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INDIAN BUSINESS ACADEMY GREATER NOIDA.

LIVE PROJECT - EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING METHODS IN MEETING KSA OBJECTIVES

FACULTY GUIDE:Dr. S. Nigam

Submitted By: Rajdip Sen Gupta Reg. No. FPG0709/122

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Completion of any project report is the milestone in the life of every management student and the success of live project then enhances the self confidence of the student. A successful and satisfactorily completion of any task is the outcome of the invaluable aggregate contribution of the different personal effort in all the direction, explicitly or implicitly. The key to the acknowledgement of such a different task lies in the hands of the professor. Words are poor gratitude bearer but I give him this opportunity to offer my sincere thanks to my professors, Dr. Shailendra Nigam Sir and Dr. Divya Kirti Mam for their benevolent and expertise guidance without which this research live project would not have seen the life of today. Also I thank the employees of Keane, for giving their valuable feedback. I also wish to thank everyone who helped me directly or indirectly in the preparation of this research project.

Date: 31st March, 2008.

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PREFACE

It is a result of my combined efforts and commitment in order to seek and know about the Training method effectiveness in meeting KSA objectives. As the name suggests, this live research project has tried to emphasize on the Problem Solving Approach given as the solution to the application of training program in the minds of the participants. The main aspect of this project is to use the knowledge in order to know the real life situations and to make it more practical for the organization so that it can make an impact while providing the training and development to the highly experienced individuals and corporate houses. It is quite true that the world outside our cozy home is many a time quite different from what we have perceived similarly, it is possible that the theoretical knowledge that we acquire in the class room is much different from the practical aspect of life.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The project was undertaken to analyze the concept of, Training method effectiveness in meeting the KSA objectives of an organisation and to adopt the best practices of the industry to serve the customer. To accomplish the above, around 42 employees of Keane, a Global business and IT Consulting firm, in Greater Noida were surveyed and interviewed. The core purpose of the survey was to find out employee perspective towards the training (mainly induction) that are given to them. An interview based on a questionnaire to know what does the employee feels in general towards its own organization and the training methods used. The idea behind the study is to adopt the best practices and to eliminate the pitfalls of the system. The project is an approach is how to give feedback on training method effectiveness in meeting the objectives of the organization.

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CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.......................2 PREFACE.3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..4 COMPANY PROFILE6-9 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE.10-12 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE..13 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY13 FINDING AND ANALYSIS 14-18 RECOMMENDATION..15-25 CONCLUSION 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 CASE-STUDY..28

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COMPANY PROFILE
Keane is a global services firm that specializes in enabling transformation of its clients business and IT functions. The transformation partner of choice for clients across a broad array of industries, Keane is unique in its passion for building satisfying and enduring relationships with clients. Keanes solutions which comprise consulting, technology, and outsourcing services are customized to address clients industry-specific challenges and drive improvements in business performance.

Our promise: to enable swift, dramatic transformation of your critical business and IT functions. Our approach: we combine deep industry, business process, and technical expertise with disciplined program management and an integrated team of global and local professionals to craft custom solutions that meet each clients specific business requirements. Your results: we make your organization more efficient, more effective, and more valuable to your customers now and for the long term.

Recently acquired by Caritor, an IT services industry pioneer, Keane now offers services that span consulting, technology, and outsourcing backed by greater technical depth, industry expertise, and geographic reach. Based in San Ramon, CA, Keane operates in 10 countries and employs more than 14,000 professionals. From application and business process outsourcing services to industry-specific solutions that merge consulting insights with technology innovation, everything Keane does is tailored to meet your unique and specific business needs. Hear what our clients have to say about working with Keane.

