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ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF ARAVALI HILLS

Non-availability of the Master Plan showing the following:

Natural resource assessment

Future land use planning

Eco-restoration plan to compensate the environmental degradation

Economic zoning and siting of industries and housing schemes

Plan for rehabilitation of wasteland and salt affected land

Rehabilitation programmes of abandoned mines

Identification of mines difficult thus making compliance of the rules and regulations difficult

Air quality in and around mines and crusher units beyond the permissible limits

Land degradation in the Aravali Range

Loss of vegetation on the hills

Poor compliance of the environmental standards and rules

No separate charge for eco-restoration under Minor Mineral Rules

Inadequate mechanism to upgrade the mining technology

Inadequate environmental database making the decision-making process difficult

Lack of willingness on the part of mine/crusher operators to comply the environmental standards/statute

Lack of environmental awareness

Open access system on the hills, a major factor for reducing the vegetation

Poor involvement of the local community

Lack of self employment opportunities, inducing the people towards illegal mining

Little effort to integrate the environmental characteristics with the future planning

Depletion of ground water resources

Inadequate programme for rehabilitation of wasteland and salt affected land

Lack of water conservation measures and rain water harvesting

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. Ministry of Environmnet & Forests, Government of India, vide Gazette Notification dated 7 th May, 1992 has prohibited certain developmental and industrial activities on certain lands in Alwar district of Rajasthan and Gurgaon district of Haryana. In the Aravali Hills, a large number of mining activities, operation of stone crushers and pulverisers, deforestation and unplanned construction activities are causing environmental degradation. These mines are usually located in clusters in remote mineral rich districts / areas where living standards is lower and understanding of people towards environmental impacts is also poor. In the past, mine operators took no note of environmental damage. In fact they were not even conscious about it. The attitude of mining community is to ignore the environmental concerns. In majority of the cases, the environmental concerns are ignored for making quick profits. The small mines (< 5 hectares) and the mining of ‘minor minerals’ which are no doubt small individually but have damaging characteristics when in clusters e.g. the mines of granite, marble, slates, quartzite etc. (falling under minor minerals) are no less damaging than the others, especially when the processing is taken into consideration. The mining activities in the region results in disturbance of land surface, altering drainage pattern and land use, besides the pollution problems. This may lead to the following environmental problems:

Air pollution

Water Pollution

Noise pollution

Problems related to solid waste management

With a quest to solve the problem of environmental degradation, this study has been undertaken by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). CPCB entrusted this work to Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited (Government of India Enterprise) to prepare a report of the Aravali Range in the District with the following objectives:

To prepare status report of the pollution problems in the Aravali Hills

To prepare environmental management plan to abate various environmental problems

To prepare action plan for restoration of environmental quality

2. Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited, held extensive discussion with various government and non-governmental agencies to understand the problems of environmental degradation in the hill region. In addition, base line data were also generated in terms of the following environmental attributes:

o Air quality

o

Water quality

o

Noise level

o

Land use pattern

o

Socio-economic profile of the district

o

Data on ecology of the area

For preparation of thematic maps, data from various agencies were obtained. For assessing the land use pattern of the area, remote sensing data from National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad were taken. This data pertains to 5 th April,

2001.

3. Environmental Problems

The CMPDI & CPCB made several visits to the District and held extensive discussions with mine / crusher unit operators, State and Central Government officials. Based on the study and discussions, the environmental problems in the Aravali Range in the district have been identified and remedial measures including the pollution control guidelines and action plan for various stakeholders have been suggested. The following are the environmental problems identified in the Aravali Hills in the district:

Vide Gazette Notification of Ministry of Environment & Forests dated 7 th May, 1992, Government of India has restricted various developmental and industrial activities in Gurgaon district. For environmental clearance of the projects, project proponent has to submit Environmental Statement Report along with Environmental Management Plan.

In large-scale mining projects, the applicant is asked to submit detailed mine plans on mining and processing methods, the technology being used, the financing plan and the environmental management plan (including reclamation) and the training and local benefits envisaged but what it still require is a proposal on district level as to what will be mined, how it will be mined and with what method, how the financing will be arranged, what are the areas of environmental concerns (keeping in view the regional character) which need to be addressed by the entrepreneur. This does not seem to be adequately addressed keeping in view the environmental degradation of the Aravali Hills.

The Aravalli Notification restricts process and operations under certain categories of the land in the district. Though the records of such lands are available at every village level map, there is no record available in the district level in respect of these areas to undertake realistic appraisal & effective monitoring of mining and other projects at the macro level on such lands.

Vide Gazette Notification of Ministry of Environment & Forests dated 29 th November, 1999, Government of India has interalia made provision for preparing the Master Plan integrating the environmental concerns and

the future land use of the area. The Master Plan has now been published. However, it does not interalia address the following issues:

Land use planning

Economic zoning

Natural Resource Assessment

Water Resource Status

Landscaping

Though the air quality on the regional basis shows the parameters within the specified limits, the areas near crushing zone and active mining zone remains a matter of concern. In the mining and the crusher areas, the concerted efforts have not been given to the quality of roads and the dust suppression measures to maintain the air quality within safe limits.

A number of crusher plants are there in each zone. Government of Haryana has issued guidelines for siting as well as operation of the crusher in an eco-friendly manner. But the compliance is only partial. Wind breaking walls are not proper, pollution control devices are not operating and the green belt around the crushing zones are not maintained.

The identification of mines in the district is difficult. It is not possible for the regulators to immediately identify the mine, which is defaulter in respect of pollution control.

The Minor Miner Rules of the Government of Haryana does not levy any charge for environmental betterment in the mining areas. It is therefore difficult to get the fund for the biological reclamation of dumps and eco-restoration in the mining areas.

There does not seem to be a mechanism to upgrade the mining technologies and methodologies to minimize the impacts due to mining in the eco-sensitive zones in the district. Also, there seems to be inadequate effort to undertake environmental projects in the district with sufficient start-up fund.

There does not seem to be a mechanism to ascertain that the mining method proposed for a particular project will result in optimum exploitation of the resource and that there is competency in mining and environmental management. There is no identified land where over burden could be temporarily dumped prior to being utilized for void filling and for other purposes.

There is inadequate data in respect of environmental quality in the area. Since the area encompasses various mines and industries, sharing of financial burden for generating these data on strategic locations is practically absent. This not only poses the problem in effective compliance of the consent conditions but also in creation of the database for future planning in the district, as substantial industrial growth is anticipated here in the near future.

Inadequate knowledge on the part of mine and industrial operators in respect of the environmental impacts due to mining and industrial units respectively, is one of the key factors in environmental damage caused in the district. Because of the lack of knowledge of how to exploit the resource, maintain standards, the environmental degradation takes place. Also, there is no willingness on the part of the mine operators / owner of the crusher units for environmental improvement in and around mine/processing plant sites. Since the environmental degradation has already occurred in many places, it is imperative on the part of the State Government to carry out, and pay, for the eco- restoration without necessarily closing the mining and other industrial operations at such places. At these places in the mining and industrial areas, government may take steps for environmental upgradation and recompense for these expenses could be obtained through a garnishee of income from future activities, thus making the polluter pay, but on an incremental basis and without affecting the continuation of the operation. There does not seem to be a mechanism for the above. Besides, there also does not seem to be frequent consultation of the mine and industrial operators with the State Pollution Control Board to take steps, whatever and whenever required, for environmental betterment in the district.

In the Aravali Range, there exists open access system of the plant resources available which is used for fodder and fuel. As is evident from Figure-4.1 (in Chapter-IV), community controlled regulated access system, required for sustainable common land system in the Aravali Range, is inadequate.

Since the percentage of goats and sheep is significant, there is lesser availability of dung as fertilizer and as the fuels. There is growing consumption of chemical fertilizers, which due to high ground water level in the southern part of the district, may further increase the salinity. Besides, since the fuel availability is lesser, there is increased dependence on the forests for fuel. This has also led to reduction in forest cover in the district.

The pace of the afforestation programme in the district need to be speeded up. In the afforestation programme, unless due care is taken about the need of the people, the programme may not be successful. The pace of the social forestry programme, therefore, also need to be speeded up.

There is need to consider the participation of people and specially the women folk for the environmental programmes being executed in the district. There does not seem to be adequate awareness amongst the people in respect of the environmental problems, which exist in the Aravali hills, the efforts that they can take to minimise the damage to environment. The self-employment opportunities are lesser which induces the locals to illegal mining.

Due to its proximity to Delhi and the infrastructural facilities the district has, there is further potential for growth in industrial and housing sectors in the district. So far little effort seems to have been made to integrate the planning process with the environmental quality of the district.

Considerable portion of soil has become saline due to various factors. Little effort has been made to rehabilitate the saline land. Unless proper efforts are taken to control, it may render considerable portion of land into wasteland.

In some part of the district, the ground water potential is already in the dark category. Lack of water conservation measures and rainwater harvesting may ultimately lead to water scarcity in the near future.

4. Recommendations for Eco-Restoration

Based on the environmental problems identified, the following actions are recommended for the eco-restoration in the Aravali Range in the district:

State Government of Haryana: Eco-restroration programmes may be chalked out by State Government of Haryana in consultation with various government departments and the same should be carried out in phases. Central Pollution Control Board also needs to participate in such exercises and provide technical support for the purpose.

It is also imperative on the part of State Government to improve inter- departmental co-ordination among various government departments to achieve the common objective i.e. ecological restoration of Aravali Hills in the district.

The state government should also monitor the progress in eco-restoration efforts through satellite imagery at an interval of say 2 years. CPCB should also provide technical guidance to the State government in this matter.

District Administration: need to take up following actions for eco-upgradation measures of the Aravali Hills:

Identify the areas where illegal mining is being carried out and immediately take legal action against such persons. All the mining and stone crushers should be asked to display signboard giving all the relevant information on the status of their lease / units. The boundary line of the lease area should also be properly demarcated.

Initiate action to issue to the concerned institutions to prepare & issue Master Plan showing developmental plan of the district integrating environmental concerns. The future land use pattern and the land-scaping should be finalized and the Master Plan should interlia exhibit the same. The Master Plan must interalia address the following issues:

i. Land use planning clearly specifying the areas for overburden dumps, waste materials stocking sites, area earmarked for plantation along with the species, site for common effluent treatment plant (CETP) and common Bio-medical Waste Management facilities, hazardous waste dumping site and the sites for residential colonies.

ii. The master plan should also indicate the proposed eco-restoration plan to compensate the environmental degradation by the proposed activities in the master plan.

iii. Economic zoning and categorization of industries with reference to their pollution potential from A to H category. Master Plan should clearly indicate the categories of industries allowed in a particular industrial area.

iv. Natural Resource Assessment

v. The areas proposed for the industrial area, mining area and stone crushing zone should be clearly indicated in the districts level maps.

vi. Plan for the rehabilitation of the wasteland and salt affected areas.

vii. Rehabilitation programmes for the abandoned mines areas either to convert these to water reservoirs and eco-parks or reclamation by filling by rural waste, urban waste or fly ash. The Master Plan should be detailed to show the areas where overburden could be dumped, areas where waste material could be stocked, areas where plantation could be carried out, type of plant species etc. Master Plan should interlia clearly specify the areas where mining may be permitted along with the measures required for eco- upgradation.

Providing more opportunities for alternative employment in the district. This should lessen the dependence on the hills and the forest produce, thus helping in conservation off natural resources. Help of local reputed NGOs may also be taken for the purpose.

Preparing GIS based land use plan of the district showing the restricted areas as per the Aravali Notification. This will help in effective monitoring of the environmental protection measures.

For any successful programme, participation of local people is very much essential. For eco-restoration of the Aravali hills also, participation of local community need to be ensured. In addition, efforts should be there to increase awareness among the local community regarding the need for protection of environmental in the district. Help of reputed local NGOs may be taken for this purpose.

Efforts should be there to enhance shifting of attitude among the local community for rearing of cows, buffaloes etc. in lieu of goats and sheep. This will increase the biomass generation, increasing fertility of the soil and the productivity of the lands in the district. This will improve the fuel and fodder scenario for the poorer section of the society. Distribution of LPG cylinders may also be considered for the purpose.

Regulated access of the common land in the district should be ensured to protect the natural resources in the district through the formation of village forest committees etc.

The developmental planning in the district should not be carried out in isolation. All the planning should interlia include environmental impact and concerns of activities of one sector on the other sectors in the district e.g. afforestation should be planned not only with a view to increase vegetation on the hills but also be supplement for fuel, fodder etc. in the district. Thus, there should be integrated planning covering all the departments in the district to foster the eco-restoration in the district.

Action to be immediately started for rehabilitation of common lands in the region. These lands should be developed to provide support in respect of fuel and fodder and that will reduce biotic pressure on the hills.

All efforts should be made to preserve the ground water resources. Water shed Management and rainwater harvesting to be implemented in the Aravali hills regions on war footing. In the areas where mining deeper than the ground water table of the area is to be carried out, adequate provision of pollution control and conservation of water resources should be made.

Efforts need to be started immediately for reclamation of salt affected land. In addition, efforts are also required to be expedited for vegetation of barren rocky land and the gullied land.

