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PSAT User Manual

PSAT User Manual PSAT Powerflow & Short-circuit Analysis Tool User Manual A product of Powertech Labs

PSAT

Powerflow & Short-circuit Analysis Tool

User Manual

A product of

& Short-circuit Analysis Tool User Manual A product of Powertech Labs Inc. Surrey, British Columbia Canada

Powertech Labs Inc. Surrey, British Columbia Canada www.powertechlabs.com www.DSATools.com

PSAT User Manual

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES

THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS DOCUMENTATION WERE PREPARED BY POWERTECH LABS, INC. (PLI). NEITHER PLI, ANY COSPONSOR, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:

(A)

MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS REPORT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS REPORT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR

(B)

ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF PLI OR ANY PLI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS REPORT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS REPORT.

PSAT program and its documentation are confidential property of Powertech Labs Inc. This Program is protected under the copyright laws and by application of international treaties. All Rights Reserved under the Copyright Laws.

Except as expressly provided by the terms and conditions set forth in the License, the LICENSEE shall not:

(A)

distribute or disclose the Program, Documentation or Derivative Work thereof to others; or

(B)

disclose the Proprietary Information associated with or embodied in the Program and Documentation in any form whatsoever;

without prior written consent of Powertech Labs Inc.

The LICENSEE shall not use the program except as expressly provided by the conditions of LICENSE TYPE in the License.

Copyright Powertech Labs Inc. 20022011

Last modified April 11

PSAT User Manual

CONTENTS

 

Page

1 PREFACE

1

2 PROGRAM INSTALLATION AND TESTING

2

2.1 Minimum System Requirements

2

2.2 Installing the Program

2

2.3 Installing Driver/Server for Security Keys

3

2.4 Running the Program

3

3

OVERVIEW

4

3.1 Windows Graphical Interface

4

3.2 Getting Started

5

 

3.2.1 PSAT Main Window

5

3.2.2 Creating new Project and Powerflow

6

3.2.3 Opening, Viewing and Modifying a Project

7

3.2.4 Creating a New Diagram

8

3.2.5 Adding Components Graphically

8

3.2.6 Solving Powerflow

9

3.2.7 Viewing Solution Reports

9

3.2.8 Macros

9

3.2.9 Python Scripts

10

4

DATA AND REPORT TABLES

11

4.1 Modifying Powerflow Data in Tables

11

4.2 Customizing Data and Report Tables

12

4.3 Sorting Data and Report Tables

12

4.4 Filtering Data and Report Tables

13

4.5 Searching Data and Report Tables

14

5 BUS VIEW

 

15

6 SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

16

6.1 Powerflow and Diagram Files

16

6.2 Using the SLD Toolbox

16

6.3 Using the Bus Tree

18

6.4 Drawing Features

19

 

6.4.1 Zooming

19

6.4.2 Cropping the Diagram

19

6.4.3 Redrawing the Connections

19

6.4.4 Labels

20

6.4.5 Animation of Flows

21

6.4.6 SLD Contours

21

6.4.7 Automatic Drawing Auto Generate One Level

21

6.4.8 Automatic Drawing Bus Split

21

6.4.9 Adding Other Drawing Objects

22

6.5 Sub-Diagrams

22

6.6 Printing Diagrams

22

7

MENUS

23

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

PSAT User Manual

7.1 File Menu

 

23

7.2 Solution Menu

24

7.3 Reports Menu

25

7.4 Subsystem Menu

25

7.5 Edit Menu for Data Windows

26

 

7.5.1

Data Manipulation Submenu

27

7.6 Edit Menu for Report Windows

 

28

7.7 Edit Menu for Diagram Windows

28

7.8 Settings Menu

28

 

7.8.1 Background Submenu

30

7.8.2 Bus View Label Appearance Submenu

30

7.9 Script Menu

 

30

7.10 View Menu

31

7.11 Window Menu

32

8

DIALOGS

33

8.1 Open and Save As Dialogs

 

33

8.2 Import Powerflow Dialog

33

8.3 Export Powerflow Dialog

34

8.4 Page Setup Dialog

34

8.5 Print Dialog

34

8.6 Preview and Print Dialog

34

8.7 Solution Parameters Dialog

35

8.8 Bus Mismatch Threshold Dialog

36

8.9 Limit Check Options Dialog

36

8.10 Simple Subsystems Dialog

37

8.11 Composite Subsystems Dialog

39

8.12 Table Customization Dialog

41

8.13 Diagram Data Matching Dialog

42

8.14 Comparison Data Matching Dialog

42

8.15 Color Options Dialog

43

8.16 Contour Options Dialog

45

8.17 Set Label Appearance Dialogs

45

8.18 Show / Hide Labels Dialog

46

8.19 Customize Dialog

46

8.20 Set Bus Dialogs

47

8.21 Set Area, Zone, Owner Dialogs

48

8.22 Bus Connections Dialog

48

8.23 Sectional Branch Dialog

49

8.24 Select Branch Dialog

49

8.25 Composite Label Dialog

50

8.26 Interface Label Dialog

50

9

MODELS AND PROPERTIES

51

9.1 AC Bus

 

51

9.2 Generator

 

52

9.3 Load

 

54

9.4 Load Model

 

55

9.5 Fixed Shunt

57

9.6 Switchable Shunt

57

9.7 AC Line

 

59

9.8 Fixed Transformer

 

60

9.9 Adjustable Transformer

61

9.10 Impedance Correction Table

64

9.11 Three Winding Transformer

65

PSAT User Manual

9.12 Fixed Series Compensator

69

9.13 Adjustable Series Compensator

70

9.14 Static Tap Changer / Phase Regulator

72

9.15 DC Bus

76

9.16 DC Line Commutated Converters

76

9.17 Voltage Source Converter

78

9.18 DC Line

80

9.19 DC Breaker

81

9.20 Area

82

9.21 Zone

82

9.22 Owner

82

9.23 Sectional Branch

83

9.24 Case Description

83

10

DATA MANIPULATION

84

10.1 Reassign Zone

Error! Bookmark not defined.

10.2 Reassign Area

84

10.3 Scale MW Generation

85

10.4 Scale Load

85

10.5 Scale MVAr Load

86

10.6 Scale Fixed Shunt

86

10.7 Convert Load Model

87

10.8 Delete Out-of-Service

87

11

SOLVING POWERFLOW

88

11.1

Governor Response

89

12 COMPARING TWO POWERFLOWS

 

90

13 REDUCTION

91

13.1 How to Reduce a Network

91

13.2 Purging from the Network

92

14

SHORT CIRCUIT

93

14.1 How to Run Short Circuit Analysis

93

14.2 Menus of Short Circuit Window

94

15

PSAT ASCII POWERFLOW FILE FORMAT

95

15.1 Solution History Data

95

15.2 Bus Data

97

15.3 Generator Data

97

15.4 Load Data

99

15.5 Load Model Data

101

15.6 Fixed Shunt Data

101

15.7 Switchable Shunt / SVC / STATCON Data

102

15.8 Line Data

103

15.9 Fixed Transformer Data

104

15.10 ULTC Transformer Data

106

15.11 Impedance Correction Tables

108

15.12 Fixed Series Capacitor Data

108

15.13 Switchable Series Capacitor Data

109

15.14 Static Tap Changer / Phase Regulator Data

110

15.15 3-Winding Transformer Data

113

PSAT User Manual

15.16 Area Interchange Data

116

15.17 Interface Data

117

15.18 Multi-Terminal DC Data

118

15.18.1 Line Commutated Converters

118

15.18.2 DC Lines

121

15.18.3 DC Breakers

122

15.18.4 DC Buses

122

15.18.5 Miscellaneous Data

122

15.18.6 Voltage-Sourced Converter

123

15.19 Zone Data

125

15.20 Node Mapping Data

125

15.21 File Section Data

126

PSAT User Manual

1

Preface

The PSAT software is a full-featured graphical powerflow program to create, examine and modify the powerflow data, solve the powerflow, and view the solution reports. The powerflow data and solution are displayed in Tables as well as on Diagrams.

The powerflow data contains a complete and advanced set of models of power system components. It can be imported from (and exported to) commonly used powerflow data formats such as the PSS/E Raw data (versions 26- 32), GE EPC data (version 16), etc.

The Single Line Diagram (SLD) is created easily by dragging and dropping the symbols of buses, generators, lines, etc., on the diagram. The Bus View diagram graphically shows all components at a selected bus.

Several diagrams can be created from a powerflow data, each representing a different part of the system or different level of details. These diagrams can be saved in individual files and used with another (similar) powerflow data.

In addition to its own macro, PSAT supports scripting in Python. A separate user‟s guide described the features and functionalities of this option.

This manual describes the overall operation of PSAT. Chapter 2 describes the program installation. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the program features and operation.

PSAT User Manual

2 Program Installation and Testing

This chapter describes program installation and testing on Windows XP/Vista/7 systems. In addition to installing the program, you must install the driver and server for the security key.

2.1 Minimum System Requirements

The minimum hardware and software requirements for the Windows version are:

1. PC Pentium IV

2. 50 Mb of free hard disk space

3. 2 GB of RAM

4. VGA card

5. Windows 7, Vista, XP or Server2003 (or higher versions of these operating systems)

6. Acrobat Reader 1 5 or higher for viewing the User Manual

2.2 Installing the Program

Running the installation program provided on a CD creates the necessary folders and files on your computer. To install the software:

1. Place the CD in your CD drive. After a few seconds, the Powertech Software Installation Guide window will appear on your screen. In this case go to step 3, otherwise go to step 2.

2. To open the Powertech Software Installation Guide window, from the Start menu of your computer select Run and type:

X:\start.exe

where X is the drive in which the CD is inserted (e.g. D:\start.exe)

3. To start the installation of PSAT, click on Install DSA Software.

When the DSATools TM installer window

appears, follow the steps as shown on your screen to complete the installation. The installation steps are:

3.1 Display of program information and welcome message.

3.2 Display of License Agreement: You must accept the terms of license to complete the installation.

3.3 Display of installation information.

3.4 Selection of destination folder: By default, the installation program creates a directory named DSATools_n (n is the version number, e.g., 11) on the destination drive (C) where it puts PSAT folder and its files. You may change this default destination to other directories/drives.

3.5 Selection of setup type: You may select to install some or all of the DSATools TM components provided on the CD. The “Typical” setup (default) installs all components. The “Custom” setup allows you to choose

1 Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated

PSAT User Manual

which component is to be installed. In the Custom setup window, click on the arrow beside each component to make your selection from the drop-down list.

3.6 After copying the files, the installation creates a folder named DSATools under Start | Programs menu with subfolder PSAT n.m (n.m is the program version number, e.g. 11.0) and places shortcuts to the executables in this folder.

2.3 Installing Driver/Server for Security Keys

You may be provided with stand-alone (single-user) keys or a network key. For these keys to function properly, you must installed:

Driver for stand-alone key on all computers running PSAT. One key must be connected to the parallel port or USB port of each computer running the program.

Driver and Server for network key on a computer on the network where you intend to connect the security key. This server must be running for PSAT to obtain license from the network key and run (on any computer on the network).

Optionally, the Monitoring Tool to track the use of licenses of the network key.

Click on Install Sentinel Driver/Server (or run the Sentinel\Sentinel Protection Installer.exe program from the CD) to install the driver and, if needed, the server for the security key. When the Sentinel installer window appears, follow the steps as indicated on the screen.

You may choose the “Custom” setup type to select the parallel driver or USB driver (depending on the type of key you have received with the software; install both drivers on Windows XP) and the server to be installed.

