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HKDSE CHEMISTRY A Modern View (Chemistry)

Coursebook 2 Suggested answers


Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 15 Concentration of solutions Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 16 Indicators and pH Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis Class Practice Chapter Exercise

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Part Exercise

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Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 21 Consequences of using fossil fuels Class Practice Chapter Exercise 41 42 39 40

Chapter 22 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of carbon compounds Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 23 Alkanes and alkenes Class Practice Chapter Exercise Chapter 24 Addition polymers Class Practice Chapter Exercise Part Exercise 51 53 55 48 49 44 46

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Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis Class Practice A14.1 1. Zinc granules sink to the bottom. 2. Zinc granules dissolve to give a colourless solution. 3. Effervescence occurs./Colourless gas bubbles evolve. 4. The test tube becomes warm as heat is given out. 5. Hissing sound is heard. A14.2 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) ZnO(s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l) Fe(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) FeCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) CuCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Ca(HCO3)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) Magnesium dissolves./Effervescence occurs. (Colourless gas bubbles evolve.)/The solution becomes warm./The resultant solution is colourless. Zinc oxide dissolves./The resultant solution is colourless. Iron(II) hydroxide dissolves./The resultant solution is green. Copper(II) carbonate dissolves./Effervescence occurs. (Colourless gas bubbles evolve.)/The resultant solution is blue. Calcium hydrogencarbonate dissolves. /Effervescence occurs. (Colourless gas bubbles evolve.)/The resultant solution is colourless.

A14.3 (a) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) (b) ZnO(s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l) ZnO(s) + 2H+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + H2O(l) (c) 2KHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) HCO3 (aq) + H+(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l) A14.4 1. Magnesium reacts with the hydrogen ions (from ascorbic acid) to give hydrogen gas. Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) 2. (a) There is no colour change to the litmus paper. When there is no water, liquid ethanoic acid (pure) cannot ionize to give H+ (aq) and thus cannot exhibit acidic properties. (b) The blue litmus paper turns red. In the presence of water, ethanoic acid ionizes to give H+(aq) and thus can exhibit acidic properties. 3. Fizzy drink tablets or powder should be stored in a cool and dry place.

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A14.5 (a) 1 (monobasic), HCOOH HCOO + H+ (b) 2 (dibasic), (COOH)2 (COO )2 + 2H+ A14.6 (a) 2KOH(aq) + CO2(g) K2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) (b) (NH4)2SO4(aq) + Ca(OH)2(s) CaSO4(s) + 2NH3(g) + 2H2O(l) A14.7 Magnesium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide and lead(II) hydroxide A14.8 1. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) Potassium hydroxide OH (aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l) Magnesium oxide, zinc hydroxide and copper(II) oxide MgO(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l) Zn(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) CuO(s) + 2H+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + H2O(l) (a) (i) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) Pb(OH)2(s) + Ca(NO3)2(aq) (ii) Pb2+(aq) + 2OH (aq) Pb(OH)2(s) (b) (i) CuSO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + K2SO4(aq) (ii) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH (aq) Cu(OH)2(s)

2.

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Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. sour, red, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, salts, water H+(aq) water, water, hydrogen, H+ dibasic, monobasic salt, water, metal oxides, ammonia, alkali limewater, carbon dioxide bitter, blue, salts, water, carbonates, water, salts, ammonia, water, metal hydroxides hydroxide, OH + H (aq), oxidizing, oxidizing, dehydrating Concentrated B B C C D B D D B B B C B D D C A B C B Hydrochloric acid Citric acid/ascorbic acid Hydrochloric acid Sulphuric acid

31. (a) (b) (c) (d)

32. (a) Ethanoic acid (b) 1 (Monobasic) (c) (i) Effervescence occurs./Magnesium ribbon dissolves./A colourless solution is formed./The solution becomes warm./A hissing sound is heard. (Any FOUR) (ii) 2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s) (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g) (d) (i) Carbon dioxide is formed. (ii) Na2CO3(aq) + 2CH3COOH(aq) 2CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

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33. (a) Carbon dioxide (b) Gas Y can turn limewater milky. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide to form the insoluble white solid of calcium carbonate. Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) (c) In the presence of water, the solid acid ionizes to give H+(aq) which reacts with sodium hydrogencarbonate to give carbon dioxide. (d) H+(aq) + HCO3 (aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g) (e) 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O 34. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) (ii) (d) (i) (ii) (e) (i) (ii) Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) + H2(g) Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + H2(g) No reaction No reaction ZnO(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2O(l) ZnO(s) + 2H+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + H2O(l) CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) KHCO3(aq) + HNO3(aq) KNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) HCO3 (aq) + H+(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)

35. (a) Monobasic acid is the acid that gives one hydrogen ion per molecule in aqueous solution. Dibasic acid is the acid that gives two hydrogen ions per molecule in aqueous solution. (b) (i) 2HA(aq) + Zn(s) ZnA2(aq) + H2(g) (ii) H2B(aq) + Zn(s) ZnB(aq) + H2(g) (iii) 2HA(aq) + CuO(s) CuA2(aq) + H2O(l) (iv) H2B(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaB(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (v) HA(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) NaA(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) 36. (a) Fe2+(aq) and Cu2+(aq) Iron(II) hydroxide dirty green Copper(II) hydroxide pale blue (b) Mg2+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + 2OH (aq) Mg(OH)2(s) (c) OH (aq) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH (aq) (d) As an active ingredient in window cleaners. 37. (a) Stir solid calcium hydroxide with water for a long time, then filter the suspension to get the clear filtrate. (b) Hydroxide ion (c) 2NH4NO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2NH3(g) + 2H2O(l) (d) (i) A white precipitate is formed. Ca2+(aq) + CO32 (aq) CaCO3(s) (ii) A pale blue precipitate is formed. Cu2+(aq) + 2OH (aq) Cu(OH)2(s)

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38.

(a) A: Concentrated hydrochloric acid B: Concentrated sulphuric acid C: Concentrated nitric acid (b) Corrosive (c) Light speeds up the decomposition of concentrated nitric acid to give the brown gas NO2. The gas dissolves in water to form a yellow solution. 4HNO3(aq) 2H2O(l) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) (d) Wash the affected area with plenty of water. Dissolve some pure vitamin C in distilled/deionized water to get a dilute solution. Add some zinc granules to the vitamin C solution. Colourless gas bubbles are evolved from the surface of the granules. When the gas is collected and tested with a burning splint, it will give a pop sound, indicating that the gas is hydrogen. Add a few sodium hydroxide pellets to the vitamin C solution and stir. The colourless mixture becomes warm because neutralization reaction is exothermic. Add one spatula measure of potassium carbonate solid to the vitamin C solution. Colourless gas bubbles are given off. The gas can turn limewater milky, indicating that it is carbon dioxide. Concentrated hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulphuric acid are three common concentrated acids found in the school laboratory. They would eat away other substances such as metals, clothes, paper and the skin. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive because of its high concentration of hydrogen ions. The corrosive nature of concentrated nitric acid is mainly due to its oxidizing property. Concentrated sulphuric acid is also highly corrosive because of its dehydrating and oxidizing properties. It is even more corrosive than concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. It quickly dehydrates the skin, causing severe burns. Concentrated sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions are common concentrated alkalis found in the school laboratory. They are very corrosive especially when they are hot. They attack the skin readily and stain it yellow or even black.

39.

40.

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Chapter 15 Concentrations of solutions Class Practice A15.1 (a) No. of moles of K2SO4 = 0.15 mol 0.15 mol Molarity of the solution = 500 = 0.30 mol dm 3 (or M) dm 3 1000 (b) Molar mass of K2SO4 = 39.1 2 + 32.1 + 16.0 4 g mol 1 = 174.3 g mol 1 Concentration of the solution = 0.30 mol dm 3 174.3 g mol 1 = 52.3 g dm 3 A15.2 (a) (i) (ii) 10 g 3 3 = 20 g dm 0.5 dm Molar mass of KOH = 39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol 1 = 56.1 g mol 1 10 g No. of moles of KOH = = 0.178 mol 56.1 g mol 1 0.178 mol Molarity of the solution (mol dm 3) = = 0.356 mol dm 3 (or M) 0.5 dm 3 1000 3 Volume of the solution in dm3 = dm = 1.0 dm3 1000 10 g 3 Concentration in g dm 3 = 3 = 10 g dm 1.0 dm Molar mass of KOH = 39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol 1 = 56.1 g mol 1 10 g No. of moles of KOH = =0.178mol 56.1 g mol 1 0.178 mol 3 Molarity of the solution (mol dm 3) = 3 =0.178 mol dm (or M) 1.0 dm 250 Volume of the solution in dm3 = dm3 = 0.25 dm3 1000 3g Concentration in g dm 3 = = 12 g dm 3 0.25 dm 3 Molar mass of NaNO3 = 23.0 + 14.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1 = 85.0 g mol 1 3g No. of moles of NaNO3 = = 0.0353 mol 85.0 g mol 1 0.0353 mol Molarity of the solution (mol dm 3) = = 0.141 mol dm 3 (or M) 0.25 dm 3 5.3 g 3 Concentration in g dm 3 = 3 = 2.65 g dm 2 dm Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1 = 106 g mol 1 5.3 g No. of moles of Na2CO3 = = 0.0500 mol 106 g mol 1 0.0500 mol Molarity of the solution (mol dm 3) = = 0.0250 mol dm 3 (or M) 3 2 dm Concentration in g dm 3 =