Possibilities of rehabilitation of the degraded lands in the form of abandoned mine pits to water reservoir and eco-parks to be explored. Besides water management it will have commercial benefits by attracting tourism and creating job opportunities. The other possibilities for reclamation of the abandoned mines which are not feasible for developing water reservoir and eco-parks are given below in the descending order of priority:

Rural waste

Urban waste

Fly ash from thermal power plants

For this purpose, a survey may be undertaken to identify the bio-waste from rural areas, which could be used for filling the voids created due to mining operations. However, urban and semi-urban solid waste may also be considered for the purpose, which may include construction waste, and other solid waste, which are free from plastic, and other harmful substances. An option of fly ash disposal may also be considered for rehabilitation of mine voids and low lands.

Initiate close co-ordination among all related departments for eco- restoration of Aravali Hills.

Department of Mines & Geology: Department of Mines & Geology, Government of Haryana should take the following measures to streamline the mining activities in the region so that the mining and allied operations are in consonance with the designated land use planning of the district:

Integrate the provision for approval of mine plan along with grant of mine lease. The mine plan should be in consonance with the designated land use pattern / landscaping of the area.

There should be frequent inspections of the mining operations to ensure that these are in line with the requirement for sustainable development in the district. The inspection may be carried out at an interval of say 3 months.

There should be continual source of revenue from the mining operations to the fund, recommended to be created, for the eco-restoration of the Aravali Hills. This cost may be internalized into the cost of production.

Small mining leases less than 5 ha should be discontinued.

The minimum period of lease should be for 15-20 years. This will induce the mine operators to take environmental protection measures more seriously.

State Pollution Control Board: The following actions are required on the part of the State Pollution Control Board to ensure sustainable mining and industrial operations in the district:

Prepare inventory of the environmental upgradation measures undertaken by all the mining and other industrial operation in the Aravali Hill region.

Specify the additional measures, if any, required for achieving environmentally compatible conditions.

Periodically verify whether the environmental protection measures are in existence and operating effectively. Initiate legal action against mining and industry units found violating the environmental laws, standards and consent conditions.

Regular monitoring to check compliance and to assess the ambient air quality, water quality and other environmental protection measures should be carried out at critical locations. Online monitoring stations and networking should be installed in the critical areas.

In order to carry out environmental monitoring and other tasks, Regional Office may need additional staffing, budget, vehicle and equipment support, which may be assessed and accordingly provided.

State PCBs should also undertake awareness programmes of the local people and the entrepreneurs. There should be frequent interaction with the mine / industry owners to ensure environmental protection.

It is recommended that stone crushers should either be in identified zones or in the mining leases. The crushers outside the zones should be brought into the zones or in the mining lease areas in a phased manner. The siting criteria should accordingly be modified.

Department of Agriculture: The following actions are required on the part of State Department of Agriculture

Rehabilitation of the salt affected land. This should be done in close co- ordination of the Regional Office of the CGWB.

Development of the pasture lands.

Rehabilitation of the barren rocky and gullied land

Improve soil conservation measures in the district

Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India:

The following actions are required from MoEF side for environmental protection / eco-restoration in the area:

Ministry of Environment & Forests should take initiative to appoint a central agency to monitor the overall eco-restoration efforts in the Aravali Hills and to provide technical support to the implementing organizations. CPCB may be one such body to oversee the progress in environmental protection and eco-restoration and also to provide technical support to the implementing organizations. For this purpose, CPCB may seek assistance of a resource organization having experience in mining environment. The task force may be constituted with CPCB or any such agency to act as nodal agency and the officers from the following departments to be as members:

Regional Office of State Pollution Control Board

Forest Department

District Administration

Department of Mining & Geology

Irrigation Department

Regional Office of CGWB

Agriculture Department

District Industry Department

It is recommended that MoEF should also include representative from Central Ground Water Board and CPCB in the Expert Committee/Monitoring Committee constituted to examine the progress of

the eco-restoration programmes and implementation of pollution control measures to comply with the standards.

The renewal of mining lease and granting new leases should be effected after examining the environmental protection measures taken by the lessee. The above committee should periodically inspect and ensure the implementation of conditions imposed while granting lease.

Central Ground Water Board: The Regional Office of Central Ground Water Board should assess the ground water potential of the district covering some more monitoring stations, if required. They should recognize the areas where water tables are depleting and causing danger to the underground aquifer. It is suggested that Regional Office of CGWB should display the data on their site on Internet for the awareness of public and further usage. This will be a guiding tool for planning further industrial and urban activities in the district, which affect the ground water level and to take stringent actions for water conservation. Also water shed management and rainwater harvesting in the region should be implemented.

Forest Department: The Forest Department should fix the target for afforestation and the same should be carried out in phased manner. The Forest Department may even carry out the afforestation on behalf of mine operator. For this purpose, the expenses should be borne by the mine operators. This should be carried out keeping in view the following considerations:

Increasing the fertility of the soil to support vegetation

Increasing the vegetation

Checking the soil erosion

Vegetating the barren rocking land and gullied land

At places, the consideration may be to make available fuel to the locals and fodder to livestock, to reduce the biotic pressure on the hills.

Protection of the vegetated area: Efforts should be there to involve locals also to protect the existing vegetation and the plantation, which were carried out under the afforestation programme. The afforestation programme should be carried out not on the mineral rich areas but on wasteland or village common land.

Access to the common land: The regulated access to the common land in lieu of open access system should be encouraged. For this purpose, involvement of village panchayat should be ensured.

Central Pollution Control Board: The following actions, on the part of Central Pollution Control Board, are recommended:

CPCB should review the status of environmental improvement periodically through field visits and interaction with other agencies. The environmental ingredients to be reviewed may be:

- Increase in vegetation / afforestation

- Status of salt affected land

- Status of rehabilitation of the degraded land

- Implementation of the master plan

- Status of ambient air quality, water quality, under ground water and other relevant environmental attributes.

- Implementation of pollution control measures taken by the mines/ processing units for implementation of the standards.

CPCB should also provide technical support to the implementing agencies.

Take up further studies in the Aravali Range in the areas where the concentration of mining and allied activities are considerable to take stock of the environmental status of such areas and preparing action plan for eco-restoration.

Mine Lessees: The mine lessees should implement the environmental management plan and mining plan approved by the concerned authority. The conditions imposed by the SPCB in the consent as well as notified environmental standards should be implemented by the mine lessees and other enterpreneurs. Also the conditions laid down by any other regulatory authorities like Ground Water Board, Director of Mine and Geology should also be implemented.

Stone Crushers operators: The operators of stone crushers should fully implement the pollution prevention measures and emission standards notified under Environmental Protection Act, 1986. Also the condition imposed by SPCB in the consent granting in the Air Act, should be implemented.

5.

Search for Sustainable Development of the Aravali Region

Though the aforesaid recommendations have been drawn for the industries existing in the Aravali range, any future effort in respect of search for sustainable development in the Aravali Range should broadly take into consideration resource potential in the region, the demand of the products and the supply options. Though the demand for the niche products existing in the Aravali Range which is one of the oldest mountain ranges in India will continue to grow, the supply options need to be given a closer look due to eco-sensitivity of the region. The environmental cost needs to be internalised in the cost of the product and there is need to limit the supply options. The Aravali range has been reported to prevent the desert from spreading into Indo-Gangetic plains. So, all the future planning should not only concentrate to meet the ever growing demand of the products but due consideration should also be given to protect the chain. All the

developmental activities should therefore be planned in a coherent manner and there should be integrated approach for sustainable development in the Aravali Region. The major actions to be taken by various agencies are shown in Figure- 8.1 in Chapter-VIII.

CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Historical Background

The history of Gurgaon dates back to Mahabharata period, when it was known as GURU GRAM. The tradition says that Yudhishthir gifted this village to his Guru Dronacharya, and thus it can be presumed that the place was held by Pandavas. During the first half of 7th century, this area was under control of Harsha's empire, and then of Gurjara Pratiharas. Subsequently, Tomaras, the feudatories of Pratiharas became independent, laid the foundation of Delhi in 736 AD, and held Gurgaon region under them till Visaladeva Chahamana (Chauhan) conquered Delhi about 1156 AD. During the Medieval period, the people of this region have experienced changing fortunes at the hands of Muslim Rulers. Although the people resisted Muslim domination for nearly two centuries, they finally succumbed, after the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghauri in 1192 AD. Hem Raj, son of Prithvi Raj Chauhan, tried to recapture Gurgaon Area by invading Mewat, from Alwar, during the period of Qutab-u-din-Aibak (1200-1210 AD), but he was killed in the war. The Meos were subdued by Mian Hussain Jung, nephew of Qutab- u-din-Aibak, who agreed to pay Jazia, while some accepted Islam. During Akbar's era (1556- 1605 AD), the area covered by Dastur Jharsa (Sarka Delhi) was contained in Suba of Delhi. After Aurungzeb's death, the Mughal era ended with several contending powers dividing the region amongst themselves, whereas Badshahpur was owned by Begum Samru.

The British Raj

The East India Company took over possession of Gurgaon vide a Treaty of Surji Arjungaon signed on 30th December 1803. As a follow up in 1816, Gurgaon became headquarters of Administration. By 1857, the life in Gurgaon district seemed to have settled to a peaceful and quiet route. However on 13th May 1857, a large party of 3rd Light Cavalry rebelled against W. Ford of Bengal Civil Services, the then collector and district magistrate of Gurgaon. Ford was compelled to leave creating a political vacuum, and Mewatis rose against the British. This however was for a short time, as throughout October 1857, Brigadier General Showers severely punished the turbulent Meos, Gujjars, Ranghars and Ahirs, and other rebel princes. Carrying fire and sword, far and wide, General Showers went on a rampage, killing people and indiscriminately burning houses between Dharuhera and Tauru. As a punishment for siding with the mutineers, British Administration deliberately neglected Gurgaon region between 1857 and World War-I, educationally and economically. There was slight modification in this policy when people of this area contributed liberally in men and money during World War-I. In the phase of nationalist movement, Gurgaon observed a partial hartal (strike) on 10th April, 1919. The battle of Indian freedom enlisted the support and active participation of people from this area.

Roots of Mirza Ghalib

Very recently, Haryana Urdu Academy researchers have found out that the famous Urdu Poet Mirza Ghalib had roots in Gurgaon. The research has established that the 19th century poet, who has his dilapidated haveli in Gali Qasim Jaan at Ballimaran in walled city of Delhi, was related to the Royal family of Ferozepur Jhirka in Gurgaon District. Mirza Ghalib's wedding with Umrao Begum was performed here and he was a regular visitor to Nawab of Loharu near Gurgaon.

Post-Independent India

The partition of the country in 1947 saw a mass exodus of Muslims from Gurgaon to West Pakistan and vice-versa. Camps for the refugees were arranged in Bhim Nagar, Arjun Nagar and Gaushala. Gurgaon has not looked back since then. 15th August, 1979 was a landmark for Gurgaon, when Gurgaon, an old district from British days was carved out as a new district amongst 12 other districts of Haryana, after exclusion of Faridabad.

With the formation of Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA), under Haryana Urban Development Act, 1977, the development of Gurgaon is taking place by leaps and bounds. Whereas Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) has given much fillip to bring Gurgaon on international map. For a rapid growth of Gurgaon, the Director, Town & Country Planning has involved private sector organisations like DLF, Ansals, Unitech etc. besides HUDA, towards development of residential sectors, as well as many commercial areas. The industrial areas are being development by HSIDC, and Udyog Vihar is now proud to have many multinational companies. The commercial complexes developed, or in the process of development, like Plaza Tower, Corporate Park, Gateway Tower, Nestle Tower, DLF Square, Signature Towers, Global Business Park etc. are comparable to any such complexes around the world. Today, Gurgaon can also boast of a five star Hotel Bristol already functioning in DLF City-l. A number of clubs have come up in Gurgaon such as DLF Gymkhana Club, Ansal's Chancellor Club, South City Club, HUDA Gymkhana Club and Utopia Club. DLF Golf & Country Club is the first of its kind in the area, with day & night Golf playing facilities. The development of Gurgaon is proceeding in accordance with the concept of NCR, and thus being developed as a satellite town of Delhi. Management Development Institute, Haryana Institute of Public Administration, Staff Colleges of Premier Banks are already functioning in Gurgaon. The Rose Garden in Sector 15-1, Citizen's Park in Sector 15-11, HUDA Park bordering Sector 14 and Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29 are pretty beautiful places to enjoy evenings.

1.1 Environmental Background

Protection of Environment from the degradation caused by industrial development is the present watchword for the survival of the human civilization. The World Environment Conference of June, 1992 at Rio-de-Janeiro underlined the commitment of the Governments throughout the world and reinforced the need of immediate action plan to protect the

environment for future generation. It is also recognized that mineral mining and processing certainly contribute to the national and global environmental problems and there is need to protect the biodiversity of the world.

Broadly speaking, Berlin Guidelines (Mining & Environment) suggested (as adopted in Harare Conference) the following:

……… activities, from exploration and processing to decommissioning and reclamation. It acknowledges the importance of integrating environmental and economic considerations in the decision making process and the fact that the mineral deposits are unique in their occurrence. It recognizes the importance of mining to the social, economic and material needs of society, in particular for the developing countries.

mining activities require good environmental stewardship in all

Sustainable

“Sustainable mining under appropriate environmental guidelines is based on interaction between industry, governments, non-governmental organizations and the public, directed towards optimizing economic development while minimizing environmental degradation. The need for such guidelines is recognized by industry, governments and international agencies. It is also recognized that the political will of the governments, together with commitment of industry management and of the community, are the essential conditions needed to enforce environmental legislation and more importantly to ensure compliance with all the applicable laws for the protection of the environment, employees and the public”.