Guiding Principles Keane is a company grounded in integrity, focused on clients, and driven by results. We embody the best of what we were 42 years ago, who we are today, and where we will be 42

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years from now. KeanesVision Build a globally respected and enduring business consulting and information technology institution that partners with clients to enable them to transform their businesses so that they get closer to realizing their vision and become a leader in their industry. Keanes Mission Help customers improve their company performance by providing world-class solutions via business and IT capabilities that leverage our globally integrated team of thought-provoking, passionate professionals. Keanes Core Values Customer Partnership: We approach every client with a view to build a professionally enduring relationship Integrity & Accountability: We have the intellectual honesty to refuse opportunities that we cannot fulfill to the satisfaction of our clients, but once we commit we stand accountable Result Orientation: We leverage technology and embrace innovation with a single-minded focus of delivering leadership results for our clients Flexibility: We adapt our services and solutions to enable us to exceed our clients expectations Care for the Individual: We value the cultural diversity of our employees, treat every individual with respect, and encourage all to realize their fullest potential

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Leadership Council

Sandeep Bhargava EVP, Industry Solutions and Business Development

John M. Dick General Counsel

Marv Mouchawar EVP, Products and Corporate Development

Karen Powell SVP, Global Client Management

Krishna Prabhu SVP, Global Client Management

Jim Puthuff EVP and COO, Global Client Management

Srikanth Rao EVP, President Keane India

Mani Subramanian Chairman & CEO

Dean Williams SVP, Global Human Capital

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Industries served:

Insurance Public Sector Healthcare Telecommunications Life Sciences Retail Energy & Utilities Transportation Manufacturing Hospitality Financial Services

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STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE


Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has increased. When jobs were simple, easy to learn, and influenced to only a small degree by technological changes, there was little need for employees to upgrade or alter their skills. But the rapid changes taking place during the last quarter century in our highly sophisticated and complex society have created increase pressures for organizations to readopt the products and services produced, the manner in which products and services are produced and offered, the types of jobs required, and the types of skills necessary to complete these jobs. Evaluating training effectiveness: It is not enough to merely assume that any training in an organization offers is effective. We need to develop substantiate data to determine whether our training effort is achieving its goals; that is if it is correcting the deficiencies in the skills, knowledge or attitudes that were assessed as needing attention. It is often easy to generate a new training program, but if all training effort is not evaluated, it becomes possible to rationalize any employee training efforts. To avoid the uncontrolled expansion of training costs, management must insist on a thorough cost benefit evaluation to ensure that the training dollars generate satisfactory returns. Here are the three approaches, each of which offers improvement over subjective opinions. Test-retest method: Participants are given a test before they begin the program. After the program is completed, the participants retake the test. The difficulty arises in attempting to substantiate those changes in the test scores will be reflected in performance and that whatever changes has occurred can be fully attributed to instructions. 10

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Pre-post performance method: The utilization of tests as proxies for job performance creates the opportunities for error. The pre-post performance method is designed to correct this error. In this method each participant is evaluated prior to the training and rated to the actual job performance. After instruction is completed participants are re-evaluated. This directly deals with job behavior. Experimental control group method: Two groups are established-comparable as to skills, intelligence and learning abilitiesand evaluated on actual job performance. Members of the control group work on the job but do not undergo instruction. The experimental group is given the instruction. At the conclusion of the training the two groups are re-evaluated. If the training is really effective, the experimental groups performance will have improved, and its performance will be substantially better than that of the control group. This approach attempts to correct for factors other than the instruction program that influence job performance. Summary From the three methods mentioned, the experimental control group method is preferred. But costs, time and questions about the ethical activity is withholding training from some employees may make this method inappropriate. With in the evaluation we should assess four areas: Trainee reaction Learning Behavior Results The trainees reaction includes the subjective assessment. If the objective of the program is consistent with the expectation of the participants. If the trainees perceive that the training program was ineffective, this should immediately raise a red flag about the program. An excellent reaction in the participants may indicate that the session had an entertainment value and therefore and excellent rating is not an accurate evaluation.

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To conduct the analysis we need to generate three measures; cost, change, and impact. The costs are those monetary outlays for providing the training. The change factor looks at the difference between what one knew after the training as compared with before the training. The last factor impact, tries to show what change was solely attributed to the training program. It measures after the training results. Thus it is impossible to claim that the training, in and of itself, is effective unless it is evaluated. If those responsible for training are convinced that every training program being offered is good, it is a reasonable bet that little evaluation is taking place, and it is very much possible that the actual training could be improved. I have tried to reach the different parameters needed to strive upon to make the training program more effective. The project thus gives the idea by touching on the different titles which will help practically in making the organization success in its training programs.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
The objectives of the project can be broadly classified as 1. Collecting information about the training methods used in an organization. 2. Determining and evaluating the effectiveness of the training methods in meeting the KSA objectives.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Data Sources: Research Approaches: Research Instruments: Sampling Plan:

Primary and Secondary. Survey method Questionnaires The sample unit was the employees of Keane Consultancy. The sample size was 42 employees. The sampling procedure was Stratified Random Sampling.