(b) (i)

(ii)

(c) (i)

(ii)

(d) (i) (ii)

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(e) (i)

100 dm3 = 0.100 dm3 1000 9.8 g 3 Concentration in g dm 3 = 3 = 98.0 g dm 0.10 dm (ii) Molar mass of H2SO4 = 1.0 2 + 32.1 + 16.0 4 g mol 1 = 98.1 g mol 1 9.8 g No. of moles of H2SO4 = = 0.100 mol 98.1 g mol 1 0.100 mol 3 Molarity of the solution (mol dm 3) = 3 = 1.00 mol dm (or M) 0.10 dm Volume of the solution in dm3 = 50.0 dm3 = 0.0200 mol 1000

A15.3 No. of moles of Na2SO4 = 0.40 mol dm 3 A15.4 Volume of NaOH solution = 0.80 mol 3 3 = 1.6 dm 0.50 mol dm

A15.5 (a) No. of moles of Na2SO4 in 500.0 cm3 of solution 500.0 = 0.50 mol dm 3 dm3 = 0.250 mol 1000 Mass of Na2SO4 = 0.250 mol (23.0 2 + 32.1 + 16.0 4) g mol 1 = 35.5 g (b) No. of moles of Na2CO3 in 0.25 dm3 of solution = 0.15 mol dm 3 0.25 dm3 = 0.0375 mol Mass of Na2CO3 = 0.0375 mol (23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3) g mol 1 = 3.98 g A15.6 1. 1 mole of Al2(SO4)3 contains 2 moles of Al3+ ions and 3 moles of SO42 ions. molarity of Al3+ ions = 0.50 M 2 = 1.0 M (or 1.0 mol dm 3) Molarity of SO42 ions = 0.50 M 3 = 1.5 M (or 1.5 mol dm 3) 25.0 2. No. of moles of K2CO3 = 0.20 mol dm 3 dm3 = 0.0050 mol 1000 1 mole of K2CO3 contains 2 moles of K+ ions and 1 mole of CO32 ions. number of moles of K+ ions = 0.0050 mol 2 =0.010 mol Number of moles of CO32 ions = 0.0050 mol A15.7 1. (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 25.0 250.0 0.1 =M 1000 1000 M = 0.01 Molar concentration of diluted NaOH(aq) = 0.01 M

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2. M

After diluting ten times, the molarity of the diluted solution will be (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 25.0 V 0.5 = 0.05 1000 1000 V = 250 Volume of distilled water to be added = (250 25) cm3 = 225 cm3

0.5 M = 0.05 10

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Chapter 15 Concentrations of solutions Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. moles, per dm3 moles, volume molarity, volume A C D C D D D A C D A C B C D C B B B B B

25. mol dm 3 or M 0.35 mol 26. (a) Molarity of K2CO3 = 250.0 = 1.40 M dm 3 1000 (b) Molar mass of K2CO3 = 39.1 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1= 138.2 g mol 1 Concentration of K2CO3 in g dm 3 = 1.40 mol dm 3 138.2 g mol 1 = 193 g dm 3 27. Molar mass of (COOH)22H2O = (12.0 + 16.0 2 + 1.0) 2 + 2 (1.0 2 + 16.0) g mol 1 = 126 g mol 1 14.5 g No. of moles of (COOH)22H2O used = = 0.115 mol 126 g mol 1 0.115 mol Molarity of the solution = 500.0 = 0.230 M dm 3 1000 28. (a) No. of moles of Mg(NO3)2 present = 1.5 mol dm 3 = 0.1875 mol
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(b) Molar mass of Mg(NO3)2 = 24.3 + (14.0 + 16.0 3) 2 g mol 1 = 148.3 g mol 1 Mass of Mg(NO3)2 used = 0.1875 mol 148.3 g mol 1 = 27.81 g 29. Molar mass of NaOH = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol 1 = 40.0 g mol 1 4g No. of moles of NaOH used = = 0.100 mol 40.0 g mol 1 0.100 mol Volume of solution prepared = = 0.833 dm3 (or 833 cm3) 0.12 mol dm 3 30. Molar mass of Na2CO310H2O = 23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 + 10 (1.0 2 + 16.0) g mol 1 = 286 g mol 1 25.0 g 286 g mol 1 Molarity of Na2CO3 = = 0.350 M 250.0 3 dm 1000 1 mol of Na2CO3 contains 2 moles of Na+ ions and 1 mole of CO32 ions. molarity of Na+ ions = 0.350 M 2 = 0.700 M Molarity of CO32 ions = 0.350 M 31. (a) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution (25.0 + 25.0) 25.0 11.0 =M 1000 1000 M = 5.50 Molarity of diluted HCl(aq) = 5.50 M (b) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 50.0 (50.0 + 75.0) 5.50 =M 1000 1000 M = 2.20 Molarity of diluted HCl(aq) = 2.20 M (c) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 125 (125 + 100) 2.20 =M 1000 1000 M = 1.22 Molarity of diluted HCl(aq) = 1.22 M 32. (a) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 45.0 V 0.65 = 0.45 1000 1000 V = 65.0 Volume of distilled water needed = 65.0 45.0 cm3 = 20.0 cm3 (b) (MV)before evaporation = (MV)after evaporation 65.0 30.0 0.45 =M 1000 1000 M = 0.975 Molarity of HNO3 after evaporation = 0.975 M

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33. (a) Mass of NH3 in 1 cm3 of the solution = 0.68 g cm 3

34 1 cm3 = 0.231 g 1000 Mass of NH3 in 1 dm3 of the solution is 0.231 g 1000 = 231 g 231 g (b) Molarity of NH3 solution = (14.0 + 1.0 3)g mol 1 = 13.6 M 1 dm 3 (c) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 13.6 1 = 1 V V = 13.6 Volume of distilled water = 13.6 1 dm3 = 12.6 dm3

34. (a) No. of moles of oxalic acid 1.8 g = 1 = 0.0143 mol (12.0 + 16.0 2 + 1.0 ) 2 + 2 (1.0 2 + 16.0) g mol 0.0143 mol (b) Molarity of oxalic acid = 25.0 = 0.572 M dm 3 1000 (c) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution 25.0 250.0 0.572 =M 1000 1000 M = 0.0572 Molarity of the diluted oxalic acid = 0.0572 M 35. Formula of solute (a) NaCl (b) AgNO3 (c) Na2CO3 (d) MgCl2 (e) C6H12O6 Molar Mass of Volume of mass solute (g) solution (g mol 1) 58.5 170 106 95.3 180 117 17.0 2.65 29.4 0.36 2.00 dm3 1.00 dm3 500 cm3 1.50 dm3 12.0 cm3 Molarity solution 1.00 M 0.100 M 0.050 M 0.206 M 0.167 M cation 1.00 M anion 1.00 M Concentration of solution (in g dm 3) 58.5 17.0 5.30 19.6 30.0

0.100 M 0.100 M 0.100 M 0.050 M 0.206 M 0.412 M

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Chapter 16 Indicators and pH Class Practice A16.1 (a) pH = [H+(aq)] = (1.000) = 0 log log + (b) pH = [H (aq)] = (0.100) = 1 log log + (c) pH = [H (aq)] = (0.010) = 2 log log (d) pH = [H+(aq)] = (0.001) = 3 log log A16.2 1. A: weakly acidic B: strongly acidic C: weakly alkaline D: neutral 2. (a) The pH of the solution would increase. Magnesium reacts with the hydrogen ions in aqueous solution to give hydrogen gas. Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) When H+(aq) ions are removed, [H+(aq)] decreases and the pH of the solution increases. (b) The pH of the solution would decrease. Hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in water and ionizes completely to give H+(aq) ions. When H+(aq) ions are formed, [H+(aq)] increases and the pH of the solution decreases. A16.3 B: Incorrect conclusion. When the litmus is blue, the pH of solution must be greater than 8 which is alkaline. C: Incorrect conclusion. Phenolphthalein is colourless when the pH of the solution is below 8.3. This solution can be acidic, neutral or weakly alkaline.