The United Nations organized “Inter-Regional Seminar on Guidelines for the Development of small and medium scale mining” held in February, 1993 at Harare, Zimbabwe recommended the following under the Environmental Section.

“IX. Government and their agencies should take into account the “Berlin Guidelines” and have a responsibility to:

d. Make the small and medium scale mining sector aware of their potential to cause environmental damage and their responsibility to minimize it;

e. Ensure effective local monitoring and control systems;

f. Encourage the development and use of environmental friendly technologies.”

Aravali Hills

The Aravalli range, stretching from Palanpur in Gujarat to Delhi, divides Rajasthan into three distinct climatic regions. In this range, the Udaipur zone is estimated to be around 300 million years old. It is, therefore, not surprising that the range is a unique amphitheatre of biological diversity. But with the man-animal conflict on the increase, it is feared that the spectacular biodiversity of the Aravallis will be totally lost by the mid 21st century.

The Aravallis, most distinctive and ancient mountain chain of peninsular India, mark the site of one of the oldest geological formations in the world. Heavily eroded and with exposed outcrops of slate rock and granite, it has summits reaching 4950 feet above sea level.

Due to its geographical location, the range harbours a mix of Saharan, Ethiopian, peninsular, oriental and even Malayan elements of flora and fauna. However, very few studies have been carried out on the ecology of this mountain system.

In the early part of this century, the Aravallis were well wooded. There were dense forests with waterfalls and one could encounter a large number of wild animals. Today, the changes in the environment at Aravali are severe.

The foothills of the Aravallis on the west fall in the rain shadow of the 1,721-metre-high hill Guru Shikar and a number of dry deciduous desert plants like babool have overgrown the land. On the eastern rain-fed foothills, the vegetation is typical of sub-humid climate: date palm and other trees. In the higher altitudes the vegetation is mesic: mostly sagwan and sheesham. The bushes are dominated by karonda and thor.

sheesham. The bushes are dominated by karonda and thor . Though one finds a number of

Though one finds a number of tree species in the hills, timber quality trees have almost disappeared. Hillock after hillock used to be covered by bamboo. Today, bamboo clumps survive only near temples or forest outposts.

However, distribution of wildlife was not restricted to regions as in the case of vegetation. The lion, which is presently restricted to the Sason Gir sanctuary of Gujarat, was found on

the southwestern foothills of Aravallis. But after the killing of two lionesses at Anadra in 1862, these majestic beasts have not been spotted in the region.

The tiger, panther, leopard and sloth bear were very common too. Middle-sized carnivores like the jungle cat, civet, carcal, wolf, jackal and mongoose were found in abundance. Herbivorous large mammals like the wild boar, sambhar and spotted deer were plentiful. The chinkara, black buck and the blue bull were found in the foothills. The jungle fowl was the pride of Abu hill.

Today the region presents a vastly different scenario. Tigers, medium sized carnivores and the herbivores have all vanished. Panthers are invading villages for food. The remaining population of sloth bears is thriving on lantana berries. The only species untouched is the primates, which are protected by religious sentiment.

The British had promulgated a legislation — Abu Wildlife Protection Act in 1889, which was followed till the Raj existed. Thereafter, the common man took to indiscriminate felling of trees and killing of wild animals, firstly for food and then for trade. Wildlife can sustain regulated shikar but certainly not wanton killing for trade. The main Aravalli range has become a prime tourist centre for Gujarat and Rajasthan. As a consequence, hotels have sprung up everywhere. All the wild fruit like figs, jamun, mango and date, are harvested for selling to the tourists. Man has usurped the natural food of wild animals. Agriculture has reached the highest altitude of the hills. The native habitat has shrunk. Grazing by livestock is rampant and there is very little shelter for wild animals. In spite of the fact that three wildlife sanctuaries and five closed areas have been declared, there is heavy biotic pressure on the main Aravalli range.

With the human population on the increase, their demand from the forest has correspondingly gone up. Some serious thinking and implementation of laws has to be undertaken if the ecology of the Aravalli mountain system is to be saved. In this regard, many representations were received by Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India about the mounting ecological problems in the Aravali Region. It was also noted that the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and the Punjab Land Preservation Act, 1900 were being violated. The matter was taken up with the states of Haryana and Rajasthan and subsequently in the year 1990, a writ petition was filed in the Supreme Court to take suitable corrective action. In order to save the threatened eco-system in the Gurgaon district of Haryana and Alwar district of Rajasthan, a draft notification under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was issued with the objective of regulating certain selected activities. The notification [under section 3(1) and 3(2) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and rule 5(3) (d) of the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986] was gazetted on 7 th May, 1992. This is appended as Annexure-I in this report.

1.2

Genesis

In the Aravali Hills, a large number of mining activities, operation of stone crushers and pulverizes, deforestation and unplanned construction activities are causing environmental degradation. These mines are usually located in clusters in remote mineral rich districts / areas where living standards is lower and understanding of people towards environmental impacts is also poor. In the past, mine operators took no note of environmental damage. In fact, they were not even conscious about it. The attitude of mining community is to ignore the environmental concerns. In majority of the cases, the environmental concerns are ignored for making quick profits. The small mines (< 5 hectares) and the mining of ‘minor minerals’ which are no doubt small individually but have damaging characteristics when in clusters e.g. the mines of granite, marble, slates, quartzite etc. (falling under minor minerals) are no less damaging than the others, especially when the processing is taken into consideration. The mining activities in the region results in disturbance of land surface, altering drainage pattern and land use, besides the pollution problems. This may lead to the following environmental problems:

1.2.1 Air Pollution

The air pollution is generated in the mines mainly by the mining operations like drilling, blasting, moving of heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs) on haul roads, collection, transportation and handling of minerals, their screening, sizing and segregation etc. The main air pollutants in the mining areas is particulate matter especially Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM). However, SO 2 and NO x are also existing due to vehicular emissions, DG sets exhaust, domestic use of fuels etc. High level of suspended particulate matter is attributed to increase in respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis and asthma cases.

1.2.2 Water Pollution

The major sources of water pollution in the mines area are the carryover of the suspended solids (overburden dumps) in the drainage system to the mine sump water and storm water drainage.

1.2.3 Noise Pollution

The main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs), drilling and mineral processing plant.

1.2.4 Solid Waste

The main source of solid waste in the mining area is the overburden.

The other environmental problems associated with the mining activities are:

Overburden management

Air pollution caused by pulverisers

Land degradation during mining activity and its reclamation

Deforestation during mining activity and compensatory afforestation

The other activities causing environmental degradation in the Aravali Hills in the state of Haryana are stone crushers, unplanned construction activities, unattended excavated mine pits, disturbance in the underground aquifers, disturbance of flora and fauna, social environment, topography etc.

This project is initiated with a quest to meet the objectives as given in the next section in this chapter to protect the environmental degradation of the Aravali Hills. Central Mine Planning & Design Institute (CMPDI) Limited, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited (a Government of India Enterprise) was appointed as consultant for this project by Central Pollution Control Board, vide letter No. B-31-11/68/2000/PCI-II/20054 dated 15 th November, 2000.

1.3 Objectives

This project has been undertaken with the following objectives:

To prepare status report of the pollution problems in the Aravali Hills

To prepare environmental management plan to abate various environmental problems

To prepare action plan for restoration of environmental quality

1.4 Scope of Work

Aravali ranges in the Gurgaon district in Haryana along with Alwar district of Rajasthan have been notified (may 1992) as ecologically sensitive areas; therefore in-depth study of the area is essential. This document has been prepared by collecting information through questionnaire, State Boards, industrial units and field studies. Data from other governmental agencies has also been obtained. Following is the scope of work of this project:

1.4.1

Base Line Data Generation

o

Preparation of land cover map which include physiography, geology, drainage pattern, water bodies, soil and vegetation cover

o

The information on land use pattern would be collected from published data, state officials and by actual field studies

o

Micro-meteorological data would be collected from the nearest IMD station for impact assessment on environment due to mining and other industrial activities, as

this is a regional study covering Alwar district of Rajasthan and Gurgaon district in Haryana in the Aravali region.

o Data on present ambient air quality, water quality from wells, flowing streams (if any) and ponds etc. Soil quality and noise level would be collected through monitoring stations on an area network in the study area. Demographic and socio- economic details would be collected through studies by scrutiny of the published documents and field survey. Terrestrial ecological data including meteorological data of the area would be collected from government departments.

1.4.2 In-depth Study

This includes the following:

o

In-depth study into the process, technology used and other environmental aspects have to be conducted for mining and other industrial activities.

o

Assessment of pollution generation by mining and other industrial activities.

o

Study of reuse and recovery of the wastes.

1.4.3

Literature Survey

The literature survey includes the following:

o

Related literature on the field from India and other developed countries will be compiled

o

The best feasible technology for mining and other industrial activities in the area will be identified

o

The pollution prevention and control technology prevalent in the area and the clean technology to be identified.

1.4.4

Environmental Impact Assessment

Based on the data generated, the impact on environment due to the industrial activities and mining will be assessed. The environmental impacts of the cluster of the proposed mines and processing units, under the present environmental scenario will be addressed separately.

1.4.5 Environmental Management Plan

Based on the findings, the environmental management plan will be prepared.

1.4.6 Guidelines for Pollution Prevention

The guidelines for pollution prevention comprises of the following:

o

Guidelines for pollution prevention for the mine operations and the allied activities will be prepared.

o

These guidelines will include long-term and short-term afforestation guidelines and programmers.

1.4.7

Preparation of Action Plan

o

Short term and long term action plan for the restoration of environmental quality of the area to be prepared separately.

o

The action plan will be prepared in such a way that it should be a guiding tool also in the hands of the state pollution control boards and government agencies for enforcement of the environmental laws for the restoration of environmental quality of the area.

1.4.8

Laboratory Facilities and Monitoring Frequency Required by the Mines and Other Industries

o

Details of the laboratory facilities required by the mines and other industries to conduct monitoring to assess the environmental quality

o

Monitoring programme including frequency of monitoring for air quality, water quality, ground water, solid wastes, noise level etc.

CHAPTER-II STUDY AREA PROFILE

2.1 Location and Extent

The Gurgaon district is one of the southern districts of Haryana. The district lies between latitude 27 0 39' North to 28 0 32' North and longitude 76 0 39' East to 77 0 20' East. On its north are the districts of Rohtak and the Union territory of Delhi, on its east the Faridabad district. Its south the district shares boundary with the state of UP and Rajasthan. On its west lies the district of Rewari and the state of Rajasthan. The total area of the district is 2716 sq. kms. Gurgaon town is situated only 32 kms south-west of New Delhi, the capital city of India. The district has sub-tropical, continental monsoon climate. The normal annual rainfall in the district is 553 mm. Temperature starts rising in March. The mean daily maximum temperature is about 41 o C in the months of May and June.

2.2 Physiography and Drainage

The district comprises of hills on the one hand and depressions on the other, forming irregular and diverse nature of topography. Two ridges i.e. Firojpur Jhirka-Delhi ridge forms the western boundary and Delhi ridge forms the eastern boundary of the district. These hills are northern continuation of Aravalli hills. The north-western part of the district is covered with sand dunes lying in the westerly direction due to south-western winds. The extension of the Aravalli hills and the presence of sand dunes collectively form the diverse physiography of the district. The drainage of the district is typical of arid and semi-arid areas. It comprises of large depressions and seasonal streams. Important depressions of the district are Khalilpur lake, Chandani lake, Sangel-Ujhina lake, Kotla dahar lake and Najafgarh lake. Sahibi and Indrani are two important seasonal streams of the district. The physiographic map of the district is given in plate no. 2.1.

2.3 Geology and Soils

Gurgaon district is occupied by quaternary alluvium and pre-cambrian meta-sediments of Delhi System. Delhi super-group is represented by Alwar quartizites, mica schists and pegmatite intrusives of the Alwar series and slates of phyllites and quartzites of the sub- recent alluvium and sand dunes. The soils are sand to loamy sand in sandy plain areas. Sandy loam to clay loam/silty clay loam in alluvial plains, loam sand to loam & calcareous in salt affected plains; silty loam to loam in low lands and loamy sand to loam & calcareous in hills. Taxonomically these soils may be classified as Typic Ustipsamments, Typic Ustorthents, Typic/Udic/Aquic Ustochrepts, Typic Haplaquepts and skeletal/Lithic Ustorthents

2.3.1

Alwar Series

Alwar series is represented by quartzites and mica schists with pegmatite intrusives. The quartzites are white, pale grey or pale pinkish, purple in colour with red and brown shades depending upon the weathering of the iron oxide present in them. These are in general vitreous, close textured, thickly bedded and highly jointed. The quartzite predominate in the district and form high north-south trending hill range in the west and north-east, south- west trending ridge in the northern part of the district. The quartzites generally strike in the north-north-east to south-south-west direction and have easterly dips. Bedding, dip and strike joints dipping against the dip of the beds are prominent and give rise to rectangular blocks. These quartzites are used for building & road materials.