Contact Methods: Personal Interview.

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Sample

100

120

20

40

60

80

Statement

1) Extent to which objectives of

2) Extent to which personal objectives

3) Extent to you will recommend others training program achieved. (Q1) Fully 3 6

to attend the training. (Q5)

of training been achieved. (Q2)

Percentage

Percentage

Percentage

16.67

FINDING AND ANALYSIS

40.48 18 5 16

7.14

17

Analysis of Responses

23.81

26.19

42.86

Fully

10

11

19.05

38.10

42.86

18

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4 Statements 3 3 2 2 Not at all 0 1 Total 42

Not at all Total

7.14

14.29

7.14

2.38

4.76

4.76

14

2.38

1) tra Exte ini nt 2) ng to Ex pr wh te og ic nt ra h to m ob of w ac jec 3) tra hic hi tiv Ex ini h p e te ng e P ved es o nt rs e . f be o r (Q to en na cen 1 yo ac l ob tag ) u hie jec e to will at re P ved tive te co e . s an 4) nd m rc (Q d E th me en 2) un xte e n ta de n tra d ge rs t to in oth ta w nd h Pe ing. ers 5) in ich rc (Q g en 5) a. Pos of yo ta Li t t jo ur ge ne ra b ap en p m inin re h an g ag , ex anc cia b. er te P ed tion Co he nt erc . (Q lle lpe to en 3 ag d wh tag ) ue t s yoo im ich e he ur p yo lpe 6) Aclem ur d O to P tionen ve i e - t ra Ampl rce pla ll r cti em nt n at on e ag in g plant e of y tra Pe n. (our in rc Q1 in en 1 g 7) ta ) pr ge Le og ng ra th Pe m. 8) of rc (Q 9) Pa th en 4) e Lo cin ta pr gi ge g og ca of ra lly th P m se e er . ( 10 pr ce Q qu )H og n 6) en ra ta as ce Pe m. ge lin po of rc (Q e stth en 8) m tr a e ta an in pr ge ag i n og er g d ra m be eb Pe . en rie rc (Q ar fing ent 7) ra m ag ng e e e e Pe d? ( ting rc Q1 en 0 ta ) ge

42

42

100

100

100

A Lot 4) Extent to which your appreciation and understanding of job enhanced. (Q3) Percentage 5) Post training, extent to which your a. Line manager helped to implement your Action-plan Percentage b. Colleagues helped to implement your Action plan. (Q11) Percentage 6) Overall rating of training program. (Q4) Percentage 3 7.14 Excellent 4 9.52 Too short 7) Length of the program. (Q6) Percentage 8) Pacing of the program. (Q8) Percentage 9) Logically sequence of the program. (Q7) Percentage 10) Has post-training debriefing meeting line manager been arranged? (Q10) Percentage Yes 27 64.29 9 21.43 4 9.52 7 16.67 Well sequenced 13 30.95 No 15 35.71 15 35.71 5 11.90 16 38.1 Just right 31 73.81 34 80.95 9 21.43 Too long 2 4.76 4 9.52 3 7.14 0 0 19 45.24 11 26.19 7 16.67 2 4.76 6 14.29 9 21.43 16 38.1 9.52 4 4 9.52 6 15 35.71 5 13 30.95 4 9 21.43 3 3 7.14 2 1 2.38

Not at all 1 1 2.38 42 100

3 7.14 0 0 Poor 0 0

42 100 42 100 32 100

42 100 42 100 Poorly sequenced 2 4.76 0 0 42 100 42 100

From the responses, we can arrive at the following conclusions:

Analysis of General feedback 1. Objectives of the training program


Around 90% of the employees have responded on the positive side, (4,5,6) that the objective of the training has been achieved, though they are not fully satisfied because only 7% have responded to 6(fully satisfied) option.