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Chapter 16 Indicators and pH Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. (a) higher (b) equal (c) lower H+(aq), pH, pH [H+(aq)] higher, [H+(aq)] colour, ethyl orange, itmus, henolphthalein Universal, Universal, pH pH meter B A C A A A A D B A C A A C B A

24. (a) pH = [H+(aq)] = (1.8 10 5) = 4.7) = 4.7 log log ( Since the pH < 7, this solution is acidic. (b) pH = [H+(aq)] = (7.2 10 9) = 8.1) = 8.1 log log ( Since the pH > 7, this solution is alkaline. (c) pH = [H+(aq)] = (0.02) = 1.7) = 1.7 log log ( Since the pH < 7, this solution is acidic. 25. (a) Using the equation, pH = [H+(aq)] log + 5.2 = [H (aq)] log + [H (aq)] = 6.3 10 6 M (b) 8.4 = [H+(aq)] log [H+(aq)] = 4.0 10 9 M (c) 3.68 = [H+(aq)] log + [H (aq)] = 2.09 10 4 M 26. Refer to Coursebook 2 Page 54 Figure 16.3. 27. (a) Use pH paper/universal indicator/pH meter/data-logger with pH electrode. (Any TWO) (b) Oven cleaner, distilled water, orange juice (c) Orange juice
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28. (a) pH meter (b) Lightweight/compact/waterproof/extremely easy to use/quick to obtain accurate readings (Any TWO) 29. One way to determine the pH of an aqueous solution is to use acid-base indicators. An acid-base indicator is a special dye added to the solution to be tested. Its colour changes with different pH values of the solution. Some common acid-base indicators are litmus, methyl orange and phenolphthalein. However, these indicators cannot tell accurately the pH of a solution. They can only give a rough idea of the acidity or alkalinity. Another way to measure pH value of a solution is to use universal indicator. It is a mixture of several indicators which gives different colours in different pH ranges. Universal indicator paper is also called pH paper. The most accurate way to tell the pH of a solution is to use pH meter or data-logger. Both involve the dipping of a pH electrode into the testing solution. The pH of a solution is simply read from the display of the meter.

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Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis Class Practice A17.1 (a) OH (aq)/hydrated hydroxide ion (b) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH (aq) (c) NaOH(aq) is a stronger alkali than NH3(aq). (Being a stronger alkali, NaOH(aq) can dissociate to a greater extent to give a high concentration of mobile ions (Na+ (aq) and OH (aq)) in aqueous solution. This explains the higher electrical conductivity of 0.1 M NaOH(aq).) (d) As NaOH(aq) is a stronger alkali than NH3(aq), 0.1 M NaOH(aq) is more alkaline than 0.1 M NH3(aq). Thus, the former has a higher pH. A17.2 (a) Sulphuric acid molecules (b) Water molecules, hydrogen ions, nitrate ions, hydroxide ions (c) Water molecules, citric acid molecules, hydrogen ions, citrate ions, hydroxide ions (d) Water molecules, ammonia molecules, ammonium ions, hydroxide ions, hydrogen ions A17.3 Put equal volumes (about 80.0 cm3) of 0.1 M HCl(aq) and 0.1 M CH3COOH(aq) into two 100 cm3 beakers separately. Use the electronic balance to weigh equal masses (about 0.4 g) of lumps of calcium carbonate and put them into the two acids. Observe and compare the rates of evolution of gas bubbles from the two reaction mixtures. The acid that has a higher rate of evolution of gas should be the stronger acid HCl(aq) in this case. It can be explained that the stronger acid can ionize more completely to give a higher concentration of hydrogen ions and its reaction with calcium carbonate will be faster. A17.4 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. (a) concentrated/weak dilute/weak dilute/strong concentrated/strong H2SO4(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) 2H+(aq) + CO32 (aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l) (b) CH3COOH(aq) + KHCO3(aq) CH3COOK(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) CH3COOH(aq) + HCO3 (aq) CH3COO (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) or H+(aq) + HCO3 (aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)

A17.5 (a) The statement is wrong. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid which can ionize in water completely. It has such a high pH (5) because it is only a dilute solution. It should be noted that pH is a measure of [H+(aq)] but not a measure of strength of acid or alkali. (b) The statement is wrong. Ethanoic acid is only a weak acid whatever its concentration is.

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Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis Chapter Exercise 1. (a) (b) 2. (a) (b) 3. (a) (b) (c) 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. C 9. B 10. B 11. A 12. A completely, highly, ydrochloric slightly, thanoic completetly, odium hydroxide slightly, mmonia higher lower higher

13. In the presence of water, NH3(aq) reacts with water to give OH (aq) ions which make the solution alkaline. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH (aq) Red litmus turns blue in the alkaline solution. 14. (a) Ethanoic acid is a weak acid while hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. (b) A strong acid is one which completely/highly ionizes in water. A weak acid is one which only slightly/incompletely/partially ionizes in water. (c) Since hydrochloric acid is a stronger acid than ethanoic acid, the former ionizes more completely than the latter. For the same molar concentration of the two acids, hydrochloric acid has a higher molar concentration of hydrogen ions. Thus, it has a lower pH. (d) By using pH meter (e) 1. Put a known volume of 1.1 M hydrochloric acid into the container and record the brightness of the light bulb. 2. Repeat step 1 using the same volume of 1.1 M ethanoic acid. 3. Compare the brightness of the light bulb in steps 1 and 2. 4. The brightness of the light bulb indicates the strength of the acid. The brighter the light bulb, the stronger the acid is. 15. (a) HA(aq) H+(aq) + A (aq) (b) H+(aq), OH (aq), HA(aq), A (aq) 16. (a) HCl(aq) is a strong acid. 0.1 M HCl will ionize completely to give 0.1 M [H+ (aq)]. (b) pH = [H+(aq)] = (0.1) = 1 log log

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(c) CH3COOH(aq) is a weak acid, so it ionizes only slightly to give a small amount of H+(aq). 0.1 M CH3COOH(aq) gives H+(aq) ions with concentration lower than 0.1 M. Hence, the pH of 0.1 M CH3COOH is not 1 but higher than 1. 17. The statement of the S4 student is wrong. The pH value is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration. The higher the hydrogen ion concentration, the lower is the pH value. A weak acid ionizes only very slightly in water giving a low concentration of hydrogen ions. The resultant acid solution can have a pH of 5. However, this can also occur for a strong acid. Although a strong acid ionizes completely in water, if the solution is a very dilute one, the concentration of hydrogen ions will not be too high. Thus, a dilute solution of a strong acid can also have a pH of 5. When a piece of blue litmus paper is dipped in some solid citric acid, there is no colour change of the litmus paper. When some solid citric acid is dissolved in some deionized water, the aqueous solution turns the blue litmus paper red. When a magnesium ribbon is put in some solid citric acid, there is no gas formed. When a magnesium ribbon is put into an aqueous solution of citric acid, colourless gas bubbles (H2(g)) are evolved. When sodium carbonate powder is mixed with solid citric acid, there is no sign of gas formed. When some sodium carbonate powder is dissolved in aqueous solution of citric acid, colourless gas bubbles (CO2(g)) are evolved.

18.

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Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization Class Practice A18.1 (a) 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) OH (aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l) (b) CH3COOH(aq) + KOH(aq) CH3COOK(aq) + H2O(l) CH3COOH(aq) + OH (aq) CH3COO (aq) + H2O(l) or H+(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) (c) Fe2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2FeCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) Fe2O3(s) + 6H+(aq) 2Fe3+(aq) + 3H2O(l) A18.2 (a) 20 cm3 (b) (i) Alkaline (ii) For equal concentrations of NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq), equal volumes would neutralize each other. As there is 30 cm3 alkali added, it is in excess. Thus, the resultant solution is alkaline. (c) Neutralization is an exothermic reaction. No more heat is given out when the neutralization is complete. Addition of excess alkali will cool down the mixture. Thus, the temperature drops. (d) The temperature change will be more or less the same as the change when 20.0 cm3 of 2 M HCl is used. Although the volumes of the two solutions are doubled, the numbers of moles of H+(aq) and OH (aq) ions reacting are also doubled. Twice as much heat is given out, but this is used to heat up twice the volume of the solution. For this reason, both experiments have the same rise in temperature. A18.3 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Soluble Insoluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Soluble Soluble NaNO3 KNO3 CuSO4 PbSO4/PbCl2 MgCO3 AgCl BaSO4