For more information, refer to the Sentinel\Readme.pdf file on the CD. You may need administrative privileges to install the driver/server. To complete the driver/server installation, the computer must be rebooted.

2.4 Running the Program

Connect the Security key to the parallel or USB port and, in case of the network key, make sure its server is running on the same computer. You may run the Monitoring Tool to check the server and available licenses in the key. If you have installed driver and server as described above, the server will start automatically every time you start the computer.

Under the Start | Programs menu, find and click the PSAT shortcut to start the program. You may copy this shortcut to your desktop for easier access.

PSAT User Manual

3

Overview

This chapter describes the overall features and operation of PSAT. With PSAT, you can create a new powerflow data (case) and save it, open an existing powerflow data file in the PSAT ASCII (see Appendix I for details) or PSAT binary data (PFB or PSF), or import a powerflow data file in a variety of formats. You can also create Single Line Diagrams (SLD) of the system by drawing some or all buses in the powerflow data and their connections. The data can be viewed and modified through Properties dialogs or data tables.

You can then solve the powerflow and view the solution on the diagram or solution tables. PSAT also supports a network reduction facility that can be used to eliminate a portion of the system by computing appropriate equivalents at boundary buses.

You can also perform the classical short circuit analysis for the powerflow case with a specified sequence data or default data and view the results in a table or on the diagram.

Each diagram can be saved in a file. You may store the powerflow data and any number of diagrams in a PSAT Project (PSP) file. By opening a project file, the powerflow data and all its diagrams will be loaded in and available for display. The diagrams created for a powerflow data (case) can be used for another (similar) case without the need for redrawing them. In this way, you can mix and match saved powerflow and diagram files in several project files.

Many aspects of the data/solution tables and diagrams are customizable. The configuration files remember your customizations and appearances of the tables and diagrams. In addition, PSAT supports scripting in Python that allows the users to perform a variety of operations on the power system including data manipulation, obtaining specialized reports, etc.

3.1 Windows Graphical Interface

The PSAT interface and its description in this manual follow the standard Windows convention. The PSAT main window includes several menus, toolbars and sub-windows that function similar to commonly used Windows programs.

“Select” or “Click” in this manual means you move the mouse to position the cursor on an object, e.g., a menu item, button, tool icon, or title bar of a window or dialog box, and press the left mouse key to select that object.

“Right click” means a similar action except that you press the right mouse button instead of the left one.

“Drag” means you select an object and while you keep the left mouse key pressed, move the cursor to another position.

“Drop” means after you drag an object to a new position, you release the mouse button, so the object stays at the new position.

On the diagrams, if you press the left mouse button and drag the mouse, a dotted rectangle shows the growing selected area and when you release the mouse button, all objects in that rectangle will be selected together. You can also hold the Shift key while clicking on (selecting) several objects to have them selected together.

In PSAT several windows can be open at the same time. One of these is the “active” window and is the focus of mouse click, menu selection and keyboard. To make any window the “active” window, click on the title bar or anywhere else in that window, or select it from the Window menu.

PSAT User Manual

3.2 Getting Started

This section is a brief tutorial to familiarize you with the operation of PSAT, using the samples provided with the program. The next chapters describe the program features and interface in detail.

In PSAT, you deal with Powerflow, Single Line Diagram (SLD) and Project files. A PSAT Project is a collection of a powerflow data and one or more associated diagrams. You can create new powerflow, diagram and project files, or open existing (previously created and saved) files.

3.2.1 PSAT Main Window

When you start the program (see Section 2.4) the PSAT main window appears with:

The menu bar

The toolbars with icons for commands such as open, save, etc.

The SLD toolbox (bar on the right margin of the PSAT main window) with symbols for AC bus, generator, etc., for drawing diagrams, and Drawing toolbox with symbols for line, rectangle, grouping, etc., for adding and arranging drawing symbols in the diagrams

Three panes for the project, data/report tables and diagrams, and messages (if the message window is hidden, open it by selecting Message in the View menu)

The main window is better described by first loading a sample project. From the File menu select Open Project… and choose test1.psp in samples subdirectory of PSAT to open it.

The three panes of the PSAT main window show the following:

Workspace Window

The Workspace window appears on the left and has two tabs (on the bottom).

The Project Tab contains the tree structure of:

Single line Diagrams

Powerflow Data

Solution Reports

Data Verifications

Limit Checks

The Bus Tree Tab shows the Bus Tree for drawing Single Line Diagrams.

By clicking on the + icon beside Single Line Diagrams in the Project tab, it expands to show all diagrams files in the current project. Clicking the + icon beside Powerflow Data expands the tree to shows the list of all tables (categories) of powerflow data, e.g. AC Bus, Generator, etc. Clicking the + icon beside Solution Reports shows the list of all reports, e.g. Bus Mismatches, Bus Flows, etc. Clicking the + icon beside Data Verifications shows the list of all verification categories, e.g., Islands, Isolated Buses, etc. Clicking the + icon beside Limit Checks shows the list of all types of checks, e.g., Bus Under/Over Voltages, Overloaded Lines, etc.

In the Bus Tree Tab, by clicking on the + icon beside each bus in the Bus Tree, it expands to show all components at that bus by their symbol and ID. If a component is a line (or transformer, etc.), the tree shows the bus at the other end of the line (or transformer, etc.). See section 6.3 for more information.

Right Pane

PSAT User Manual

The right part of the window contains opened diagrams, data tables and reports. Double clicking on a diagram filename under Single Line Diagrams of the Workspace window, opens that diagram in a window in the right pane. Similarly, double clicking a Powerflow Data table (e.g. AC Bus) or a Solution Report table (e.g. Bus Mismatches) in the Workspace window, opens that data or report table in the right pane.

The windows in the right pane can be resized, minimized or rearranged (cascade/tile). The columns of the tables can be customized by adjusting their width, reordering, hiding and freezing (so that they won‟t scroll left). The data in the tables can also be sorted by one or more columns.

For drawing a Single Line Diagram (SLD), first an existing or new diagram window is opened in the right pane, then buses (and their connected components) are dragged from the Bus Tree of the Workspace window and dropped in this diagram window.

Message Window

The bottom pane of the main window shows the message window, which has three tabs:

Messages: This tab shows messages related to opening/importing powerflow files, solving, saving/exporting powerflow files, etc. Right-click in this tab to open the pop-up menu with commands for clearing or saving its contents.

Change Log:

This tab shows the log of data modifications in the tables, diagrams and Property dialogs. Right-click in this tab to open the pop-up menu with commands for clearing or saving its contents.

Macro:

This tab shows all the recorded Macro activities. Use the Macro menu or right-click in this tab to open the pop-up menu with commands for clearing, modifying (editing) or saving the contents of this tab.

The Workspace and Message windows can be “torn off” by dragging their handle bars (the bar on the top or left margin) away from their docked position and leaving them anywhere in the desktop. You may even close these windows by clicking the x button on their title bar (when they are torn off) or deselecting them in the View menu. To redisplay these windows, select them again in the View menu.

3.2.2 Creating new Project and Powerflow

In the PSAT main window, from the File menu select New Project. A new (empty) powerflow case will be created. You can add new buses, generators, lines, and other components to the powerflow data in two ways:

1. Open a Data table and use the Insert New Row command of the Edit menu as described below.

2. Open a new or existing Diagram and use the SLD Toolbox as described in sections 3.2.5 and 6.2

For example, double click on AC Bus under Powerflow Data in the Project tab of the Workspace window to open the AC Bus table on the right. Then use the Edit | Insert New Row menu (or press the F2 key) to add a new bus to the table. This command first opens the Property dialog where you can enter/modify data for the added bus.

When you add a bus, after closing the Property dialog, the Bus Connections dialog opens where you can add generators, loads, etc., to the new bus. You may choose not to add any component at this time and close this dialog to return to the AC Bus table. You may then open the Generator table, Load table, etc. and use the Edit | Insert New Row menu to add new components. For these components, a dialog first appears to select one of the existing buses for connecting the new component. Then, the Property dialog appears for entering data for the new component.

PSAT User Manual

To delete a powerflow component, open its Data table, click on the row of that component to select it, and use the Delete Row command of the Edit menu.

You may modify the powerflow data at any time by entering new values in the cells of Data tables, or Property dialogs. To open the Property dialog of a component, double click on it in the Data table, Bus Tree or Diagram.

You save the powerflow data that you have created by selecting File | Save Powerflow as

open the “Save as” window where you can navigate the directories and choose a filename for the powerflow data to be saved in.

menu item. This will

Similarly, you can save the diagram that you may have created by clicking on its window (or double clicking on its name under Single Line Diagrams in the Project Tab) and then selecting File | Save Diagram as… menu item. You

may then save the new project (powerflow and diagram files) by selecting File | Save Project as

menu item.

3.2.3 Opening, Viewing and Modifying a Project

From the File menu select Open Project… and in the “Open” window that appears, find a PSAT Project file (PSP) and click open. For example, you may open test1.psp in samples subdirectory of PSAT.

As described in Section 3.2.1, the Project tab of the Workspace window in the left shows the diagrams and powerflow data of the opened project. By clicking on a diagram filename under Single Line Diagrams in the Workspace window, that diagram opens in a window in the right pane of the PSAT main window. Also, clicking on each table name (AC Bus, Generator, etc.) under Powerflow Data in the Workspace window, that table appears in a window in the right pane. In the test1 project, clicking the test1-a diagram opens this diagram, which contains some of the buses in this case, and clicking the AC Bus opens the AC bus table, which shows data of all AC buses in this case.

Instead of opening a project, you may open an existing PSAT Power Flow Binary (PFB) file without any diagram. For this, select File | Open Powerflow menu item and in the Open window that appears, choose a PSAT powerflow binary file to open. If a PSAT project (PSP) file with the same name is found, the program will ask you whether to open that project or not. If you select No, or if a project file is not found, a new project is created with this powerflow file.

If the powerflow file is not in the PFB (or binary PSF) format, you need to select File | Import… menu item. This will open the Import window where you specify the powerflow file and its type and click the Import button to convert it to PFB format.

If you have previously created and saved a diagram (in another project), to include it in the current project, select File | Open Diagram menu and choose that diagram file to open. For example, in the test1 project you can open test1-b.pfd in samples subdirectory. If the opened diagram was created for another powerflow data and has some components that do not exist in the current powerflow data, those components are ignored and only the remaining components (which match the current data) appear in the diagram. In this case (and after modifying the diagram), it is better to save the diagram in a new file so that the original diagram won‟t be lost.

It is also possible to open/import a powerflow or diagram by simply dragging the file from the windows file manager into the PSAT main window.

As described in the previous section, to modify a data item of a component (e.g. MW output of a generator), simply open its Powerflow Data table, click on the item in the table and type a new value, or double click on that component in the table (or in the diagram) to open its Property dialog and enter new values for its data items.

PSAT User Manual

3.2.4 Creating a New Diagram

To create a new single line diagram of powerflow components, select File | New Diagram menu. It opens a new (blank) diagram window in the right pane. Click on the Bus Tree tab in the left pane to display the Bus Tree. Drag a bus from the Bus Tree to the diagram window and drop it at a desired location. All generators, loads and shunts connected to this bus will be automatically drawn. Also, after adding other buses, any line, transformer, etc., connecting the added bus to the existing buses on the diagram will be automatically drawn. See section 6.3 for more information.

If you cut (erase) any component (select it and press Delete key) from the diagram, you can redraw it by dragging it from the Bus Tree to the diagram window and joining it to its bus(es). The components that are drawn on the diagrams are shown in bold in the Bus Tree.

