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Recomandare a Comisiei Europene privind Legislaia Familiei.


Comisia European privind Legislaia Familiei. a fost creat la 1 septembrie 2001 i are, ca obiectiv principal armonizarea dreptului familiei n Europa. Beneficiul major preconizat prin nfiinarea acestei Comisii este crearea unui set de principii europene legate de Dreptul familiei care s fie privite ca modele pentru armonizarea Dreptului Familiei n Europa.(Documentul original n englez se gsete la adresa web http://www.ceflonline.net/)
v.5

PRINCIPIILE LEGISLAIEI EUROPENE PRIVIND AUTORITATEA PRINTEASC


PREAMBUL
Pornind de la faptul c dincolo de

PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN FAMILY LAW REGARDING PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES


PREAMBLE
Recognizing that, notwithstanding the

diversitatea sistemelor privind legile naionale existing diversities of national family law referitoare la familie, exist cu certitudine o convergen tot mai accentuat a legilor; systems, there is nevertheless a growing convergence of laws;

Pornind de la faptul c libera circulaie a persoanelor in Europa este blocat de diferenele care rmn;

Recognizing that the free movement of persons within Europe is hindered by the remaining differences;

Dorind a contribui la valorile europene comune referitoare la drepturile si bunstarea copilului;

Desiring to contribute to common European values regarding the childs rights and welfare;

Dorind a contribui la armonizarea legislaiei europene privind familia i de a facilita i mai

Desiring to contribute to the harmonization of family law in Europe and to further facilitate

mult libera circulaie a persoanelor n Europa; the free movement of persons within Europe;

Comisia European privind Legislaia Familiei recomand urmtoarele principii:

The Commission on European Family Law recommends the following Principles:

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CAPITOLUL I: DEFINIII

CHAPTER I: DEFINITIONS

Principiul 3:1 Conceptul de autoritate printeasc

Principle 3:1 Concept of parental responsibilities

Autoritatea printeasc desemneaz un cumul de drepturi i obligaii, care au drept scop promovarea i protejarea bunstrii copilului. Ele se refer n special la: (a) ngrijire, protecie i educaie; (b) meninerea relaiilor personale; (c) stabilirea rezidenei; (d) administrarea proprietii i (e) reprezentarea legal.

Parental responsibilities are a collection of rights and duties aimed at promoting and safeguarding the welfare of the child. They encompass in particular: (a) care, protection and education; (b) maintenance of personal relationships; (c) determination of residence; (d) administration of property, and (e) Legal representation.

Principiul 3:2 Titularul autoritii printeti Principle 3:2 Holder of parental responsibilities

(1) Se numete titular al autoritii printeti orice persoan care are drepturile i obligaiile prezentate la Principiul 3:1, fie parial, fie n totalitate.

(1) A holder of parental responsibilities is any person having the rights and duties listed in Principle 3:1 either in whole or in part.

(2) Prin titularii autoritii printeti, n acord cu urmtoarele principii, se nelege: (a) prinii copilului, precum i (b) alte persoane, dect prinii copilului, care au responsabiliti printeti alturi de sau n locul acestora.

(2) Subject to the following Principles, holders of parental responsibilities are: (a) the childs parents, as well as (b) persons other than the childs parents having parental responsibilities in addition to or instead of the parents.

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CAPITOLUL II: DREPTURILE COPILULUI


Principiul 3:3 Interesul superior al copilului

CHAPTER II: RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

Principle 3:3 Best interests of the child

In all matters concerning parental Interesul superior al copilului trebuie sa primeze n toate aspectele referitoare la autoritatea printeasc. Principiul 3:4 Autonomia copilului Principle 3:4 Autonomy of the child responsibilities the best interests of the child should be the primary consideration.

Autonomia copilului trebuie respectat n concordan cu nevoile de dezvoltare i cu nevoia copilului de a aciona n mod independent.