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A18.4 1. (a) Magnesium oxide/magnesium hydroxide/magnesium carbonate (Any TWO) Dilute hydrochloric acid (b) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) ..(1) Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) .(2) MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) ..(3) (c) Comparing (1) and (2): (i) Both solids dissolve to give a colourless solution./Test tubes become a little warm. (ii) None Comparing (2) and (3): (i) Both solids dissolve to give a colourless solution./Test tubes become a little warm. (ii) In (2), there are no gas bubbles evolved. In (3), effervescence (CO 2(g) is given off) occurs. Comparing (1) and (3): (i) Both solids dissolve to give a colourless solution./Test tubes become a little warm. (ii) In (1), there are no gas bubbles evolved. In (3), effervescence (CO 2(g) is given off) occurs. 2. (a) CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O (b) Calcium sulphate is only slightly soluble. The undissolved salt forms a protective layer on the unchanged calcium carbonate, preventing further reaction. A18.5 (a) Yes. HNO3(aq) and NaOH(aq) (b) Yes. HCl(aq) and NH3(aq) (c) No. Mg(OH)2 is insoluble in water, so no standard solution can be prepared for titration. (d) No. Pb(OH)2 is insoluble in water, so no standard solution can be prepared for titration. A18.6 1. (a) (i) AgNO3(aq) + NaBr(aq) AgBr(s) + NaNO3(aq) (ii) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) MgCO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) (b) (i) Ag+(aq) + Br (aq) AgBr(s) (ii) Mg2+(aq) + CO32 (aq) MgCO3(s) 2. (a) Impracticable. All salts are soluble. They cannot be separated by crystallization. (b) Practicable. (c) Impracticable. PbSO4 is insoluble. Pb2+ ions in the solid cannot combine with the Cl ions in the aqueous solution. A18.7 1. (a) (b) (c) 2. (a) (b) (c) Copper(II) chloride, hydrochloric acid Iron(III) sulphate, sulphuric acid Zinc nitrate, nitric acid (CH3COO)2Ca Pb(NO3)2 (NH4)2SO4
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A18.8 1. (a) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (b) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive. A18.9 (a) (i) Sodium hydrogencarbonate, magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide (ii) NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) Al(OH)3(s) + 3HCl(aq) AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) (b) Calcium oxide: it reacts with acid and water producing a lot of heat which causes chemical burns. Sodium hydroxide: it is irritating and corrosive, so it will cause serious burns in the mouth and oesophagus. Ammonia: it is a toxic gas with an irritating smell. A18.10 (a) Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O (b) 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

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Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization Chapter Exercise 1. hydrogen, H+, hydroxide, OH , oxide, O2 , water 2. given out, liberated, exothermic 3. soluble, insoluble 4. (a) metal, base, carbonate (a) (i) metal, hydrogen (a) (ii) base, water (a) (iii) carbonate, carbon dioxide, water, filtration, crystallization (b) alkali, carbonate, alkali, water, crystallization 5. precipitation, precipitate 6. ionizable, metallic, ammonium 7. (a) pH (b) acid (c) waste (d) fertilizers 8. C 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. A 16. C 17. C 18. D 19. D 20. D 21. A 22. B 23. B 24. B 25. D 26. A 27. C 28. A 29. B 30. D 31. (a) (b) (c) (d) Neutralization H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) H+(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) The temperature of the reaction mixture would increase because neutralization is an exothermic reaction.

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32. (a)
erat erat ure ure mp mp
o C //oC

Te Te

Volume of NaOH added/cm3

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Temperature rises because the reaction between an acid and an alkali is exothermic. When all the acid has just been reacted completely, no more neutralization occurs. This means that no more heat is given out. Thus, the rise in temperature stops and a maximum point is established. As neutralization has completed, no more heat is given out. Addition of excess alkali will cool down the mixture. Thus, the temperature drops. H+(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) (i) 40.00 cm3 (ii) Same/more or less the same. Although the amount of heat released is doubled, the volume of the solution to be heated is also doubled.

33. (a) (i)

Sodium ethanoate CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l) (ii) Copper(II) nitrate 2HNO3(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l) (iii) Zinc sulphate H2SO4(aq) + ZnO(s) ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l) (iv) Calcium chloride 2HCl(aq) + CaO(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) (b) Water/H2O

34. (a) Silver iodide/silver carbonate/lead(II) iodide/lead(II) carbonate/lead(II) sulphate/barium carbonate/barium sulphate (Any THREE) (b) Ag+(aq) + I (aq) AgI(s) 2Ag+(aq) + CO32 (aq) Ag2CO3(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2I (aq) PbI2(s) Pb2+(aq) + CO32 (aq) PbCO3(s) Pb2+(aq) + SO42 (aq) PbSO4(s) Ba2+(aq) + CO32 (aq) BaCO3(s) Ba2+(aq) + SO42 (aq) BaSO4(s) (Any THREE)
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35. (a) Magnesium, magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate (b) Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) MgCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 36. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Zinc nitrate ZnCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Effervescence stopped./Insoluble solid Smithsonite can be seen. To make sure that all the nitric acid has been used up.
filter paper inside filter funnel excess powdered Smithsonite

filtrate (Zn(NO3)2(aq))

(f)

No. of moles mol

of HNO3 used = 1.0

100.0 mol = 0.100 1000

No. of moles of Zn(NO3)2 produced =

0.100 mol = 0.0500 mol 2

Formula mass of Zn(NO3)2 = 65.4 + (14.0 + 16.0 3) 2 g mol 1 = 189.4 g mol 1 Theoretical mass of Zn(NO3)2 = 0.0500 mol 189.4 g mol 1 = 9.47 g 37. (a) (b) (c) (d) Titration Acid X: Sulphuric acid Alkali Y: Sodium hydroxide At this point, just enough acid X has been added to neutralize the alkali Y. Add a little activated charcoal to the coloured solution. Warm and then filter the mixture. The filtrate would be a colourless solution of sodium sulphate. OR Repeat the experiment with exactly the same volumes of acid and alkali needed for neutralization. However, do not add methyl orange indicator at the start this time. Crystallization

(e)

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38.
Cation Anion NO3

K+

Na+

Ca2+

Mg2+

Zn2+

Fe2+

Pb2+

Cu2+

NH4+

Ag+

Ba2+

HCO3 CO32 Cl

CaCO3

MgCO3

ZnCO3

FeCO3

PbCO3 PbCl2 PbBr2 PbI2

CuCO3

Ag2CO3 AgCl AgBr AgI

BaCO3

Br I

SO4

*CaSO4

PbSO4

BaSO4

*CaSO4 is only sparingly soluble. 39. Salt Ca(NO3)2 NH4Cl Fe2(SO4)3 CH3COOK Parent acid HNO3 HCl H2SO4 CH3COOH Parent base/alkali CaO/Ca(OH)2 NH3 Fe2O3/Fe(OH)3 KOH

40. (a) Calcium hydroxide (b) CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)


limestone quicklime

CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(s)


slaked lime

(c) To neutralize acids in soil. (d) To neutralize acidic liquid waste before disposal. (e) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) 41. (a) Most plants cannot grow well in soils which are too acidic. To decrease the acidity of the soils, farmers often add slaked lime to neutralize acids in soil. Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) (b) Milk of Magnesia neutralizes the excess acid in the stomach which causes stomach pain. Mg(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

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42.

Add copper(II) oxide a little at a time to dilute sulphuric acid with stirring and warming until some excess copper(II) oxide remains undissolved. This is to ensure that all the sulphuric acid has reacted completely. Filter off the excess copper(II) oxide using filter paper and filter funnel. The filtrate is the copper(II) sulphate solution. Boil the solution to concentrate the filtrate. Then cool the hot concentrated solution slowly to room temperature to separate out the hydrated copper(II) sulphate crystals. Finally, filter, wash and dry the hydrated copper(II) sulphate with some filter paper. Use a pipette to transfer 25.0 cm3 of dilute nitric acid to a clean conical flask. Add two drops of phenolphthalein indicator to give a colourless solution. Run dilute sodium hydroxide solution from a burette into the flask until the solution just turns to pink colour. The resultant solution is a sodium nitrate solution together with the phenolphthalein indicator. Sodium salt can be obtained as follows: Add a little activated charcoal to the above pink solution to absorb the phenolphthalein indicator. Then remove the charcoal by filtration. The filtrate should be a colourless solution of sodium nitrate. (OR Repeat the experiment with exactly the same volumes of nitric acid and sodium hydroxide needed for neutralization (as found by the above experiment). But, this time do not add phenolphthalein indicator at the start. A solution of sodium nitrate is formed.) Boil to concentrate the sodium nitrate solution. Then cool the hot concentrated solution slowly to room temperature to separate out the sodium nitrate crystals. Finally, filter, wash and dry the sodium nitrate crystals with some filter paper. Farmers often add powdered limestone (a natural form of calcium carbonate) or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to neutralize the acidic soil. This is called the liming of soil which can adjust the soil pH suitable for plant growth. A suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water is called Milk of Magnesia which can be used as antacid to neutralize the excess acid in the stomach and help to relieve stomach pain. Liquid wastes from the electroplating and dyeing industries are usually acidic which will cause serious water pollution and kill water life. Slaked lime or sodium carbonate are usually used to neutralize the liquid wastes. Many common fertilizers are made by neutralization. For example, ammonium nitrate is produced by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia. After crystallization, ammonium nitrate crystals are packed and sold to farmers.

43.