2. Achievement of Personal Objective


Though around 85% are of the view that somewhat their personal objectives are achieved but around 17% fully agree to that.

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3. Enhancement of appreciation and understanding of job as a whole


Here we got a good response, around 66% agree that after training their understanding and appreciation of the job has increased, however they have come up with different suggestions, which are discussed later.

4. Overall rating of the program


Though only 60% have rated the program positively but only 10% have rated them as Excellent.

5. Recommendation to others
Around 63% have Fully recommended others to attend the program.

Analysis of feedback on Balance of the Program 6. Length of the Training program


Around 74% feel that the length of the program is Just right, rest are of not satisfied.

7. Logical sequence of the Training program


Only around 48% are of the opinion that the program was well sequenced, rest want more improvement.

8. Pacing of the Training program


Here around 81% of the respondents feel that the pacing of the program was Just Right.

Analysis of feedback on Training Program Content 9. Best things that respondents liked about the program are:
Informative content Friendly atmosphere Its practical exposure And few liked the Trainer also.

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Things they didnt liked about the Content are: No alternate knowledge was provided Abrupt and hectic schedule Its long stretch Few didnt liked the trainer and the tests conducted

Analysis of feedback on Post Training Scenario


10. Only for 64% of the respondents, a proper post-training debriefing meeting with
their managers was arranged, it is recommended to arrange a meeting for all, wherein they can be told how to apply the theoretical part (learnt in the training) in the actual job.

11. Assistance to implement the Action plan


a. Around 35% fully agree that they received assistance from their colleagues. Boss. b. However around 53% agree that they received a lot of help from their

12. Though the respondents came up with various Recommendations to improve

the Training program, the most common ones are


Majority recommended for more of practical orientation. Certifications and proper appraisal should be given. There should be fun element and in tandem with latest market requirement. There should be more interaction between trainer and trainee. Lastly few suggested that the training should be informal and a bit elaborate.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

- for effective training: -

Selection procedure:
Every training program must address certain vital issues: Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What should be the level of training? What principles of learning? Where to conduct the program? IBA/FPG0709/122/HR/SN 18

Training should be such that it breaks the mental barriers of employees so that they come out with their suggestions, complaints, and necessities. The organization can get the basic feedback which will ultimately help in increasing the productivity.

Inputs in training and development:


Any Training program must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasis on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision making and problem solving abilities.

Ethics in T&D:
There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production functions in an organization. They are less seen and talked about in the personnel function. It is HR managers duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need for ethical behavior.

Attitudinal Changes:
Attitudes affect motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes so it is the duty of the HR manager to take care of negative attitudes and converting into the positive one.

Decision making and problem solving skills:


It must focus on methods and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work related problems. The HR manager should have the capability of groom the trainees with the decision making and problem solving skills.

Some Important steps that has to be taken into consideration to make training effective.

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1. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different


strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills.

2. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and


training and re-training are done at all levels on a continuous and on-going basis.

3. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and


individual training needs.

4. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of the training.

The Kirkpatrick Model


The most well-known and used model for measuring the effective of training programs was developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in the late 1950s. It has since been adapted and modified by a number of writers; however, the basic structure has well stood the test of time. The basic structure of Kirkpatricks four-level model is shown here.

Figure 1 - Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Programs Level 4 Results Level 3 What organizational benefits resulted from the training? To what extent did participants change their

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Behavior

behavior back in the workplace as a result of the training? To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training? How did participants react to the program?

Level 2 Learning Level 1 Reaction

An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was met. Its not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. All levels of evaluation are important. In fact, the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing evaluations at each level. Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level. So, if participants did not learn (Level 2), participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning. Now moving up to the next level, if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace (Level 3), perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2). The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. So, you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs, Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for hard-skills programs only, Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for programs costing much. Above all else, before starting an evaluation, be crystal clear about your purpose in conducting the evaluation.

