /Paiz/ The word paiz means a board with text on it in Mongolian old language and came from Chinese language. It is said that the paiz is a board written orders of Mongolian king. It is written in historical sources that lords and commanders of Chinggis Khan used the paiz to execute their official duty. The paiz has name, status and right of the owners on it. Also it has order of Mongolian khans on it. The the paiz was made by gold, silver and wood. (Kh.L) Parwan Parwan is a hill on the north side of capital city Kabul, Afghanistan. Soldiers of Jelal-ad Din attacked soldiers of Chinggis Khan here in 1221. Latitude 340, longitude 680. (Kh.Sh) What happened in Parwan It is what happened in Parwan in the spring and autumn in 1221. Chinggis Khan got the tense news while he was camping there after he defeated Taliqan. One group of military army was prepared to help soldiers of Chinggis Khan and Tului when they go to the war in Zebilstan. But Jalal ad-Din attacked and killed them. Then he occupied around the area of Gazni and had 6-7 thousand cavalrymen followed him. He rode from Gazni, came to Baraan Kheer at Bamyan, attacked Mongol soldiers who were encircling Wilyan barrier of Pagman village and fighting and killed over 1000 soldiers. Rest of soldiers escaped damaging the bridge of Pyandshir River and joined with Chinggis Khan. Chinggis Khan immediately sent Shihihutag with 3000 soldiers to spy Jalal ad-Din, assigned Zebilstan to protect the road of Chinggiss soldiers at highland of Kabul. Main army headed by Chinggis went after Shikhikhutag to Bamyan. Shikhikhutag reached Parwan and

fought against Jalal ad-Din. But Mongol soldiers were defeated. Shikhikhutag came to join with Chinggis Khan with his few soldiers. Such as this, Jalal ad-Din defeated Mongol soldiers three times. The force ratio was 3:7 (if consider that Shikhikhutag had 3 thousand soldiers) in the last battle.Jalal ad-Din had superior force. But soldiers of Jalal ad-Din had quarrel becaude of the war trophies and abandoned him. Only Amin al-Mulik with his soldiers stayed with Jalal ad-Din. (Kh.Sh) Pingyang Pingyang is a city named Linfen, Shansi province of PRC. Mukhulai occupied it in 1218. Latitude 360, longitude1120. (Kh.Sh) Plano Carpini The Pope chose him to head to travel to Mongolia. He started from Lyon city, passed Batu camp at Volga river and traveled to Sartul, Khar Kidan and Mongolia. He came to Yellow House of Guyug Khan in July of 1246. He took part in a ceremony to throne of Guyug Khanin August of that year. He returned carrying a letter from Guyug Khan to the Pope in November. His book named History of Mongolia based on his travel introduced Mongolians to Europeans at first time. This book has Mongolians way of life, customs, religion and battle. It is printed in many other languages since 13th century. (Kh.SH) Pusian Wannu He was a commander who separated from Altan state and founded East Sya state. After soldiers of Chinggis left Beijing in 1204, Altan state broke the agreement and sent soldiers led by Pusian Wannu to defeat Lyao state. Pusian Wannu attacked to Lyao state with 4 thousand soldiers and released Dun Chan capital. He gave up to Mongols in 1206 and made friendship agreement because his son Tiege had to go to military. Therefore Wannu saved his old estate Sya. He set up his capital at north side of Tsyuzhikhai city since 1217 and encamped at the edge of Tumagan River. He was killed by Mongol soldier in 1233. (Kh.Sh) Pucheng It is a county of Shansi, China. Mukhulai occupied it in 1222. Latitude 350, longitude1090. (O.S) Purev Otgon He was born in Renchinlhumbe sum of Khuvsgul province in 1931. He is a historical geographer, studies shamanism and a teacher of Chinggis Khan University. He completed elementary school in Renchinlhumbe sum in 1945, secondary school in Khatgal in 1948, high school in Murun in 1952 and completed Institute of Teacher in Ulaanbaatar in 1955. He headed a creation of Mongolian Historical Map and created over 140 maps. His creations are useful to secondary students and organizations of geographic study. He has significant contribution to history sector of Mongolia,