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Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis Class Practice A19.1 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) A19.2 (a) No. of moles of (COOH)22H2O(s) required = 0.1 500.0 mol = 0.0500 mol 1000

Beaker Volumetric flask Pipette filler Electronic balance Pipette Pipette (25.0 cm3 type) Measuring cylinder Electronic balance Volumetric flask (250.0 cm3 type)

Mass of (COOH)22H2O(s) required = 0.05 (12.0 + 16.0 2 + 1.0) 2 + 2 (1.0 2 + 16.0) g = 6.30 g 6.45 126 (b) Molarity = M = 0.102 M 500.0 1000 (c) Yes. This is because the accurate molarity of the solution is known. (d) No. of moles of (COOH)22H2O(s) remains unchanged on dilution. (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution V 250.0 0.102 = 0.0150 1000 1000 V = 36.8 Thus, the volume of 0.102 M ethanedioic acid solution required is 36.8 cm3. A19.3 (a) After washing the burette, some distilled water (a few drops) may be left inside the burette. When the given standard hydrochloric acid fills the burette, it is diluted and the molarity of the acid is no longer known. The given hydrochloric acid is not a standard solution any more. (b) The burette should be washed one or two times with the given standard hydrochloric acid, i.e. the solution it is to deliver. (c) Pipette A19.4 (a) H+(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) (b) Pipette (c) Yellow to orange (d) Methyl orange

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A19.5 (a) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

25.0 mol = 0.0250 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH : HCl = 1 : 1. no. of moles of HCl(aq) needed = 0.0250 mol 0.0250 Volume of 0.100 M HCl(aq) needed = dm3 = 0.250 dm3 = 25.0 cm3 0.1 (b) Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) 20.0 No. of moles of Na2CO3(aq) present = 0.050 mol = 0.00100 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 : HCl = 1 : 2. no. of moles of HCl(aq) needed = 0.00100 2 mol = 0.00200 mol 0.00200 Volume of 0.1 M HCl(aq) needed = dm3 = 0.0200 dm3 = 20.0 cm3 0.1 No. of moles of NaOH(aq) present = 0.100 A19.6 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
26.30 cm3 ?M 2.65 g 250.0 cm3 (25.0 cm3 used)

Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1 = 106 g mol 1 2.65 No. of moles of Na2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.0250 mol 106 25.0 No. of moles of Na2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 of solution = 0.0250 mol = 2.50 10 3 250.0 mol From the equation, mole ratio of HCl : Na2CO3 = 2 : 1. no. of moles of HCl in 26.30 cm3 = 2.50 10 3 2 mol = 5.00 10 3 mol 5.00 10 3 Molarity of HCl solution = 26.30 M = 0.190 M 1000 A19.7 (a) Molar mass of sodium hydroxide = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol 1 = 40.0 g mol 1 20.0 No. of moles of sodium hydroxide present = mol = 0.500 mol 40.0 0.500 Molarity of solution = 250.0 M = 2.00 M 1000 18.0 (b) No. of moles of HnA present = mol = 0.200 mol 90.0 0.200 Molarity of solution = 100.0 M = 2.00 M 1000 50.0 (c) (i) No. of moles of NaOH = 2.00 mol = 0.100 mol 1000.0
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(ii) No. of moles of HnA = 2.00

25.0 mol = 0.0500 mol 1000.0

(iii) 2 mol (iv) 2 (v) H2A(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2A(aq) + 2H2O(l) A19.8 (a) 2NaOH(aq) + H2X(aq) Na2X(aq) + 2H2O(l)
25.0 cm3 0.120 M 30.00 cm3 ?M

25.0 mol = 3.00 10 3 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH : H2X = 2 : 1. 3.00 10 3 no. of moles of H2X needed = mol = 1.50 10 3 mol 2 3 1.50 10 Molarity of H2X(aq) = 30.00 M = 0.05 M 1000 3 (b) Since 1 dm H2X contains 6.30 g or 0.05 mol of the solute, 6.3 molar mass of H2X = g mol-1 = 126 g mol 1 0.05 No. of moles of NaOH present = 0.120 A19.9 H2AnH2O(s) + 2KOH(aq)
1.26 g 0.126 g (25.0 cm3 used) 0.100 M n=? 20.00 cm3

K2A(aq) + (n+2)H2O(l)

Molar mass of H2AnH2O = (90.0 + 18.0n) g mol 1 20.00 No. of moles of KOH needed = 0.100 mol = 2.00 10 3 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of H2A nH2O : KOH = 1 : 2. 2.00 10 3 no. of moles of H2AnH2O present = mol = 1.00 10 3 mol 2 mass of H2 A nH2O 2 No. of moles of H2AnH2O = molar mass of H2 A nH2O 0.126 1.00 10 3 = 90.0 + 18.0n n=2 There are 2 molecules of water of crystallization per molecule of the hydrated acid.

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A19.10 K2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2KCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


5.00 g 2.00 M (with impurity) 34.20 cm3 ? % by mass

No. of moles of hydrochloric acid used to react with K2CO3 34.20 = 2.00 mol = 0.0684 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of K2CO3 : HCl = 1 : 2. 0.0684 no. of moles of K2CO3 in the sample = mol = 0.0342 mol 2 Molar mass of K2CO3 = 39.1 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1 = 138.2 g mol 1 Mass of K2CO3 in the sample = 0.0342 mol 138.2 g mol 1 = 4.73 g 4.73 Percentage purity of the K2CO3 sample = 100% = 94.6% 5.00 A19.11 (a) About 6.5 g of sodium carbonate solid was weighed accurately using an electronic balance. (b) The solution was transferred to a 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask using a filter funnel. (c) 2 or 3 drops of methyl orange indicator solution were added to the conical flask.

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Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. volumes molarity, solid, concentrated volumetric pipette, pipette burette water, hold/deliver, conical flask, water burette, conical flask, end point, endpoint, indicator, conical flask end point strength (a) methyl orange, phenolphthalein (b) methyl orange (c) phenolphthalein molarity, standard past, third, passive, grammatical B D B D D D D A B A C A B C B B B C B B A B

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

34. (a) A standard solution is a solution of accurately known molar concentration/molarity. (b) Volumetric flask (c) High purity/chemically stable/easily dissolved in water/involatile/not hygroscopic (Any THREE) (d) (1) Dissolve all the solid in a beaker with about 100 cm3 of distilled water. (2) Pour the solution completely (include all washings) into a 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask. (3) Fill the volumetric flask with distilled water until the bottom of the meniscus reaches the graduation mark.
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(4) Stopper the flask and invert the flask several times to mix the contents thoroughly. (e) Molar mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate = 23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1 = 106 g mol 1 10.6 No. of moles of solute used = mol = 0.100 mol 106 0.100 Molarity of solution = 250.0 M = 0.400 M 1000 35. (a) (i) Burette (ii) Wash the burette with distilled water and then with the sulphuric acid. Fill the burette with sulphuric acid and make sure no bubbles are trapped in the jet. (b) (i) Although a little water would remain in the conical flask, this will not change the amount of solute present. (ii) Its conical shape allows it to be swirled gently without spilling out the content. (c) Methyl orange (d) To indicate that the reaction of the two solutions (sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid) has completed. (e) A white background allows the detection of colour change to be easier and more accurate. (f) No. of moles of sodium carbonate solution used 25.0 = 0.0527 mol = 0.00132 mol 1000 Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 : H2SO4 = 1 : 1. no. of moles of sulphuric acid in 25.80 cm3 of solution = 0.00132 mol 0.00132 Molarity of sulphuric acid = 25.80 M = 0.0512 M 1000 36. (a) CO32 (aq) + 2H+(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l) (b) Methyl orange; yellow to orange (c) No. of moles of Na2CO3 used = 2.65 mol = 0.0250 mol 23.0 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 0.0250 Molarity of Na2CO3 prepared = 250.0 M = 0.100 M 1000 25.0 (d) (i) No. of moles of Na2CO3 = 0.100 mol = 0.00250 mol 1000 (OR Since 25.0 cm3 is withdrawn from 250.0 cm3 of solution i.e. onetenth of the original solution is withdrawn. 0.0250 no. of moles of Na2CO3 used = mol = 0.00250 mol) 10

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2 3

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(ii) From the equation in (a), mole ratio of CO : H+ = 1 : 2. no. of moles of HCl in 20.0 cm3 of solution = 0.00250 2 mol = 0.00500 mol 0.00500 Molarity of the acid = 20.00 M = 0.250 M 1000 37. (a) Volumetric flask (b) (i) Pipette (ii) Wash with distilled water and then with the solution it is to deliver i.e. the acid solution. (iii) Pipette filler ( 22.10 + 22.00 + 21.90 ) 3 (c) A reasonable average volume = cm = 22.00 cm3 3 The volumes of 1.50 M KOH delivered in titrations 1,2,3 and 4 are 22.90 cm3, 22.10 cm3, 22.00 cm3 and 21.90 cm3 respectively. The value 22.90 cm3 obviously deviates a lot from all the others and may be discarded. (d) No. of moles of KOH required to neutralize 25.0 cm3 of the excess acid 22.00 = 1.50 mol = 0.0330 mol 1000 10.80 No. of moles of acid in 250.0 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.110 mol 98.0 No. of moles of acid in 25.0 cm3 of solution 25.0 = 0.110 mol = 0.0110 mol 250.0 Let HnA be the formula of the acid, where n is the number of ionizable hydrogen atoms. Then equation for the neutralization is: HnA(aq) + nKOH(aq) KnA(aq) + nH2O(l) no. of moles of KOH n = no. of moles of HnA 1 0.0330 n = 0.0110 1 n=3 Thus, the basicity of the acid is 3, i.e. the acid is tribasic.