The quartzites are compact & devoid of interstial spaces. Ground water occurs in joints and fracture planes in them under favourable conditions.

2.3.2 Ajabgarh Series

The Ajabgarh series constitute the upper member of the Delhi System and is represented by slate, phyllite, quartzite with pegmatite intrusives. The Ajabgarh series along with Alwar are folded. The north-north-east to south-south-west running ridge and its other offshoots in the south western part of the area are formed of these rocks. The core of the ridge is formed of quartzites and slates. The phyllites occur at the base of the hills and below the adjacent alluvium. The quartzite shows false bedding at places and are less close textured than Alwar quartzites. These quartzites form low small hillocks and long narrow interrupted ridges striking north-north-east to south-south-west directions in the east of Sohna ridge. The slate and phyllite are calcerous and ferruginous.

The rocks of the series are compact and devoid of interstial spaces. The phyllites and slates are highly jointed whereas quartzites sparingly jointed. The ground water occurs in the open joints and fractured planes and in the weathered zones. The phyllite and slates are better water bearing formations than quartzites.

The geological and soil map of the district is given in plate no. 2.2 & 2.3 respectively.

Alluvium:

The alluvium in the area comprises silt, sand, gravel, clay and kankar. It has been divided into older alluvium and newer alluvium.

Older Alluvium

The old alluvium occurs in the most part of the district. It comprises of generally poorly sorted silt, sand, gravel and clay. The silt constitutes fine wind blown variety along with kankar. These are compact, hard and composed essentially of calcium carbonate and is very common in northern parts of the area between Farukhnagar and Garhi Harsru.

Ground water in the older alluvium occurs in the interstices of constituent grains of sand and silt. The presence of kankar in the formation reduces the pore spaces, which in turn reduces the capacity to store and transmit water thus making them poor water bearing formations.

Newer Alluvium

The newer or recent alluvium covers the eastern part of the area, east of the Sohna ridge. It comprises mainly stream laid silt, sand clay and calcareous modules. These deposits are lenticular in shape. It is also found in the west of Sohna ridge where streams have deposited in the form of discontinuous bands and at the foothill slopes where ephemeral streams have brought down the weathered materials from the hills.

The newer alluvium being less impregnated with calcareous material are good water bearing horizons.

2.3.3 Sand Dunes

The disintegration of rock material has ultimately given rise to various grades of sand and silt. The strong winds carry them from place of origin and deposit in the form of large humps called sand dunes. These sediments forming dunes have been brought from adjacent Rajasthan to this area with the prevailing wind conditions. These sand dunes are seen in the whole of the area but are more conspicuous in the area between Pataudi, Farukhnagar and Garhi Harsru and attain heights of 3-6m in general. The dune sand is generally well sorted, found fine to medium grained and comprises quartz, ferromagnesian minerals, tiny flakes of mica with small particles of kankar. The sand is loose and dunes keep shifting their positions depending upon the prevailing wind condition.

The sand dunes being accumulation of loose sand and silt are good water bearing horizons but their limited aerial extent limits the reservoir capacity.

2.4 Bed Rock Topography

The boreholes drilled in the area give an idea of the thickness of the alluvium and the bedrock topography. From the data of exploratory drilling, it is observed that rocks of Ajabgarh series of the Delhi system, form the basement in the middle part of the district between north-south running high ridge and NNE-SSW running ridge. The maximum running thickness of alluvium encountered in this part of the area is 238 metres. It is observed from the map showing depth to bedrock in the area that the thickness of alluvium increases toward north and north-eastern parts of the area, where it is more than 238 metres below ground level.

Alluvial thickness varies from almost insignificant to above 203 m, in the western side of the Sohna ridge and around Pataudi, as revealed by boreholes drilled at Rajpura, Bohra Kalan and Didhara. The Haryana State Minor Irrigation Tube-well Corporation and Ground Water

Cell, Agricultural Department has also drilled boreholes for irrigation purpose. But in no borehole, bedrock has been encountered.

2.5

Meteorology

Temperature: The temperature data at the meteorological observatory, Gurgaon reveals that from the end of February, temperature begins to increase rapidly till May. May and June are the hottest months with mean daily temperature at Gurgaon about 40 o C and the mean minimum daily temperature of about 25 o C. The daily mean maximum temperature varies from 21.4 o C in January to 40 o C in May. Days are little hotter in May than in June whereas nights are cooler in May than in June. From April onwards, hot westerly dust ladden winds causes heat wave conditions and the weather of the district becomes intensely hot and unpleasant. Maximum daily temperature in May often reaches above 45 o C. Occasional dust and thunder storms bring some relief from heat.

With the advancement of monsoon currents into the district by the end of June, there is appreciable drop in day temperature and the weather becomes comparatively cool in the day. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about the middle of the September, the day temperature are still high as in monsoon months but night temperatures begin to drop progressively. The fall in temperature both day and night are rapid from October to January. Generally January is the coldest month. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures are about 21 o C and 5 o C respectively. During the cold weather season, the district is affected by cold waves in association with the western disturbances and on such occasions, the minimum temperature may drop to the freezing point.

Humidity: The relative humidity in the air is generally high during the period of south west monsoon from July to September. It is about 77% during morning hours and 65% during evening hours. The minimum humidity of 43% is recorded in May during morning hours and the maximum relative humidity of 82% is experienced in August during morning hours. May is the driest month of the year when humidity is less than 30%.

Winds: Winds are comparatively high in the district with some strengthening in speed during the summer and monsoon months. During the monsoon season, winds are mostly from the east or south-east directions. During rest of the year, winds are predominantly from the west or north-west directions. The winds have maximum speed of about 7.0 kms/hr during May to June and have a minimum average speed of about 3.2 kms/hr from November to December. Table-2.1 shows the mean velocity monthly wind speed in kmph.

Table-2.1: Temperature, Relative Humidity and Wind Speed in the District (1974-97)

Months

Temperature (Mean daily in o

Relative Humidity in %

Wind Speed

 

C)

in km/hr

January

21.4

5.1

75

48

3.7

February

23.5

7.5

69

42

4.5

March

29.8

12.4

60

35

5.5

April

37.1

19.1

45

25

5.8

May

40.0

23.7

43

28

6.7

June

39.5

26.7

56

39

7.6

July

35.0

26.1

77

66

6.3

August

33.3

25.1

82

71

3.9

September

34.3

22.8

72

58

4.3

September

34.3

22.8

72

58

4.3

October

33.8

17.6

59

40

3.6

November

28.9

10.7

64

43

3.2

December

23.4

6.1

71

46

3.2

Rainfall: The normal rainfall in the district is about 578 mm spread over 28 days. The south- west monsoon sets in the last week of June and withdraws towards the end of the September and contributes about 80% of the annual rainfall. July and August are the wettest months. 20% of the annual rainfall occurs during the non-monsoon months in the wake of thunder storms and western disturbances. Rainfall distribution in the district is quite uneven which increases from 450 mm in the south at Farukhnagar to 750 mm in the east.

The annual rainfall data from 1974 to 2002 have been analysed by Central Ground Water Board, Chandigarh to understand the rainfall trend in the district. The data indicates that variation in annual rainfall is significant and large. This is summarized under the following

table-2.2.

Table-2.2 : Annual Rainfall Analysis of Gurgaon District

Year

Rainfall (mm)

% Deviation

Status

Drought

from normal

1974

500

-14

Normal

 

1975

574

-1

Normal

 

1976

654

+13

Normal

 

1977

613

+6

Normal

 

1978

727

+27

Excess

 

1979

365

-36

Deficient

Moderate Drought

1980

464

-20

Deficient

 

1981

546

-6

Normal

 

1982 514

-11

Normal

 

1983 1022

+77

Excess

 

1984 604

+5

Normal

 

1985 836

+45

Excess

 

1986 267

-54

Deficient

Severe drought

1987 404

-30

Deficient

Moderate drought

1988 715

+24

Excess

 

1989 413

-29

Deficient

Moderate drought

1990 694

+20

Excess

 

1991 536

-7

Normal

 

1992 548

-5

Normal

 

1993 703

+22

Excess

 

1994 643

+11

Normal

 

1995 990

+71

Excess

 

1996 1128

+95

Excess

 

1997 630

+9

Normal

 

1998 654

* *

   

1999 549

* *

   

2000 437

* *

   

2001 523

* *

   

2002 359

* *

   

* data not analyzed

The monthly normal rainfall (average of five years from 1994-98) is shown in Table-2.3 below:

Table-2.3: Monthly normal rainfall (Average of five years 1994-98)

District

 

Monthly Rainfall (in mm)

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

Gurgaon

12.2

9.3

4.9

0.9

6.2

82.8

181.0

258.0

121.9

5.4

3.4

0.4

686.4

2.6 Land Cover Map

Land is the most important natural resource endowment on which all human activities are based. Therefore, knowledge on different type of land use as well as its spatial distribution in the form of map and statistical data is vital for spatial planning and management of land and its optimal use. The need for information on land use /cover pattern has gained importance due to the all-round concern on environmental impact of industrial development. The information on land use inventory that includes type, spatial distribution, aerial extent, location, rate and pattern of change of each category of land is of paramount importance for formulating Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for developmental planning. The existing information available on land use is mainly in the form of statistical data based on

the compilation of village record that are inadequate and do not provide an up-to-date information on changing land use pattern and process.

Realising the need of creating an environmental database for eco-fragile regions with respect to land, water, forest, communication network, built-up land, the thematic maps using remote sensing data of Aravali Hill Region (Gurgaon District) were prepared to chalk out Action Plan for restoration of environmental quality. These maps will form the database for assessing the environmental impact in the region on land use pattern; and for formulating the remedial measures for restoration of environmental quality.

Data Source

The following data are used in the present study:

Primary Data Satellite data [IRS-1D/LISS-III; Band# 2,3,4; Date 05-04-2001; Digital image data on optical disk media] was used as primary data source for the study. The raw satellite data was obtained from NRSA, Hyderabad, on CD-ROM media.

Secondary Data Secondary (ancillary) and ground data constitute an important baseline information in remote sensing, as they improve the interpretation accuracy and reliability of remotely sensed data by enabling verification of the interpreted details and by supplementing it with the information that cannot be obtained directly from the remotely sensed data. The following secondary data were used in the study:

Survey of India topographical maps – 53 D, 53 D/14/15/16, 53 H, 53 H/2/3/4, 54 A & 54 E

Other supporting data like surface layout plan, location maps and district planning maps prepared by NATMO (National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation), State and other government agencies.

Land Use Classification

The array of information available on land use/cover requires be arranging or grouping under a suitable framework, in order to facilitate the creation of a land use inventory and mapping. Further, to accommodate the changing land use/cover pattern, it becomes essential to develop a standardised classification system that is not only flexible in nomenclature and definition, but also capable of incorporating information obtained from the satellite data and other different sources.

The present framework of land use/cover classification has been primarily based on the “Manual of Nationwide Land Use/ Land Cover Mapping Using Satellite Imagery” developed by National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. Land use map was prepared on

the basis of image interpretation carried out based on the satellite data for the year 2001 on 1:50,000 scale. Following land use/cover classes are identified in Gurgaon district (Table-2.4).

Table-2.4 : Land use/cover classes identified in Gurgaon District

Level -I

Level –II

1 Built-Up Land

1.1 Urban

1.2 Rural

1.3 Industrial

2 Agricultural Land

3

Forest

4 Wasteland

5 Water bodies

3.1 Crop land

3.2 Fallow land

2.1 Dense Forest

2.2 Open Forest

2.3 Scrub

4.1 Salt affected land

4.2 Barren rocky land

4.3 Gullied land

5.1 Surface water bodies

Data Analysis

Satellite data of the Gurgaon region was processed using EASI/PACE v.7.0 image processing system in order to interpret the various land use/cover classes present in the study area. FCC of Gurgaon region (LISS III ; 2,3,4) is given plate no. 2.4. The FCC was further classified for land use/cover classes and the area of each land use/cover is tabulated in Table-2.5. The detailed land use/cover map of the study area is given in Plate no. 2.5.

 

Table-2.5 : Land use/cover Pattern in Gurgaon District of Haryana

 

based on IRS1D (LISS-III) Satellite Data of April 2001

#

Level-I

Level-II

Area

 

Sq.Km.

%

1.

Built-up land

(i) Urban

 

177.66

6.43

 

(ii)

Rural

4.15

0.15

(iii) Industrial

 

10.15

0.37

 

Sub-total:

191.96

6.95

2.

Agricultural land

(i) Crop land

989.03

35.83

 

(ii)

Fallow land

909.19

32.94

 

Sub-total:

1898.22

68.77

3.

Vegetation Cover

(i) Dense forest

44.97

1.63

 

(ii)

Open forest

105.29

3.81

 

(iii)

Scrubs

79.61

2.88

 

Sub-total:

229.87

8.32

4. Wasteland

(i) Salt affected land

210.56

7.62

(ii) Barren rocky land

204.03

7.39

(iii)

Gullied land

24.21

0.87

 

Sub-total:

438.80

15.88

5. Water Bodies

(i) Surface water bodies

1.15

0.04

 

Total Area:

2760.00

2.6.1 Built-up land

All the man-made constructions covering the land surface are included under this category. It includes urban, rural settlements & industrial complexes. In the study area, the urban settlements identified on the imagery cover an area 177.66 Km 2 . Apart from urban settlements, number of small villages sporadically located in the area covering 4.15 Km 2 area and industrial complexes cover an area of 10.15 km 2 . Study indicates that built-up land constitutes only 6.95% of the total study area.

