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6th ICPT, Sapporo, Japan, July 2008

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENT ON STEEL DECK

Tuan-jie CHEN Engineer, the 1st Highway Survey and Design Institute of China No. 63, Kejier Road, Xian 710075, China demo555@126.com Wei HUANG Professor, Traffic College, Southeast University No.2, Sipailou, Nanjing 210096, China hhhwei@cin.gov.cn Shuang-jie WANG Senior Engineer, the 1st Highway Survey and Design Institute of China No. 63, Kejier Road, Xian 710075, China wangshj@ccroad.com.cn Xiao-jun DING Senior Engineer, the 1st Highway Survey and Design Institute of China No. 63, Kejier Road, Xian 710075, China Dingxj@ccroad.com.cn

ABSTRACT Crack is one of the distresses which affect the life cycle of asphalt pavement on steel bridge deck. Researches on the crack behavior are the premise of controlling fatigue crack propagation on deck pavement. R curve of fatigue crack propagation is analyzed in the paper firstly, and the process of crack propagation is simulated with numerical method. The results say there are 3 phases during fatigue crack propagation in asphalt pavement on steel deck, initial propagation zone, stable propagation zone and unstable propagation zone, when the initial crack length is rather short; while if the initial crack length is longer, the propagation of fatigue crack may start from stable propagation zone or unstable propagation zone, thus the process of fatigue crack propagation is accelerated very much, and the pavement will be failed soon. Consequently, materials for steel deck pavement should be little void and easy compactable in order to lower the propagation speed of fatigue crack. KEY WORDS fatigue crack ,propagation, steel deck pavement, numerical analysis, FEA

Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck

INTRODUCTION With the development of traffic and transportation in China, more and more long-span steel bridges are building or have been built, such as Jiang-Yin Bridge, Hai-Cang Bridge, the 2nd Nanjing Yangzi River Bridge, the 3rd Nanjing Yangzi River Bridge etc, which provide opportunities and challenges for research on steel deck pavement. It is about 30 years from the first steel bridge constructed in China, during this time many types of steel deck pavement were tried, including hot asphalt mix, modified asphalt concrete, SMA, epoxy asphalt concrete, Gussasphalt concrete and so on. While most of them could not resist the effect of the traffic loading and natural environment, and will be destroyed by fatigue damages, especially fatigue crack. Now beam specimen is always used to testify the fatigue property of steel deck pavement material, which may cost a long time and can not discover accurately the relationship between crack propagation and fatigue loading. Therefore numerical method is adopted in the research. CRACK PROPAGATION RESISTANCE CURVE Here, G or R is denoted as the drive force of fatigue crack. When G or R equals to the dW s resistant force in the crack tip , fatigue crack will propagate. Therefore, the equation of dA R-curve could be expressed as follow1-5) dW s R (1) dA Fatigue crack propagateing or not depends on the change of G or R with crack dimension. There are two types of R-curve, namely constant R-curve and increasing R-curve. For brittle material, R-curve is always constant and does not vary with crack propagation, as Figure 1(a).For toughness material R-curve will increase with the length of crack, as Figure 1(b). Fracture Mechanics says it is because the plastic zone increases with the crack length.
G,R
G,R

unstable
G

R A
GC

GC

a0

crack length

a0

ac

crack length

(a)Brittle material Figure 1

(b)Toughness material Sketch map of R curve

Zhifang Zhao and Shilang Xu 6) study the KR-curve of cement concrete with 3-point bending test, as Figure 2. The KR-curve is S type different from Figure 1. The initial point of KR-curve is the crack initiation point, and the first inflexion is the unstable point of crack propagation; KR-curve increases with crack length, a. And h in the Figure 2 denotes the specimen width.

Chen, Huang, Wang and Ding


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K R (MPa.m 1/2 )

4 3 2 1 0 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 a/h 0.8 0.9 1.0

Figure 2

R curve of different specimen size

Zhimin Wu and Guopan Zhao 7) do some experiments to study the influence of the Ratio of Crack Length and Specimen Width (RLW) on fracture toughness of cement concrete as shown in Figure 3. Here, a and h denote crack length and specimen width respectively. Fracture toughness of specimen ascends first and descends sequently with the increase of RLW; the bigger the RLW is, the shorter the stable propagation phase of fatigue crack is; and the R-curve will rise with the increase of crack length and drop when R-curve reaches the critical value.
2.5

K IC (MPa.m 1/2 )

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0.2 0.4

K'C I KIC

0.6 a/h

0.8

Figure 3

Relationships between fracture toughness, equivalent fracture toughness and ratio between crack length and specimen height