To display bus names/numbers, line IDs, etc., select one or more buses, lines, etc., on the diagram (click on them while holding the Shift key or hold the left mouse key and drag on the diagram), then open the View menu and click on Label (or click the label icon on the toolbar). The Show / Hide Labels Dialog opens. Select Bus Name, ID, etc., by clicking on the box beside each item, then click the Apply button. If you click the Apply All button instead, the selected labels appear on all drawn components. Click the OK button to close the Show / Hide Labels dialog (or click the x button on the top-right corner) and click on the diagram to deselect the selected components.

After you modify the diagrams or powerflow data, you can save them in the existing files or in new files by

selecting File | Save Diagram (as…) and File | Save Powerflow (as…) menu items. Alternatively, you can save

them by selecting Save Project or Save Project as

from the File menu.

3.2.5 Adding Components Graphically

You can graphically add components to the opened powerflow case. For this, first open a new or existing diagram as described in sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4. The window appears on the right pane of the PSAT main window. Then add new components on the diagram as follows:

1. Click on the bus symbols in the SLD toolbox (short bar with a short line in the middle) to select it.

2. Bring the mouse in the diagram and click anywhere to position the new bus at that location.

3. Click on the generator or another symbols in the SLD toolbox to select it.

4. Bring the mouse in the diagram and click anywhere to position the new component at that location, then click on the bus in the diagram to connect the component to that bus.

5. Add other buses, lines, etc., in the same way. For lines, transformers, etc., you connect their two ends to two buses by first clicking one bus and then the other bus.

6. Double click any component in the diagram to open its Property dialog and enter/modify its data.

For example, you first select AC bus in the toolbox and click in the diagram to add one bus. Then select generator in the toolbox and click in the diagram near the bus to add one generator. At this time the cursor changes to indicate you are in the Draw mode and allow you to connect the generator to a bus. Simply move the cursor over the bus and click to complete this connection.

Then draw another AC bus and connect a load to it similar to the first bus and generator. Now connect the two buses by a line by selecting the AC line in the toolbox. The cursor changes to Draw mode and by clicking on one bus and then the other, a line will be connected between the two. If you first click on one bus, then on a point between the buses, and then on the second bus, the connected line will have two segments, with a Vertex (or breakpoint) at the clicked position.

PSAT User Manual

The new components that you draw from the toolbox are added to the powerflow data and appear in the Data tables. Double click on each added component in the diagram or Data tables to open its Properties dialog and enter required data for it.

3.2.6 Solving Powerflow

After you open the powerflow data and, if needed, modify (and preferably save) it, you can solve the powerflow by using the Solution menu.

First select Solution | Parameters… menu item to open the Solution Parameters Dialog where you can examine and, if needed, modify the solution options. After closing this dialog, select Solution | Solve menu item to start the solution. The Message window pops-up and shows the solution process. If the messages show data/solution errors or indicate that the solution is not found (did not converge), you need to examine and modify the data or solution options and repeat the solution.

See section 11 for more details.

3.2.7 Viewing Solution Reports

Click on the + button beside Solution Reports in the Project tab of the Workspace to see the list of reports. Double click on a report (e.g., Bus Mismatches, Bus Flows, Losses, etc.) to open it in the right pane.

You may store each opened solution report. After you select the report by clicking on its title or double clicking on its name in the Workspace, use the Edit menu and choosing Save to Text File…, Save to Excel File… or Save to Clipboard to save the report in one of these places. The first two choices bring up the Save AS window where you select a file for saving the report.

The solution can be viewed on the diagram as well. Select one or more buses, lines, etc., on the diagram (click on them while holding the Shift key or hold the left mouse key and drag on the diagram), then open the View menu and click on Label (or click the label icon on the toolbar). The Show/Hide Labels dialog opens. Select Voltage Magnitude, Power, etc., by clicking on the box beside each item, then click the Apply button. If you click the Apply All button instead, the selected labels appear on all drawn components. Close the Show/Hide Labels dialog by clicking the OK button (or the x button on the top-right corner) and click on the diagram to deselect the selected components.

As described in the previous sections, you may save the solved powerflow in the existing or a new PFB file by using the File | Save Powerflow (as…) menu items.

3.2.8 Macros

You can record all your activities, such as opening files, changing data, solving powerflow, saving solution reports to files, etc., in Macros which can be played back to repeat similar activities on the same case or a similar case.

When you start a macro (using Start Recording of the Macro menu or the Record button of the toolbar), PSAT asks you to specify a file for saving the activities that will follow. When you stop the macro (using Stop Recording of the Macro menu or Record button of the toolbar), the file will be closed. The activities will be reflected in the Macro window (Macro tab of the Message window) as well. You may use this window similar to a text editor to modify its contents and save them to a file, just as you can open a saved macro file in an editor outside PSAT and modify and save it.

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You can run saved macro files or the Macro window (using Run commands of the Macro menu) to repeat the recorded activities. For these activities to give similar result as before, PSAT status must be as it was when the recording of the macro had started. For example, the same or similar powerflow case must be open, similar subsystems must be defined and selected for open data and report tables, etc. Obviously, to make sure that you will get similar results, you can start recording of the macro before you open the powerflow file, define subsystems, etc., so these will also be recorded in the macro.

3.2.9 Python Scripts

PSAT supports the use of Python programs. Python is a powerful and popular programming language, which can be freely downloaded from http://www.python.org. This site provides valuable information on Python and includes tutorials to help you become familiar with this tool. The specific versions of Python supported by PSAT are described in the PSAT-Python manual. A module named psat_python is provided with PSAT. It includes the functions that you can call from a Python program to obtain powerflow data, change powerflow data, solve powerflow, etc. You write a Python program, using these PSAT functions and any other Python feature, and you run it within PSAT by choosing Run Python File from the Script menu.

See the PSAT-Python manual and help which are provided separately from this PSAT manual and help.

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4 Data and Report Tables

This chapter describes the features and contents of the powerflow data tables and solution report tables.

The data tables appear in the right pane of the PSAT Main Window by double clicking a data category (e.g., AC Bus) under the Powerflow Data group in the Project tab of the Workspace. Each data table contains the powerflow data for one type of component, such as AC bus, Generator, Load, etc. Double clicking on a row of a data table, opens the Property dialog for that component which shows the same data items that were in the selected row. When you are viewing or modifying data items of one component, you may find it easier to use the property dialog, but when you are viewing or modifying the same data item for several components (e.g., MVAr output of a group of generators), it is easier to use the column of the tables. To find out the meaning and purpose of powerflow data items (columns of data tables and boxes of property dialogs), refer to chapter 9 which describes the models and attributes of powerflow components.

The report tables also appear in the right pane of the PSAT main window by double clicking a report (e.g., Bus Flows under the Solution Reports or Overloaded Lines under Limit Checks) in the Project tab of the Workspace. The data shown in the report tables are not editable.

You can customize the appearance and contents of the tables (see section 8.12), print them, save them in text or Excel files, or copy them to the clipboard (see the description of menus for details).

The data tables and property dialogs have two types of fields (columns and boxes): External and Internal. The internal fields contain the attributes of the component to which the table or dialog belongs, while the external fields contain the attributes of another component related to this component. For example, generator table and property dialog contain the internal fields Status, MW output, MVAr output, etc., which are attributes of the generator, and external fields Bus Number, Bus Name and Bus Type, which are attributes of the bus to which the generator belongs. The External fields are shaded in the data tables and property dialogs.

4.1 Modifying Powerflow Data in Tables

To modify a data item in a table, click on it and specify a new value. For example, in the generator table, you can click on MW output column of one of the rows (generators) and type a new value, or click on Status and select In or Out from its pull-down list. You need to press return or click on another field to complete the change.

If you double click on an internal filed or the row number of a generator, the property dialog of that generator opens where you can change the attributes (e.g., MW output or Status) similar to changes in the table.

For the external fields, two kinds of changes are possible by single click and double click. In the case of generator table, if you double click on the Bus Number, Name or Type of a generator, the Bus property dialog opens where you can modify the attributes of that bus. For example, you can change the bus type from Load Bus to Gen. Bus. On the other hand, if you single click on Bus Number, Name or Type for generator X, a down-arrow appears. Clicking this arrow opens the Set AC Bus dialog, which shows the list of all buses. If you double click on a bus in this dialog, it becomes the bus of generator X (i.e., the generator is moved from its previous bus to the new bus).

Similarly, in other tables, single clicking on an external field of component X and changing it from A to B, connects (or relates) component X to component B instead of A, but double clicking on this field opens the property dialog of component A for viewing and modifying its attributes.

Use the Edit menu, described in section 7.5, to add new components (rows) in the tables or delete existing components.

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Modified fields and added rows will be highlighted blue. This coloring persists until the powerflow is saved, the solve powerflow command is run, or a solution report is loaded.

In the AC Bus table, after you select a bus by clicking on it, the Edit Bus Connections command of Edit menu (or the right click pop-up menu) opens the Bus Connections Dialog where all connected components to the bus are listed and you can modify or delete them and add new components.

4.2 Customizing Data and Report Tables

First select a data or report table to be customized by clicking on it in the right pane or on its name in the Workspace. Then select Customize table… in the Settings menu or the menu that pops up after right click on the table header row. The Table Customization dialog pops up where you can customize the columns and sorting orders as described in section 8.12. The following shortcut can also be used to customize the table.

Column Width: To adjust the width of a column, click on the column border line in the headings row and drag it to the right or left, or double click on the border line to fit the column width to its contents.

Column Position, Hiding and Freezing: To change the position of the columns in the table, hide or show columns, or freeze them from scrolling left, use the Table Customization Dialog (see section 8.12).

Fonts: To change the font, size, and style of the text used in data tables, use the options listed under the „Global Settings‟ tab. For more information see section 8.12.

4.3 Sorting Data and Report Tables

The rows of tables can be sorted by one or more columns. To sort by one column (e.g. Bus number), simply click on the column header. An “up” arrow appears in the column header, indicating that table is sorted by that column in ascending order (e.g., the row with lowest bus number is first). If you click again on the same column header, the sorting toggles between ascending and descending. The “up” arrow changes to a “down” arrow to indicate the new sorting direction.

By clicking on another column header, the table is sorted by that column after canceling any previous sort. To sort by more than one column, after you click on the first sort column header, right click on another column header and select Add to Sort (2) from the pop-up menu. “Up” arrows appear in the column headers with numbers “1” and “2” to indicate the table is sorted first by the column with “1” in the header and then by the column with “2” in the header. If you right click on another column header and select Add to Sort (1), it becomes the first sort column and the previous first and second sort columns become the second and third sort column, respectively.

If you right click on, for example, the second sort column header and click on the small arrow in the pop-up menu, the sorting direction for this column toggles between ascending and descending. If you select Reorder Sort (1) from the right click menu, this column becomes the first sort column and the first one becomes the second sort column. If you select Remove from Sort instead, this column is removed from the sort order and the third sort column becomes the second one.

You may use the Table Customization Dialog instead to specify the sort orders (see section 8.12).

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4.4 Filtering Data and Report Tables

When working with a very large case, you may not need to view the whole data and reports in very large tables. In that case, you can define portions of the case (powerflow data) as subsystems and limit the contents of each table to one of these subsystems.