The childs autonomy should be respected in accordance with the developing ability and need of the child to act independently.

Principiul 3:5 Lipsa de discriminare a copilului

Principle 3:5 Non-discrimination of the child

Copiii nu ar trebui s fie discriminai pe criterii de sex, ras, culoare, limb, religie, opinii politice sau de alt natur, naionalitate, provenien etnic sau social, orientare sexual, handicap, proprietate, natere sau alt statut, indiferent dac acestea se refer la copil sau la persoanele care dein autoritatea printeasc. Children should not be discriminated on grounds such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, sexual orientation, disability, property, birth or other status, irrespective of whether these grounds refer to the child or to the holders of parental responsibilities. Principiul 3:6 Dreptul copilului de a-i fi ascultat prerea Principle 3:6 Childs right to be heard

Avnd n vedere vrsta i maturitatea fi informat, consultat i de a avea

Having regard to the childs age and maturity,

copilului, acesta ar trebui s aib dreptul de a the child should have the right to be informed, consulted and to express his or her 3 / 16

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posibilitatea de a-i exprima prerea n legtur cu toate aspectele care l privesc, acordnd importana cuvenit prerilor exprimate de acesta. Principiul 3:7 Conflictul de interese

opinion in all matters concerning the child, with due weight given to the views expressed by him or her.

Principle 3:7 Conflict of interests

Interesele copilului trebuie protejate de fiecare dat cnd acestea intr n conflict cu interesele celor care sunt titulari ai autoritii printeti.

The interests of the child should be protected whenever they may be in conflict with the interests of the holders of parental responsibilities.

CAPITOLUL III: AUTORITATEA PRINTEASC A PRINILOR I A TERELOR PERSOANE


Principiul 3:8

CHAPTER III: PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARENTS AND THIRD PERSONS


Principle 3:8 Parents

Prinii, a cror paternitate legal a fost stabilit, ar trebui s aib autoritate printeasc fa de copil.

Parents, whose legal parentage has been established, should have parental responsibilities for the child.

Principiul 3:9 Tere persoane

Principle 3:9 Third persons

Autoritatea printeasc poate fi atribuit parial sau integral unei alte persoane, care nu este printele copilului. Principiul 3:10 Efectul divorului sau separrii

Parental responsibilities may in whole or in part also be attributed to a person other than a parent. Principle 3:10 Effect of dissolution and separation

Parental responsibilities should neither be Autoritatea printeasc nu trebuie s fie afectat de desfacerea sau anularea cstoriei sau a altei forme de relaie i nici affected by the dissolution or annulment of the marriage or other formal relationship nor by the legal or factual separation between 4 / 16

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de separarea de iure sau de facto a prinilor.

the parents.

CAPITOLUL IV: EXERCIIUL AUTORITII PRINTETI


SECIUNEA A: PRINII

CHAPTER IV: EXERCISE OF PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES


SECTION A: PARENTS

Principiu 3:11 Exerciiul comun

Principle 3:11 Joint exercise

Prinii care au autoritatea printeasc ar trebui s aib n mod egal dreptul i obligaia de a o exercita i de cte ori este posibil, ar trebui s fac acest lucru mpreun. Principiul 3:12 Chestiuni zilnice, decizii importante i urgente (1) Prinii care au autoritatea printeasc comun ar trebui sa aib dreptul s acioneze n mod independent n ceea ce privete chestiunile zilnice.

Parents having parental responsibilities should have an equal right and duty to exercise such responsibilities and whenever possible they should exercise them jointly. Principle 3:12 Daily matters, important and urgent decisions

(1) Parents having joint parental responsibilities should have the right to act alone with respect to daily matters.