2.6.2 Agriculture land

Land primarily used for farming and production of food, fibre and other commercial and horticultural crops falls under this category. It includes cropland and fallow land. Croplands are those agricultural lands where standing crop occurs on the date of satellite imagery. Crops may be either kharif or rabi. Fallow land are also agricultural land which is taken up for cultivation but temporarily allowed to rest, un-cropped for one or more seasons. These lands are those, which are seen devoid of crops at the time when the imagery is taken.

Analysis of the data indicates that the total area of agriculture land is 1898.03 Km 2 (68.77%) in the study area; out of which 989.03 Km 2 (35.83%) is the cropland and 909.19 Km 2 (32.94%) is the fallow land.

2.6.3 Forest cover

It is an area bearing an association predominantly of trees and other vegetation type capable of producing timber and other forest produce. Forest cover is classified into the following three sub-classes based on crown density as per modified FAO-1963 (Food & Agricultural Organisation of United Nations) norms: (a) dense forest (crown density more than 40%), (b) open/degraded forest (crown density between 10% to 40%), and (c) scrubs (crown density less than 10%).

Analysis of the satellite data reveals that total area of forest cover in the study area is 229.87 Km 2 (8.32%); out of which 44.97 Km 2 (1.63%) is the dense forest, 105.29 Km 2 (3.81%) is the open forest and 79.61 Km 2 (2.88%) is the scrubs.

2.6.4

Wasteland

Wasteland is a degraded and under-utilised class of land that has deteriorated on account

of natural causes or due to lack of appropriate water and soil management. Wasteland can

result from inherent/imposed constraints such as location, environment, chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or other management constraints (NWDB, 1987).

Analysis of the data reveals that the total area of wasteland in the study area is 438.80 Km 2 (15.88%); out of which the area of salt affected land is 210.56 km 2 (7.62%), the area of barren rocky land is 204.03 Km 2 (7.39%) and gullied land covers 24.21 km 2 (0.87%).

2.6.5 Water bodies

A number of small-impounded water tanks, rivers and streams are present in the study

area. Area of water bodies is 1.15 Km 2 (0.04%) in the study area.

2.7 Classification of Area

The classification of area of the district is given in Table-7 in Annexure-II. This categorises the land into forestland, land not available for cultivation, other uncultivable land, fallow land etc. The net area in irrigation, gross area irrigated and gross cropped area, gross area irrigated in the district crop wise are shown in Table-8 to Table-10 respectively in Annexure-

II.

2.8

Operational Holdings

The number and area of operational holdings by size groups in the district is shown in Table-2.6. The majority of holdings are of medium size as evident from the Table-2.5.

Table-2.6: Number & Area of Operational Holdings by Size Groups in Haryana: 1995-96 (Provisional)

Size Groups (in Hectares)

 

Gurgaon

No.

Area (in Ha)

< 0.5

38,941

11,143

0.5-1.0

29,827

21,673

1.0-2.0

27,061

39,726

2.0-3.0

12,488

28,535

3.0-4.0

6,346

20,622

4.0-5.0

3,691

15,633

5.0-7.5

4,374

23,428

7.5-10.0

1,747

13,788

10.0-20.0

479

5,776

> 20.0

243

6,997

Total

1,25,197

1,87,321

Average Size of Holding

 

1.50

2.9 Forest Area

The area under forests is shown in Table-19 in Annexure-II. As per the provisional figures, around 2 sq kms area is under reserved forest category, 20 sq kms is under protected category and about 1 sq km is under unclassed category. About 27 sq km area is under private forests. Thus, total of 50 sq kms area is under forest category. The percentage of land area under forests and forest area per lakh of population is shown in Table-20 in Annexure-II.

2.10 Fertiliser Consumption and Tubewells

The fertilizer consumption in the district is shown in Table-2.7 below. The no. of tube wells and pumping sets in detailed in Table-11 in Annexure-II. Since the surface water potential is not promising, there is increased dependence on the ground water for agricultural and other needs. Also, for the agriculture, there seems to be more emphasis on the use of chemical fertilizers.

Table-2.7: Fertiliser Consumption in Gurgaon District

District

Consumption of Fertilizer (in tones in the year 1999-2000)

N

P

K

Total

Gurgaon

20,720

8,497

87

29,304

2.11 Live Stock Population

The inventory of livestock and poultry in the district is presented in Annexure-II from Table-12 to Table-18. This includes types of livestock under various categories. The table shows that there is sizeable number of sheeps and goats in the district, which is of major concern as far protection of Aravali forests is concerned.

2.12 Mineral Resources

The district is rich in kaolin and silica sand. The production of mineral ores in the district for the year 1999-2000 is shown in Table-21 in Annexure-II. A number of mines exist in the district, which produce various minerals. The location of mining and crusher activities in the hill ranges is shown in Plate-2.6. The inventory of the mines is shown in Annexure-II.

2.12.1 Grant of Mining Leases

The grant of mining leases and their regulations in the Haryana State is covered under Punjab Minor Mineral Concession Rules, 1964 (as adopted by Haryana Government). The provisions are as under:

Type of Concessions

Three types of mineral concessions are available under these rules. They are:

Mining lease

Contract and

Short Term Permit

The Mining Lease means a lease to mine, quarry, bore, dig and search for win, work and carry away any minor minerals specified therein.

The Contract means a contract given on behalf o the Government to carry win, work and carry away any mineral specified therein, through open auction or by inviting tenders for certain specified areas, notified by the Director of Mines and Geology.

A short-term permit means a permit granted to extract a certain quantity of mineral for the period specified in the permit.

2.12.2 Procedure for Grant of Mining Lease

No mining lease may be granted:

I. In respect of land within a distance of 60 meters from any village or national highway

II. In respect of any such minor mineral as the Government may notify in this behalf, and

III. To a person who does not hold a certificate of approval from the Director of Mines and Geology.

An application for the mining lease is made to the State Government through the Director of Mines and Geology or any other officer authorized by the Government in this behalf, in the form prescribed in the rules, accompanied by a fee of Rs 2000/-, an Income Tax Clearance Certificate from the Income Tax officer concerned and a certificate of approval. This application is supposed to contain particulars about the status, nationality, profession and residence of the applicant, name of the minor mineral to be mined; a description illustrated by a map or plan showing as accurately as possible the situation, boundaries and area of the land in respect of which land is sought; the period for which lease is required and the purpose for which mineral is to be used.

Priority in granting mining lease is proposed to be given in the following order:

The discoverer of the new mineral;

A person who intends to set-up a mineral based industry in the state;

A co-operative society.

Where two or more persons of the same category apply for a mining lease over the same land, the applicant whose application is received earlier has a preferential right for the grant over an applicant whose application is received later. Where such applications are received on the same day, the Government may grant the lease to one of the applicants as it deems fit, after taking into consideration their experience in mining, financial soundness, stability and special knowledge of the geology and mining and the technical staff already employed or to be employed for the work. The Government, may for special reasons to be recorded in writing, grant a mining lease to an applicant whose application is received later in preference to an earlier applicant. These rules also empower the State Government to give preference to one party over another for the grant of a mining lease or contract, as the case may be, in case it considers that working of these deposits by that party will be beneficial in the public interest.

After the lease is granted, the applicant must deposit, as security, a sum of Rs five lakhs for mining leases upto 50 Hectares, 7.5 lakhs for leases exceeding 50 hectares-75 hectares and Rs 10 lakhs for leases exceeding 75 hectares, for due observance of the terms and conditions of the lease. Provided further that in addition to the royalty, lessee shall also be liable to pay lease fee at the rate specified in the said rules. The lease is required to be executed in the prescribed form within three months of the order sanctioning the lease. After the lease is granted, arrangement shall be made, if necessary, at the expense of the lessee for the survey and demarcation of the area granted under the lease.

Contract

The contract is granted only in such cases as the Government may, by general or special order, direct. The contract is granted either by public auction or tender. In either case, the usual procedure in this regard is followed. When a bid is conformed or a tender is accepted, the bidder or tenderer is required to execute a deed in the prescribed form within one month from the date of communication of acceptance of bid or tender.

The contractors are required to supply to consumers or allow them to excavate building stone, limestone, kankar and bajri at the rate specified in the Third Schedule for their bonafide personal use or for the construction of building meant for charitable or philanthropic purposes.

Short Term Permit

Permits may be issued only in respect of those areas for which the Government has not sanctioned grant of lease or contract.

An application for the grant of a permit must be made to the Director or any other officer authorized by him in this behalf. The application ………… and contain the particulars regarding name, address and profession of the applicant, quantity of minor mineral for which permit is sought, name of the minor mineral which is to be extracted, description i.e.

name of village, area and Khasara Nos. of the land from which the minor mineral is to be extracted and the purpose for which the minor mineral is to be used.

…… the application should also be accompanied by a letter from the occupants of such lands to the effect that he has no objection to the extraction of the minor minerals by the applicant.

If the lands from which the minor mineral is to be extracted from occupied lands, then

Every permit contains the condition that the depth of the pit below the surface shall not exceed three feet.

2.12.3 Period and Area of Mining lease

The period for which a mining lease may be granted is five years at the first instances, unless the government allows a longer period not exceeding ten years. The mining lease may be renewed for one or two periods not exceeding the period for which the mining lease was originally granted.

A mining lease may be granted for such area as the Government may deem fit. No lessee by himself or with any person joint in interest with him, may ordinarily hold in aggregate more than 5 sq kms of the area under lease in respect of one minor mineral within the state. The area under a mining lease shall be rectangular as far as possible and its length should not exceed four times its breadth. However, the government may relax this condition in any particular case. The application for grant of mining lease should relate to a compact area.

Contract

Each contract will ordinarily be auctioned for a period of three years unless the period is specifically stated. The maximum period for which a contract may be granted is five years after which no extension may be granted. Provided that if the contractor has fully executed the contract according to its terms and conditions, the Government may extend the period not exceeding two years. No stipulation has been made regarding maximum area. It is, however, laid down that contract may be granted only in such cases as the Government may, by general or special order, direct.

Short Term Permit

The maximum period within which the specified quantity should be extracted and removed under any one permit is 30 days. However, in case of brick earths, it is 2 years for kiln owners.

Transfer, Surrender, Termination

The lessee may, with the previous sanction of the government, assign, sublet, or transfer his lease or any right, title or interest therein, to any person holding a valid certificate of approval on payment of a fee of Rs 100/- to the Government. The contractor shall not

assign, sublet or transfer the contract without obtaining prior permission in writing of the Government.

The lessee may terminate the lease at any time by giving not less than six calendar months notice in writing to the Government, after payment of all outstanding dues.

The State Government has the right to cancel the lease:

If the lessee does not allow entry or inspection by any officer authorized by the State or the Central Government; or

By giving six months prior notice in writing if the State Government considers that the minor minerals under the lease is required for establishing an industry beneficial to the public; or

After serving a notice on the lessee to pay the dues within 30 days from the date of receipt of the notice, or

If the lessee ceases to work the mine for a continuous period of six months without obtaining the written sanction of the Government.

Likewise the contract may be terminated by the Government or by any officer authorized by it in this behalf by giving one months notice, if:

The contract makes a default in due observance of the terms and conditions of the contract or in payment of the contract money on the due date; or

It is considered by the Government to be in public interest

Similarly, the Director of Mines and Geology may cancel a short-term permit in case of breach of any of the conditions subject to which the permit was granted.

2.12.4 Rents and Royalties

Dead Rent:

The holder of a mining lease is required to pay dead rent for every year, at the rate fixed by the State Government within the limits specified in the second Schedule. If the lease permits the working of more than one minor mineral in the same area, the Government may charge separate dead rent in respect of each minor mineral, provided the mining of one minor mineral does not involve mining of another. The lessee is liable to pay the dead rent or royalty in respect of each minor mineral whichever is higher in amount but not both.

Surface Rent

The lessee is required to pay surface rent for the surface area occupied by him at such rates not exceeding land revenue, water charges and cess assessable on the land as may be fixed by the Government and specified in the lease deed.

Royalty

The lessee is liable to pay royalty on the minor minerals removed from the leased area at the rate specified in the First Schedule.

2.13 Other Industries

Besides mining, there exist a number of crushing units and other industries in the district. The inventory of these units has been presented in Table-1 to Table-6 in Annexure-II. Besides, the no. of registered factories and workers employed in the district is shown in Table-22 in Annexure-II.

2.14 Population

The population of the district along with those of sub-divisions are shown in the Table-2.8. From the above table, it is evident that rural population constitutes a major share in the district.

Table-2.8: Population of Gurgaon district as per 1991 & 2001 Census

Sl No.