Using the Kirkpatrick Model


How do you conduct an evaluation? Here is a quick guide on some appropriate information sources for each level. Level 1 (Reaction)

completed participant feedback questionnaire 21

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informal comments from participants focus group sessions with participants

Level 2 (Learning)

pre- and post-test scores on-the-job assessments supervisor reports

Level 3 (Behavior)

completed self-assessment questionnaire on-the-job observation reports from customers, peers and participants manager

Level 4 (Results)

financial reports quality inspections interview with the participants

Train the Trainer


To train the trainer objective is to enable delegates to design, train, evaluate and follow up effective training programmes. They will also learn how to design training of any length for groups of varying sizes, learning styles and experience. One can focus on delivery skills (effective body language and voice projection) and also teach classic techniques about handling difficult trainees and controlling the group There are different agendas on which one can train the trainer: Appraisal skills Assertiveness Skills Assertiveness and managing conflict IBA/FPG0709/122/HR/SN 22

Coaching for managers Disciplinary procedures and correcting poor performance Dealing with difficult people Interviewing Skills Negotiation skills Presentation skills PowerPoint Presentation Skills Project management for non-project managers Stress Management Time Management The New Manager

Planning the Training Event


Overview of key competencies in implementing effective training events

Planning a training event Module 1 : Providing Logistical Support


o o o o o o o o o

1.1 Define the training framework 1.2 Define role of the training administrator 1.3 Manage the budgeting process 1.4 Manage the invitation process 1.5 Determine and select training venue 1.6 Manage travel and accommodation requirements 1.7 Determine and select Subject Matter Specialist 1.8 Manage technical and human resources 1.9 Review and evaluate the training logistics and support

Module 2: Developing training programmes 23

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o o o o o o o o

2.1 Identify participants 2.2 Understand adult learning principles 2.3 Design needs assessments: strategies and tools 2.4 Conduct and analyze needs assessments 2.5 Develop learning objectives - workshop/session 2.6 Develop content outline 2.7 Identify appropriate training and facilitation techniques 2.8 Develop training programmes

Training Content

Module 3: Adapting and Developing Content


o o o o

3.1 Identify and assess existing materials 3.2 Adapt materials 3.3. Validate the training design 3.4 Finalize materials

Training Delivery

Module 4: Implementing Effective Training Events


o o o o o o

4.1 Apply adult learning principles 4.2 Identify differences between training and facilitation 4.3 Use appropriate training and facilitation techniques 4.4 Create positive learning environment 4.5 Co-facilitate with Subject Matter Specialists (Resource Persons) 4.6 Verify achievement of learning objectives 24

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Training Evaluation

Module 5: Evaluating and Reviewing Training


o o o o o o

5.1 Summarize the process of evaluation 5.2 Select training and evaluation methods 5.3 Assess and summarize training experiences 5.4 Assess impact of training event 5.5 Report evaluation results 5.6 Apply outcomes of evaluation and review

CONCLUSION
The project was the addition of the classroom study that I have undergone plus the practical knowledge that I have gained during my curriculum part. The project being more suggestive and practical I have tried to be more analytical on various aspects that have been covered. Throughout the project we have discussed the need of training and development activities in the organization as well as the expected outcomes from such endeavors. In practice, however, it is not uncommon for individuals to be sent to or to attend training events as a reward for past good work. While recognizing that good work has its merits, it is our premise that sending employees to a training program as a reward rather than fulfill a training and development need undermines good training and development practices.

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THE BEST MINUTE I SPEND IS THE ONE I INVEST IN PEOPLE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Human Resource Management -Stephen Robbins Human Resource Management - K. Ashwathappa Organizational Behavior - Robbins

www.casestudiesinfo.blogspot.com www.hr-guide.com

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www.citehr.com www.google.com

CASE-STUDY
Keane, headquartered in San Ramon, CA, is a global business and IT consulting firm delivering world-class solutions to clients across a broad array of industries. In June 2007, Caritor acquired Keane, bringing together the strengths and values of two industry leaders: Caritor, a globally integrated IT solutions provider with a 15-year history, and Keane, a 42-year-old business and IT services leader. Partnering with clients in ten countries, Keane provides the results-driven orientation, fast and flexible global sourcing model, and disciplined program management required to ensure flawless delivery and success for our clients. It has its branch office in Noida SEZ, where in various trainings, mainly induction and IT related, are provided.

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