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38. H3X(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) Na3X(aq) + 3H2O(l) 18.00 No. of moles of NaOH used = 0.5 mol = 0.00900 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of H3X : NaOH = 1 : 3. no. of moles of H3X in 25.0 cm3 of diluted solution 0.00900 = mol = 0.00300 mol 3 No. of moles of H3X in 250.0 cm3 of diluted solution 250.0 = 0.00300 mol = 0.0300 mol 25.0 3.89 Molar mass of H3X = g mol 1 = 130 g mol 1 0.0300 39. X(s) + H2SO4(aq) XSO4(aq) + H2O(l) 45.00 No. of moles of H2SO4 used = 0.5 mol = 0.0225 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of X : H2SO4 = 1 : 1. no. of moles of X present = 0.0225 mol 1.47 Molar mass of X = g mol 1 = 65.3 g mol 1 0.0225 The relative atomic mass of X is 65.3. 40. No. of moles of NaOH used = 0.11 40.00 mol = 4.40 10 3 mol 1000

The equation of the reaction is: FeSO4nH2O(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) + nH2O(l) From the equation, mole ratio of FeSO4nH2O : 2NaOH = 1 : 2. 4.40 x 10 3 no. of moles of FeSO4nH2O present = mol = 2.20 10 3 mol 2 mass No. of moles = molar mass 0.611 2.20 10 3 = (55.8 + 32.1 + 16.0 4 + 18n) n=7 41. (a) CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (b) Colourless to pale pink 20.00 (c) (i) No. of moles of NaOH used = 0.40 mol = 0.00800 mol 1000 HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) From the equation, mole ratio of HNO3 : NaOH = 1 : 1. no. of moles of excess HNO3 = 0.00800 mol

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(ii) Total no. of moles of HNO3 used in the experiment 50.00 = 0.50 mol = 0.0250 mol 1000 No. of moles of HNO3 that reacted with CaCO3 = (0.0250 0.00800) mol = 0.0170 mol From the equation in (a), mole ratio of CaCO3 : HNO3 = 1 : 2. no. of moles of CaCO3 present in the sample of limestone 0.0170 = mol = 0.00850 mol 2 (iii) Molar mass of CaCO3 = 40.1 + 12.0 + 16.0 3 g mol 1 = 100.1 g mol 1 Mass of CaCO3 in the sample = 0.00850 100.1 g = 0.851 g 0.851 % by mass of CaCO3 in the sample = 100% = 66.5% 1.28 42. (a) In step (1): A 25.0 cm3 type pipette should be used to transfer 25.0 cm3 of the drain cleaner sample to the volumetric flask. In step (2): Add distilled water to volumetric flask until the bottom of the meniscus reaches the graduation mark. In step (4): The burette should be washed with the standard hydrochloric acid right before the titration. In step (5): A 25.0 cm3 type pipette should be used to transfer 25.0 cm3 of the diluted drain cleaner sample to a conical flask but not a beaker. Also, it is not necessary to use 12 cm3 methyl orange indicator, 13 drops of methyl orange indicator will be enough to allow the end point to be detected. In step (6): The colour change of the indicator at the end point should be from yellow to orange; otherwise, the end point may have passed. (b) (1) 25.0 cm3 of the drain cleaner sample were transferred to a 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask by using a pipette. (2) The flask was filled with distilled water until the bottom of the meniscus reached the graduation mark. (3) The flask was stoppered and inverted several times. 43. To prepare a standard solution, the solid should: be available in a highly pure state, so no impurities should be present in the solution. be stable in air, that is, no oxidation occurs. be easily soluble in water which ensures the molarity calculated will be accurate. have a high molar mass. This will reduce the percentage error during weighing. undergo complete and rapid reaction when the solution is used in volumetric analysis.

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44.

The pipette must be cleaned using deionized water and then the solution it is going to hold or deliver. The main idea is that we should never affect the molarity of any given solutions: the standard solution and the solution of unknown molarity. Use the pipette properly to deliver a correct volume of solution to the conical flask. For example, the bottom of meniscus of the solution should be on the graduation mark. The solution should be kept at room temperature. Too hot or too cold a solution will lead to errors of volume delivered. The last drop of solution staying in the pipette should not be blown out. Otherwise, the volume of solution delivered is more than that stated on the pipette. The burette should be cleaned using deionized water and then the solution it is going to hold or deliver. The main idea is that we should never affect the molarity of any given solutions: the standard solution and the solution of unknown molarity. The burette cannot hold too hot or too cold solutions because the volume of the burette will change under these conditions. When the burette is filled, make sure that the jet is filled completely, i.e. no air bubbles are trapped inside the jet. During the titration, the burette should be clamped upright. This reduces the error when taking readings on the burette. When we take readings on the burette, we should keep our eyes at the same level as the meniscus.

45.

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Part IV Acids and bases Part Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. A C B A C C D B C A C

12. (a) Zinc carbonate reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid to give carbon dioxide. ZnCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 3.2 (b) No. of moles of carbon dioxide formed = mol = 0.0727 mol 12.0 + 16.0 2 From the equation, mole ratio of ZnCO3 : CO2 = 1 : 1. no. of moles of ZnCO3 present = 0.0727 mol Mass of ZnCO3 present = 0.0727 mol (65.4 + 12.0 + 16.0 3) g mol 1 = 9.12 g 9.12 Percentage by mass of ZnCO3 in the sample = 100% = 91.2% 10.0 13. (a)

(b) A weak acid is an acid which incompletely/slightly/partially ionizes in water. (c) Molar mass of ascorbic acid = 12.0 6 + 1.0 8 + 16.0 6 g mol 1 = 176 g mol 1 33 No. of moles of ascorbic acid in 100 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.188 mol 176 0.188 Molarity of the acid solution = 100 M = 1.88 M 1000 (d) The acid decomposed before boiling. (e) pH = [H+(aq)] log 3 = [H+(aq)] log [H+(aq)] = 0.001 M
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14.

(a) A worker misused a bottle of concentrated ammonia solution to clean the stairs in a building in the Western District. A large amount of ammonia gas was evolved. As a result, eight people were sent to hospital after breathing in the gas. (b) We should take necessary safety measures when we handle chemicals. (c) Concentrated ammonia solution should be kept in a glass container, with hazard warning labels. (d) Dilute ammonia solution can be used as a cleaner. Ammonia is commonly used in the dyeing industry and as a refrigerant. (e) Ammonia gas attacks human mucous membranes, stinging the eyes, nose and throat, and can cause nausea and vomiting. Breathing in a high concentration of ammonia for several hours could kill.

15. (a) Methyl orange was added as an indicator to mark the end point of the strong acid-weak alkali titration. The colour would change from yellow to orange. (b) 3HCl(aq) + Al(OH)3(s) AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) 26.80 (c) No. of moles of HCl used = 0.806 mol = 0.0216 mol 1000 From the equation, mole ratio of HCl : Al(OH)3 = 3 : 1. 0.0216 no. of moles of Al(OH)3 in one tablet of Y = mol = 0.00720 mol 3 Molar mass of Al(OH)3 = 27.0 + (16.0 + 1.0) 3 g mol 1 = 78.0 g mol 1 Mass of Al(OH)3 in one tablet of Y = 0.00720 78.0 g = 0.562 g $0.80 (d) For X, price per gram of Al(OH)3 = = $1.82 0.440 $1.00 For Y, price per gram of Al(OH)3 = = $1.78 0.562 Hence, Y is the better buy. 16. (a) HSO4 (aq) H+(aq) + SO42 (aq) (b) Harpic reacts with calcium carbonate to form soluble products: CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
lime scale (from Harpic)

(c) When the two types of cleaners mix together, heat is released. It is because the reaction is a neutralization reaction which is exothermic. NaHSO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) (d) Wash the affected area with plenty of water/under running tap water. 17. (a) Calcium carbonate (b) The effervescence was due to the formation of carbon dioxide; calcium chloride solution was colourless. CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (c) A layer of insoluble CaSO4 was formed which prevented the CaCO3 from further reaction. (d) On heating, the CaCO3 in eggshell gave CO2 which turned limewater milky. CaCO3(s) heat CaO(s) + CO2(g)