(2) Deciziile importante, cum ar fi cele referitoare la educaie, tratament medical, reedina copilului sau administrarea bunurilor sale ar trebui luate mpreun de ctre prini. n situaii de urgen, printele ar trebui s aib dreptul de a aciona singur. Cellalt printe trebuie informat fr ntrzieri nejustificate asupra acestui lucru. Principiul 3:13 Acordul privind exercitarea

(2) Important decisions concerning matters such as education, medical treatment, the childs residence, or the administration of his or her property should be taken jointly. In urgent cases a parent should have the right to act alone. The other parent should be informed without undue delay.

Principle 3:13 Agreement on exercise

(1) Avnd n vedere interesul superior al copilului, prinii care au drept de exercitare n comun a autoritii printeti pot ncheia

(1) Subject to the best interests of the child, parents having joint parental responsibilities may agree on the exercise of parental 5 / 16

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un acord cu privire la modul de punere n aplicare a acestora.

responsibilities.

(2) Autoritatea competent poate examina acest acord. (2) The competent authority may scrutinize the agreement.

Principiul 3:14 Lipsa de acord privind exercitarea

Principle 3:14 Disagreement on exercise

(1) Atunci cnd prinii care au autoritate printeasc a crei exercitare se face n comun, dar care nu se neleg asupra unui aspect important, atunci pot apela la autoritatea competent n domeniu.

(1) Where parents having joint parental responsibilities cannot agree on an important matter they may apply to the competent authority.

(2) Autoritatea competent ar trebui s promoveze un acord ntre prini.

(2) The competent authority should promote agreement between the parents.

(3) Atunci cnd nu se poate ajunge la un acord, autoritatea competent ar trebui s mpart exercitarea autoritii printeti ntre pri sau s soluioneze disputa.

(3) Where agreement cannot be reached the competent authority should divide the exercise of parental responsibilities between the parents or decide the dispute. Nigel: do we have to insert a comma after reached?

Principiul 3:15 Exercitarea individual a autoritii printeti, ca urmare a acordului sau deciziei

Principle 3:15 Sole exercise upon agreement or decision

Subject to the best interests of the child a Avnd n vedere interesul superior al copilului, un printe poate s-i exercite singur autoritatea printeasc (a) ca urmare a unui acord ntre pri, conform principiului 3:13, sau (b) ca urmare a unei decizii formulate de autoritatea competent. parent may exercise parental responsibilities alone (a) upon agreement between the parents according to Principle 3:13, or (b) upon a decision of the competent authority.

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Principiul 3:16 Exerciiul unic al unui singur printe

Principle 3:16 Sole exercise by one parent

Dac doar unul dintre prini are autoritate printeasc, atunci el sau ea ar trebui s i le exercite singur ().

If only one parent has parental responsibilities he or she should exercise them alone.

SECIUNEA B: TERE PERSOANE

SECTION B:THIRD PERSONS

Principiul 3:17 Exerciiul alturi de sau n locul prinilor

Principle 3:17 Exercise in addition to or instead of the parents

O alt persoan, dect printele poate exercita autoritatea printeasc parial sau n ntregime alturi de sau n locul prinilor.

A person other than a parent may exercise some or all parental responsibilities in addition to or instead of the parents.

Principiul 3:18 Decizii cu privire la chestiuni zilnice

Principle 3:18 Decisions in daily matters

Partenerul (a) printelui, care locuiete cu

The parents partner living with the child may

copilul poate lua parte la deciziile privitoare la take part in decisions with respect to daily chestiunile zilnice, cu excepia cazului n care matters unless the other parent having cellalt printe cu responsabiliti parentale se opune acestui lucru. parental responsibilities objects.

CAPITOLUL V: CONINUTUL AUTORITII PRINTETI


SECIUNEA A: PERSOANA I PROPRIETATEA COPILULUI

CHAPTER V: CONTENT OF PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES


SECTION A: THE CHILDS PERSON AND PROPERTY

Principiul 3:19 ngrijire, protecie i educaie

Principle 3:19 Care, protection and education

(1) Titularii autoritii printeti ar trebui s ofere copilului ngrijire, protecie i educaie, conform personalitii i nevoilor de

(1) The holders of parental responsibilities should provide the child with care, protection and education in accordance with the childs 7 / 16

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dezvoltare specifice copilului.

distinctive character and developmental needs.