Subsystems can be defined as:

Simple Subsystems:

Bus number list, e.g., 1011, 1015, …, or range, e.g., 2001:2999

Bus name with wildcards, e.g., *ABC*, meaning all buses with “ABC” in their name

Bus kV range, e.g., 138.0:500.0

Area number list or range

Area name with wildcards

Zone number list or range

Zone name with wildcards

Composite Subsystems:

Including and Excluding bus/area/zone numbers/names and kVs (similar to simple subsystems)

Including and Excluding bus types

Several composite subsystems can be defined and each would be identified by a given name. The included and excluded buses, areas, zones and kVs in a subsystem are process in the order they are specified. Therefore, this order has a significant effect on the end results. The following are examples of various subsystems that demonstrate the effect of the specified orders.

Subsystem

Definition

Result

Name

A5

Include Area 5

All components in Area 5 are included (all other areas are excluded)

Sub1

Include Area 3 to 4

All components in Areas 3 to 4 are included,

Exclude Zone 24 to 27

those in Zones 24 to 27 are excluded (whether or not these are in Areas 3 to 4),

Include Bus kV 500.

and all 500 kV components in all Areas and Zones (even those in Zones 24 to 27) are also included

Sub2

Include Area 3 to 4

All components in Areas 3 to 4 are included,

Include Bus kV 500.

all 500 kV components in the case are included,

Exclude Zone 24 to 27

those in Zones 24 to 27 are excluded (whether or not these are 500 kV or in Areas 3 to 4 )

See section 8.10 and 8.11 on how to define the subsystems.

To limit a data or report table to a defined subsystem, select it by clicking on its window in the right pane, or on its name in the Workspace. Then open the Select Subsystem submenu of the Subsystems menu (or the subsystem

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pull-down list in the toolbar) and click on of one of the defined subsystems in the list. The menu (or pull-down list) shows only the subsystems that are relevant to the selected table. The table will be limited to the selected subsystem and the subsystem name will appear beside the table name in the Workspace, as well as on the title bar of its window in the right pane. To include the whole system in the table, select <All> from the Subsystem list.

A quick filter option is available to modify and apply simple subsystem filters. By using the shortcut (Ctrl+F) from a data table, the Simple Subsystem dialog will appear. When the dialog is closed, the filter corresponding to the last property edited will be applied to the table (this is not done when the dialog is accessed from the menu / toolbar). For example to filter a table to bus number „123‟, press (Ctrl+F), type „123‟, and press enter. Note that for Solution Reports and Limit Checks, the subsystem list includes <None> which is an empty subsystem and is the default for some tables (e.g., Bus Flows report is initially empty and shows no buses until you select a subsystem for it).

Even after you close a table, its selected subsystem will be remembered and the next time you open it, the same subsystem will be applied.

4.5 Searching Data and Report Tables

You can quickly jump to a specific row in the data table by searching for a value within a data column. Simply select a cell within the data table to act as the starting point for your search and type your search term into the dropdown on the search tool bar. Pressing the „Find Next‟ button (F5) will search within the column of the selected cell for the next row to match your search term. Pressing the „Find Previous‟ button (Shift-F5) will search in the opposite direction. Depending of the type of data stored in the column, matching rows are found using slightly different criteria:

Text: Values that exactly match or contain the search term as a substring. This is a case-insensitive search. For example: searching for the term „Cob‟ will match the Values „COB‟, „COBBLE‟, „JACOB‟, etc.

Integer: Values that exactly match the numeric value of the search term. (Do not include spaces in the number). You can search for a range of values by separating them with a colon. For example: „1:1000‟ will match on any value between (and including) 1 and 1000.

Decimal: Values that will round to the entered search term. The precision of the rounding is controlled by the precision of the number entered. For example: searching for the value „10‟ will match any value between 9.5 and 10.5. Searching for „10.00‟ will match any value between 9.995 and 10.005. You can search for a range of values by separating them with a colon. For example: „1:1000‟ will match on any value between (and including) 1.000 and 1000.000 (note that no rounding occurs when performing a range search).

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5 Bus View

This chapter describes the features of Bus View.

Bus View graphically shows all connected components at a bus and displays the powerflow data or solution of those components.

To open the Bus View, select Bus View with Parameter or Bus View with Solution from the View menu. Note that selecting one of these, deselects the other one (you can toggle between the two).

The Bus View shows the last selected bus (the bus selected in a data table or diagram) as a long bar on the left, as well as all its connected components with the labels selected for the view. For lines, transformers, etc., the other terminal bus(es) are shown on the right. If you click on one of these buses on the right, it becomes the “Selected” bus and the view changes to show that bus with all its connections.

If you click on any bus in a table, a diagram, or the Bus Tree of the Workspace, it becomes the selected bus and the Bus View changes to show that selected bus.

Double clicking the selected bus on the view opens its property dialog where all attributes of the bus can be viewed and modified.

The Parameter and Solution views are similar except for the labels shown in each view. You can customize the labels for each view by using the Bus View Label Appearance of the Setting menu as described in section 8.16. You can put any label in any of these two views (even mix parameter and solution labels).

The Bus View originally appears on the right side of the PSAT window. But you can grab (click and hold) its handlebars and drag it to any position on your screen. While you are dragging the view, when the cursor touches a border of PSAT window, the view docks to that border and you can leave it there or continue dragging it across the border.

To close the view, deselect Bus View with Parameter or Bus View with Solution from the View menu (click on the checked item in the menu to remove the check mark). When it is torn-off from PSAT window, the title bar of the Bus View window has an x button on the top-right corner that will close the window.

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6 Single Line Diagram

This chapter describes the features of Single Line Diagrams (SLD).

6.1 Powerflow and Diagram Files

To create a new powerflow data and diagram from scratch, open a new project using the File menu described in section 7.1 (or click on New Project button on the toolbar), which automatically opens a new powerflow data. Then open a new diagram (click on New Diagram button on the toolbar). This opens a blank diagram window where you can draw and connect components such as buses, generators, lines, etc., using the SLD Toolbox.

To create a new diagram for an existing powerflow data, open the powerflow file or its project file, if it exists, using the File menu. Then open a new diagram (as above) to open a blank diagram window where you can draw the buses, with their generators, lines, etc., by dragging them from the Bus Tree and dropping them in the diagram window.

To modify an existing diagram, open the related powerflow file and the diagram file, or if these are saved in a project, open the project file, using the File menu. Then double click on the diagram filename under Single Line Diagrams of the Workspace to open the diagram window, showing its contents. If the diagram does not belong to the opened powerflow file, or the file has been changed after the diagram was saved, those components in the diagram that do not match the components in the powerflow data will be ignored. Matching can be based on bus name, bus number or both as described in section 8.13. In this way, you can open a diagram of a powerflow case with a similar but different powerflow case, automatically remove unmatched components, and after adding other components, save it (with a new name so that the original diagram is not lost) in the other project.

6.2 Using the SLD Toolbox

The SLD Toolbox, which normally appears on the right margin of PSAT Main Window, is used to simultaneously add new components to the powerflow data and draw them in the diagram. The tools included in the toolbox are the following:

AC Bus

Generator

Load

Fixed Shunt

Switchable Shunt

AC Line

Fixed Transformer

Adjustable Transformer

Three-Winding Transformer

Fixed Series Compensator

Adjustable Series Compensator

Converter

Voltage Source Converter

DC Line

DC Breaker

Ground

Infinite bus (for

converters) Text

Contour Legend

Composite Label

Interface Label

Case Detail Label

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Static Tap Changer / Phase Regulator

Sectionalize Branch “Wand”

DC Bus

Sub-diagram Container

To add a new bus to the diagram, click the bus icon in the toolbox, move the cursor to a desired position in the

diagram and click.

The new

component will be added at that position and the cursor changes to + to indicate you are in the Draw mode for connecting the new component to a bus. Simply move the cursor over a bus symbol and click to complete this connection.

diagram, click an icon in the toolbox, move the cursor to a desired position in the diagram and click.

To add a generator, load or shunt to a bus in the

The new bus will be added at that position.

To draw a new AC line between two buses, click the AC line icon in the toolbox. The cursor changes to + for the

Draw mode and by clicking on one bus and then the other bus in the diagram, the new line will be connected between the two. If you first click on one bus, then on one or more points between the buses, and finally on the second bus, the line will appear as a zigzag line, connecting the buses through Vertices (the clicked positions). You

can add vertices to other connections (e.g., connecting a load to a bus) in a similar way.

Transformers, series compensators, DC converters, etc., are drawn by selecting them in the toolbox, clicking in the diagram to position their symbol, and connecting each one of their terminals to one bus. This connection is similar to connection of lines and can go through a series of vertices by clicking at desired positions before reaching the bus.

DC buses, converters and DC lines are added from the toolbox to the diagram in a similar way.

You can add annotations to the diagram by the text tool. Click on the text icon (T) in the toolbox, then click at a desired position in the diagram to add “text” at that position. Right clicking on this “text” pops-up a menu where

you can select Properties to open the Label Properties dialog, or select Edit Text to change the text. In the Label

Properties dialog, you can change the text, select its alignment, foreground and background color and font. When

you select Edit Text from the pop-up menu, the cursor changes to edit mode where you can type and change the text

right in the diagram. In this mode, pressing the Enter key adds a new line of text. At the end of editing, click

somewhere outside the text box to return to the normal mode.

Contour Legend tool allows you to add a legend to the diagram to describe the values and colors used to generate a contour.

Composite Label tool allows you to add a composite label on the diagram as described in section 6.4.4.1

Interface Label tool allows you to add power flows associated with an interface on the diagram as described in section 6.4.4.2

Case Detail Label tool allows you to add a label that lists the properties of the case used to generate the diagram. Properties include: File Name, File Date, Case Description, and Case Summary.

Sectionalize Branch Wand of the toolbox allows you to change a regular (single-section) branch to a multi- sectional branch. Select (click on) this tool, then click on a regular branch. The Select Branch dialog (described in section 8.24) appears for you to select the type of the new section to be added to the selected branch. After you select a branch type from the pull-down list of this dialog and click OK, the Sectional Branch Property dialog (described in section 8.23) appears where you can set the properties of the new section, add and rearrange other sections, etc.

The Sub-diagram Container tool is used to create sub-diagrams as described in section 6.5.

You can select the default Horizontal or Vertical orientation in Bus Orientation of the Settings menu for adding buses in the diagram. Later, you can Rotate and Flip the bus symbols using the Edit menu or buttons of the toolbar.

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As you add components to the diagram, they are added to the powerflow data tables and the Bus Tree (you need to click on the tables and on each bus in the tree to refresh it for the added components). Double click on components in the Bus Tree or diagram to open their property dialog and enter data, such as name, ID, MW, etc. You can open the tables and enter and modify data in those tables or even add new buses, generators, lines, etc., while you add new components to the diagram from the toolbox.

6.3 Using the Bus Tree

After you open existing or new powerflow data and diagrams as described above, you can easily draw the existing components of the powerflow data in the diagram by using the Bus Tree. At the same time, you can add new components to the powerflow data and the diagram by using the SLD Toolbox. You can then reposition and modify the components in the diagram, and display powerflow data and solution in the diagram as described in the following.

Click on the Bus Tree tab in the Workspace to display the Bus Tree. This tree shows all the buses in the powerflow data. There is a Subsystem Selection pull-down list above the bus tree (in the Workspace window) similar to the Subsystem Selection list in the toolbar for the tables. If you have defined a simple or composite subsystem (as described in section 8.10 and 8.11), you can select it from this list to limit the Bus Tree and show only the buses of this selected subsystem.

AC buses are shown at the top and DC buses are shown at the bottom of the tree. The list of AC buses can be sorted by bus name or bus number (which appears with # after the bus name). To sort by name or number, right click on the Bus Tree to pop-up a menu and select Sort by Name or Sort by Number from that menu.