J.D.G.Sumpter8) finds that the actual energy release rate D is larger than R with experiments or numerical calculations. Reversely, D will descend with the increase of crack length. According to J.D.G.Sumpter, R should be max at the initiation of crack propagation and decreases to a constant value with crack length rapidly. The material used in the experiment is aluminum, while Sumpter thinks it should be the same when other materials are used. The literatures referenced above illustrate that R-curves are different with different materials, experiment methods and boundary conditions. Some comply with the classical fracture mechanics theory, while the others are not. Why there are differences? The classical fracture mechanics assumes that the input energy G must be equal to the absorbed energy R when dG dR fracture occurs, , when fatigue crack propagation is still stable. While the da da assumptions are not demonstrated, it is just suitable for brittle materials like glass. For asphalt pavement on steel deck, its horizontal structure can be treated as infinite, and height is just 6 cm. Therefore, the dimensional effect will be obvious. Furthermore steel deck

Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck

pavement is a composite structure, and the R curve will be special under the restraint of steel deck. So the R curve used in the paper is shown below, as Figure 4.

a0

crack length

Figure 4

R curve used in the paper

MODEL of COMPOSITE BEAM AND S-N CURVE Steel Deck Pavement Research Team (SDPRT) from Southeast University has done many researches on fatigue property of asphalt pavement on steel deck based on composite beam9). In order to utilize the existing achievements, parameters of fatigue crack propagation used in the paper are from SDPRT. According to FEA, the max stress and strain of pavement occurs on the top of U ribbon (point A, as shown in Figure 5), when the pavement and steel deck contact well, which is caused by support effect from U ribbon fixed under steel deck. The distance of U ribbon is 300mm; therefore a model can be adopted from steel deck pavement whose length is 300mm and width 100mm (shown in Figure 5)

Figure 5

Model of composite beam

As we all known, vehicle load on the steel deck pavement is irregular, and varies with time. While vehicle load will be transformed into standard load with axle transformation method, the load on steel deck pavement can be simplified as constant amplitude load. When we want to probe fatigue crack propagation of steel deck pavement, S-N curve of pavement should be confirmed first. Some study has been done on composite beam fatigue property of steel deck pavement of the Second Nanjing Yangzi River Bridge, and the mechanics results are shown bellow.

Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck

Table 1 Mechanic Results from Composite Beam Fatigue Experiments Loading Fatigue Dynamic Static x x Interlayer xy times load deflection deflection (10-6) (MPa) (kN) (mm) (mm) (104) N 5 0.18 0.35 1.1327 1846.9 0.26718 6 0.20 0.38 1200 1.3592 2216.2 0.32061 8 0.24 200 1.8123 2955.0 0.42750 Dr. Zhenqing Liu10) regresses the data in the above table with fatigue model denoted by fatigue shear stress, and establishes fatigue model about max stress and strain of composite beam, and max shear stress of interlayer between pavement and steel deck, whose coefficients are shown in Table 2. Table 2 Coefficient of Composite Beam Fatigue Equation c N A1 c1 N A2 c2 N A3 xy 3
A1
8176.3

c1
6.2523

R2
0.9870

A2
9.934

c2
6.2525

R2 1.000

A3
0.9788

c3
6.2518

R2
0.9990

Could the fatigue expression above adapt to lower temperature environment? Here compare fatigue dynamic deflections under three temperatures (0C, 25C, 60C), as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6 Variation of Dynamic Deflection with Temperature Figure 6 shows that the dynamic deflection of composite beam increases with temperature. When temperature is below 20C, the deflection of composite may be constant, which means the fatigue experiments under 18C can represent the fatigue property of composite beam under low temperature. Power function is the expression used commonly to describe S-N curve of material, that is: (2) Sm N C According to equation 2, equation 3 could be deduced: Sm A1 c1 (3) C Assumes that S in equation 3, so expression of C is as follow: (4) C A1 ( ) c1 m Reference[10] provides an approximate expression, m 3 / lg( 0.9 / k ) , here, k=0.5 when

Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck

bending, 0.35 when tension, and 0.29 when torsion. In this paper, k=0.5, so C=867.46. FATIGUE LOAD Huang Yangxian11) ect. consider that when vehicle is far from a position on pavement, the stress around the position should be zero. And when vehicle is on the position, the stress around the position should be the maximum. So we can assume stress pulse is half-sine or triangle, the cycle period depends on the speed and the position calculated. Half-sine load pulse used in his KENLAYER program is as follow: t (5) t max sin 2 ( ) 2 T Half-sine load pulse with interim is used to analyze fatigue crack propagation here, whose wave length is 0.5s and interim period is 0.5s, amplitude of load pulse is 0.7MPa, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 Half-sine stress pulses NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION Program MSC.Fatigue is used here. The parameters of composite beam are shown in Table 3, and model of composite is shown in Figure 8. Table 3 Basic Parameters of Composite Beam Modulus of Height of Initial Crack Initial crack pavement pavement depth position (MPa) (mm) (mm) 2000 55 0,5,10 Layer surface

Modulus of steel deck (MPa) 210000

Figure 8 FE model of composite beam In order to speed up calculation, a 10mm-length pre-crack is imposed on the surface of pavement specimen to simulate the nature damage in concrete. RESULTS ANALYSIS Numerical analysis shows that composite beam will be destroyed after 8 million load cycles,
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Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck

while experiments indoor prove that composite beam with good quality may be failed after 20 million load cycles. The difference between numerical analysis and experiment is because: first, the indoor experiments are under 60C or 70C when the asphalt concrete has a good toughness. Second, a 10mm pre-crack is imposed on the surface of pavement to accelerate convergence. Third, S-N curve used here is an approximate expression, and can not reflect the real condition. Totally, the numerical analysis result is smaller than indoor experiment, but it is safer and closer to the real condition. When the length of pre-crack varies, the relationship between the pavement crack increment and load cycles is shown as Figure 9.

