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Generalitati Introducere Sistemul GIS (Geographic Information System) este un sistem informational, bazat pe computer, ce foloseste reprezentarea si analiza

digitala a elementelor geografice ce sunt prezente la suprafata terestra si a evenimentelor (atribute nonspatiale legate de geografia studiata) ce au loc pe acestea. Intelesul reprezentarilor digitale este conversia formei analogice (linie continua) intr-una digitala. Fiecare obiect prezent pe Pamant poate fi geo-referentiat este elementul fundamental pentru asocierea oricarei baze de date GIS. Termenul baza de date este o colectie de informatii despre lucruri si asocierea acestora unora cu altele, geo referentierea se refera la locatia unui nivel sau acoperirea in spatiu definit de un sistem referential de coordonate. Definirea GIS Un GIS este un sistem informatic proiectat sa lucreze cu date referentiate de catre coordonate spatiale/geografice. Cu alte cuvinte, GIS este atat un sistem de baze de date cu capacitati specifice pentru datele referentiate spatial cat si un set de operatii care lucreaza cu aceste date. El este deseori considerat ca o harta de nivel inalt. Tehnologia GIS integreaza operatii comune pentru baze de date cum ar fi interogari si analiza statistica, cu vizualizarea unica si beneficiile analizelor geografice oferite de catre harti. Aceste caracteristici deosebesc GIS de alte sisteme informatice si fac ca acesta sa aiba valoare pentru o gama larga de public si de intreprinderi private pentru explicarea unor evenimente, previziunea unor rezultate si planificarea strategiilor. Un sistem GIS este un sistem bazat pe computer care este utilizat pentru analiza si reproducerea elementelor prezente pe suprafata Pamantului si a evenimentelor care au loc pe aceste elemente. Pentru sublinierea rolului GIS trebuie amintit faptul ca 70% din date au referinte geografice. Un sistem tipic GIS poate fi inteles cu ajutorul definitiilor urmatoare: un sistem GIS este un instrument bazat pe computer pentru crearea de harti si analiza lucrurilor care exista si a evenimentelor care au loc pe Pamant. Burrough definea GIS in 1986 ca Set de instrumente pentru colectarea, stocarea, apelarea, transformarea si afisarea datelor spatiale de la lumea reala pentru un set de obiective particulare. Arnoff definea GIS in 1989 ca un sistem bazat pe computer care furnizeaza patru seturi de functiuni pentru manipularea datelor geo-referentiate: - Intrarea datelor; - Managementul datelor (stocarea si apelarea datelor); - Manipularea si analiza; - Iesirea datelor.

GIS poate fi privit si ca un instrument pentru asistarea in luarea deciziilor si managementul atributelor care cer analiza spatiala. Factori care au contribuit la dezvoltarea GIS: - revolutia din domeniul tehnologiei informatiei; - tehnologia calculatoarelor; - captarea de imagini din satelit; - GPS; - Tehnologia comunicatiei; - Scaderea rapida a hardware-ului calculatoarelor, si in acelasi timp, si cresterea exponentiala a vitezei de operare a calculatoarelor; - Imbunatatirea functionalitatii software si interfetelor cu utilizatorul; Avantajele GIS GIS este un instrument efectiv pentru implementarea si monitorizarea infrastructurii unui oras. Astfel un GIS poate avea urmatoarele avantaje: a) Planificarea proiectelor Avantajele GIS sunt deseori gasite in planificarea in detaliu a proiectului care are multe componente spatiale, unde analiza problemei este o necesitate inainte de inceperea proiectului. Generarea hartilor tematice este posibila pe baza uneia sau mai multor harti de baza, de exemplu: generarea unei harti privind utilizarea terenurilor pe baza compozitie solului, a vegetatiei si a topografiei. Combinatia unica a unor elemente concrete faciliteaza crearea unei astfel de harti tematice. Prin intermediul diferitelor module, in GIS este posibila calcularea suprafetelor, lungimilor si a distantelor. b) Luarea deciziilor Zicala mai buna informare duce la decizii mai bune este un adevar pentru GIS cat si pentru alte sisteme informatice. Un GIS nu este un sistem automat de luare a deciziilor dar este un instrument pentru interogarea, analiza si dispunerea datelor pe harta utilizat la sprijinirea procesului de luare a deciziilor. Tehnologia GIS poate fi utilizata la asistenta in procese cum ar fi prezentarea informatiilor la investigatii, sprijin in rezolvarea disputelor teritoriale si dispunerea pilonilor intr-o zona cu acces dificil. c) Analiza vizuala DTM (Digital Terrain Modeling) este un utilitar important al GIS. Folosind modelarea DTM/3D, terenul poate fi mai bine vizualizat, acest lucru conducand la o intelegere mai buna a relatiilor din cadrul acelui teren. Astfel utilizand GIS multe calcule si modelari hidrologice devin mult mei usoare, de exemplu volumul apelor si lacurilor, volumul eroziunii solului, cantitatea de pamant care trebuie excavata (pentru canale, drumuri, baraje). GIS nu este folosit numai in domeniile mentionate pana acum ca exemple, el poate fi folosit si in stiinte sociale (analiza distributie populatiei, probleme administrative etc.). d) Imbunatatirea integrarii organizationale Multe organizatii care au implementat un sistem GIS au gasit, ca unul din principalele beneficii, este imbunatatirea managementului organizatiei si resurselor. Deoarece GIS