By clicking on the + icon beside each bus in the tree, it expands to show all connected components at that bus with their ID beside their symbol. For the lines, transformers, etc., the bus at the other end is also shown with a + icon which can be further expanded to show connected components at that bus (just as they would be shown in the main branches of the tree). In this way, the tree can be quickly branched out from one bus to show all connections at or near the bus.

To draw a bus, grab it (click on its name/number and hold) in the main branch or an expanded branch of the Bus Tree, drag it to the diagram window and drop it at a desired position. The bus symbol appears with all generators, loads and shunts connected to this bus. Also, any line, transformer, etc., connecting this bus to the existing buses in the diagram appear automatically. You can reposition these components and redraw the connection lines as described above for the new cases. You can also select a symbol (click on it) and press the Delete key (or Cut in Edit menu) to remove it from the diagram.

If you remove a load, transformer, etc., but leave the bus(es) in the diagram, to redraw them, again drag the bus from the Bus Tree to the diagram. This does not affect the bus and its existing connections in the diagram and only adds the removed symbols.

You can select Horizontal or Vertical orientation in Bus Orientation of the Settings menu for buses as they are dragged from the Bus Tree to the diagram. Later, you can Rotate and Flip the bus symbols using the Edit menu or buttons of the toolbar.

The buses that are drawn in the diagrams are shown in bold in the Bus Tree. To find a particular bus in a large crowded diagram, right click on it in the Bus Tree to pop-up a menu and select Find Symbol in that menu. The diagram window scrolls to bring that bus in view and shows it as the “selected” bus (as if you click on the symbol).

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6.4 Drawing Features

In the normal mode, when the Select tool (pointer) in the toolbar is pressed, the symbols in the diagram are selected by clicking on them. To select a group of symbols, lasso them by clicking at a point in the diagram and dragging the mouse to select a rectangle (from the clicked point to the new mouse position). You can also select several symbols by clicking on them one by one while holding the Ctrl key. The connecting tails (lines) of generators, loads, etc. are selected separately from the symbols themselves for redrawing.

To reposition the selected symbols, hold and drag them to a new location in the diagram. When you move a bus, its generators, loads and shunts move with it and the connection of lines and transformers are redrawn automatically.

You can Rotate the selected symbols left or right and Flip them vertically or horizontally by using the Edit menu or toolbar buttons. You can also resize a component by clicking on it and dragging its corners to enlarge or reduce its size.

The drawing area itself has an initial size. As you add symbols near the edge of drawing area, it expands gradually. To expand it by a large step, first zoom out to see the gray area outside the drawing area in the window. Then drag a symbol (or a bus from the Bus Tree or SLD Toolbox) to a position in the gray area to expand the drawing area to include this position.

When you click on a bus in the main branch of the Bus Tree or in the diagram, if the Bus View is open, it shows that bus in the view. Double clicking opens the bus property dialog to view and modify its attributes. Double clicking any other component in the tree or diagram opens its property dialog to view and modify its attributes. Right click, instead, pops-up a menu and selecting Properties from that menu opens the property dialog as well.

6.4.1 Zooming

You can Zoom in and out of the diagram by a fixed or specified factor and Zoom to Fit the whole diagram in the window by using the View menu or toolbar buttons. When the magnifying glass tool is selected in the toolbar, each right click zooms out by a factor. In this mode, selecting a part of the diagram by left click, drag and release, zooms in that part. Click the Select tool (pointer) in the toolbar to end this mode and return to the Select mode. Select one or more symbols and use Zoom to Selection menu command or button to zoom in them. Use Zoom Normal menu command to return to normal (100%) zoom factor.

Use the Pan (hand) tool and the scroll bars to bring different parts of the diagram in the window.

6.4.2 Cropping the Diagram

The size of the diagram automatically grows to accommodate new components. If components are moved or deleted, the diagram will remain at its larger size. To shrink the diagram‟s dimensions to fit the existing components, you can use the crop command by pressing the “C” key while viewing a diagram.

6.4.3 Redrawing the Connections

You can change the shape of the AC lines, as well as the lines connecting components to buses, by adding and deleting vertices on the line and grabbing each vertex and dragging it to a new position. To add a vertex, right click on a desired point on the line and in the menu that pops-up, select Insert Vertex. To delete an existing vertex, right click on it and in the menu that pops-up, select Delete Vertex. In this pop-up menu if you select Redraw, the whole line is deleted and redrawn automatically (with vertices if needed).

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AC and DC buses are the only locations where the components are connected together. In a congested diagram, lines and other components may cross each other. These cross points will not be connections. To prevent confusion, add vertices to lines, including the connecting tail of generators, loads, etc., to go around buses to which they are not connected, instead of crossing them.

6.4.4 Labels

Add Label command of the menu that pops-up with right click on a symbol in the diagram, opens the Select Label dialog, which shows the list of labels that can be added for that symbol. Those labels that are already shown in the diagram have a check mark beside them. To show the other labels, click to add a check mark beside them, and to hide a shown label, click to remove its check mark. After completing the label selection, close the dialog by clicking its OK button.

Another way of adding labels (which is independent of the above Add Label command) is by the Show / Hide Labels dialog described in section 8.18. Apply and Apply All buttons of this dialog adds to the diagram those labels that are selected, and hides the ones that are not selected, in that dialog (not those in the Select Label dialog). In addition the Label Wand of the toolbar toggles show/hide of the labels. Click on the wand to select it, then click on any symbol to show/hide the labels that are selected in the Show / Hide Labels dialog. To end this and return to the Select mode, click the Select tool (pointer) in the toolbar.

6.4.4.1 Composite Labels

You may add composite labels to the diagrams by using the Composite Label tool of the SLD Toolbox. This label may contain one or more lines of text, each with a value pointing to the sum of generation, load, etc., in a selected subsystem. When you add a new composite label, or double click on an existing one, the Composite Label Properties dialog (described in section 8.25) appears for setting the contents and appearance of the label.

When you right-click on a Composite Label on the diagram, the pop-up menu gives you options to:

Open the Properties dialog (also accessed by double click on the label) and change the contents of the label.

Edit Text by clicking in the label, typing and/or deleting text, then clicking outside the label to end editing.

Link the label position to any symbol on the diagram. For this, first select the Link command, then click on the desired symbol (a bus, a sub-diagram, etc.). The label will move with the linked symbol.

Re-link the label position to another symbol, or Un-link it so it won‟t move with the symbol.

6.4.4.2 Interface Labels

Similar to Composite Label you may add interface(s) flows by using the Interface Label tool of the SLD Toolbox. This label may contain one or more lines of text, each with a value pointing to the interface name, sum of “From Side” Flow (MW), sum of “From Side” Flow (MVAR), sum of “To Side” Flow (MW), sum of “To Side” Flow (MVAR), etc., for the selected interface.

The Properties dialog of the Interface Label has a tab marked as “Definition” which is used to select the interface definition for the label. A VSAT interface definition file is used to describe these interfaces; any changes to this file will be reflected in the corresponding Interface Label. To link to an interface definition file (and populate the interface definition list), use the Load Interfaces From File… command from the Subsytem menu (section 7.4).

When you add a new interface label, or double click on an existing one, the Interface Label Properties dialog appears for setting the contents and appearance of the label.

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6.4.4.3 Linked Labels

You may also add a Linked Label that shows a data item to which it is linked. For example, you can create a linked label that shows the Base MVA of a generator and place it anywhere in the diagram. For this:

1. Go to the data table (click on its name in the Workspace or its window) and click on the desired item (e.g., Base MVA of a generator in the Generator table), then choose Copy Linked-Label from the Edit menu.

2. Go to the diagram window (click on its name in the Workspace or its window) and choose Paste from the Edit menu (or click the Paste button on the toolbar), then click at the desired location on the diagram to place the linked label.

When you double click on a Linked Label, its Properties dialog appears where you can add a text to the label and specify its alignment, line, fill and font. The pop-up menu of right-click on the linked label gives you commands similar to the pop-up menu of the Composite Label described above, including linking the position of the label to a symbol on the diagram. Note that the “value” is linked to a data item and the “position” on the diagram is linked to a symbol, and these are independent of each other.

6.4.5 Animation of Flows

To see the direction of flows on the diagram, use the Animate MW Flow and Animate MVAr Flow commands of the View menu (see section 7.10). Moving arrows show the direction of flow of real and reactive power through branches, and from/to generators, loads, etc. The size of the arrows indicates the magnitude of the flow. The speed at which the arrows move can be adjusted under the Animation Speed command of the Settings menu (see section

7.8).

6.4.6 SLD Contours

SLD Contours can be used to visualize changes in component values as a color value in the background of the diagram. To display a contour use the „Show Contour‟ command of the Settings menu and use the „Contour Options…‟ Command to adjust the property and colors used to draw the contour (see section 7.8).

6.4.7 Automatic Drawing Auto Generate One Level

Just as easily as expanding the Bus Tree from one bus, you can expand the diagram around a bus. Right click on a bus in the diagram and select Auto Generate One Level from the pop-up menu. All buses connected to this bus by lines and transformers are drawn automatically (if they are not already in the diagram). Select each one of these buses and, if necessary, drag it to a new location, and right click on it to expand it as well. By repeating this process, you can quickly draw a large number of buses that are connected together.

6.4.8 Automatic Drawing Bus Split

Right click on a bus in the diagram (SLD) or select a row in the bus table and select Split Bus from the pop-up menu. The bus split dialog will appear showing, at the right side of screen, all elements connected to this bus (i.e. lines and transformers, load, etc.) and at left side of the dialog a new bus created based on the selected bus will be shown. You can move any of the elements connected to the old bus to the new bus.

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6.4.9 Adding Other Drawing Objects

You may add other objects to the diagram, such as rectangles and other shapes, images, etc., by using the Drawing Toolbox as you would in other drawing software. The Drawing Toolbox also has buttons for grouping and arranging the selected objects in the diagram.

6.5 Sub-Diagrams

By using the Sub-diagram Container of the SLD Toolbox, you can create several layers of sub-diagrams in any diagram. You can draw any group of the powerflow components in a sub-diagram as you would in a normal diagram. Drawing features described above are the same for diagrams and sub-diagrams.

Each sub-diagram appears as a rectangle in the upper diagram. In the upper diagram, the lines connecting the components to those inside the sub-diagram terminate at the boundary of the sub-diagram rectangle.

By right click on the sub-diagram symbol (rectangle) in the upper diagram, a menu pops-up with Change Name, Properties and Add Label commands. The Change Name command opens the SubSystem Properties dialog where you can specify a name for the sub-diagram. Add Labels command allows you to show / hide these labels in the upper diagram. The Properties command allows you do change the draw style of the Sub-Diagram symbol.

Layers of sub-diagrams appear in a tree structure under the diagram filename in the Workspace and are saved in the same file with the parent diagram. To open a sub-diagram, double click on its name under diagram filename in the Workspace or on its symbol (rectangle) in the upper diagram. You can have several diagram and sub-diagrams open, each in its own window in the right pane of PSAT window, and freely move from one to other to add components and modify them.

6.6 Printing Diagrams

Toolbar buttons and Preview and Print command of File menu (described in section 8.6) allow you to print the whole or part of the diagram. To print a part, you either use print Selected Region, which then allows you to select a region of the diagram to be printed, or use print Window after you scroll/pan, zoom and resize the window to fill it with the desired part of the diagram.

PSAT User Manual

7

Menus

This chapter describes the menus of PSAT.

7.1 File Menu

The File menu contains the following items.

New Project

Opens a new (empty) project. If a project is already open, it is closed after asking whether to save the changes or not.