District/Tehsil

Area

 

Population (in numbers)

 

(sq.km)

As per 1991 Census

2001 Census

(provisional)

Rural

Urban

Total

Total

 

Gurgaon

2,760.00

9,13,386

2,32,704

11,46,090

16,57,669

 

1 Pataudi

177.27

59478

24,541

84,019

Not

Available

 

2 Gurgaon

1071.94

3,52,020

1,67,045

5,19,065

-do-

 

3 Nuh

688.53

2,11,727

20,026

2,31,753

-do-

 

4 Firozpur Jhirka

811.75

2,90,161

21,092

3,11,253

-do-

CHAPTER-II STUDY AREA PROFILE

2.1 Location and Extent

The Gurgaon district is one of the southern districts of Haryana. The district lies between latitude 27 0 39' North to 28 0 32' North and longitude 76 0 39' East to 77 0 20' East. On its north are the districts of Rohtak and the Union territory of Delhi, on its east the Faridabad district. Its south the district shares boundary with the state of UP and Rajasthan. On its west lies the district of Rewari and the state of Rajasthan. The total area of the district is 2716 sq. kms. Gurgaon town is situated only 32 kms south-west of New Delhi, the capital city of India. The district has sub-tropical, continental monsoon climate. The normal annual rainfall in the district is 553 mm. Temperature starts rising in March. The mean daily maximum temperature is about 41 o C in the months of May and June.

2.2 Physiography and Drainage

The district comprises of hills on the one hand and depressions on the other, forming irregular and diverse nature of topography. Two ridges i.e. Firojpur Jhirka-Delhi ridge forms the western boundary and Delhi ridge forms the eastern boundary of the district. These hills are northern continuation of Aravalli hills. The north-western part of the district is covered with sand dunes lying in the westerly direction due to south-western winds. The extension of the Aravalli hills and the presence of sand dunes collectively form the diverse physiography of the district. The drainage of the district is typical of arid and semi-arid areas. It comprises of large depressions and seasonal streams. Important depressions of the district are Khalilpur lake, Chandani lake, Sangel-Ujhina lake, Kotla dahar lake and Najafgarh lake. Sahibi and Indrani are two important seasonal streams of the district. The physiographic map of the district is given in plate no. 2.1.

2.3 Geology and Soils

Gurgaon district is occupied by quaternary alluvium and pre-cambrian meta-sediments of Delhi System. Delhi super-group is represented by Alwar quartizites, mica schists and pegmatite intrusives of the Alwar series and slates of phyllites and quartzites of the sub- recent alluvium and sand dunes. The soils are sand to loamy sand in sandy plain areas. Sandy loam to clay loam/silty clay loam in alluvial plains, loam sand to loam & calcareous in salt affected plains; silty loam to loam in low lands and loamy sand to loam & calcareous in hills. Taxonomically these soils may be classified as Typic Ustipsamments, Typic Ustorthents, Typic/Udic/Aquic Ustochrepts, Typic Haplaquepts and skeletal/Lithic Ustorthents

2.3.1

Alwar Series

Alwar series is represented by quartzites and mica schists with pegmatite intrusives. The quartzites are white, pale grey or pale pinkish, purple in colour with red and brown shades depending upon the weathering of the iron oxide present in them. These are in general vitreous, close textured, thickly bedded and highly jointed. The quartzite predominate in the district and form high north-south trending hill range in the west and north-east, south- west trending ridge in the northern part of the district. The quartzites generally strike in the north-north-east to south-south-west direction and have easterly dips. Bedding, dip and strike joints dipping against the dip of the beds are prominent and give rise to rectangular blocks. These quartzites are used for building & road materials.

The quartzites are compact & devoid of interstial spaces. Ground water occurs in joints and fracture planes in them under favourable conditions.

2.3.2 Ajabgarh Series

The Ajabgarh series constitute the upper member of the Delhi System and is represented by slate, phyllite, quartzite with pegmatite intrusives. The Ajabgarh series along with Alwar are folded. The north-north-east to south-south-west running ridge and its other offshoots in the south western part of the area are formed of these rocks. The core of the ridge is formed of quartzites and slates. The phyllites occur at the base of the hills and below the adjacent alluvium. The quartzite shows false bedding at places and are less close textured than Alwar quartzites. These quartzites form low small hillocks and long narrow interrupted ridges striking north-north-east to south-south-west directions in the east of Sohna ridge. The slate and phyllite are calcerous and ferruginous.

The rocks of the series are compact and devoid of interstial spaces. The phyllites and slates are highly jointed whereas quartzites sparingly jointed. The ground water occurs in the open joints and fractured planes and in the weathered zones. The phyllite and slates are better water bearing formations than quartzites.

The geological and soil map of the district is given in plate no. 2.2 & 2.3 respectively.

Alluvium:

The alluvium in the area comprises silt, sand, gravel, clay and kankar. It has been divided into older alluvium and newer alluvium.

Older Alluvium

The old alluvium occurs in the most part of the district. It comprises of generally poorly sorted silt, sand, gravel and clay. The silt constitutes fine wind blown variety along with kankar. These are compact, hard and composed essentially of calcium carbonate and is very common in northern parts of the area between Farukhnagar and Garhi Harsru.

Ground water in the older alluvium occurs in the interstices of constituent grains of sand and silt. The presence of kankar in the formation reduces the pore spaces, which in turn reduces the capacity to store and transmit water thus making them poor water bearing formations.

Newer Alluvium

The newer or recent alluvium covers the eastern part of the area, east of the Sohna ridge. It comprises mainly stream laid silt, sand clay and calcareous modules. These deposits are lenticular in shape. It is also found in the west of Sohna ridge where streams have deposited in the form of discontinuous bands and at the foothill slopes where ephemeral streams have brought down the weathered materials from the hills.

The newer alluvium being less impregnated with calcareous material are good water bearing horizons.

2.3.3 Sand Dunes

The disintegration of rock material has ultimately given rise to various grades of sand and silt. The strong winds carry them from place of origin and deposit in the form of large humps called sand dunes. These sediments forming dunes have been brought from adjacent Rajasthan to this area with the prevailing wind conditions. These sand dunes are seen in the whole of the area but are more conspicuous in the area between Pataudi, Farukhnagar and Garhi Harsru and attain heights of 3-6m in general. The dune sand is generally well sorted, found fine to medium grained and comprises quartz, ferromagnesian minerals, tiny flakes of mica with small particles of kankar. The sand is loose and dunes keep shifting their positions depending upon the prevailing wind condition.

The sand dunes being accumulation of loose sand and silt are good water bearing horizons but their limited aerial extent limits the reservoir capacity.

2.4 Bed Rock Topography

The boreholes drilled in the area give an idea of the thickness of the alluvium and the bedrock topography. From the data of exploratory drilling, it is observed that rocks of Ajabgarh series of the Delhi system, form the basement in the middle part of the district between north-south running high ridge and NNE-SSW running ridge. The maximum running thickness of alluvium encountered in this part of the area is 238 metres. It is observed from the map showing depth to bedrock in the area that the thickness of alluvium increases toward north and north-eastern parts of the area, where it is more than 238 metres below ground level.

Alluvial thickness varies from almost insignificant to above 203 m, in the western side of the Sohna ridge and around Pataudi, as revealed by boreholes drilled at Rajpura, Bohra Kalan and Didhara. The Haryana State Minor Irrigation Tube-well Corporation and Ground Water

Cell, Agricultural Department has also drilled boreholes for irrigation purpose. But in no borehole, bedrock has been encountered.

2.5

Meteorology

Temperature: The temperature data at the meteorological observatory, Gurgaon reveals that from the end of February, temperature begins to increase rapidly till May. May and June are the hottest months with mean daily temperature at Gurgaon about 40 o C and the mean minimum daily temperature of about 25 o C. The daily mean maximum temperature varies from 21.4 o C in January to 40 o C in May. Days are little hotter in May than in June whereas nights are cooler in May than in June. From April onwards, hot westerly dust ladden winds causes heat wave conditions and the weather of the district becomes intensely hot and unpleasant. Maximum daily temperature in May often reaches above 45 o C. Occasional dust and thunder storms bring some relief from heat.

With the advancement of monsoon currents into the district by the end of June, there is appreciable drop in day temperature and the weather becomes comparatively cool in the day. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about the middle of the September, the day temperature are still high as in monsoon months but night temperatures begin to drop progressively. The fall in temperature both day and night are rapid from October to January. Generally January is the coldest month. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures are about 21 o C and 5 o C respectively. During the cold weather season, the district is affected by cold waves in association with the western disturbances and on such occasions, the minimum temperature may drop to the freezing point.

Humidity: The relative humidity in the air is generally high during the period of south west monsoon from July to September. It is about 77% during morning hours and 65% during evening hours. The minimum humidity of 43% is recorded in May during morning hours and the maximum relative humidity of 82% is experienced in August during morning hours. May is the driest month of the year when humidity is less than 30%.

Winds: Winds are comparatively high in the district with some strengthening in speed during the summer and monsoon months. During the monsoon season, winds are mostly from the east or south-east directions. During rest of the year, winds are predominantly from the west or north-west directions. The winds have maximum speed of about 7.0 kms/hr during May to June and have a minimum average speed of about 3.2 kms/hr from November to December. Table-2.1 shows the mean velocity monthly wind speed in kmph.

Table-2.1: Temperature, Relative Humidity and Wind Speed in the District (1974-97)

Months

Temperature (Mean daily in o

Relative Humidity in %

Wind Speed

 

C)

in km/hr

January

21.4

5.1

75

48

3.7

February

23.5

7.5

69

42

4.5

March

29.8

12.4

60

35

5.5

April

37.1

19.1

45

25

5.8

May

40.0

23.7

43

28

6.7

June

39.5

26.7

56

39

7.6

July

35.0

26.1

77

66

6.3

August

33.3

25.1

82

71

3.9

September

34.3

22.8

72

58

4.3

September

34.3

22.8

72

58

4.3

October

33.8

17.6

59

40

3.6

November

28.9

10.7

64

43

3.2

December

23.4

6.1

71

46

3.2

Rainfall: The normal rainfall in the district is about 578 mm spread over 28 days. The south- west monsoon sets in the last week of June and withdraws towards the end of the September and contributes about 80% of the annual rainfall. July and August are the wettest months. 20% of the annual rainfall occurs during the non-monsoon months in the wake of thunder storms and western disturbances. Rainfall distribution in the district is quite uneven which increases from 450 mm in the south at Farukhnagar to 750 mm in the east.

The annual rainfall data from 1974 to 2002 have been analysed by Central Ground Water Board, Chandigarh to understand the rainfall trend in the district. The data indicates that variation in annual rainfall is significant and large. This is summarized under the following

table-2.2.

Table-2.2 : Annual Rainfall Analysis of Gurgaon District

Year

Rainfall (mm)

% Deviation

Status

Drought

from normal

1974

500

-14

Normal

 

1975

574

-1

Normal

 

1976

654

+13

Normal

 

1977

613

+6

Normal

 

1978

727

+27

Excess

 

1979

365

-36

Deficient

Moderate Drought

1980

464

-20

Deficient

 

1981

546

-6

Normal

 

1982 514

-11

Normal

 

1983 1022

+77

Excess

 

1984 604

+5

Normal

 

1985 836

+45

Excess

 

1986 267

-54

Deficient

Severe drought

1987 404

-30

Deficient

Moderate drought

1988 715

+24

Excess

 

1989 413

-29

Deficient

Moderate drought

1990 694

+20

Excess

 

1991 536

-7

Normal

 

1992 548

-5

Normal

 

1993 703

+22

Excess

 

1994 643

+11

Normal

 

1995 990

+71

Excess

 

1996 1128

+95

Excess

 

1997 630

+9

Normal

 

1998 654

* *

   

1999 549

* *

   

2000 437

* *

   

2001 523

* *

   

2002 359

* *

   

* data not analyzed

The monthly normal rainfall (average of five years from 1994-98) is shown in Table-2.3 below:

Table-2.3: Monthly normal rainfall (Average of five years 1994-98)

District

 

Monthly Rainfall (in mm)

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

Gurgaon

12.2

9.3

4.9

0.9

6.2

82.8

181.0

258.0

121.9

5.4

3.4

0.4

686.4

2.6 Land Cover Map

Land is the most important natural resource endowment on which all human activities are based. Therefore, knowledge on different type of land use as well as its spatial distribution in the form of map and statistical data is vital for spatial planning and management of land and its optimal use. The need for information on land use /cover pattern has gained importance due to the all-round concern on environmental impact of industrial development. The information on land use inventory that includes type, spatial distribution, aerial extent, location, rate and pattern of change of each category of land is of paramount importance for formulating Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for developmental planning. The existing information available on land use is mainly in the form of statistical data based on

the compilation of village record that are inadequate and do not provide an up-to-date information on changing land use pattern and process.

Realising the need of creating an environmental database for eco-fragile regions with respect to land, water, forest, communication network, built-up land, the thematic maps using remote sensing data of Aravali Hill Region (Gurgaon District) were prepared to chalk out Action Plan for restoration of environmental quality. These maps will form the database for assessing the environmental impact in the region on land use pattern; and for formulating the remedial measures for restoration of environmental quality.

Data Source

The following data are used in the present study:

Primary Data Satellite data [IRS-1D/LISS-III; Band# 2,3,4; Date 05-04-2001; Digital image data on optical disk media] was used as primary data source for the study. The raw satellite data was obtained from NRSA, Hyderabad, on CD-ROM media.