ethnology, studies of shamanism and linguistics. His major theme is geography. Purev has started his studies since 1960s. he published articles about origin of Chinggis Khan in edition1-5 of Chinggis Khan journal. His second research theme is Shamanism. He did research work within Mongolian Shamans in 1998 and 1999 and published Studies of Mongolian Shamanism. He confirmed that Chinggis Khan was a shamanist. Some of his works printed in English, Korean, Russian and Chinese language. (Kh.L) Perlee of Countryside (Damdins) Perlee was born in Umnudedlger sum of Khentii province in 1911 and in family of herder Damdin. He took a name Countrysides Perlee when he authored and published articles, poems in newspaper working as a director, a teacher and a operator in school of Arkhangai province in 1922-1937. He graduated National University of Mongolia as a historian in 1945-1949. Perlee had worked in Institue of History for 40 continual yaers since 1941 as an academic researcher and a director of the sector. He studied as postgraduate student in Institute of the East studies in China in 1957 and wrote a creation for academic degree about history of Hyatan. Perlee got a degree of candidate of historical science with topic of history of Hyatan in 1959. He got a doctor of history with his creation Some issues of Ancient Mongolians civilization and culture in 1978. He wrote books named Mongolians of Onon and Kherlen (1957), Tribes, previous country from Mongolian of Feudal (1966), and Studies of History of Mongolians at Three River (1966). Many of his work are related to important sources of Chinggis Khan studies. He stated that first capital city of Chinggis Khan was Aurag. It is one of the most significant discoveries to the studies of Mongolian ancient cities. (Kh.L) Memorial of Spa Rock /Rashaan Khad/ South-east side of Binder mountain in Batshireet sum of Khentii province is Spa Rock. This area has many findings of ancient graves, stone weapons of paleolithic and Neolithic age and other findings of the period of Chinggis. Its rock has paintings from paleolithic to middle century and engravings of Mongol, Tibet, Arabic, Kidan and Orkhon-Yenisei. Perlee started the research work to study archeology around Spa Rock in 1942 and came every year from 1960 to1980. Professor Sukhbaatar wrote this area was noted Bider Khoshuu in the Secret History of Mongolia. (Kh.L) Rashid-ad-din (1247-1318) He was a multi-knowledge man and a skillful scientist. But he was specialized in science of medicine. He was appointed as a minister of state of Ghazan Khan in 1928 because he was a statesman and a doctor. He had a great power of financial and administration of Khulagus origin and accumulated a big capital and wealth. He was a minister of a state for 19 years. He was killed

in 1318 and exonerated in 1327. Jmi at-tawrkh /Sudriin Chuulgan/ by Rashid-ad-din and Bold Chinsan of Mongolia in Persian is specific creation to studies of Chinggis Khan within books of Persian. The third volume of his book is translated into Russina in 1946 and second volume is translated in 1952. His book is three-volume. But first volume is translated into Russian by twovolume. First volume is about origins of Mongolian and Turkish tribes, forefathers of Chinggis, Chinggis Khan and his lords and history of other related countries. Second volume is about Ugudei, Tsagadai, Tului, Guyug, Munkh, Khubilai and Tumur Khans and history of some countries at that time. Third volume is about Khulagu son of Tului, Abaga,Tokudar,Akhmed, Arigun, Ghazan Khans and history of other related countries. Jmi attawrkh /Sudriin Chuulgan/ is written in 1307-1311. This book is translated into Mongolian in 2002. Persian historian and doctor of Abga Khan of Il Emperor Rashid-ad-sin became Chinsan after Ghazan Khan acceded to the throne since 1295. He still worked as Chinsanduring theperiod of Ulziit Khan who was younger brother of Ghazan Khan and became Khan after Ghazan Khan. (Kh.L) Guillaume de Rubrouck He is pap of Christian and an emissary to The Great Mongol Empire from King Louis IX of France. King of France sent him with a mission to advertise Christianity to Mongolians and to study opportunity to accompany with Mongolians for conquering Islamist countries. He set out from Constantinople in May of 1253, encamped at Batu Khans palace at Volga River, reached to Kharakhorum in April of 1254 and met with Munkh Khan and spent three months there. After he returned he presented to King Louis IX a report of his travel in 1253-155. His report became source of Mongolian history named Journey to the East. In this report, he didnt mention Chinggis Khan much but he wrote about customs, life ways and households of Mongolians of the 13th century, Kharakhorum and its military. (Kh.L) Quiver /Arrow Case/ It is a case for carrying arrows. It is made by leather, silk and cloth. The average height of Mongolian quiver is 50-62 cm and width is 25-30 cm. (Kh.Sh) Saari Steppe Saari steppe is one of the important places for life of Chinggis Khan. It was main place of Khereids to herd and fatten their horses. After Chinggis Khan forsook Jamukha, he camped in Saari Steppe. As soon as Jamukhas younger brother Taichir khew it, when he was on the south side of Mount Jalama at Uvur-Ulgii-bulaq, he stole ally of Chinggis Khan Jochidarmalas herd of horses and took them off. Jochi-darmala went after his stolen herd. When his friends lost heart, he continued on alone. Conducting his pursuit at night, he finally arrived at the side of his herd. Lying flat along hishorses mane, he shot Taichir, breaking his back in two.Having thus killed him, he took his herd