Open Project Opens the “Open” window for choosing an existing project file (PSP) to be opened. If a project is already open, it is closed after asking whether to save the changes or not.

Save Project

Saves the current project in its existing project file (PSP). The powerflow data and diagrams are also saved by this command.

Save Project as

Opens the “Save as” window for choosing a new or existing project file and saving the current project in that file. This command also saves the powerflow data and diagrams in their existing files.

Close Project Closes the current project after asking whether to save the changes or not. If your choose Yes, the project, powerflow and diagrams are saved, otherwise, they are closed without saving their changes.

Open Powerflow Opens the “Open” window for choosing an existing PSAT Power Flow Binary file (PFB) to be opened. If a project file (PSP) with the same name as the PFB file is found, it asks whether to open that project or create a new one. If a project is already open, it is closed (after asking whether to save the changes or not) before opening the PFB file. This command also opens binary powerflow files (PSF) created by previous versions of DSATools TM programs.

Save Powerflow

Saves the powerflow data in its existing PFB (or PSF) file.

Save Powerflow as

Opens the “Save as” window for choosing a new or existing file and saving the powerflow data in that file (in PFB format).

Import

Opens the “Import” window for specifying an existing powerflow file and its format and converting it to PFB format.

Export

Opens the “Export” window for specifying a new or existing file and a format and saving the powerflow data in that file in the specified format.

Compare Powerflow Data…

Opens a second powerflow (PFB) file to compare its data (“case 2”) with the current data (“case 1”), and this command changes to Stop Comparing.

Stop Comparing

Stops the powerflow data comparison and returns to the normal PSAT mode.

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New Diagram

Opens a new (blank) diagram. A project must already be opened before adding a new diagram to it.

Open Diagram

Opens the “Open” window for choosing an existing diagram file (PFD) to be opened. A project must already be opened before adding an existing diagram to it.

Save Diagram

Saves the selected diagram in its existing file (PFD). To select a diagram, click on its open window or double click on its name in the Workspace file/data tree.

Save Diagram as

Opens the “Save as” window for choosing a new or existing file and saving the selected diagram in that file. To select a diagram, click on its open window or double click on its name in the Workspace file/data tree.

Remove Diagram

Removes the selected diagram from the project. To select a diagram, click on its open window or double click on its name in the Workspace file/data tree.

Page Setup

Opens the “Page Setup” dialog to select the paper size, page orientation, margins, etc., for printing.

Print Preview Displays the print image of selected data or report table in the Preview window, which appears on the right pane of the main window (hiding the open tables, reports and diagrams). To select a table for preview, click on its open window or double click on its name in the Workspace file/data tree.

Print

Opens the “Print” dialog to select the printer and its properties for printing the selected data or report table. To select a table, click on its open window or double click on its name in the Workspace file/data tree.

Preview and Print When a diagram is selected by clicking on its open window or double clicking on its name in the Workspace file/data tree, the above Print and Print Preview commands are replaced by this command which opens the “Preview and Print” dialog described in section 8.6.

Recent Files

This is a list of previously opened projects and powerflow files. Selecting one of these items will close the exiting project and open the selected item.

Exit

Exits PSAT. If a project is open, it is closed after asking whether to save the changes or not.

7.2 Solution Menu

The Solution menu contains the following items.

Solve

Starts the powerflow solution with the specified method and other solution parameters and options.

Parameters

Opens the “Solution Parameters” dialog where the solution method, parameters and options can be viewed and modified.

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Reduction / Purge Opens the “Reduction / Purge” window where the network can be reduced by retaining a selected subsystem and replacing the rest of the network by equivalent lines, shunts and loads.

Short Circuit

Opens the “Short Circuit” window where short circuit computations are performed and results are displayed.

7.3 Reports Menu

The Report menu contains the following items.

Bus Mismatch Threshold

Opens the “Bus Mismatch Threshold” dialog where the threshold for Bus Mismatch report can be viewed and modified.

Limit Check Options

Opens the “Limit Checks Options” dialog where the parameters for limit check reports can be viewed and modified.

7.4 Subsystem Menu

The Subsystem menu contains the following items.

Define Simple Subsystems

Define Composite Subsystems

Select Subsystem

Opens the dialog for defining Area, Zone, Bus and kV subsystems. These subsystems will be remembered until they are modified again in this dialog.

Opens the dialog for defining composite subsystems.

Opens the following submenu to select a subsystem. The selected subsystem will apply to the selected (“active”) data or report table. The table will be limited to the selected subsystem.

<All>

The whole system will be selected. This is the default for data tables.

<None>

Nothing will be selected (this is an empty subsystem). This is the default for some of the solution report tables and does not appear for data tables.

<Selected Areas>

The defined Area subsystem becomes the selected subsystem.

<Selected Buses>

The defined Bus subsystem becomes the selected subsystem.

<Selected kV>

The defined kV subsystem becomes the selected subsystem.

<Selected Zones>

The defined Zone subsystem becomes the selected subsystem.

Composite Subsystems

List of defined composite subsystems, selecting one of these subsystems from this list will make it the selected subsystem.

Save Subsystems to file

Load Subsystems from file

Opens the “Save as” window to select a file for saving the defined subsystems.

Opens the “Open” window to select a saved subsystem file and open it to define the subsystems as saved in that file.

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7.5 Edit Menu for Data Windows

When the active window is a Powerflow Data table, the Edit menu appears with the following items.

Undo

Reverses the last change made in a data table (or property dialog) or a diagram. Repeated selection of this command reverses previous changes in sequence. The menu items toggles between Undo Data Change and Undo SLD Change depending on whether the change was made in a data table or in a diagram.

Redo

Reapplies the last change that was undone by Undo command. Repeated selection of this command reapplies previous Undone commands in sequence. The menu items toggles between Redo Data Change and Redo SLD Change depending on whether the change applies to a data table or a diagram.

Insert New Row Adds a new component to the powerflow data by adding a new row in the selected table. For example, when the active window is AC Bus table, this command adds a new bus to the data. The Property dialog appears to view and modify the data items of the added component. When adding other components, a dialog appears first to select the bus where the new component will be added.

Duplicate Row Adds a new component to the powerflow data by copying a selected row (where the cursor is) in the table to a new row. In the case of duplicating AC buses, a new number and name is given to the new bus and the other data items are copied from the selected bus. In the case of other components, first a dialog appears to select the bus where the new component will be added, then other data of the selected row is copied to the new row.

Delete Row

Deletes the selected row (where the cursor is) from the active table and removes the component from the powerflow data.

Property Dialog Opens the property dialog, showing data items of the component in the selected row (where the cursor is) of the table. The shortcut for this command is double click on a row in data tables. Double click on the row number or a regular cell (e.g. Generator ID) opens the property dialog of the component in that row. Double click on an external cell (e.g. Generator Bus Number) opens the property dialog of the component corresponding to that cell (the AC bus in this example).

Edit Bus Connections When a row (bus) is selected in the AC Bus table, this command opens the “Bus Connections” dialog where components can be added, deleted or modified at a selected bus.

Sectionalize When a row of a regular branch is selected in the Line, Transformer or Series Compensator tables, this command first opens the “Select Branch” dialog where you can select a line, transformer or series compensator branch type to be added in series with the selected branch. Then, the “Sectional Branch” dialog appears where you can modify, add and delete sections of this new sectional branch.

Sectional Branch Properties

Save to Text file

When a row of a sectional branch is selected in the Line, Transformer or Series Compensator tables, this command opens the “Sectional Branch” dialog where you can modify, add and delete sections of the selected sectional branch.

Opens the “Save as” window to select a file and save the contents of the active table in that file in text (comma separated) format.

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Save to Excel file Opens the “Save as” window to select a file and save the contents of the active table in that file in Excel format. Depending on the version of Excel installed on your computer, you can select to save as either the older .xls format or the newer .xlsx format using the file type dropdown of the save dialog.

Save to Clipboard

Data Manipulation

Copies the contents of the active table to the clipboard in text (tab separated) format.

Opens Data Manipulation Submenu to manipulate data in the selected table.

7.5.1 Data Manipulation Submenu

When the active window is a Powerflow Data table, the Data Manipulation submenu of the Edit menu contains the following items. Refer to section 10 for more details on each item.

Reassign Zone

When the active window is the AC Bus Table, this command opens the “Set Zone” dialog to select an existing zone or create a new zone, and change the zone of all the buses in the AC Bus Table to the selected zone.

Reassign Area

When the active window is the AC Bus Table, this command opens the “Set Area” dialog to select an existing area or create a new area, and change the area of all the buses in the AC Bus Table to the selected area.

Scale MW Generation When the active window is the Generator Table, this command opens the “Scale MW Generation” dialog to scale the MW output of all the generators in the Generator Table by a factor or scale them to a new value.

Scale Load

When the active window is the Load Table, this command opens the “Scale Load” dialog to scale all the loads in the Load Table by a factor or scale them to a new value.

Scale MVAr Load When the active window is the Load Table, this command opens the “Scale MVAr Load” dialog to scale the reactive part of all the loads in the Load Table by a factor or scale them to a new value.

Scale Fixed Shunt When the active window is the Fixed Shunt Table, this command opens the “Scale Fixed Shunt” dialog to scale the conductance, capacitance and/or inductance of all the shunts in the Fixed Shunt Table by a factor or scale them to a new value.

Covert Load Model When the active window is the Load Table, this command opens the “Convert Load Model” dialog to convert all the loads in the Load Table to a new combination of 1 to 5 components where each component can have one of the existing models (constant power, constant current, etc.).

Delete Out-Of-Service

When the active window is the Generator Table, Switchable Shunt Table, etc., this command deleted all out-of-service components in the table.

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7.6 Edit Menu for Report Windows

When the active window is a Solution Report, Data Verification, or other types of report table, the Edit menu contains only the Save to Text File, Save to Excel File and Save to Clipboard, except when the Subsystem Summary report is selected, in which case, Save to Excel File does not apply.

7.7 Edit Menu for Diagram Windows

When the active window is an SLD, the Edit menu contains:

Undo

Reverses the last change made in a data table (or property dialog) or a diagram. Repeated selection of this command reverses previous changes in sequence. The menu items toggles between Undo Data Change and Undo SLD Change depending on whether the change was made in a data table or in a diagram.

Redo

Reapplies the last change that was undone by Undo command. Repeated selection of this command reapplies previous Undone commands in sequence. The menu items toggles between Redo Data Change and Redo SLD Change depending on whether the change applies to a data table or a diagram.

Cut

Deletes the selected component(s) from the diagram (not from the project data) and keeps them in the clipboard.

Copy

Copies the selected component(s) from the diagram to the clipboard.

Paste

Copies the contents of the clipboard to the diagram. After a Cut or Copy command on the diagram, Paste command adds new components to the powerflow data (with modified bus number, name and ID) and the diagram as described in section 6.4.

Select All

Selects all symbols in the diagram.

Rotate Left

Rotates the selected symbols in the diagram 90 o to the left.

Rotate Right

Rotates the selected symbols in the diagram 90 o to the right.

Flip Horizontal

Flips the selected symbols in the diagram horizontally.

Flip Vertical

Flips the selected symbols in the diagram vertically.

7.8 Settings Menu

When there is no open data table, report or diagram, the Settings menu contains the following items.

Load from file

Opens the “Open” dialog to select a saved settings file and change all the settings to those in the selected file.

Save to file

Opens the “Save” dialog to select a file to save all the settings.

Revert to default

Changes all the settings back to the default values.