are calitatea de a seturi de date impreuna prin intermediul geografiei, el faciliteaza comunicarea si partajarea informatiilor intre departamente. Prin crearea unei baze de date partajate un departament poate beneficia de munca altui departament, datele pot fi colectate o singura data si pot folosite de mai multe ori. Componentele GIS Sistemele GIS sunt compuse din urmatoarele cinci componente fundamentale: hardware; software; date; oameni; metode.

Hardware Acesta consta din sistemul unui computer pe care va rula un sofware GIS. Se poate alege un sistem hardware incepand cu un calculator personal cu un procesor de 300 MHz si terminand cu un super computer care capacitatea de ordinul TeraFLOPS. Software Software-ul GIS furnizeaza functiile si instrumentele necesare stocarii, analizei si afisarii informatiilor geografice. Cateva exemple de software GIS sunt urmatoarele: MapInfo, ARC/Info, AutoCAD Map etc. Software-ul necesar este dictat de catre specificul aplicatiei. Date Datele geografice si datele tabelare pot fi colectate in cadrul firmei sau cumparate de la furnizorii de date comerciale. Hartile digitale formeaza intrarile de date de baza pentru GIS. Un sistem GIS va integra datele spatiale cu alte resurse de date si pot chiar utiliza un DBMS, folosit de majoritatea organizatiilor sa intretina datele lor specifice, pentru gestionarea datelor spatiale. Oameni Utilizatorii GIS sunt de la specialistii care proiecteaza si intretin sisteme pana la cei care folosesc aceste sisteme sa isi faca treaba de zi cu zi. Utilizatorii de sisteme GIS pot fo impartiti in doua mari categorii. Operatori CAD/GIS a caror sarcina consta in vectorizarea obiectelor pe harti. Utilizarea acestor date vectorizate pentru realizarea de interogari, analize si a altor aplicatii sunt responsabilitatea inginerilor/utilizatorilor GIS.

Metode Deasupra tuturor, pentru ca un sistem GIS sa fie un succes, acesta trebuie sa opereze dupa un plan bine proiectat si dupa un set de reguli, acestea sunt modele si practici de operare unice pentru fiecare organizatie. Exista diferite tehnici folosite pentru crearea de harti si pentru utilizarea ulterioara a acestora. Hartile pot fi create in mod automat sau manual folosind imagini scanate. Aplicatii GIS Cartografierea computerizata si analiza spatiala au fost dezvoltate simultan in cateva domenii. Starea actuala nu ar fi fost atinsa daca nu ar fi fost o interactiune stransa intre diferite domenii precum: retelele de utilitati, cartografierea cadastrala, cartografierea topografica, cartografierea tematica, procesarea de imagini, informatica, planificarea urbana si rurala, stiintele pamantului si geografie. Tehnologia GIS devine rapid un instrument standard pentru managementul resurselor naturale. Utilizarea efectiva a unui mare volum de date spatiale este dependenta de existenta unui sistem eficient de manevrare a datelo geografice si de procesare a acestora pentru transformarea datelor in informatii utilizabile. Tehnologia GIS este utlizata sa asiste managerii in luarea deciziilor prin indicarea diferitelor alternative in planificarea dezvoltarii si a conservarii si prin modelarea rezultatelor potentiale ale diferitelor scenarii. Trebuie remarcat faptul ca orice proces incepe si se termina cu lumea reala. Datele sunt colectate din lumea reala. Principalele domenii de aplicare Diferite activitati de planificare: - Planificare urbana, constructia de locuinte, planificarea transporturilor, conservarea arhitecturala, design urban, planificarea terenurilor; Aplicatii bazate pe reteaua de strazi: definirea si organizarea rutelor vehiculelor, aplicatii pentru localizare si interventie in caz de dezastre; Aplicatii bazate pe resursele naturale: managementul mediului si analiza impactului asupra mediului, distributia si exploatarea resurselor naturale; Analize: amplasamentele fabricilor de materiale toxice sau cu grad ridicat de risc, studierea habitatelor animalelor si rutelor de migrare; Managementul terenurilor: zonarea (delimitarea unor anumitor zone, in cadrul oraselor sau a altor entitati organizatorice, ce au anumite caracteristici), achizitia de terenuri, analiza impactului de mediu, managementul si intretinerea calitatii naturale a terenurilor; Managementul utilitatilor: localizarea conductelor si a cablurilor subterane pentru activitati de intretinere, planificare si interventie