and returned. Jochi-darmala took some of Taichirs horses with his herd. Hearing of the killing of his own younger brother Taichir, Jamukha decided to attack and rode out against Chinggis Khan. After Van Khan abandoned Chinggis Khan at Baidrag River in 1202, Chinggis Khan went in carefulness of pursued by Khugseu sabrag (about 500 km, O.S), moved across Khangai Nuruu and camped at Saari Steppe. When he was at Saari Steppe, Van Khan was attacked by the Naimans and sent an emissary to Chinggis Khan and said: The Naimans have plundered my people, my clan, mywife, and my sons. I beg you, my son, to send your four warhorses. Save my people for me.Chinggis Khan prepared his soldiers and sent them his four war-horses (Boorchi, Mukhulai, Borokhul and Chuluun baatar). Just as the four war-horses were about to arrive, Sengum was on the point of being captured, his horse having been hit in the thigh by an arrow. But the four warhorses rescued him, and restored to him his people, clan, wives and children. Van Khan said: In previous times, his good father restored my people to me after they had been completely scattered. Now, his son Chinggis has, by sending his four warhorses, again restored my scattered people to me. Let Heaven and Earth see that I repay my debt. In 1204, when Chinggis Khan camped at Khalkh River and heard Tayang Khan of Naimans is coming to attack, he sent Zev and Khubilai ahead as scouts to the Kherlen. He went after them with his warriors for about 1500km and reached Saari Steppe. They spied the Naiman watchmen on the summit of Khankar khan. The watchmen of both sides chased after each other.An off-white horse with an inferior saddle was taken from our watchmen by the Naiman watchmen. The Naiman watchmen discussed the horse that they had taken. The Mongols geldings are lean they said. When the members of our party reached the Saari Steppe, they halted and discussed what to do. Dodoi Cherbiadvised Chinggis Khan as follows: We are not only fewbut also tired after our journey. We should wait until our geldings are sated and, in the meantime, pitch camp here on the Saari Steppe. Every able-bodied man should light five fires some distance apart to scare the Naiman people. They are said to be many, but their Khan is said to be weak and not to leave his yurt. Our fires will distract themuntil our geldings are sated. Once our geldings have grownfat, we will pursue the Naiman watchmen and bear down on them so that they rejoin their main army. We can takeadvantage of the confusion to join battle with them. Chinggis Khan approved of this proposal and decreedthat the fires be so lit. He announced this order to the soldiers. They therefore set up camp on the Saari Steppe,while each able-bodied man lit five fires some way apart. At night, the Naiman watchmen on the summit of Khankhar Khan, seeing the many fires burning in the night, said to one another: Did we say that the Mongols are few? There are more fires thanstars. They had already sent the off-white horse with the inferior saddle to Tayang Khan. They now sent word to him that Mongol soldiers have set up camp and choke the Saari Steppe. Daily they appear to grow in numbers.There are more fires than stars. Because Chinggis Khan and Dodoi Cherbi were more powerful and made the enemy scared using wise way at Saari Steppe, they won at Nakhu Gun battle. The Naimans didnt expect that Chinggis Khan came to attack in such hurry. And they were afraid of that Chinggis Khan has many soldiers.