Secondary Data Secondary (ancillary) and ground data constitute an important baseline information in remote sensing, as they improve the interpretation accuracy and reliability of remotely sensed data by enabling verification of the interpreted details and by supplementing it with the information that cannot be obtained directly from the remotely sensed data. The following secondary data were used in the study:

Survey of India topographical maps – 53 D, 53 D/14/15/16, 53 H, 53 H/2/3/4, 54 A & 54 E

Other supporting data like surface layout plan, location maps and district planning maps prepared by NATMO (National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation), State and other government agencies.

Land Use Classification

The array of information available on land use/cover requires be arranging or grouping under a suitable framework, in order to facilitate the creation of a land use inventory and mapping. Further, to accommodate the changing land use/cover pattern, it becomes essential to develop a standardised classification system that is not only flexible in nomenclature and definition, but also capable of incorporating information obtained from the satellite data and other different sources.

The present framework of land use/cover classification has been primarily based on the “Manual of Nationwide Land Use/ Land Cover Mapping Using Satellite Imagery” developed by National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. Land use map was prepared on

the basis of image interpretation carried out based on the satellite data for the year 2001 on 1:50,000 scale. Following land use/cover classes are identified in Gurgaon district (Table-2.4).

Table-2.4 : Land use/cover classes identified in Gurgaon District

Level -I

Level –II

1 Built-Up Land

1.1 Urban

1.2 Rural

1.3 Industrial

2 Agricultural Land

3

Forest

4 Wasteland

5 Water bodies

3.1 Crop land

3.2 Fallow land

2.1 Dense Forest

2.2 Open Forest

2.3 Scrub

4.1 Salt affected land

4.2 Barren rocky land

4.3 Gullied land

5.1 Surface water bodies

Data Analysis

Satellite data of the Gurgaon region was processed using EASI/PACE v.7.0 image processing system in order to interpret the various land use/cover classes present in the study area. FCC of Gurgaon region (LISS III ; 2,3,4) is given plate no. 2.4. The FCC was further classified for land use/cover classes and the area of each land use/cover is tabulated in Table-2.5. The detailed land use/cover map of the study area is given in Plate no. 2.5.

 

Table-2.5 : Land use/cover Pattern in Gurgaon District of Haryana

 

based on IRS1D (LISS-III) Satellite Data of April 2001

#

Level-I

Level-II

Area

 

Sq.Km.

%

1.

Built-up land

(i) Urban

 

177.66

6.43

 

(ii)

Rural

4.15

0.15

(iii) Industrial

 

10.15

0.37

 

Sub-total:

191.96

6.95

2.

Agricultural land

(i) Crop land

989.03

35.83

 

(ii)

Fallow land

909.19

32.94

 

Sub-total:

1898.22

68.77

3.

Vegetation Cover

(i) Dense forest

44.97

1.63

 

(ii)

Open forest

105.29

3.81

 

(iii)

Scrubs

79.61

2.88

 

Sub-total:

229.87

8.32

4. Wasteland

(i) Salt affected land

210.56

7.62

(ii) Barren rocky land

204.03

7.39

(iii)

Gullied land

24.21

0.87

 

Sub-total:

438.80

15.88

5. Water Bodies

(i) Surface water bodies

1.15

0.04

 

Total Area:

2760.00

2.6.1 Built-up land

All the man-made constructions covering the land surface are included under this category. It includes urban, rural settlements & industrial complexes. In the study area, the urban settlements identified on the imagery cover an area 177.66 Km 2 . Apart from urban settlements, number of small villages sporadically located in the area covering 4.15 Km 2 area and industrial complexes cover an area of 10.15 km 2 . Study indicates that built-up land constitutes only 6.95% of the total study area.

2.6.2 Agriculture land

Land primarily used for farming and production of food, fibre and other commercial and horticultural crops falls under this category. It includes cropland and fallow land. Croplands are those agricultural lands where standing crop occurs on the date of satellite imagery. Crops may be either kharif or rabi. Fallow land are also agricultural land which is taken up for cultivation but temporarily allowed to rest, un-cropped for one or more seasons. These lands are those, which are seen devoid of crops at the time when the imagery is taken.

Analysis of the data indicates that the total area of agriculture land is 1898.03 Km 2 (68.77%) in the study area; out of which 989.03 Km 2 (35.83%) is the cropland and 909.19 Km 2 (32.94%) is the fallow land.

2.6.3 Forest cover

It is an area bearing an association predominantly of trees and other vegetation type capable of producing timber and other forest produce. Forest cover is classified into the following three sub-classes based on crown density as per modified FAO-1963 (Food & Agricultural Organisation of United Nations) norms: (a) dense forest (crown density more than 40%), (b) open/degraded forest (crown density between 10% to 40%), and (c) scrubs (crown density less than 10%).

Analysis of the satellite data reveals that total area of forest cover in the study area is 229.87 Km 2 (8.32%); out of which 44.97 Km 2 (1.63%) is the dense forest, 105.29 Km 2 (3.81%) is the open forest and 79.61 Km 2 (2.88%) is the scrubs.

2.6.4

Wasteland

Wasteland is a degraded and under-utilised class of land that has deteriorated on account

of natural causes or due to lack of appropriate water and soil management. Wasteland can

result from inherent/imposed constraints such as location, environment, chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or other management constraints (NWDB, 1987).

Analysis of the data reveals that the total area of wasteland in the study area is 438.80 Km 2 (15.88%); out of which the area of salt affected land is 210.56 km 2 (7.62%), the area of barren rocky land is 204.03 Km 2 (7.39%) and gullied land covers 24.21 km 2 (0.87%).

2.6.5 Water bodies

A number of small-impounded water tanks, rivers and streams are present in the study

area. Area of water bodies is 1.15 Km 2 (0.04%) in the study area.

2.7 Classification of Area

The classification of area of the district is given in Table-7 in Annexure-II. This categorises the land into forestland, land not available for cultivation, other uncultivable land, fallow land etc. The net area in irrigation, gross area irrigated and gross cropped area, gross area irrigated in the district crop wise are shown in Table-8 to Table-10 respectively in Annexure-

II.

2.8

Operational Holdings

The number and area of operational holdings by size groups in the district is shown in Table-2.6. The majority of holdings are of medium size as evident from the Table-2.5.

Table-2.6: Number & Area of Operational Holdings by Size Groups in Haryana: 1995-96 (Provisional)

Size Groups (in Hectares)

 

Gurgaon

No.

Area (in Ha)

< 0.5

38,941

11,143

0.5-1.0

29,827

21,673

1.0-2.0

27,061

39,726

2.0-3.0

12,488

28,535

3.0-4.0

6,346

20,622

4.0-5.0

3,691

15,633

5.0-7.5

4,374

23,428

7.5-10.0

1,747

13,788

10.0-20.0

479

5,776

> 20.0

243

6,997

Total

1,25,197

1,87,321

Average Size of Holding

 

1.50

2.9 Forest Area

The area under forests is shown in Table-19 in Annexure-II. As per the provisional figures, around 2 sq kms area is under reserved forest category, 20 sq kms is under protected category and about 1 sq km is under unclassed category. About 27 sq km area is under private forests. Thus, total of 50 sq kms area is under forest category. The percentage of land area under forests and forest area per lakh of population is shown in Table-20 in Annexure-II.

2.10 Fertiliser Consumption and Tubewells

The fertilizer consumption in the district is shown in Table-2.7 below. The no. of tube wells and pumping sets in detailed in Table-11 in Annexure-II. Since the surface water potential is not promising, there is increased dependence on the ground water for agricultural and other needs. Also, for the agriculture, there seems to be more emphasis on the use of chemical fertilizers.

Table-2.7: Fertiliser Consumption in Gurgaon District

District

Consumption of Fertilizer (in tones in the year 1999-2000)

N

P

K

Total

Gurgaon

20,720

8,497

87

29,304

2.11 Live Stock Population

The inventory of livestock and poultry in the district is presented in Annexure-II from Table-12 to Table-18. This includes types of livestock under various categories. The table shows that there is sizeable number of sheeps and goats in the district, which is of major concern as far protection of Aravali forests is concerned.

2.12 Mineral Resources

The district is rich in kaolin and silica sand. The production of mineral ores in the district for the year 1999-2000 is shown in Table-21 in Annexure-II. A number of mines exist in the district, which produce various minerals. The location of mining and crusher activities in the hill ranges is shown in Plate-2.6. The inventory of the mines is shown in Annexure-II.

2.12.1 Grant of Mining Leases

The grant of mining leases and their regulations in the Haryana State is covered under Punjab Minor Mineral Concession Rules, 1964 (as adopted by Haryana Government). The provisions are as under:

Type of Concessions

Three types of mineral concessions are available under these rules. They are:

Mining lease

Contract and

Short Term Permit

The Mining Lease means a lease to mine, quarry, bore, dig and search for win, work and carry away any minor minerals specified therein.

The Contract means a contract given on behalf o the Government to carry win, work and carry away any mineral specified therein, through open auction or by inviting tenders for certain specified areas, notified by the Director of Mines and Geology.

A short-term permit means a permit granted to extract a certain quantity of mineral for the period specified in the permit.

2.12.2 Procedure for Grant of Mining Lease

No mining lease may be granted:

I. In respect of land within a distance of 60 meters from any village or national highway

II. In respect of any such minor mineral as the Government may notify in this behalf, and

III. To a person who does not hold a certificate of approval from the Director of Mines and Geology.

An application for the mining lease is made to the State Government through the Director of Mines and Geology or any other officer authorized by the Government in this behalf, in the form prescribed in the rules, accompanied by a fee of Rs 2000/-, an Income Tax Clearance Certificate from the Income Tax officer concerned and a certificate of approval. This application is supposed to contain particulars about the status, nationality, profession and residence of the applicant, name of the minor mineral to be mined; a description illustrated by a map or plan showing as accurately as possible the situation, boundaries and area of the land in respect of which land is sought; the period for which lease is required and the purpose for which mineral is to be used.

Priority in granting mining lease is proposed to be given in the following order:

The discoverer of the new mineral;

A person who intends to set-up a mineral based industry in the state;

A co-operative society.

Where two or more persons of the same category apply for a mining lease over the same land, the applicant whose application is received earlier has a preferential right for the grant over an applicant whose application is received later. Where such applications are received on the same day, the Government may grant the lease to one of the applicants as it deems fit, after taking into consideration their experience in mining, financial soundness, stability and special knowledge of the geology and mining and the technical staff already employed or to be employed for the work. The Government, may for special reasons to be recorded in writing, grant a mining lease to an applicant whose application is received later in preference to an earlier applicant. These rules also empower the State Government to give preference to one party over another for the grant of a mining lease or contract, as the case may be, in case it considers that working of these deposits by that party will be beneficial in the public interest.

After the lease is granted, the applicant must deposit, as security, a sum of Rs five lakhs for mining leases upto 50 Hectares, 7.5 lakhs for leases exceeding 50 hectares-75 hectares and Rs 10 lakhs for leases exceeding 75 hectares, for due observance of the terms and conditions of the lease. Provided further that in addition to the royalty, lessee shall also be liable to pay lease fee at the rate specified in the said rules. The lease is required to be executed in the prescribed form within three months of the order sanctioning the lease. After the lease is granted, arrangement shall be made, if necessary, at the expense of the lessee for the survey and demarcation of the area granted under the lease.

Contract

The contract is granted only in such cases as the Government may, by general or special order, direct. The contract is granted either by public auction or tender. In either case, the usual procedure in this regard is followed. When a bid is conformed or a tender is accepted, the bidder or tenderer is required to execute a deed in the prescribed form within one month from the date of communication of acceptance of bid or tender.

The contractors are required to supply to consumers or allow them to excavate building stone, limestone, kankar and bajri at the rate specified in the Third Schedule for their bonafide personal use or for the construction of building meant for charitable or philanthropic purposes.

Short Term Permit

Permits may be issued only in respect of those areas for which the Government has not sanctioned grant of lease or contract.

An application for the grant of a permit must be made to the Director or any other officer authorized by him in this behalf. The application ………… and contain the particulars regarding name, address and profession of the applicant, quantity of minor mineral for which permit is sought, name of the minor mineral which is to be extracted, description i.e.

name of village, area and Khasara Nos. of the land from which the minor mineral is to be extracted and the purpose for which the minor mineral is to be used.

…… the application should also be accompanied by a letter from the occupants of such lands to the effect that he has no objection to the extraction of the minor minerals by the applicant.

If the lands from which the minor mineral is to be extracted from occupied lands, then

Every permit contains the condition that the depth of the pit below the surface shall not exceed three feet.

2.12.3 Period and Area of Mining lease

The period for which a mining lease may be granted is five years at the first instances, unless the government allows a longer period not exceeding ten years. The mining lease may be renewed for one or two periods not exceeding the period for which the mining lease was originally granted.

A mining lease may be granted for such area as the Government may deem fit. No lessee by himself or with any person joint in interest with him, may ordinarily hold in aggregate more than 5 sq kms of the area under lease in respect of one minor mineral within the state. The area under a mining lease shall be rectangular as far as possible and its length should not exceed four times its breadth. However, the government may relax this condition in any particular case. The application for grant of mining lease should relate to a compact area.

Contract

Each contract will ordinarily be auctioned for a period of three years unless the period is specifically stated. The maximum period for which a contract may be granted is five years after which no extension may be granted. Provided that if the contractor has fully executed the contract according to its terms and conditions, the Government may extend the period not exceeding two years. No stipulation has been made regarding maximum area. It is, however, laid down that contract may be granted only in such cases as the Government may, by general or special order, direct.