Elemente fundamentale despre GIS Harti. Concepte, elemente si proprtietati. O harta reprezinta elemente geografice sau alte fenomene spatiale prin transmiterea informatiilor despre localizarea acestora si atributele lor. Informatia de localizare descrie pozitia unor elemente geografice particulare pe suprafata Pamantului, precum si relatiile spatiale dintra aceste elemente, cum ar fi calea cea mai scurta de la o statie de pompieri la o biblioteca etc. Informatiile atribute descriu caracteristicile elementelor geografice reprezentate, cum ar fi tipul elementului, numele sau numarul acestuia si informatii cantitative, cum ar fi aria sau lungimea. Astfel obiectivele principale ale cartografierii sunt sa ofere: - descrierea fenomenelor geografice; - informatii spatiale si non-spatiale; - elemente ale hartilor cum ar fi puncte, linii si poligoane. Elementele hartilor Informatia de localizare este in mod uzual reprezentata de catre puncte pentru diferite elemente, cum ar fi un dulap de echipamente sau un post de telefonie, linii pentru elemente cum ar fi conducte, cabluri electrice sau linii de contur, si arii pentru elemente cum ar fi lacuri, teritorii si zone. Puncte Un punct reprezinta o singura locatie. Acesta defineste un obiect pe harta care este prea mic pentru a putea fi redat printr-o linie sau o arie. Pentru redarea unui astfel de punct se utilizeaza etichete. Linii O linie este un set de coordonate conectate si ordonate ce reprezinta o forma liniara a unui obiect de pe harta, acesta fiind prea subtire pentru a putea fi reprezentat printr-o arie (cum ar fi un drum sau un element al hartii care nu are grosime, precum liniile de contur). Ariile O arie este o figura inchisa ale carei limite cuprind o arie omogena, cum ar fi state, terenuri sau lacuri. Caracteristicile hartilor Pe langa localizarea elementelor si a atributelor, exista si alte caracteristici tehnice care definesc hartile si utilizarea acestora: - scara hartii; - acuratetea hartii; - acoperirea hartii; - acoperirea bazei de date. Scara Pentru a reda o portiune din suprafata Pamantului pe o harta, scara trebuie sa fie ajustata suficient pentru a acoperi obiectivul. Scara hartii sau acoperirea redusa este expesia unui raport. Unitatea din stanga reprezinta distanta pe harta iar numarul din

dreapta indica distanta pe suprafata terestra (1:60.000.000 = 1cm pe harta are corespondentul 60 milioane cm pe suprafata Pamantului). Scara unei harti arata cat de mult poate fi redusa o arie data. Pentru aceeasi dimensiune a hartii, elementele pe o harta la scara mica (1:10.000.000) vor fi mai mici decat aceleasi elemente pe o harta la scara mare (1:1.000). O harta cu mai putine detalii este la o scara mai mica decat una cu mai multe detalii. Cartografii impart hartile, dupa scara, in trei categorii diferite: - harti la scara mica care au scara mai mica decat 1:1.000.000 si sunt folosite pentru arii foarte extinse unde nu sunt necesare foarte multe detalii; - harti la scara medie au scara cuprinsa intre 1:75.000 si 1:1.000.000; - harti la scara mare au scara mai mare decat 1:75.000 si sunt folosite in aplicatiile in care este nevoie de multe detalii.
So each scale represents a different tradeoff. With a small-scale map, you'll be able to show a large area without much detail. On a large-scale map, you'll be able to show a lot of detail but not for a large area. The small-scale map can show a large area because it reduces the area so much that the large-scale map can only show a portion of one street, but in such detail that you can see shapes of the houses. To convert this statement to a representative fraction, the units of measure on both the sides being compared must be the same. For this example, both measurements will be in meters. To do this: 1. Convert 1.6 inches into meters 1.6 inches x 0.0254 meters/inch = 0.04 meters 2. Let us suppose that 0.04 units on the map = 10,000 units on the ground Then, you can now state the scale as a representative fraction (RF): 0.04:10,000 Though it is a valid statement of scale, most cartographers may find it clumsy. Traditionally, the first number in the representative fraction is made equal to 1: 0.04 / 0.04 = 1 units on the map = 10,000 / 0.04 units on the ground 1 unit on the map = 250,000 units on the ground