When the Naimans were attacked at Nakhu Gun, Tayang Khans relatives Mergids came to fight. But they are scared seeing the Naimans had already lost. Chinggis Khand pursued them from their protective place to Saari Steppe and attacked. Togtoa Bekhi chief of the Mergids, together with his sons Khutu and Chuluun and a few other men, escaped with their lives. Chinggis Khan first met with Khulan Queen at the Saari Steppe. Saari Steppe is famous for friendly and auspicious place with Chinggis Khan. Saari Steppe is vast land, from Tuul River on the line of Tuv, Bulgan and Uvurkhangai province to Tarnin River, from Bureg Mountain to Batkhan Mountain and covered Erdenesant, Undurshireet, Lun sum of Tuv province, Bayannur, Dashinchilen sum of Bulgan province and Burd sum of Uvurkhangai province in the present day. Saari is a name of wide belt. There are no high, peak mountains at Saari Steppe. Instead it has low mountains, hillocks and wide steppe. (O.S) First Assembly at the Saari Steppe It took place before battle with Zuun Naiman in 1204. Horses of Chinggis were lean and need to be sated and refreshed. They discussed what to do. Dodoi Cherbi said: We are not only few but also tired after our journey. We should wait until our geldings are sated and, in the meantime, pitch camp here on the Saari Steppe. Every able-bodied man should light five fires some distance apart to scare the Naiman people. They are said to be many, but their Khan is said to be weak and not to leave his yurt. Our fires will distract themuntil our geldings are sated. Once our geldings have grown fat, we will pursue the Naiman watchmen and bear down on them so that they rejoin their main army. We can take advantage of the confusion to join battle with them. Chinggis Khan approved and proceeded. At night, the Naiman watchmen on the summit of Khankhar Khan, seeing the many fires burning in the night, send a message to Tayang Khan: Did we say that the Mongols are few? There are more fires than stars. Daily they appear to grow in numbers. Therefore Tayang Khan was afraid and coward. (O.S) Second Assembly at the Saari Steppe Soldiers of Chinggis decided how to fight against the Naimans in this assembly in 1204. Temuujin discussed with his lords and commanders how to fight and decided to attack and to reorganize the soldiers to march in bushclump formation, stand in lakearray, and attack with the chisel./The Secret History of the Mongols, Urgunge Onon / (O.S) A Tree with Many Leaves /Saglagar Tree/ Temuujin, Jamukha and Tooril Khan together attacked Mergids and saved Borte from Mergids. After that Temjin and Jamuqa pitched camp together in the Khorkhunag Jubur Forest while returning from Orkhon and Selenge. They decided to celebrate their victory and their friendship and chose a many leaved tree in summit of Khuldgar Khun in Khorkhunag Jubur Forest. They begged the spirits, sprinkled with tea and donated with best foods. Thus they started the celebration and swore their brotherhood. They enjoyed a feast, followed by more feasting. At night, they slept

together under one quilt.Since that time, this place became one of the worshipped places of Mongolia. (Kh.Sh) Saishaal (Also Baatar is original name) He was born in a family of herder Rashid, in March, 12 of 1930. He worked as an editor of newspaper, a secretary, a translator, the chief of translation unit and a creator in military. He did wide range study in Mongolian language and history and authored over 30 works, articles and translations. Two-volume book named History of Chinggis Khan by him is important creation in study of Chinggis Khan. He collected materials related to Chinggis Khan and wrote his book History of Chinggis Khan in Mongolia, Chinese, Russian and Japanese. Researcher of Chinggis Khan, Saishaalts this book is one of the great works that has 10 chapters that are based on materials over 30 historical, biographical works and over 100 books and each chapter has 71 annexes, total of 292 annexes and 100 pictures. (Kh.L) Samarkand It was a capital city of Sartuul. It is in Uzbekistan in the modern day. Chinggis Khan occupied it in 1220. Longitude 390, latitude 660. (O.S) Conquest in Samarkand Chinghis Khan headed to Samarkand after he occupied Bukhar. At the meantime, Ugudei, Tsagaadai and Zev rode out to besiege the city from three sides too. They besieged the city from three sides and fought against Turkish soldiers who went out of the city. On the fifth day, Mongolian soldiers bet off the outside castle of the city. 1000 warriors were keeping inside castle. Mongolians shot a fire and burnt the church off. They occupied Samarkand in March 1220. (Kh.Sh) Samakhu He was Saljud clans and a brave commander of Chinggis khan. He became a chief of five thousand Kidan soldiers and defeated Jundu in 1215. After that, he went out with thousand soldiers from Tangud in autumn 1215, fought against and passed Shansi in August and September and reached Tunguan port. He couldnt win at Tunguan port, so he went across the Wei Khe River and reached Henan. On the road, he used steel for bridge when he met trenches of mountains. He came out from Tunguan port in first month of winter. Then he headed to Nanjin. When Altan Khan forced from the two sides by Samakhu and Tolun Cherbi, he sent an emissary to Chinggis Khan and said lets be in peace. Chinggis Khan answered and said following requirements. -To give the north side territory from Khatan River to Great Mongol Empire, -To demote his khanate and become a lord. But Altan Khan didnt accept his requirements. Samakhu commanders travel to long distance on hard way was brave deed and an attempt to open the way to defeat Nanjin. (O.S) Sarig Gun