Short Term Permit

The maximum period within which the specified quantity should be extracted and removed under any one permit is 30 days. However, in case of brick earths, it is 2 years for kiln owners.

Transfer, Surrender, Termination

The lessee may, with the previous sanction of the government, assign, sublet, or transfer his lease or any right, title or interest therein, to any person holding a valid certificate of approval on payment of a fee of Rs 100/- to the Government. The contractor shall not

assign, sublet or transfer the contract without obtaining prior permission in writing of the Government.

The lessee may terminate the lease at any time by giving not less than six calendar months notice in writing to the Government, after payment of all outstanding dues.

The State Government has the right to cancel the lease:

If the lessee does not allow entry or inspection by any officer authorized by the State or the Central Government; or

By giving six months prior notice in writing if the State Government considers that the minor minerals under the lease is required for establishing an industry beneficial to the public; or

After serving a notice on the lessee to pay the dues within 30 days from the date of receipt of the notice, or

If the lessee ceases to work the mine for a continuous period of six months without obtaining the written sanction of the Government.

Likewise the contract may be terminated by the Government or by any officer authorized by it in this behalf by giving one months notice, if:

The contract makes a default in due observance of the terms and conditions of the contract or in payment of the contract money on the due date; or

It is considered by the Government to be in public interest

Similarly, the Director of Mines and Geology may cancel a short-term permit in case of breach of any of the conditions subject to which the permit was granted.

2.12.4 Rents and Royalties

Dead Rent:

The holder of a mining lease is required to pay dead rent for every year, at the rate fixed by the State Government within the limits specified in the second Schedule. If the lease permits the working of more than one minor mineral in the same area, the Government may charge separate dead rent in respect of each minor mineral, provided the mining of one minor mineral does not involve mining of another. The lessee is liable to pay the dead rent or royalty in respect of each minor mineral whichever is higher in amount but not both.

Surface Rent

The lessee is required to pay surface rent for the surface area occupied by him at such rates not exceeding land revenue, water charges and cess assessable on the land as may be fixed by the Government and specified in the lease deed.

Royalty

The lessee is liable to pay royalty on the minor minerals removed from the leased area at the rate specified in the First Schedule.

2.13 Other Industries

Besides mining, there exist a number of crushing units and other industries in the district. The inventory of these units has been presented in Table-1 to Table-6 in Annexure-II. Besides, the no. of registered factories and workers employed in the district is shown in Table-22 in Annexure-II.

2.14 Population

The population of the district along with those of sub-divisions are shown in the Table-2.8. From the above table, it is evident that rural population constitutes a major share in the district.

Table-2.8: Population of Gurgaon district as per 1991 & 2001 Census

Sl No.

District/Tehsil

Area

 

Population (in numbers)

 

(sq.km)

As per 1991 Census

2001 Census

(provisional)

Rural

Urban

Total

Total

 

Gurgaon

2,760.00

9,13,386

2,32,704

11,46,090

16,57,669

 

1 Pataudi

177.27

59478

24,541

84,019

Not

Available

 

2 Gurgaon

1071.94

3,52,020

1,67,045

5,19,065

-do-

 

3 Nuh

688.53

2,11,727

20,026

2,31,753

-do-

 

4 Firozpur Jhirka

811.75

2,90,161

21,092

3,11,253

-do-

CHAPTER-IV ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF ARAVALI HILLS

1. Vide Gazette Notification of Ministry of Environment & Forests dated 7 th May, 1992, Government of India has restricted various developmental and industrial activities in Gurgaon district. For environmental clearance of the projects, project proponent has to submit Environmental Statement Report along with Environmental Management Plan.

In large-scale mining projects, the applicant is asked to submit detailed mine plans on mining and processing methods, the technology being used, the financing plan and the environmental management plan (including reclamation) and the training and local benefits envisaged but what it still require is a proposal on district level as to what will be mined, how it will be mined and with what method, how the financing will be arranged, what are the areas of environmental concerns (keeping in view the regional character) which need to be addressed by the entrepreneur. This does not seem to be adequately addressed keeping in view the environmental degradation of the Aravali Hills.

2. The Aravalli Notification restricts process and operations under certain categories of the land in the district. Though the records of such lands are available at every village level map, there is no record available in the district level in respect of these areas to undertake realistic appraisal & effective monitoring of mining and other projects at the macro level on such lands.

3. Vide Gazette Notification of Ministry of Environment & Forests dated 29 th November, 1999, Government of India has interalia made provision for preparing the Master Plan integrating the environmental concerns and the future land use of the area. The Master Plan has now been published. However, it does not interalia address the following issues:

Land use planning

Economic zoning

Natural Resource Assessment

Water Resource Status

Landscaping

4. Though the air quality on the regional basis shows the parameters within the specified limits, the areas near crushing zone and active mining zone remains a matter of concern. In the mining and the crusher areas, the concerted efforts have not been given to the quality of roads and the dust suppression measures to maintain the air quality within safe limits.

5.

A number of crusher plants are there in each zone. Government of Haryana has issued guidelines for siting as well as operation of the crusher in an eco-friendly manner. But the compliance is only partial. Wind breaking walls are not proper, pollution control devices are not operating and the green belt around the crushing zones are not maintained.

6.

The identification of mines in the district is difficult. It is not possible for the regulators to immediately identify the mine, which is defaulter in respect of pollution control.

7.

The Minor Miner Rules of the Government of Haryana does not levy any charge for environmental betterment in the mining areas. It is therefore difficult to get the fund for the biological reclamation of dumps and eco-restoration in the mining areas.

8.

There does not seem to be a mechanism to upgrade the mining technologies and methodologies to minimize the impacts due to mining in the eco-sensitive zones in the district. Also, there seems to be inadequate effort to undertake environmental projects in the district with sufficient start-up fund.

9.

There does not seem to be a mechanism to ascertain that the mining method proposed for a particular project will result in optimum exploitation of the resource and that there is competency in mining and environmental management. There is no identified land where over burden could be temporarily dumped prior to being utilized for void filling and for other purposes.

10.

There is inadequate data in respect of environmental quality in the area. Since the area encompasses various mines and industries, sharing of financial burden for generating these data on strategic locations is practically absent. This not only poses the problem in effective compliance of the consent conditions but also in creation of the database for future planning in the district, as substantial industrial growth is anticipated here in the near future.

11.

Inadequate knowledge on the part of mine and industrial operators in respect of the environmental impacts due to mining and industrial units respectively, is one of the key factors in environmental damage caused in the district. Because of the lack of knowledge of how to exploit the resource, maintain standards, the environmental degradation takes place. Also, there is no willingness on the part of the mine operators / owner of the crusher units for environmental improvement in and around mine/processing plant sites. Since the environmental degradation has already occurred in many places, it is imperative on the part of the State Government to carry out, and pay, for the eco-restoration without necessarily closing the mining and other industrial operations at such places. At these places in the mining and industrial areas, government may take steps for environmental upgradation and recompense for these expenses could be obtained through a garnishee of income from future activities, thus making the polluter pay, but on an incremental basis and without affecting the continuation of the operation. There does not seem to be a mechanism for the above. Besides, there also does not seem to be frequent

consultation of the mine and industrial operators with the State Pollution Control Board to take steps, whatever and whenever required, for environmental betterment in the district.

12. In the Aravali Range, there exists open access system of the plant resources available which is used for fodder and fuel. As is evident from Figure-4.1, community controlled regulated access system, required for sustainable common land system in the Aravali Range, is inadequate.

13. As far as consumption of fodder is concerned, the following units are taken to estimate the fodder consumption:

o

1 cow or bullock

-

1 cattle unit

o

1 buffalo

-

2 cattle units

o

1 goat

-

1.5 cattle unit

o

1 sheep

-

1 cattle unit

In the district, the percentage of goats and sheep is significant in the live stock population. The fodder consumption for these animals are either comparable (in case of sheep) or more (in case of goat). The herd of goat and sheep are commonly seen on the Aravali hills. They consume substantial amount of fodder and thus reduce the vegetation on the hills.

14. Since the percentage of goats and sheep is significant, there is lesser availability of dung as fertilizer and as the fuels. There is growing consumption of chemical fertilizers, which due to high ground water level in the southern part of the district, may further increase the salinity. Besides, since the fuel availability is lesser, there is increased dependence on the forests for fuel. This has also led to reduction in forest cover in the district.

15. The pace of the afforestation programme in the district need to be speeded up. In the afforestation programme, unless due care is taken about the need of the people, the programme may not be successful. The pace of the social forestry programme, therefore, also need to be speeded up.

16. There is need to consider the participation of people and specially the women folk for the environmental programmes being executed in the district. There does not seem to be adequate awareness amongst the people in respect of the environmental problems, which exist in the Aravali hills, the efforts that they can take to minimise the damage to environment. The self-employment opportunities are lesser which induces the locals to illegal mining.

17. Due to its proximity to Delhi and the infrastructural facilities the district has, there is further potential for growth in industrial and housing sectors in the district. So far little effort seems to have been made to integrate the planning process with the environmental quality of the district.

18.

Considerable portion of soil has become saline due to various factors. Little effort has been made to rehabilitate the saline land. Unless proper efforts are taken to control, it may render considerable portion of land into wasteland.

19. In some part of the district, the ground water potential is already in the dark category. Lack of water conservation measures and rainwater harvesting may ultimately lead to water scarcity in the near future.

CHAPTER-V ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

5.1 Environmental Impact Assessment

From the foregoing discussion in the previous chapters, it is evident that in the Gurgaon district, there exist a number of mining projects, crushers, processing plants etc. Given the resources existing in the district, there is tremendous potential to further increase the industrial and other developmental activities like housing etc. All these additional activities will have impact on the existing environmental set-up in the district. In order to take stock of the environmental problems, CPCB and CMPDI team made several visit to Aravali Hills and held discussion with the mine operators, State officials and local people. The environmental impact of these activities is assessed based on the existing environmental setup and these are detailed hereunder.

5.2 Environmental Impact due to Mining Activities

There exist a number of mining projects in the district. In the Naurangpur, Shikopur , Rojka Meo and Sohna areas, the mining projects occur in clusters. In Naurangpur and Shikopur areas of the district, the mining projects are associated with processing plants, which occur in clusters. The environmental impact due to mining projects in the district may be as under:

5.2.1 Air Quality

The air quality in the cluster of mining projects (in Naurangpur, Shikopur and Rojka Meo areas) has been found to be above the acceptable limits. The reason behind this is that though the mining units are of medium and small sizes, and the operations are carried out at a smaller scale but since they occur in clusters, the handling of the material and other transportation activities generate the suspended particulate matter which render the air quality parameters above the prescribed limits. The respirable particulate matter has also been found to be beyond the acceptable limit. As such they are likely to affect the health of the local people. In some of the mines, the operations are being carried out through manual means. For the scattered mines, there does not seem to be a problem relating to the air quality as the ambient air quality exhibit a greater flexibility to absorb the deterioration in its quality both in terms of particulate and gaseous emissions. However, for a cluster of mines, the major factor for the particulate matter emissions is plying of trucks on the roads for the transportation of material and minerals. Since these roads are not metalled, they give rise to emissions of particulate matter. Opening of additional mining projects in these cluster zones may increase the dust level in the ambience, which may be harmful to the nearby village community. The hot spots in respect of air quality are given in Plate-5.1.

5.2.2

Water Quality

Due to lower ground water table in the district, majority of the mines do not generate effluent. In some of the mines, ground water tables are intercepted and to facilitate the mining activities, the water is discharged out side. As such, there does not seem to be the water pollution problem from the mining operations except with some. Opening of the additional projects in the district, therefore, will have moderate impact on the natural water quality in the district.

5.2.3 Noise Level

The noise level in the mining areas and also at various monitoring locations spanning in the Aravali Range in the district has been found to be within the tolerance limits. Given the medium and small-scale operations in the mining projects, coming of additional mining projects in the district is not likely to create noise pollution.

5.2.4 Soil Quality

The mining operations do not generate any substance, which is harmful to the soil quality. Opening of additional projects as such, will have no impact on the soil quality in the district.

The analysis of the satellite data indicates that 210.56 sq kms area (which is 7.62% of the total area of the Gurgaon district), is affected by salt incrustation. This makes the land unproductive. The development of the salt affected soil is primarily associated with fluctuation of ground level. Unless adequate reclamation measures are taken, the percentage of area affected by salt incrustation may increase.

5.2.5 Over Burden

The overburden material is being dumped outside and reclamation of the dumps has not been attempted in most of the cases. The excavated pits remain unattended and poses safety and environmental problem in the district. Due to opening of more projects in the district, this problem is likely to increase. Temporarily stocking of the topsoil, the over burden and other waste material and their reclamation is crucial issue which will require proper and pro-active addressal in the years to come, because of increase in mining operations.

5.2.6 Land Use Pattern

As far as mining projects are concerned, the land use pattern due to mining and dumping of overburden is one of the crucial dimensions and possibly one of the foremost considerations requiring attention of the planners, for promoting environmentally benign mining operations in the Aravali Range. Due to mining operation, land degradation takes place and there seems to be little work done to contain the land degradation process. The hot spots in terms of land degradation are shown in Plate-5.1. There has not been systematic approach to carry out the mining, and