Scale in Digital Maps With digital maps, the traditional concept of scale in terms of distance does not apply because digital maps do not remain fixed in size. They can be displayed or plotted at any possible magnification. Yet we still speak of the scale of a digital map. In digital mapping, the term scale is used to indicate the scale of the materials from which the map was made. For example, if a digital map is said to have a scale of 1:100,000, it was made from a 1:100,000scale paper map. However, a digital map's scale still allows you to make some educated guesses about its contents because, generally, digital maps retain the same accuracy and characteristics as their source maps. So it

is still true that a large-scale digital map will usually be more accurate and less general than a small-scale digital map. Because the display size of a computer-based map is not fixed, users are often tempted to blow up maps to very large sizes. For example, a 1:100,000-scale map can easily be plotted at a size of 1:24,000 or even 1:2,000-but it usually is not a good idea to do so. It encourages the user to make measurements that the underlying data does not support. You cannot measure positions to the nearest foot if your map is only accurate to the nearest mile. You will end up looking for information that does not exist. Map Resolution Map resolution refers to how accurately the location and shape of map features can be depicted for a given map scale. Scale affects resolution. In a larger-scale map, the resolution of features more closely matches real-world features because the extent of reduction from ground to map is less. As map scale decrease, the map resolution diminishes because features must be smoothed and simplified, or not shown at all. Map Accuracy Many factors besides resolution, influence how accurately features can be depicted, including the quality of source data, the map scale, your drafting skill and the width of lines drawn on the ground. A fine drafting pen will draw line's 1/100 of an inch wide. Such a line represents a corridor on the ground, which is almost 53 feet wide. In addition to this, human drafting errors will occur and can be compounded by the quality of your source maps and materials. A map accurate for one purpose is often inaccurate for others since accuracy is determined by the needs of the project as much as it is by the map itself. Some measurements of a map's accuracy are discussed below. Absolute accuracy of a map refers to the relationship between a geographic position on a map (a street corner, for instance) and its real-world position measured on the surface of the earth. Absolute accuracy is primarily important for complex data requirements such as those for surveying and engineering-based applications. Relative accuracy refers to the displacement between two points on a map (both distance and angle), compared to the displacement of those same points in the real world. Relative accuracy is often more important and easier to obtain than absolute accuracy because users rarely need to know absolute positions. More often, they need to find a position relative to some known landmark, which is what relative accuracy provides. Users with simple data requirements generally need only relative accuracy. Attribute accuracy refers to the precision of the attribute database linked to the map's features. For example, if the map shows road classifications, are they correct? If it shows street addresses, how accurate are they? Attribute accuracy is most important to users with complex data requirements. A map's Currency refers to how up-to-date it is. Currency is usually expressed in terms of a revision date, but this information is not always easy to find. A map is Complete if it includes all the features a user would expect it to contain. For example, does a street map contain all the streets? Completeness and currency usually are related because a map becomes less complete as it gets older.

The most important issue to remember about map accuracy is that the more accurate the map, the more it costs in time and money to develop. For example, digital maps with coordinate accuracy of about 100 feet can be purchased inexpensively. If 1-foot accuracy is required, a custom survey is often the only way to get it, which drives up data-acquisition costs by many orders of magnitude and can significantly delay project implementation - by months or even years. Therefore, too much accuracy can be as detrimental to the success of a GIS project as too little. Rather than focusing on the project's benefits, a sponsoring organization may focus on the costs that result from