(2) Copilul nu trebuie s fie supus pedepsei corporale sau oricrui alt tratament umilitor.

(2) The child should not be subjected to corporal punishment or any other humiliating treatment.

Principiul 3:20 Locuina copiluluii

Principle 3:20 Residence

(1) n cazul n care autoritatea printeasc sunt exercitate n comun, titularii acestora, dac locuiesc separat ar trebui s se pun de acord cu privire la persoana cu care va locui copilul.

(1) If parental responsibilities are exercised jointly the holders of parental responsibilities who are living apart should agree upon with whom the child resides.

(2) The child may reside on an alternate (2) Copilul poate locui n mod alternativ cu titularii autoritii printeti, fie ca urmare a unui acord aprobat de autoritatea competent, fie a unei decizii luate de aceasta din urm. Autoritatea competent trebuie s aib n vedere urmtorii factori: (a) vrsta i opinia copilului; (b) capacitatea i dorina titularilor responsabilitilor parentale de a colabora unul cu cellalt cu privire la aspectele legate de copil, precum i situaia lor personal; (c) distana dintre locuinele titularilor autoritii parentale i coala pe care o frecventeaz copilul. Principiul 3:21 Schimbarea locuinei basis with the holders of parental responsibilities upon either an agreement approved by a competent authority or a decision by a competent authority. The competent authority should take into consideration factors such as: (a) the age and opinion of the child; (b) the ability and willingness of the holders of parental responsibilities to cooperate with each other in matters concerning the child, as well as their personal situation; (c) the distance between the residences of the holders of the parental responsibilities and to the childs school. Principle 3:21 Relocation

(1) n cazul n care autoritatea printeasc este exercitat n comun i unul dintre titularii acestora dorete s schimbe locuina al copilului n interiorul sau n exteriorul zonei de jurisdicie, atunci el sau ea trebuie s-l (s

(1) If parental responsibilities are exercised jointly and one of the holders of parental responsibilities wishes to change the childs residence within or outside the jurisdiction, he or she should inform the other holder of

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o) informeze pe cellalt cu privire la acest lucru.

parental responsibilities thereof in advance.

(2) Dac cellalt titular al autoritii printeti nu este de acord cu schimbarea locuinei copilului, atunci oricare dintre ei poate apela la autoritatea competent n vederea obinerii unei decizii n acest sens.

(2) If the other holder of parental responsibilities objects to the change of the childs residence, each of them may apply to the competent authority for a decision.

(3) Autoritatea competent trebuie s aib n vedere urmtorii factori: (a) vrsta i opinia copilului; (b) dreptul copilului de a menine relaii personale cu cellalt titular al autoritii printeti; (c) capacitatea i dorina titularilor autoritii printeti de a colabora unul cu cellalt; (d) situaia personal a titularilor autoritii printeti; (e) distana geografic i accesibilitatea; (f) libera circulaie a persoanelor.

(3) The competent authority should take into consideration factors such as: (a) the age and opinion of the child; (b) the right of the child to maintain personal relationships with the other holders of parental responsibilities; (c) the ability and willingness of the holders of parental responsibilities to cooperate with each other; (d) the personal situation of the holders of personal responsibilities; (e) the geographical distance and accessibility; (f) the free movement of persons.

Principiul 3:22 Administrarea proprietii copilului

Principle 3:22 Administration of the childs property

(1) Titularii responsabilitilor parentale ar trebui s administreze proprietatea copilului cu grija i atenia cuvenite pentru a pstra i acolo unde este posibil a crete valoarea bunurilor.

(1) The holders of parental responsibilities should administer the childs property with due care and diligence in order to preserve and where possible increase the value of the property.