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(e)
test tube

delivery tube

eggshell

limewater

heat

(f) Always wear safety spectacles in doing experiments, especially during heating. Remove the glass tubing from limewater before stopping heating. This is to prevent sucking back of cold limewater which would crack the hot glass. 18. (a) The black copper(II) oxide dissolved. The colourless solution turned blue. (b) CuO(s) + H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) (c) No. of moles of sodium hydroxide used to neutralize the excess acid 28.50 = 0.54 mol = 0.0154 mol 1000 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH : H2SO4 = 2 : 1. 0.0154 no. of moles of excess sulphuric acid = mol = 0.00770 mol 2 50.0 Total no. of moles of sulphuric acid used = 0.55 mol = 0.0275 mol 1000 No. of moles of sulphuric acid reacted with copper(II) oxide = (0.0275 0.00770) mol = 0.0198 mol Volume of sulphuric acid reacted with copper(II) oxide 0.0198 3 = dm = 0.0360 dm3 (or 36.0 cm3) 0.55 (d) From the equation in (b), mole ratio of CuO : H2SO4 = 1 : 1. no. of moles of copper(II) oxide present = 0.0198 mol Mass of copper(II) oxide present = 0.0198 mol (63.5 + 16.0) g mol 1 = 1.57 g 1.57 % by mass of copper(II) oxide in the original sample = 100% = 2.35 66.8% 19. (a) Ammonia (b) Characteristic pungent smell (c) (i) A pale blue (gelatinous) precipitate was formed. (ii) The precipitate dissolved and a deep blue solution was formed. (d) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH (aq) Cu(OH)2(s)

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Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels Class Practice A20.1 This is due to the movements of the Earths crust. A20.2 There is physical separation but no chemical decomposition.

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Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. fossil, plants, animals plants, power stations, electricity carbon sea, uels, hemicals, fuel hydrocarbons hydrocarbons, methane fractions, ractional distillation, efining heavy, higher, otter efinery Fuel, raw materials for chemicals etrol Motor car fuel aphtha Raw material for town gas and chemicals erosene Jet plane fuel, household fuel as Diesel fuel for buses, trucks and factories uel Fuels for big ships, burnt to generate electricity in power stations ubricatingLubricating oils, candles itumen To cover roads and roofs C B B A D A C

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. (a) Fractional distillation (b) Fraction 4 contains hydrocarbons with larger molecules while fraction 1 contains hydrocarbons with smaller molecules. The van der Waals forces are greater between larger molecules. Therefore, fraction 4 has a higher boiling point range. (c) Fraction 4 (d) Fraction 1 (e) Fraction 1. This is because it is easier to burn and it burns with a cleaner and less sooty flame. 18. (a) (b) (c) (d) The liquid alkanes in crude oil act as a solvent to dissolve the solid alkanes. The difference in boiling points among the hydrocarbons Fraction 1 Fraction 1: Refinery gas Fraction 2: Petrol and naphtha Fraction 3: Kerosene Fraction 4: Gas oil (e) As fuel oil/lubricating oils and waxes/bitumen (f) It is a liquid. It has lower density than water and is immiscible with water. Thus, it floats on the water surface and prevents the mosquito larvae from getting enough oxygen supply.

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Chapter 21 Consequences of using fossil fuels Class Practice A21.1 (a) No. Electricity is an important source of energy, but not a fuel. Electricity is a flow of electrons, not a substance that can be burnt to give out heat. (b) Yes. It can be burnt to give out heat. 2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 10H2O(l) A21.2 Carbon monoxide, formed by the incomplete combustion of fuel, will build up to dangerous levels in an enclosed space. It may cause death. A21.3 1. No. This is because many pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons) are colourless gases. 2. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide), hydrocarbons, and suspended particulates (e.g. lead, lead(II) compounds, smoke, soot) 3. Sulphur dioxide/nitrogen oxides/carbon monoxide (Any TWO) A21.4 1. Both statements are correct, but the second one does not explain the first one. Actually, the low pH of acid rain is caused by the dissolved sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. 2. Probably at that time, many factories in the Kwun Tong industrial district used fuels of high sulphur content. A large amount of sulphur dioxide was produced which caused acid rain. A21.5 1. Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide. More fossil fuels are burnt in winter to keep warm. Less fossil fuels are burnt in summer. 2. (a) Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (b) SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) 4NO(g) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) 4HNO2(aq) 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq) (c) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (d) Sulphur dioxide: burn fuels of lower sulphur content. Nitrogen oxides: burn less fuels. A21.6 (a) No (b) Nuclear power is very clean, since it produces no air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. A21.7 (c) It is a cheap, clean and renewable source of energy. (d) Many countries have neither sufficient rainfall nor high grounds to make hydroelectricity possible.

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Chapter 21 Consequences of using fossil fuels Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. gives out takes in ossil y y x+ ,x, 2 4 Carbon monoxide, oxic, olourless, dourless leakage, as Safety Air pollution arbon monoxide, ulphur dioxide, itrogen oxides, ydrocarbons, particulates oxic, nitrogen oxides, respiratory 5.6 sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides lants, water, building unleaded, catalytic converter low sulphur, crubbers ilters, lectrostatic precipitators nfrared radiation, arbon dioxide, warm rise, lobal warming pollutants, spillage save, alternative olar, ydroelectric, idal, ind, nuclear, iomass, non-renewable C D D B D D B D D

31. (a) Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (nitrogen dioxide) (b) SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq) (c) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (d) Use scrubbers to remove sulphur dioxide in the waste gases before they come out of the chimneys. Fit catalytic converters to motor vehicles which convert nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen. Therefore, nitrogen dioxide will not form. 32. (a) Nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons (b) Nitrogen dioxide initiates a chain of chemical reactions to form ozone. The ozone produced then oxidizes hydrocarbons in the air to produce photochemical smog. (c) Photochemical smog irritates our eyes and attacks our respiratory system.

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33. (a) This is because carbon dioxide can trap infrared radiation (heat) in the atmosphere and keep the Earth warm. (b) There will be a rise in the Earths surface temperature. (c) Melting of ice at the North Pole and South Pole/climate change/wildlife in danger (Any TWO) (d) Reduce the use of fossil fuels/stop deforestation/plant more trees/prevent and put out forest fires (Any TWO) 34. (a) Wind power is a renewable energy source. (b) Strong wind drives the turbines of the windmill which can then drive the generator to produce electricity. (c) It does not cause pollution problems./The supply of wind is unlimited. (Any ONE) (d) Wind does not always blow and sometimes blows too hard./Hundreds of windmills have to be built. (Any ONE) (e) Nuclear power/solar power/hydroelectric power/tidal power/geothermal power/power from biomass (Any FIVE) 35. (a) Naphtha. Alkanes with 5 to 10 carbon atoms are found in naphtha. (b) Hydrogen and methane (c) PbO(s) + CO(g) Pb(s) + CO2(g) PbO(s) + H2(g) Pb(s) + H2O(l) (d) Carbon monoxide (e) Town gas contains hydrogen. It forms a mixture with air. The mixture is explosive. A spark can ignite the mixture, causing an explosion. 36. Formation of acid rain: Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are two major air pollutants responsible for acid rain. Sulphur dioxide dissolves in rainwater to form sulphurous acid: SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in rainwater to form nitric acid and nitrous acid: 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq) Environmental impacts of acid rain: It makes soils acidic, so it damages plants and destroys forests. It makes some lakes and rivers acidic, so fish and water plants cannot survive. It speeds up the corrosion of metals and building materials e.g. limestone, marble, sandstone, cement and concrete. Possible ways to control acid rain: Cut down pollutants from burning of fuels. Burn less fossil fuels.

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Chapter 22 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of carbon compounds Class Practice A22.1 CO, CO2, Na2CO3, KHCO3, H2O, NH3, KOH, HCl, HNO3, NaCl (or other acceptable answers) A22.2 (a)

(b)

(c)

A22.3 (a) (b) Put n = 5 in CnH2n+2. The molecular formula is C5H12. Put n = 11 in CnH2n+2. The molecular formula is C11H24.