a level of accuracy not justified for the project. Project support inevitably erodes when its original objectives are forgotten in a flurry of cost analyses. A far better strategy is to start the project with whatever data is readily available and sufficient to support initial objectives. Once the GIS is up and running, producing useful results, project scope can be expanded. The quality of its data can be improved as required. Even though no maps are entirely accurate, they are still useful for decision-making and analysis. How ever, it is important to consider map accuracy to ensure that your data is not used inappropriately. Any number of factors can cause error. Note these sources can have at cumulative effect. E = f(f) + f(1) + f(e) + f(d) + f(a) + f(m) + f(rms) + f(mp) + u Where, f = flattening the round Earth onto a two - dimensional surface (transformation from spherical to planar geometry) I = accurately measuring location on Earth (correct project and datum information) c = cartographic interpretation (correct interpretation of features) d = drafting error (accuracy in tracing of features and width of drafting pen) a = analog to digital conversion (digitizing board calibration) m = media stability (warping and stretching, folding. Wrinkling of map) p = digitizing processor error (accuracy of cursor placement) rms = Root Mean Square (registration accuracy of ties) mp = machine precision (coordinate rounding by computer in storing and transforming) u = additional unexplained source error

Map Extent The aerial extent of map is the area on the Earth's surface represented on the map. It is the limit of the area covered, usually defined by rectangle just large enough to include all mapped features. The size of the study area depends on the map scale. The smaller the scale the larger the area covered. Database Extent A critical first step in building a geographic database is defining its extent. The aerial extent of a database is the limit of the area of interest for your GIS project. This usually includes the areas directly affected by your organization's responsibility (such as assigned administrative units) as well as surrounding areas that either influence or are influenced by relevant activities in the administrative area. Data Automation Map features are logically organized into a set of layers or themes of information. A base map can be organized into layers such as streams, soils, wells or boundaries. Map data, regardless of how a spatial database will be applied, is collected, automated and updated as series of adjacent map sheets or aerial photograph. Here each sheet is mounted on the digitizer and digitized, one sheet at a time. In order to be able to combine these smaller sheets into larger units or study areas, the co-ordinates of coverage must be transformed into a single common co-ordinate system. Once in a common co-ordinate system, attributes are associated with features. Then as needed map sheets for layer are edge matched and joined into a single coverage for your study area. Types of Information in a Digital Map Any digital map is capable of storing much more information than a paper map of the same area, but it's generally not clear at first glance just what sort of information the map includes. For example, more information is usually available in a digital map than what you see on-screen. And evaluating a given data set simply by looking at the screen can be difficult: What part of the image is contained in the data and what part is created by the GIS program's interpretation of the data? You must understand the types of

data in your map so you can use it appropriately. Three general types of information can be included in digital maps: Geographic information, which provides the position and shapes of specific geographic features. Attribute information, which provides additional non-graphic information about each feature. Display information, which describes how the features will appear on the screen.

Some digital maps do not contain all three types of information. For example, raster maps usually do not include attribute information, and many vector data sources do not include display information. Geographic Information The geographic information in a digital map provides the position and shape of each map feature. For example, a road map's geographic information is the location of each road on the map. In a vector map, a feature's position is normally expressed as sets of X, Y pairs or X, Y, Z triples, using the coordinate system defined for the map (see the discussion of coordinate systems, below). Most vector geographic information systems support three fundamental geometric objects: Point: A single pair of coordinates. Line: Two or more points in a specific sequence. Polygon: An area enclosed by a line.

Some systems also support more complex entities, such as regions, circles, ellipses, arcs, and curves. Attribute Information Attribute data describes specific map features but is not inherently graphic. For example, an attribute associated with a road might be its name or the date it was last paved. Attributes are often stored in database files kept separately from the graphic portion of the map. Attributes pertain only to vector maps; they are seldom associated with raster images. GIS software packages maintain internal links tying each graphical map entity to its attribute information. The nature of these links varies widely across systems. In some, the link is implicit, and the user has no control over it. Other systems have explicit links that the user can modify. Links in these systems take the form of database keys. Each map feature has a key value stored with it; the key identifies the specific database record that contains the feature's attribute information. Display Information The display information in a digital-map data set describes how the map is to be displayed or plotted. Common display information includes feature colours, line widths and line types (solid, dashed, dotted, single, or double); how the names of roads and other features are shown on the map; and whether or not lakes, parks, or other area features are colour coded. However, many users do not consider the quality of display information when they evaluate a data set. Yet map display strongly affects the information you and your audience can obtain from the map - no matter how simple or complex the project. A technically flawless, but unattractive or hard-to-read map will not achieve the goal of conveying information easily to the user. Cartographic Appeal Clearly, how a map looks - especially if it is being used in a presentation - determines its effectiveness. Appropriate color choices, linetypes, and so on add the professional look you want and make the map easier to interpret. Since display information often is not included in the source data set or is filtered out by conversion software, you may need to add it yourself or purchase the map from a vendor who does it for you. Map display information should convey the meaning of its underlying attribute data.

