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Indefinite Articles- A and AN are two forms of single article called indefinite article. They indicate the coming of a noun after it. Since it denotes one its used before Singular Countable Noun. A is used : Before a singular, countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time. Example- I saw a lion in the zoo today.

Before a singular, countable noun or adjective beginning with a consonant sound. Example- A beautiful flower.

Before a singular countable noun which is an example of a class of things. Example- A child needs love(= all children need love)

To express quantity. Example- A bit of, a lot of.

Before units of price,speed, ratio, weight etc. Example- sugar is Rs. 25 a kilo.

In certain exclamatory expressions Example- what a beautiful shot!

AN performs the same function as a but an is used before singular countable nouns which begin with a VOWEL SOUND (a,e,i,o,u) .

The initial sound, not the spelling is important. Example A University, AN hour.

The main function of the indefinite article is to tell that the noun it precedes does not refer to any particular person or thing.

The indefinite article is not normally used before uncountable nouns, such as water, sugar, music, beauty etc. But if an uncountable noun is used in a particular sense, a or an can be used with it.

Example- I always have a coffee with my lunch (a cup of coffee)

If a countable noun is preceded by an adjective a/an is used before the adjective according to its initial sound. Example- its a useful book.

The Definite Article (THE) can be used with both countable nouns- singular as well as plural- and uncountable nouns. Its main use is to specify a person, place or thing. Its not used with abstract nouns, plural nouns, etc.

The is used before: A singular noun when it refers to a particular class or group. Example- The cow is a sacred animal.

The names of rivers, ranges of mountains, gulfs, seas, oceans etc. Example- The Ganga, The Himalyas.

The names of countries in plural Example- The United Kingdom

Names of hotels, museums, some buildings Example- The ashoka hotel, The central bank.

The superlatives of adjectives Example- The best boy.

Names of races and communities Example- The Hindus, the Chinese

The names of newspapers Example- The Hindustan Times

Expressions like

Example- All the students, by the dozen

Chapter 1 Introduction Learning about the parts of speech is the first step in grammar study just as learning the letters of the alphabet is the first step to being able to read and write. From learning the parts of speech we begin to understand the use or function of words and how words are joined together to make meaningful communication. To understand what a part of speech is, you must understand the idea of putting similar things together into groups or categories. Let's look at some examples of categories.

COLORS blue red yellow green black

FRUITS banana apple orange grape lemon

DRINKS milk water soda beer coffee

LANGUAGES Spanish Arabic Japanese English Korean

Colors, fruits, drinks, and languages are categories. If Grebo is a language, you would understand exactly what Grebo is. If we did not have the category language, it would be hard to explain what is meant by the word Grebo. It is very convenient to have categories to talk about similar things.

The 8 parts of speech that are used to describe English words are: Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Pronouns Prepositions Conjunctions Articles
First of all, a word can be more than one part of speech and you have to look at how the word works in a particular sentence to know what part of speech it is. The chart below shows examples of words that have more than one part of speech.

Word can can only only his his

Sentence I think I can do it. Don't open that can of beans. This is my only pen. He was only joking. That book is his. That is his book.

Part of Speech verb noun adjective adverb pronoun adjective

English English

Can you speak English? I am reading an English novel.

noun adjective

The verb is the heart of a sentence, so it is a good idea to identify the verb first when looking at a sentence. Verbs can be recognized through: past tense ending (looked) 3rd person singular ending (says) auxiliary verb (will see) modal verb (can hear)

There are also verb endings or suffixes that can help you recognize verbs. Some common verb endings are listed in the chart below.


Submitted to- Mr. Saurabh Kumar