Figure 9

Relationship between crack increment and load cycles

According to Figure 9, we can easily know that the fatigue crack propagation will experience 3 stages: crack initialization, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation, which is the same as many researchers points. The length of the crack is about 40mm when it reaches unstable stage, and has no relationship with the length of pre-crack. The curve between load cycles and crack increments are almost same under different length of pre-crack. For example, the curve between load cycles and crack increments when the length of pre-crack is 5mm is the same with the curve after crack propagation is over 5 mm when the length of pre-crack is 0mm. and when the length of pre-crack is over 10mm, the fatigue crack will be unstable soon.

Figure10

Relationship between crack increment ratio and load cycles

Figure 10 shows that the crack increment ratio (da/dN) will decrease with load cycles at the beginning, and then increase till failure. It can not be explained well why the ratio will decrease at the beginning of crack propagation. From the point of crack increment ratio when the length of pre-crack is 0mm, there are 2 inflexions on the curve: when the load cycle is about 1 million and 7 millions. The ratio curve of crack increment can be divided into 3 parts: initial propagation zone, stable propagation zone and unstable propagation zone. When the
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Numerical Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck

length of pre-crack is 0mm, the crack increment ratio is small before the load cycles reaches 7 million, while when the load cycles is over 7 million the crack increment ratio will increase evidently and the composite beam will fail soon. Therefore, 7-million is watershed of load cycles between stable zone and unstable zone. According to Figure 10, some equations are regressed as bellow: Initial zone: log( Stable zone: Unstable zone:
da ) 2e 5 N 2 0.0041 N 1.7314 dN da log( ) 2e 6 N 2 0.0005 N 1.8835 dN da log( ) 1e 4 N 2 0.1338 N 45 .014 dN

R2=0.9977 R2=0.9966 R2=0.9972 (6)

Here: N denotes load cycles (104), da/dN denotes crack increment ratio. CONCLUSION Crack is one of the most common distresses in steel deck pavement. When crack is diminished, the pavement property can be really improved. The paper does the research on how to simulate crack propagation of steel deck pavement composite beam, and gains some conclusions. One is that numerical analysis of crack propagation is a convenient method which can be used and whose result can reflect the crack propagation accurately. Another is: when crack propagation begins, there are 3 stages, and each of them has its own specialty. The article puts forward new method to estimate the crack increment ratio da/dN, which is much easier to use compared with Paris equations. REFERENCES 1) Monismith C.L., Coetzee N.F.. Reflection cracking: laboratory studies and design considerations[C]. Proceedings Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. 1980 2) Majidzadeh K., D.V. Ramsamooj. Mechanistic approach to the solution of cracking in pavements[R]. Special Report 140, Transportation Research Board, Washington D. C., 1973. 3) Majidzadeh K., E.M. Kaufmann. Application of fracture mechanics in the analysis of pavement fatigue[C]. Proceedings Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 1971 4) Salam Y.M., C.L.Monismith. Fracture characteristics of asphalt concrete[C]. Proceedings Association of asphalt Paving Technologists. 1972 5) Ramsamooj D.V., K. Majidzadeh, E.M. Kaufmann. The analysis and design of the flexibility of pavements[C]. Proceedings 3rd International Conference of Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. London, 1972 6) Zhifang Zhao, Shilang Xu. R Curve of Cement Concrete[J]. Journal of China Three Gorges University. 2002, 24(1):19-25 7) Zhimin Wu, Guopan Zhao. Influence of Ratio of Crack Length and Concrete Specimen Height on Crack Propagation and Fracture Toughness [J]. Journal of Application Basis and Engineering Science, 1995, 3(2):126-130 8) J.D.G. Sumpter. An alternative view of R curve testing [J]. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 1999(64): 161-176 9) Southeast University. Technology and Application of Epoxy Asphalt Concrete Pavement on Steel Deck of the 2nd Nanjing Yangzi River Bridge[R]. Najing, 2000 10) Zhenqing Liu. Research on the Key Technology of Steel Deck Pavement Design of Long Span Steel Bridge[D]: [Dissertation for Ph.D.]. Nanjing: Traffic College of Southeast University, 2003 11) Yangxian Huang. Pavement analysis and design [M].Beijing: China Communications Press,1998
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