Various enhancements will increase a map's usefulness and cartographic appeal. Feature Colors and Linetypes. Colors and line representations should be chosen to make the map's meaning clear. For example, using double-line roads can be quite helpful. Many GIS data sets only include road centerline information. Actual road width is not given. So maps with centerlines only can look like spider webs, which is visually unappealing. Some software and conversion systems can draw roads as double lines, with distance between lines varying according to road type. Centerlines can be included, if necessary. Double-line maps are appropriate for detailed studies of small areas, such as subdivisions, or maps where right-of-way information is important. Naming Roads. Naming, or labeling, roads are important for proper map interpretation. This information should be legible, positioned in the center of the road or offset from the center, and drawn at intervals suited to the scale of the final map or its purpose. Landmark Symbols. A good set of symbols should be used to indicate landmarks, such as hospitals, schools, churches, and cemeteries. The symbols should be sized appropriately in relation to map scale. Polygon Fills. Polygon features, such as lakes or parks, should be filled with an appropriate color or hatch pattern. Zoom Layer Control. If the GIS software platform permits, map layers should be set up so that detailed, high-density information only appears when the user zooms in for a close-up of part of the map. For example, when a large area is displayed, only the major roads should appear; for a smaller area, both major and minor roads should appear.

Layering Most GIS software has a system of layers, which can be used to divide a large map into manageable pieces. For example, all roads could be on one layer and all hydrographic features on another. Major layers can be further classified into sub-layers, such as different types of roads - highways, city streets, and so on. Layer names are particularly important in CAD-based mapping and GIS programs, which have excellent tools for handling them. Some digital maps are layered according to the numeric feature-classification codes found in their source data sets. For example, a major road might be on the 170-201 layer. However, this type of system is not very useful. A well-thought-out layering scheme can make any data set much easier to use because it allows the user to control the features with which you want to work. A good layering standard has layer names that are mnemonic (suggest their meanings) and hierarchical (have a structured classification scheme that makes it easy to choose general or specific classes). For example, a map could have its roads on a layer called RD, its railroads on a layer called RR, its road bridges on a layer called RD-BRIDGE, and its railroad bridges on a layer called RR-BRIDGE. This scheme is mnemonic because it is easy to tell a layer's contents from its name, and it's hierarchical because the user can easily select all the roads, railroads, bridges, road bridges, or railroad bridges. Maps and Map Analysis Automated Mapping Computer Aided Mapping has its limitations. Goal of GIS is not only to prepare a good map but also perform map analysis. Maps are the main source of data for GIS. GIS, though an accurate mapping tool, requires error management. MAP is a representation on a medium of a selected material or abstract material in relation to the surface of the earth (defined by Cartographic association). Maps originated from mathematics. The term Map is often used in mathematics to convey the motion of transferring the information from one form to another just as Cartographers transfer information from the surface of the earth to a sheet of paper. Map is used in a loose fashion to refer to any manual display of information particularly if it is abstract, generalised or

schematic. Process involved in the production of Maps: Selection of few features of the real world. Classification of selected features in to groups eg. Railway in to different lines. Classification depends upon the purpose. Simplification of jaggered lines like the coast lines. Exaggeration of features. Symbolisation to represent different classes of features.

Drawing Digitization of Maps. Maps can be broadly classified in to two groups: 1. Topographical maps 2. Thematic maps Topographical Maps It is a reference map showing the outline of selected man-made and natural features of the earth. It often acts as a frame for other features Topography refers to the shape of surface represented by contours or shading. It also shows lands, railway and other prominent features. Thematic maps Thematic maps are an important source of GIS information. These are tools to communicate geographical concepts such as Density of population, Climate, movement of goods and people, land use etc. It has many classifications.

Geographical Data Sets


Geographic Data Types Although the two terms, data and information, are often used indiscriminately, they both have a specific meaning. Data can be described as different observations, which are collected and stored. Information is that data, which is useful in answering queries or solving a problem. Digitizing a large number of maps provides a large amount of data after hours of painstaking works, but the data can only render useful information if it is used in analysis. Spatial and Non-spatial data Geographic data are organised in a geographic database. This database can be considered as a collection of spatially referenced data that acts as a model of reality. There are two important components of this geographic database: its geographic position and its attributes or properties. In other words, spatial

data (where is it?) and attribute data (what is it?) Attribute Data The attributes refer to the properties of spatial entities. They are often referred to as non-spatial data since they do not in themselves represent location information.