(2) n cazul administrrii proprietii copilului, titularii autoritii printeti ar trebui s nu fac cadouri, dect atunci cnd acestea sunt considerate a fi o obligaie moral;

(2) In administering the childs property the holders of parental responsibilities should not make gifts unless the gifts are deemed to be made under a moral obligation.

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(3) Venitul obinut de pe urma proprietii copilului, care nu este folosit pentru administrarea adecvat a proprietii sau

(3) The income derived from the childs property which is not needed for the proper management of the property or for the

pentru ngrijirea i educarea copilului, poate fi maintenance and education of the child may, folosit pentru a acoperi nevoile familiei, doar atunci cnd acest lucru este necesar. Principiul 3:23 Restriciile where necessary, be used for the needs of the family. Principle 3:23 Restrictions

(1) Titularii autoritii printeti ar trebui s nu administreze bunurile obinute de copil ca urmare a unei dispoziii testamentare sau a unui cadou, dac donatorul a precizat c nu dorete acest lucru.

(1) The holders of parental responsibilities should not administer property acquired by a child through a testamentary disposition or a gift, if the testator or the donor so instructed.

(2) n mod similar, veniturile copilului nu ar trebui administrate de titularii autoritii printeti dect n cazul n care copilul nu are vrsta sau maturitatea de a decide acest lucru singur.

(2) Similarly the earnings by the child should not be administered by the holders of parental responsibilities unless the child is not of sufficient age and maturity to decide himself or herself.

(3) n cazul n care exist tranzacii cu consecine financiare semnificative pentru copil este necesar acordul autoritii competente. Principiul 3:24 Reprezentarea legal

(3) Where transactions can have significant financial consequences for the child the authorization of the competent authority should be necessary. Principle 3:24 Legal representation

(1) Titularii autoritii printeti ar trebui s

(1) The holders of parental responsibilities

reprezinte copilul din punct de vedere legal n should legally represent the child in matters toate aspectele legate de persoana sau bunurile copilului. concerning the childs person or property.

(2) Reprezentarea legal nu ar trebui s aib loc n situaiile n care exist un conflict de

(2) Legal representation should not take place where there is a conflict of interest

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interese ntre copil i titularii autoritii printeti.

between the child and the holders of parental responsibilities.

(3) Copilul ar trebui s aib dreptul s se auto-reprezinte n procesele legale, innd cont de vrsta i maturitatea sa.

(3) Having regard to the childs age and maturity, the child should have the right to self-representation in legal proceedings concerning himself or herself.

SECIUNEA B: MENINEREA RELAIILOR PERSONALE

SECTION B: MAINTENANCE OF PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS

Principiul 3:25 Contactul direct cu prinii i alte persoane (1) Copiii i prinii ar trebui s aib dreptul de a avea cu regularitate contact direct unii cu ceilali.

Principle 3:25 Contact with parents and other persons

(1) The child and the parents should have the right to obtain and maintain regular contact with each other.

(2) Trebuie asigurat contactul direct dintre copil i rudele sale apropiate (3) Se poate asigura i contactul direct ntre copil i persoane cu care acesta se afl n relaii apropiate. Principiul 3:26 Ce presupune contactul direct

(2) Contact should be established between the child and his or her close relatives.

(3) Contact may be established between the child and persons with whom the child has close personal relations. Principle 3:26 Content of contact

(1) Contactul direct se refer la petrecerea

(1) Contact comprises the child staying for a

timpului sau la ntlnirile dintre copil i printe limited period of time with or meeting a sau o alt persoan, cu care acesta nu locuiete n mod obinuit; precum i la orice alt form de comunicare dintre acetia. parent or person other than a parent with whom he or she is not usually living; and any form of communication between the child and such person.

(2) Astfel de contacte directe trebuie s fie considerate a fi n interesul superior al copilului.

(2) Such contact should be in the best interests of the child.