Zev commander pursued Khuchulug Khan of the Naimans when Temuujin became Khan on the edge of Onon River in 1206. Zev caught up with Khuchulug at Sarig Gun. Sarig Gun is Sarikol Lake which is located between Pamir and Tenger Mountain and 6000m above sea level in Badahshan province of Tajikistan in modern day. (O.S) Sartuul (Khwarezm ) Khwarezm was a tribe of Seljuk in the 12th century. Atsiz (1127-1156) is the founder of Sartuul who separated Sartuul from Seljuk. When Shah Tekish died in 1200, his son Ala-ad-din Muhammad (1200-1220) inherited. He occupied Khorasan, Gerat and Bukhar in 1203, Fergan and Uzgend in 1213 and Afghan in 1215. He attacked against Baghdad in 1227 but didnt succeed. Thus he founded Khwarezmid Empire covers Kazakhstan, south west of Kirgiz, half of Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmen, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Muhammads city was Samarkand and his mother Turakinas city was Urgench. Khwarezms population was about 20 million. (Kh.L) Tactic to conquering Sartuul Chinggis Khans tactic to attack against Sartuul: Soldiers headed by Zev attacked to Ferghan and attracted military force of Sartuul. Then main attacks will hit in sudden from Kizilkum desert. Thereto, they besieged Otrar and sent two armies to Syr Darya River. While enemys forces were being worn out on the battlefront, Chinggis Khan made his way secretly across the desert and broke the forces from Persia and Khorasan. Then three armies led by Zev, Tsagaadai and Chinggis Khan besieged and attacked Samarkand from three sides. (Kh.Sh) Reason to conquering Sartuul Muhammad sent emissaries to Chinggis Khan in order to spy Mongols who conquered Tangud, Zurchid and some vassals of Khar Kidan and the emissaries met Chinggis Khan in 1215. Chinggis Khan welcomed him and informed wishes to make commercial agreement. In the meantime, both Mongols and Sartuul wanted to defeat Khuchulug. So Muhammad accepted and made commercial agreement and sent the Chinggiss emissaries back. When his emissaries returned, Chinggis Khan sent 400 traders with 500 camelsof goods. But the governor of Otrar city killed them and seized their goods. One of the emissaries escaped and let Chinggis Khan know what was happened. Chinggis Khan sent an emissary Bogra to Muhammad and required to regret to his fault of breaking the agreement and bring governor of Otrar to him. Instead, Muhammad bullied his emissary and sent back with a message said: Make you like your emissary. So Chinggis Khan decided to attack against Sartuul. Goal of tactic to conquer Sartuul

Let commander Tumur-melig set up at Syr Dariya to attack and stop forces of Mongolian military. Then bring fresh forces one after another from Khorasan and Persia and defeat Chinggis Khan. Saruulbuyan Jumperel (1957-) He is an artist and author and was born in Khentii province. He wrote many books such as Khongorzul, The Wife, The Doubtless Lover, The Result of Ones deed and Students of Mother etc. He is a historian, artists, doctor of arts and a founder of picture The Clan of Bodonchar. He did significant works on archeological discoveries and studies, explorations of placeserlated to Chinggis Khan. He took part to found first journal of Chinggis Khan study, its quality and advertisement. He leaded and authored The History of Khan Khentii. It is one of the important works to study of Chinggis Khan. (Kh.L) J.J.Saunders He is a professor in University of Canterbury in UK. He did complete research about history of Mongolia and authored a book of Mongoliansconquest. The author divided Mongolian conquest into three age period of Hunnu, period of Turkey and period of Chinggis Khan and emphasized characteristics of each period. Main characteristic of this book is showing both dark and bright side of historic event of conquest by Chinggis Khan and his inheritors and founding Great Mongol Empire. He tried to approve that Chinggis Khan was not only a military commander but also a great organizer, diplomatic, political and strategist man. He said Mongolians were not people who only attack, conquer, plunder and destroy and cited Even though they attacked, defeated and conquered for a period of time, they started to reconstruct and restore the countries they attacked. Their great reconstruction in Arab, China, Persia and east Europe and developing culture, city, trade and economy better than beforewas a great policy of the Empire from Persian historian Rashid-Ad-Din. Saunders mentioned on the basis of evidence that Mongols Conquer has great influence to human and social development by connecting the east and the west that they dont know each other with politic, economy, trade, culture and religion. (Kh.L) Custom of sprinkling Chinggis Khan was worshipper, prayed and very respectful for the sky and the gods of land and water. He knew customs and behavior of shamanism. It is showed in the Secret History of Mongolia that Facing the sun, hedraped his sash round his neck and hung his hat by its cord from his arm. He beat his chest with his hand.Kneeling nine times towards the sun, he gave offerings andprayers. (O.P) Sacha Behi

He is a headman of Jurkhen clan. Sacha Behi and Taichu followed Jamukha after Yesukhei Baatar/Hero/ dead in1165. Sacha Behi and his clan joint Chinggis Khan where Chinggis were in Ail Khargana in 1181-1189.