District Name Area Noida Ghaziabad Mirzapur

Population

395 sq. Km. 6,75,341 385 sq. Km. 2,57,086 119 sq. Km. 1,72,952

Spatial data Geographic position refers to the fact that each feature has a location that must be specified in a unique way. To specify the position in an absolute way a coordinate system is used. For small areas, the simplest coordinate system is the regular square grid. For larger areas, certain approved cartographic projections are commonly used. Internationally there are many different coordinate systems in use. Geographic object can be shown by FOUR type of representation viz., points, lines, areas, and continuous surfaces. Point Data Points are the simplest type of spatial data. They are-zero dimensional objects with only a position in space but no length. Line Data Lines (also termed segments or arcs) are one-dimensional spatial objects. Besides having a position in space, they also have a length. Area Data Areas (also termed polygons) are two-dimensional spatial objects with not only a position in space and a length but also a width (in other words they have an area). Continuous Surface Continuous surfaces are three-dimensional spatial objects with not only a position in space, a length and a width, but also a depth or height (in other words they have a volume). These spatial objects have not been discussed further because most GIS do not include real volumetric spatial data.

Geographic Data -- Linkages and Matching Linkages A GIS typically links different sets. Suppose you want to know the mortality rate to cancer among children under 10 years of age in each country. If you have one file that contains the number of children in this age group, and another that contains the mortality rate from cancer, you must first combine or link the two data files. Once this is done, you can divide one figure by the other to obtain the desired answer.

Exact Matching Exact matching occurs when you have information in one computer file about many geographic features (e.g., towns) and additional information in another file about the same set of features. The operation to bring them together is easily achieved by using a key common to both files -- in this case, the town name. Thus, the record in each file with the same town name is extracted, and the two are joined and stored in another file. Name A B C D E Populaiton 4038 7030 10777 5798 5606 Name A B C D E Population 4038 7030 10777 5798 5606 Name A B C D E Avg. housing Cost 30,500 22,000 100,000 24,000 24,000

Avg. Housing Cost 30,500 22,000 100,100 24,000 24,000

Hierarchical Matching Some types of information, however, are collected in more detail and less frequently than other types of information. For example, financial and unemployment data covering a large area are collected quite frequently. On the other hand, population data are collected in small areas but at less frequent intervals. If the smaller areas nest (i.e., fit exactly) within the larger ones, then the way to make the data match of the

same area is to use hierarchical matching -- add the data for the small areas together until the grouped areas match the bigger ones and then match them exactly. The hierarchical structure illustrated in the chart shows that this city is composed of several tracts. To obtain meaningful values for the city, the tract values must be added together. Tract 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 Town P Q R S T Nakkhu Kupondole Population 60,000 45,000 35,000 36,000 57,000 25,000 58,000

Tract 101
Tract 102 Tract 103 Tract 104 Tract 105 Tract 107 Tract 106

Fuzzy Matching On many occasions, the boundaries of the smaller areas do not match those of the larger ones. This occurs often while dealing with environmental data. For example, crop boundaries, usually defined by field edges, rarely match the boundaries between the soil types. If you want to determine the most productive soil for a particular crop, you need to overlay the two sets and compute crop productivity for each and every soil type. In principle, this is like laying one map over another and noting the combinations of soil and productivity. A GIS can carry out all these operations because it uses geography, as a common key between the data sets. Information is linked only if it relates to the same geographical area. Why is data linkage so important? Consider a situation where you have two data sets for a given area, such as yearly income by county and average cost of housing for the same area. Each data might be analysed and/or mapped individually. Alternatively, they may be combined. With two data sets, only one valid combination exists. Even if your data sets may be meaningful for a single query you will still be able to answer many more questions than if the data sets were kept separate. By bringing them together, you add value to the database. To do this, you need GIS.