A22.4 (a) A and B; alkanoic acid series. (b)

A22.5 (a) Yes. This is because they have the same functional group ( OH). (b) A < B < C < D. Van der Waals forces are greater between larger molecules. A22.6 1. (a) (b) 2. (a) (b) Hexyl group Octyl group CH3(CH2)3CH2 CH3(CH2)5CH2

A22.7 (a) 2-methylpropane (b) 2,3-dimethylbutane (c) 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane

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A22.8 (a) 2-methylbut-2-ene (b) Propene A22.9 (a) Butan-1-ol (b) Pentan-2-ol A22.10 (a) 3-methylbutanoic acid (b) 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid A22.11 (a)

(b)

(c)

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Chapter 22 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of carbon compounds Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. carbon organisms hydrogen slow, carbon dioxide; water saturated, unsaturated functional group general formula, 2 physical, chemical CH , alkane, alkenel alkanol, alkanoic acid IUPAC Alkyl; hydrogen hydroxyl; carboxylic C D B C A B

18. (a) 2, 4 (b) Four (c)

19. (a) (b) (c) (d)

Alkanes/alkane series Methane, ethane and propane No. They only have similar chemical properties. No, they have different physical properties. This is because their molecular sizes are different, thus the van der Waals forces between molecules are also different.

20. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
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21. (a) (b) (c) (d)

2-methylpropene (or methylpropene) 2-methylpropanoic acid (or methylpropanoic acid) Butanoic acid 2-methylbutane

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Chapter 23 Alkanes and alkenes Class Practice A23.1 2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 10H2O(l) A23.2 Chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and hydrogen chloride. A23.3 More and more petrol is required as fuel for the ever-increasing number of motor vehicles. A23.4 (a) An oil fraction (b) The first few cm3 of gas is mainly air expelled from inside the apparatus. (c) The delivery tube should be removed from water before stopping heating. This is to prevent sucking back of water which may crack the hot reaction tube. A23.5 Ethene can decolorize purple acidified potassium permanganate solution, but ethane cannot. OR In the dark, ethene can decolorize the red-orange bromine solution, but ethane cannot.

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Chapter 23 Alkanes and alkenes Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. CnH2n+2 homologous, increase, similar alogens, xygen substitution initiation, propagation, termination, Free radicals petrochemical cracking, alkene petrol, alkenes , nsaturated, addition two, more, single C D B B A C B

18. (a) 2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) (b) The gaseous product can be collected and pumped through limewater. Limewater turns milky if carbon dioxide is present. Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) (c) During incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide, unburnt carbon particles and hydrocarbon may be produced. Unburnt carbon particles: irritate the respiratory system. Carbon monoxide: causes breathing problem and decreases the oxygen carrying ability of blood. Unburnt hydrocarbon: causes cancer. 19. (a)

(b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon (c) Thermal cracking and catalytic cracking (d) C10H22(l) C8H18(l) + C2H4(g) 20. (a) This is to avoid the paraffin vaporizing too quickly without being cracked. (b) High temperature, absence of air and presence of catalyst. (c) This is to avoid sucking back of water, which can crack the combustion tube. (When the burner is removed, the combustion tube is cooled down and then the air inside contracts. As the air pressure inside the tube is lower, water is sucked up. The cool water will lead to a sudden contraction of the tube that may crack the tube.) (d) The bromine water will be decolorized. The gas may be ethene.

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(e) This is because under high temperatures, air inside the combustion tube expands. The gas collected by the first test tube thus usually contains a lot of air, which will not be used for testing. 21. (a) (b) (ii) (c) Carbon-carbon double bond (i) Bromine is decolorized. Acidified potassium permanganate solution is decolorized. (i)

(ii)

(d) (i) Carbon dioxide and water (ii) C2H4(g) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) 22. Crude oil can be distilled into different useful fractions. Supply of petrol, kerosene and gas oil cannot meet their great demand. Heavy fractions (e.g. heavy oils) are not good fuels and are in less demand. Cracking allows the breaking down of large molecules from heavy fractions into smaller ones. Heavy fractions can be cracked to produce extra petrol and kerosene which are in greater demand. Alkenes are also obtained from the cracking of oil fractions, which can be used to make many useful organic chemicals, such as plastics.

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Chapter 24 Addition polymers Class Practice A24.1 Computer keyboard/mouse/CD case/pen(s)/antenna shield of mobile phone (Any FOUR) A24.2 1. Yes. They are made from chemicals derived from petroleum. 2. (a) Yes (b) No A24.3 (a) (i) and (iii) can undergo addition polymerization. (i)

(iii)

(b) Propene (c) Polypropene A24.4 (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (c) (i) (ii) Polyethene/polythene Polypropene/polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride Ethene Propene Chloroethene/vinyl chloride Flexible and good insulator of electricity. Resistant to many chemical solvents, alkalis and acids.

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A24.5

A24.6 (a) Weak intermolecular forces (b) The polymer chains vibrate vigorously when heated. The intermolecular forces are overcome, and the chains can slide over one another easily. The plastic bottle thus softens and deforms. (c) Thermoplastic (d) (i) The bottle softens and melts. (ii) The bottle burns. (e) (i) The melting point of polypropene is low. The milk feeding bottles may soften when they are sterilized by hot water or steam. (ii) PVC is poisonous.

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Chapter 24 Addition polymers Chapter Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Petroleum ethane, aphtha, as oil polymers ight, unreactive, heat, electricity Polyethene Polymerization, polymers addition monomer, polymer, small, repeating unit natural incinerators Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, biodegradable D A D C C C

19. (a) C Repeating unit:

(b) The monomer contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond. 20. (a) (i) Plastic C. This is because plastic C is flexible. (ii) Non-poisonous (b) Plastic D. This is because plastic D can be used at high temperatures (up to 1350C) and does not burn. (c) Plastic A. This is because plastic A has excellent transparency. (d) (i) Perspex (ii) Perspex does not break as easily as glass. (iii) PVC is cheaper and more resistant to weathering than rubber. (iv) Expanded polystyrene is more rigid than waxed paper. (v) Glass (vi) Polyethene is lighter than glass. 21. (a) (i)

(ii) (iii) Addition polymerization (b) (i)


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(ii) (iii) Addition polymerization (c) (i)

(ii)

(iii) Addition polymerization 22. (a)

(b) (c) Tetrafluoroethene (d) It is non-toxic, heat and chemical resistant. Besides, it has a smooth and slippery surface. 23. Problems associated with the disposal of plastic wastes: Plastics are non-biodegradable. They remain in the environment almost forever. Putting plastics into landfills would lead to land wastage and cause pollution of underground water. Burning plastic waste in incinerators would lead to air pollution. Solving plastic disposal problems: Reduce the use of plastics. Reuse plastic articles. Recycle plastic waste: thermoplastic waste can be recycled. Make biodegradable plastics.

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Part V Fossil fuels and carbon compounds Part Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B B C C A C B B D B

11. (a)
thermometer (0 360C)

rocksil soaked with crude oil

oil fraction

water heat

(b) 1. Wear safety spectacles. 2. Beware of burns. (c) Fraction C (d) Fraction B (e) Fraction B (f) B < D < A < C 12. (a) COOH group (b) CnH2n+1COOH (c) 1. Each of them differs from the next one by a CH2 group. 2. They have similar chemical properties. 3. Their boiling points increase with the number of carbon atoms in the molecules. (Any TWO) (d) Molecular formula: C6H12O2 Name of compound: hexanoic acid 13. (a) Volume of one mole of a gas at room conditions = 24 dm3 mol 1 molar mass of gas Q = 1.75 g dm 3 24 dm3 mol 1= 42 g mol 1 relative molecular mass of gas Q = 42

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY A Modern View (Chemistry)

Coursebook 2

(b) Q can decolorize Br2 (in organic solvent) and KMnO4/H+(aq), and is therefore an unsaturated hydrocarbon. Since Q has a molecular mass of 42, it would be propene, CH3CH=CH2. (c) To provide a hot catalytic surface for reaction that produces Q to occur. (d) Two possible addition products are formed:

14. (a)

(b) No. This is because alkanes do not contain carbon-carbon double bond. (c) For ethane, there is no observable change. For ethene, the bromine water is decolorized. (d) There is no observable change. It is because polyethene does not contain any carbon-carbon double bond. (e) (i) Plastic bags/wrapping film for food/food boxes/flexible cold water pipes/kitchen wares (Any ONE) (ii) Polyethene is light and flexible. 15. (a) Addition polymerization (b) (i) For polymer A:

For polymer B:

(b) (ii) For polymer A:

For polymer B:

(c) All of them are thermoplastics because they all consist of chain-like giant molecules which are attracted by weak intermolecular forces. Heat the s ample gently on a hot plate. It softens or melts because it is a thermoplastic.
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HKDSE CHEMISTRY A Modern View (Chemistry)

Coursebook 2

(d) Shake a little of each of the solutions with Br2 (in organic solvent). The solution is decolorized only by the monomer solution because the following addition reaction takes place.

16.

Coal contains sulphur. Sulphur dioxide is formed when coal is burnt in a power station. S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Suspended particulates are carbon particles present in the flue gas generated in the power station. Nitrogen oxides are formed when fuels are burnt at very high temperatures in a power station. N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) and 2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) Possible ways to reduce the emission of air pollutants: Sulphur dioxide: installation of scrubbers/use coal of lower sulphur content Suspended particulates: installation of electrostatic precipitator

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