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Diagram Data Matching Opens the Diagram Data Matching dialog to select the Name, Number or both for matching the components in saved diagram files with the powerflow data when the diagram files are opened. The diagram components that do not match the powerflow data based on the selected option will be ignored.

Comparison Data

Opens the Comparison Data Matching dialog to select the Name, Number or both for

Matching…

matching the data in two powerflow cases. For example, if you select the Number option, two buses with the same number in both cases are compared to each other and if their names don‟t match, the AC Bus table shows that they have different names. But if you select the Name option, these two buses will not be compared to each other (will be shown as two separate buses, each belonging only to one of the cases).

Bus View Label Appearance…

Opens Bus View Label Appearance Submenu to select the position and appearance of labels, such as bus number, bus name, ID, voltage, MW flow, etc., that appear beside each component in the Bus View.

When a Powerflow Data table, Solution Report or other type of tables is open and active, the Settings menu contains the following item in addition to the above items.

Customize table

Opens the Table Customization dialog to select the order, size and scroll option of the columns of the table and sorting of its rows by one or more columns.

When a diagram is open and active, the Settings menu contains the following items in addition to the above items.

Background

Opens Background Submenu to change the background of the diagram.

Show Grid

Shows/hides the grid on the diagram.

Show Contour

Enables/Disables the drawing of background contours for open diagrams (see section

8.16)

Show Page Bounds

Shows/hides the bounds of printed pages on the diagram.

Show Units

Updates component labels to include their respective units in addition to the property values.

Use IEC Diagram Style

Changes the symbols used for various SLD components to more closely resemble the IEC diagram style.

Color by Type

Colors the components based on their type.

Color by kV

Colors the components based on their voltage level.

Color by Solution

Colors the buses based on the range of their per unit voltage magnitude and branches based on their loading.

Color Options

Opens the Color Options dialog to select the colors and line thickness for component types, kV levels, and solution ranges.

Contour Options

Opens the Contour Options dialog to adjust the colors and data used to generate the SLD contours. (see section 8.16)

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Default Bus Orientation Opens a submenu to select 0 o , 90 o , 180 o or 270 o for orientation of the bus symbols. If you select 0 o , the buses you add to the diagram (from the bus tree or the SLD toolbox) will appear as a vertical bar with label positions as those set in the Set Default Label Appearance dialog. If you select 90 o , 180 o or 270 o , the default orientation of the bus symbol and its labels rotates by 90 o , 180 o or 270 o clockwise.

Animation Speed

Opens a submenu to select Fast, Normal, Slow, or Very Slow animation speeds for the flow animation on the diagram.

Label Appearance Opens the Set Defaults Label Appearance dialog to select the position and appearance of labels, such as bus number, bus name, ID, voltage, MW flow, that appear beside each component in the diagram.

7.8.1 Background Submenu

When the active window is a diagram, the Background submenu of the Settings menu contains the following items.

Background Color

Opens the Color dialog to select a color for the background of the diagram.

Insert Image

Opens the Open dialog to select an image file and insert its image in the diagram as the background.

Load GPS file

Opens the “Insert GPS file” dialog to select a file with GPS coordinates of the borders of a map (and other coordinates) and draw them in the diagram.

7.8.2 Bus View Label Appearance Submenu

The Bus View Label Appearance submenu of the Settings menu contains the following items.

Parameter

Opens the Set Parameter Appearance dialog to select the labels and their positions to appear beside the components in the Bus View with Parameters window.

Solution

Opens the Set Solution Appearance dialog to select the labels and their positions to appear beside the components in the Bus View with Solutions window.

7.9 Script Menu

The Script menu contains the following items.

Start / Stop Recording Macro

Start Recording Macro opens the Select File dialog for you to specify a file for the macro to be saved in and after that, all your activities (data changes, etc.) are saved in that file, until you select Stop Recording Macro (this menu item toggles between Start and Stop). The activities saved in the macro file also appear in the Macro window.

Run Macro File Opens a dialog for you to specify a saved macro file to be run. You may select a file from the pull-down list (it has the list of previously run macro files) or click on the browse button to open the Open File dialog, where you can navigate the folders and select a file. After specifying the macro file, click the Run button to perform all the activities (data changes, etc.) saved in that file.

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Run Macro Window

Performs all the activities (data changes, etc.) contained in the Macro Window (same as saving the Macro window to a file and then running that file).

Clear Macro Window

Clears the Macro window by deleting all its contents.

Save Macro Window

Opens the Save As window for you to specify a file and then saves the contents of the Macro window in that file.

By Name

When selected, activities will be recorded in the macro file and window by bus/area/zone name. This de-selects “By Number”.

By Number

When selected, activities will be recorded in the macro file and window by bus/area/zone number. This de-selects “By Name”.

Run Python File Opens a dialog for you to specify a saved Python script file to be run. You may select a file from the pull-down list (it has the list of previously run Python script files) or click on the browse button to open the Open File dialog, where you can navigate the folders and select a file. The file must be a text (un-compiled) Python script file (.py). After specifying the Python script file, click the Run button to run that script. This command will be disabled if the selected version of Python is not installed.

Python Version

This lets you select the version of Python used when running python scripts.

7.10 View Menu

When a diagram is not the active window, the View menu contains the following items.

Bus View with Parameters

Bus View with Solution

Shows/hides the Bus View window with display of selected parameters (e.g. impedance, tap ratio, etc.)

Shows/hides the Bus View window with display of selected solution quantities (e.g. MW flows, MVAr flows, etc.)

Toolbars Opens the submenu to show/hide the Standard, SLD Components, Zoom, etc., toolbars in the PSAT window. Toolbars appear below the Menu bar, on the right border or other locations. By dragging their handle bars, these can be moved to any position.

Workspace

Shows/hides the Workspace (with Project and Bus Tree tabs) in the PSAT window.

Messages

Shows/hides the program messages (with Messages and Change Log tabs) in the PSAT window.

Status Bar

Shows/hides the Status bar on the bottom border of the PSAT window.

Customize

Opens the Customize dialog to change the contents of the Menu bar and Toolbars.

When a diagram window is selected, the View menu contains the following items in addition to the above items.

Label

Opens the “Show / Hide Labels” dialog to select labels, such as Bus name, Bus Number, ID, etc., to be displayed on the diagram.

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Zoom Normal

Sets the magnification factor to 100%.

Zoom Percent

Opens the submenu to set the magnification factor to 50%, 75%, 100%, or 200%.

Zoom Custom

Opens the Zoom dialog to set the magnification factor to any value.

Zoom to Fit

Sets the magnification factor to show all components and fill the diagram window.

Zoom to Selection

Sets the magnification factor to show only the components that are selected in the diagram window.

Animate MW Flow

Shows/hides moving arrows that show the direction of flow of real power through branches, and from/to generators, loads, etc.

Animate MVAr Flow

Shows/hides moving arrows that show the direction of flow of reactive power through branches, and from/to generators, loads, etc.

7.11 Window Menu

When one or more table, report or diagram windows are open, the Window menu appears with the following commands.

Cascade

Cascades the table, report and diagram windows in the right pane of PSAT window.

Tile

Tiles the table, report and diagram windows in the right pane of PSAT window.

Arrange Icons

Arranges icons of minimized windows at the bottom of the right pane of PSAT window.

Close All

Closes all windows that are open in the right pane of PSAT window.

Open window list

Shows the list of all open windows and indicates the active window by a check mark. Clicking on another window in this list, makes that window the active one and brings it to the front of other windows.

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8

Dialogs

This chapter describes the dialogs of PSAT related to file handling, menu commands, customizations, etc. The component property dialogs are described in chapter 9 and data manipulation dialogs are described in chapter 10.

Contour Options … command of the Settings menu opens this dialog for choosing the colors and data used to draw SLD contour backgrounds. PSAT Color Spectrums tab is for choosing the gradient and colors to use when displaying contour data on SLDs.

Value to

All component properties that can be displayed in a contour are listed in this

Compare

dropdown. The selected property will be used to supply values used in generating the contour

Spectrum Type A list of preset and custom color gradients used to generate contours. The gradient settings can be adjusted using the color list to the right. Custom gradient settings can be saved to this list by using the „Save As’ Button in the Custom Contour box.

Range of

By default, a component will influence the color of the entire SLD. By reducing

Influence

the range of influence, you will set a maximum range a given component will color. This can be used to increase draw performance for large or complex diagrams and increase contrast in crowded areas.

Bounds

Sets the upper and lower bounds for determining the contour colors. Any value higher than max will use the color for 100% and any value lower than min will use the color for 0%.

Setting the Auto Checkbox will automatically determine the Max and Min Bounds for each diagram based on the highest and lowest value of the components shown on the SLD.



Set Label Appearance DialogsOpen and Save As Dialogs

These dialogs that appear after Open (or Load) and Save As commands are common Windows dialogs where you can navigate among the directories, create new directories, use “File of Type” pull-down list to filter the files being shown, click on a file to select it, right click on a file to get a menu for various command, create a new file, etc.

8.2 Import Powerflow Dialog

The Import command of the File menu opens this dialog to select a powerflow data file and convert it to PSAT Power Flow Binary (PFB) format

Powerflow Type

Specify the type (format) of the imported data by selecting one item from the type pull-down list.

Powerflow File Specify the filename of the imported data by clicking the browse (…) button beside it, which opens the Open dialog for searching the directories and selecting the file. Instead, if you had imported the same file before, open the file pull-down list and select the file by clicking on it in the list.

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Import button closes the dialog and starts the data conversion. The Message window shows the progress and warning and error messages of the conversion. Cancel button closes the dialog without importing the data.

8.3 Export Powerflow Dialog

The Export command of the File menu opens this dialog to convert the PSAT powerflow data and save it in a selected file.

Powerflow Type

Specify the type (format) of the exported data by selecting one item from the type pull-down list.

Powerflow File

Specify the filename of the exported data by clicking the browse (…) button beside it, which opens the Save As dialog for searching the directories and selecting an existing or new file.

Export button closes the dialog and starts converting and saving the data. The Message window shows the progress and warning and error messages of the conversion. Cancel button closes the dialog without exporting the data.

8.4 Page Setup Dialog

The Page Setup command of the File menu opens this dialog to select the print and print preview options. You can specify:

Print Pages

The number of pages for printing the diagrams. For example, if you specify 2 Down and 3 Across, the diagram will be printed on 6 pages. Use the print preview or Show Page Bounds of the Settings menu to see what will appear on each page. The same number of pages applies to View, Full and Selection printing.

Paper

The size and source of paper.

Orientation

Portrait or Landscape orientation of the pages.

Margins

Margins of the pages.

OK button will apply the settings and closes the dialog, Cancel button ignores the new settings (keeps the original settings when the dialog opened) and closes the dialog, and Printer button opens the dialog to select the printer and its properties.

8.5 Print Dialog

This dialog that appears after Print commands is a common Windows dialog where you can select a printer, its properties, pages to be printed, number of copies, etc.

8.6 Preview and Print Dialog

When a diagram window is selected, the Preview and Print command of the File menu opens this dialog to preview and print the diagram. It gives you the following options:

PSAT User Manual

Full Diagram

If this option is selected by clicking on its radio button, the whole diagram is previewed and printed.

Window

If this option is selected by clicking on its radio button, the part of the diagram that is visible in the window is previewed and printed

Selected Region

If this option is selected by clicking on its radio button, a selected region of the diagram is previewed and printed.

When the Selected Region is selected, Preview and Print buttons are inactive (grayed out) and “Select a Region” button is active. Otherwise, the first two buttons are active and “Select a Region” button is inactive. The function of these buttons are:

Preview Opens the preview window, which shows the print image (page by page) of the whole diagram or the visible part of the window, depending on the above selection. The Print button in this window will open the Print dialog to print this image. The Close button in this window closes the preview without printing.