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Principiul 3:27 Acordul

Principle 3:27 Agreement

(1) Avnd n vedere interesul superior al copilului, prinii i alte persoane menionate la Principiul 3:25(2) i (3) pot ajunge la un acord cu privire la contactul direct.

(1) Subject to the best interests of the child, the parents and the other persons identified under Principle 3:25(2) and (3) may agree on contact.

(2) Autoritatea competent poate examina acordul. Principiul 3:28 Restriciile

(2) The competent authority may scrutinize the agreement. Principle 3:28 Restrictions

Dac interesul superior al copilului impune, contactul direct poate fi restricionat, interzis sau poate fi supus unor condiii stipulate de autoritatea competent.

Contact may be restricted, terminated or made subject to conditions by the competent authority if the best interests of the child so require.

Principiul 3:29 Informarea prinilor

Principle 3:29 Information to parents

Printele ar trebui s aib dreptul de a fi informat cu privire la aspectele legate de situaia personal a copilului.

A parent should have the right to be informed about matters concerning the personal situation of the child.

CAPITOLUL VI: NCETAREA AUTORITII PRINTETI

CHAPTER VI: TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Principiul 3:30 ncetarea autoritii printeti

Principle 3:30 Termination

(1) Autoritatea printeasc ar trebui s se ncheie n cazul n care copilul: (a) ajunge la maturitate; (b) se cstorete sau are un parteneriat oficial; (c) este adoptat;

(1) Parental responsibilities should be terminated in the case of the child: (a) reaching majority; (b) entering into a marriage or registered partnership; (c) being adopted;

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(d) moare.

(d) dying.

(2) Dac partenerul(a) printelui natural adopt copilul acestuia din urm, atunci autoritatea printeasc n raport cu cellalt printe ar trebui s se ncheie.

(2) If a parents partner adopts the child of the parent the parental responsibilities in relation to the other parent should be terminated.

Principiul 3:31 Decesul prinilor

Principle 3:31 Death of the parents

(1) Dac prinii au autoritate comun asupra copiilor, iar unul dintre ei moare, atunci aceasta va reveni printelui supravieuitor;

(1) If parents have joint parental responsibilities and one of them dies the parental responsibilities should belong to the surviving parent.

(2) Dac un printe cu drept unic de exercitare a autoritii printeti moare, aceasta ar trebui atribuit printelui supravieuitor sau unei tere persoane, conform deciziei autoritii competente;

(2) If a parent having sole parental responsibilities dies, responsibilities should be attributed to the surviving parent or a third person upon a decision by the competent authority.

(3) n cazul decesului ambilor prini, dintre care cel puin unul deinea autoritatea printeasc, autoritatea competent ar trebui s instituie o msur de protecie cu privire la persoana i bunurile copilului.

(3) On the death of both parents, of whom at least one parent had parental responsibilities, the competent authority should take protective measures in respect of the person and the property of the child.

CAPITOLUL VII: RETRAGEREA I REINSTAURAREA AUTORITII PRINTETI


Principiul 3:32 Retragerea autoritii printeti

CHAPTER VII: DISCHARGE AND RESTORATION OF PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES


Principle 3:32 Discharge of parental responsibilities

Autoritatea competent ar trebui s retrag autoritatea printeasc deintorului ei, n totalitate sau parial, atunci cnd

The competent authority should discharge the holder of parental responsibilities, wholly or in 13 / 16

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comportamentul su sau neglijarea constituie un risc considerabil la adresa persoanei sau a bunurilor copilului.

part, where his or her behaviour or neglect causes a serious risk to the person or the property of the child

Principiul 3:33: Solicitarea retragerii responsabilitilor parentale

Principle 3:33 Request for discharge of parental responsibilities

(1) Retragerea autoritii printeti poate fi solicitat de ctre: (a) oricare dintre prinii care au autoritate printeasc; (b) copil, i (c) orice instituie care protejeaz interesele copilului. (2) Autoritatea competent poate s decid retragerea autoritii printeti din proprie iniiativ.

