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Types Of Joints:

Fibrous joints:

In this type of joints the bones are joined together by means of fibrous tissue. Due to the

presence of fibrous tissue these joints are either immovable or permit movement to a very little extent

Fibrous joints are further divided into the following subtypes;

  • 1. Sutures: These are peculiar to skull and are immovable. According to the shape of the bony margin the sutures may be; Plane sutures

Serrate sutures

Denticulate sutures

Squamous sutures

Limbous sutures

Schindylesis

  • 2. Syndesmosis: In this type of fibrous joints the bones are connected with interosseus ligament for example the inferior tibiofibular joint.

  • 3. Gomphosis: These are also known as peg and socket joints. Examples are tooth in the socket. Cartilaginous joints: In this type of joints there is a piece of cartilage between the bones which hold the bones together and makes a joint. Cartilaginous joints are further divided into the following subtypes;

Primary cartilaginous joints: (synchondrosis): In this subtype the bones are united by a plate of hyaline cartilage so that the joint is immovable and strong. These joints are temporary in nature because after a certain age the cartilaginous plate is replaced by the bone. Examples of this type of joints are joint between the epiphyses and diaphysis of a growing long bone, the costochondral joint and the first chondrosternal joint. Secondary cartilaginous joints: (symphysis): These are also known as fibro- cartilaginous joints. There articular surface is covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage and the bones are united by fibro-cartilage. These joints are permanent and persist throughout the life of an individual. Typically the secondary cartilaginous joints occur in the median plane of the body and permit limited movements because of compressible pad of cartilage in them. The thickness of the fibro-cartilage in these joints is directly related to the range of movement the joint offers. Examples of this type of joints are; symphysis pubis, manubrio-sternal joint and intervertebral joints between the vertebral bodies.

Synovial joints are most evolved and therefore most mobile type of joints. They possess the following characteristic features;

There articular surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage. This articular cartilage is avascular, non nervous and elastic. Lubricated with synovial fluid, the cartilage forms slippery surfaces for free movements.

Between the articular surfaces there is a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid. The cavity may be partially or completely subdivided by an articular disc known as meniscus.

The joint is surrounded by an articular capsule which is fibrous in nature and is lined by synovial membrane. Because of its rich nerve supply the fibrous capsule is sensitive to stretches imposed by movements.

The synovial membrane lines the entire joint except the articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage. It is this membrane that secretes the slimy fluid called synovial fluid which lubricates the joint and nourishes the articular cartilage.

Varying degrees of movements are always permitted by the synovial joints

Types of synovial joints:

Synovial joints are most evolved and therefore most mobile type of joints. They possess the following