Print

Opens the Print dialog to print the whole diagram or the visible part of the diagram window

Select a Region Closes the dialog and changes the cursor for selecting the region to be printed. Press the mouse key anywhere on the diagram, drag it, and release the key to mark a rectangular region. After the mouse key is released, the preview window appears, showing the print image of the selected region. To print the shown pages, click the Print button of the preview window.

Cancel

Closes this dialog.

8.7 Solution Parameters Dialog

The Parameter command of the Solution menu opens this dialog where you can specify:

Solution Algorithm

Choose the solution method from the list of:

Auto

Newton-Raphson

Fast Decoupled (XB)

Fast Decoupled (BX)

The Auto method starts with the Fast Decoupled solution and switches to Newton- Raphson for convergence to smaller than 1 MVA tolerance. The XB version of Fast Decoupled method is the conventional algorithm while the BX version is a modified algorithm that convergences better when there are AC lines with high R/X ratio.

Solution Parameters

Specify values for each parameter listed.

Control Parameters Enable (check) or disable (uncheck) each control option. These apply to all control devices whose individual controls (shown in data tables and property dialogs) are enabled.

OK button will apply any change made to the parameters and closes the dialog. Cancel button ignores the changes (keeps the original value of parameters when the dialog opened) and closes the dialog.

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8.8 Bus Mismatch Threshold Dialog

The Bus Mismatch Threshold command of the Reports menu opens this dialog where you can specify a threshold for bus mismatches. The Bus Mismatch report will show the buses with a mismatch greater than this threshold.

OK button will apply any change made to the threshold and closes the dialog. Cancel button ignores the changes (keeps the original threshold) and closes the dialog.

8.9 Limit Check Options Dialog

The Limit Check Options command of the Reports menu opens this dialog where you can specify the following parameters for Limit Checks:

Bus Under Voltage Limit

Bus Over Voltage Limit

Overloaded Lines

Specify the low voltage limit in pu. Buses with voltage less than this limit will be listed in the Bus Under Voltage report.

Specify the high voltage limit in pu. Buses with voltage greater than this limit will be listed in the Bus Over Voltage report.

Rating Number

Choose between 1 and 6. Loading of lines will be checked against this rating number.

Loading %

Choose any value smaller or larger than 100. Lines with loading greater than this percentage of the above rating number will be listed in the Overloaded Lines report.

Overloading Check Based on MVA

If selected, the overloading will be checked based on the MVA value

Overloaded Transformers

Rating Number

Choose between 1 and 6. Loading of transformers will be checked against this rating number.

Loading % Choose any value smaller or larger than 100. Transformers with loading greater than this percentage of the above rating number will be listed in the Overloaded Transformers report.

Overloading Check Based on MVA

Generator Voltage Violations

Only report generators with unequal VAr limits

Line Angle Limit

If selected, the overloading will be checked based on the MVA value

When checked, the Generator Voltage Violations report will include only those generators whose Max.MVAr is greater than Min.MVAr.

Specify the angle threshold in degrees. If the phase angle difference between the two terminals of a line is greater than this threshold, it will be listed in the Line Angle report.

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OK button will apply any change made to the parameters and closes the dialog. Cancel button ignores the changes (keeps the original value of parameters when the dialog opened) and closes the dialog.

8.10 Simple Subsystems Dialog

The Define Simple Subsystem command of the Subsystem menu opens this dialog where you can define the simple subsystems, which include:

Selected Areas

Selected Buses

Selected kVs

Selected Zones

The first three can be specified either by number or by name. To change the selection between “By Number” and “By Name” click on the radio button beside them. The subsystems are specified as follows:

Selected Buses

By Number

Specify the number of a bus (e.g., 1205), a list of buses (e.g., 15, 17, 23), a range of buses (e.g. 3001: 3200), or a combination of these (e.g., 703, 800:820, 915).

By Name Specify a full bus name (e.g., ABC 138.) or a partial name with ? and * wildcards (e.g., A?C*138.), where ? indicates any (one) character and * indicates any number of characters.

If By Number is selected (by clicking the radio button beside it), the Selected Buses subsystem consists of the buses whose number is included in the number list. If By Name is selected, the Selected Buses subsystem consists of one bus whose full name is specified, or all the buses whose names matches the specified partial name with wildcard. (e.g., ABC 138., AXCDEF 138., …)

Selected Areas

By Number

Specify the number of an area, a list of areas, or a range of areas, similar to the bus number list above.

By Name

Specify a full area name or a partial name with ? and * wildcards, similar to the bus name above

If By Number is selected, the Selected Areas subsystem consists of the areas whose number is included in the number list. If By Name is selected, the Selected Areas subsystem consists of one area whose full name is specified, or all the areas whose names matches the specified partial name with wildcard.

Selected Zones

By Number

Specify the number of a zone, a list of zones, or a range of zones, similar to the bus number list above.

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By Name

Specify a full zone name or a partial name with ? and * wildcards, similar to the bus name above

If By Number is selected, the Selected Zones subsystem consists of the zones whose number is included in the number list. If By Name is selected, the Selected Zones subsystem consists of one zone whose full name is specified, or all the zones whose names matches the specified partial name with wildcard.

Selected kVs

From kV

Specify the range of kV. The Selected kV subsystem consists of all buses whose base

To kV

kV is within the “From kV”:“To kV” range.

OK button will apply any change made to the subsystems and closes the dialog. Cancel button ignores the changes (keeps the original subsystem definitions) and closes the dialog.

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8.11 Composite Subsystems Dialog

The Define Composite Subsystem command of the Subsystem menu opens this dialog where you can define the composite subsystems, each consisting of a combination of buses, areas, zones, kVs (simple subsystems) and bus types.

Each composite subsystem definition consists of Include and Exclude records of simple subsystems. These records are processed in order from top to bottom. For example if bus 101 and 102 belong to area 5 and zone 44, then subsystem:

Include Area: 5 Exclude Bus: 101:102 Include Zone: 33

will consists of all buses in area 5 except bus 101 and bus 102, plus all buses in zone 33. If however, bus 101 belongs to zone 33, it will be included in the above subsystem because Include Zone: 33 appears after Exclude Bus:

101:102.

Each composite subsystem is saved by a name, which appears in the Select Subsystem submenu.

The Composite Subsystems dialog consists of the following:

Subsystem List

Defined (saved) composite subsystem names. To view and modify a subsystem definition, select it from this pull-down list.

Bus tab

Allows you to include or exclude selected buses in the subsystem. It contains:

Bus list List of all buses. Double click on a bus in the list (or click on a bus, then Include button) to include it in the subsystem definition. Click on a bus, then Exclude button to exclude it in the subsystem definition. Right click on the header row(s) to get the menu for sorting the list and customizing its columns similar to the AC Bus table (see section 8.12).

Bus Number fields Type in a number in the first box (leave 0 in the second box) and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude that bus number in the subsystem definition. Type in another number in the second box to include or exclude a range of bus numbers (e.g., 101:130) in the subsystem definition.

Bus Name field

Area tab

Type in a full name or a partial name with ? and * wildcards and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude the bus(es) with matching name in the subsystem definition.

Allows you to include or exclude selected areas in the subsystem. It contains:

Area list List of all areas. Double click on an area in the list (or click on an area, then Include button) to include it in the subsystem definition. Click on an area, then Exclude button to exclude it in the subsystem definition. Right click on the header row(s) to get the menu for sorting the list and customizing its columns similar to the Area table (see section 8.12).

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Area Number fields

Type in a number in the first box and 0 (or another number) in the second box and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude that area number (or range of numbers) in the subsystem definition.

Area Name field

Type in a full name or a partial name with ? and * wildcards and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude the area(s) with matching name in the subsystem definition.

Zone tab

Allows you to include or exclude selected zones in the subsystem. It contains:

Zone list List of all zones. Double click on a zone in the list (or click on a zone, then Include button) to include it in the subsystem definition. Click on a zone, then Exclude button to exclude it in the subsystem definition. Right click on the header row(s) to get the menu for sorting the list and customizing its columns similar to the Zone table (see section 8.12).

Zone Number fields

Zone Name field

KV/Type tab

From kV and To kV fields

Type

Type in a number in the first box and 0 (or another number) in the second box and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude that zone number (or range of numbers) in the subsystem definition.

Type in a full name or a partial name with ? and * wildcards and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude the zone(s) with matching name in the subsystem definition.

Allows you to include or exclude selected kV levels or bus types in the subsystem. It contains:

Type in two values and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude that kV range in the subsystem definition.

Select a bus type from the pull-down list and click Include or Exclude button to include or exclude the buses with that type in the subsystem definition.

Component tab Allows you to Include or Exclude components from a pick list. A component will match a subsystem if it has all the specified fields of the selected type (Number, Name, or Equipment Name). Fields are ignored if:

Bus Number is less than or equal to 0.

Bus Name / Equipment Name is Empty

ID is set to *

Subsystem Definition Shows the Include and Exclude records in the order that they were defined (and would be processed). To remove a record from the definition, click on that record, then Remove button. Click Remove All button to remove all records.

New button will create a new (blank) subsystem. Save button will apply any change made to the subsystem. Save As button will save the subsystem by a new name. It opens a dialog where you type in a name for the new subsystem (keeps the original subsystem definition with the old name). Delete button deletes the subsystem from the list of composite subsystems. Close button closes the dialog.

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8.12 Table Customization Dialog

The Customize table… command of the Settings menu (or the menu that pops up by right click on a table header row) opens this dialog for customizing the selected table.

Load settings from file If you have saved the settings in initialization files (by the Save to File command of the Setting menu), you can pull-down this list and choose one of the saved files. The table settings will be changed to that saved in the selected file.

Columns tab lists all columns of the table in the order that they appear in the table. Hidden columns appear at the end of the list. To select a column in the list, click on its name.

Move Up / Down

To change the position of a column in the table, select it in the list and click Move Up button to move it up in the list (left in the table) or Move Down button to move it down in the list (right in the table).

Show / Hide The columns with a check mark beside them are shown in the table. Others are hidden. To hide or show a column, click on the □ box beside it to remove or add the check mark. Click Hide All or Show All button to hide or show all columns.

Column Width The exact width of the selected column in the list is shown in “The width of the

selected column

You can also resize the columns in the table itself by clicking on the border

lines between the columns in the header row and dragging them to the right or left.

pixels” box. To change it, type a new number in this box.

Freeze Columns To freeze the first N columns of the table so that they stay in view when the table is scrolled to the right, choose a number in the “Number of frozen columns” pull-down list. If you choose 0, all columns will scroll left and right.

When you are comparing two powerflow cases, the Customization dialog of the comparison tables includes two more items.

Comparison

The comparison threshold of the selected column in the list is shown in “The

Threshold

comparison threshold for the selected column” box. To change the threshold for a column, click on it in the list to select it and type a new value in this box.

Hide Rows of Similar Data

If you click on the □ box beside “Hide rows with the same data in both cases” to add a check mark, the rows in the table that show no value in the Diff columns are hidden. If you click on this box to remove the check mark, all rows (of the selected subsystem) will appear in the table.

Sort tab allows you to specify the sorting order of the rows of the table by one or more columns. The left list in this tab shows all columns and the right list shows the sort columns. To select a column in each list, click on its name.

Add

Add button adds a column selected in the left list to the right list. You can also double click on a column name in the left list to add it to the right list.