(1) The discharge of parental responsibilities may be requested by: (a) any parent having parental responsibilities; (b) the child, and (c) any institution protecting the interests of the child.

(2) The competent authority may also order the discharge of parental responsibilities of its own motion.

Principiul 3:34 Reinstaurarea autoritii printeti

Principle 3:34 Restoration of parental responsibilities

Avnd n vedere interesul superior al copilului, autoritatea competent poate reinstaura autoritatea printeasc, dac circumstanele care au dus la retragerea lor au disprut.

Having regard to the best interests of the child, the competent authority may restore parental responsibilities if the circumstances that led to the discharge no longer exist.

CAPITOLUL VIII: PROCEDURA Principiul 3:35 Autoritatea competent

CHAPTER VIII: PROCEDURE


Principle 3:35 Competent authority

(1) Toate hotrrile cu privire la autoritatea printeasc ar trebui emise de autoritatea competent, care poate fi de natur judiciar sau administrativ.

(1) All decisions on parental responsibilities should be taken by the competent authority which can either be a judicial or an administrative body.

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(2) Atunci cnd este necesar, autoritatea competent trebuie s mputerniceasc o persoan sau o instituie potrivit pentru a investiga situaia copilului.

(2) Where necessary, the competent authority should appoint any suitable person or body to investigate the childs circumstances.

Principiul 3:36 Metode alternative de rezolvare a disputelor

Principle 3:36 Alternative dispute resolution

n toate disputele legate de autoritatea printeasc ar trebui s fie folosite mecanismele medierii, ca metod alternativ de rezolvare a disputelor. Principiul 3:37 Audierea copilului

In all disputes regarding parental responsibilities alternative dispute resolution mechanisms should be available.

Principle 3:37 Hearing of the child

(1) Conform principiului 3:6, autoritatea competent ar trebui s audieze copilul n toate procedurile privind autoritatea printeasc, iar dac acesta nu este audiat atunci este necesar prezentarea motivele specifice care au stat la baza acestei decizii.

(1) Subject to Principle 3:6, the competent authority should hear the child in all proceedings concerning parental responsibilities but if it decides not to hear the child it should give specific reasons.

(2) Audierea copilului ar trebui s se desfoare, fie n mod direct n faa autoritii competente, fie indirect n faa unei persoane sau n cadrul unei instituii numite de autoritatea competent.

(2) The hearing of the child should take place either directly before the competent authority or indirectly before a person or body appointed by the competent authority.

(3) Audierea copilului ar trebui s se desfoare ntr-o manier adecvat vrstei i maturitii acestuia.

(3) The child should be heard in a manner appropriate to his or her age and maturity.

Principiul 3:38 Numirea unui reprezentant special al copilului

Principle 3:38 Appointment of a special representative for the child

n cazul audierilor cu privire la autoritatea

In proceedings concerning parental

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printeasc, n care fie exist un conflict puternic ntre interesele copilului i cele ale titularului autoritii printeti, fie bunstarea copilului este n pericol, autoritatea competent ar trebui s numeasc un reprezentant special al copilului.

responsibilities in which there could either be a serious conflict of interests between the child and the holders of parental responsibilities or in which the welfare of the child is otherwise at risk, the competent authority should appoint a special representative for the child.

Principiul 3:39 Impunerea (executarea silit)

Principle 3:39 Enforcement

(1) n cazul n care apare o nerespectare intenionat, trebuie imediat emis o decizie din partea autoritii competente i a unui acord privind exercitarea autoritii printeti.

(1) Failing voluntary compliance, a decision by the competent authority and an enforceable agreement concerning parental responsibilities should be enforced without delay.

(2) Se va evita impunerea (executarea silit) dac este n mod evident n contradicie cu interesului superior al copilului.

(2) Enforcement should not take place if it is manifestly contrary to the best interests of the child.

i Conform Noului Cod Civil, art. 400 i art. 496

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