Figure 2

Principal Functions of GIS Data Capture Data used in GIS often come from many types, and are stored in different ways. A GIS provides tools and a method for the integration of different data into a format to be compared and analysed. Data sources are mainly obtained from manual digitization and scanning of aerial photographs, paper maps, and existing digital data sets. Remote-sensing satellite imagery and GPS are promising data input sources for GIS. Database Management and Update After data are collected and integrated, the GIS must provide facilities, which can store and maintain data. Effective data management has many definitions but should include all of the following aspects: data security, data integrity, data storage and retrieval, and data maintenance abilities. Geographic Analysis Data integration and conversion are only a part of the input phase of GIS. What is required next is the ability to interpret and to analyze the collected information quantitatively and qualitatively. For example, satellite image can assist an agricultural scientist to project crop yield per hectare for a particular region. For the same region, the scientist also has the rainfall data for the past six months collected through weather station observations. The scientists also have a map of the soils for the region which shows fertility and suitability for agriculture. These point data can be interpolated and what you get is a thematic map showing isohyets or contour lines of rainfall. Presenting Results One of the most exciting aspects of GIS technology is the variety of different ways in which the information can be presented once it has been processed by GIS. Traditional methods of tabulating and graphing data can be supplemented by maps and three dimensional images. Visual communication is one of the most fascinating aspects of GIS technology and is available in a diverse range of output options.

Data Capture an Introduction

The functionality of GIS relies on the quality of data available, which, in most developing countries, is either redundant or inaccurate. Although GIS are being used widely, effective and efficient means of data collection have yet to be systematically established. The true value of GIS can only be realized if the proper tools to collect spatial data and integrate them with attribute data are available. Manual Digitization Manual Digitizing still is the most common method for entering maps into GIS. The map to be digitized is affixed to a digitizing table, and a pointing device (called the digitizing cursor or mouse) is used to trace the features of the map. These features can be boundary lines between mapping units, other linear features (rivers, roads, etc.) or point features (sampling points, rainfall stations, etc.) The digitizing table electronically encodes the position of the cursor with the precision of a fraction of a millimeter. The most common digitizing table uses a fine grid of wires, embedded in the table. The vertical wires will record the Y-coordinates, and the horizontal ones, the X-coordinates. The range of digitized coordinates depends upon the density of the wires (called digitizing resolution) and the settings of the digitizing software. A digitizing table is normally a rectangular area in the middle, separated from the outer boundary of the table by a small rim. Outside of this so-called active area of the digitizing table, no coordinates are recorded. The lower left corner of the active area will have the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0. Therefore, make sure that the (part of the) map that you want to digitize is always fixed within the active area. Scanning System The second method of obtaining vector data is with the use of scanners. Scanning (or scan digitizing) provides a quicker means of data entry than manual digitizing. In scanning, a digital image of the map is produced by moving an electronic detector across the map surface. The output of a scanner is a digital raster image, consisting of a large number of individual cells ordered in rows and columns. For the Conversion to vector format, two types of raster image can be used. In the case of Chloropleth maps or thematic maps, such as geological maps, the individual mapping units can be separated by the scanner according to their different colours or grey tones. The resulting images will be in colours or grey tone images. In the case of scanned line maps, such as topographic maps, the result is a black-and-white image. Black lines are converted to a value of 1, and the white areas in between lines will obtain a value of 0 in the scanned image. These images, with only two possibilities (1 or 0) are also called binary images. The raster image is processed by a computer to improve the image quality and is then edited and checked by an operator. It is then converted into vector format by special computer programmes, which are different for colour/grey tone images and binary images. Scanning works best with maps that are very clean, simple, relate to one feature only, and do not contain extraneous information, such as text or graphic symbols. For example, a contour map should only contain the contour line, without height indication, drainage network, or infrastructure. In most cases, such maps will not be available, and should be drawn especially for the purpose of scanning. Scanning and conversion to vector is therefore, only beneficial in large organizations, where a large number of complex maps are entered. In most cases, however, manual digitizing will be the only useful method for entering spatial data in vector format.

Figure 3

Data Conversion While manipulating and analyzing data, the same format should be used for all data. This Scanning System implies that, when different layers are to be used simultaneously, they should all be in vector or all in raster format. Usually the conversion is from vector to raster, because the biggest part of the analysis is done in the raster domain. Vector data are transformed to raster data by overlaying a grid with a user-defined cell size. Sometimes the data in the raster format are converted into vector format. This is the case especially if one wants to achieve data reduction because the data storage needed for raster data is much larger than for vector data. A digital data file with spatial and attribute data might already exist in some way or another. There might be a national database or specific databases from ministries, projects, or companies. In some cases a conversion is necessary before these data can be downloaded into the desired database. The commonly used attribute databases are dBase and Oracle. Sometimes spreadsheet programmes like Lotus, Quattro, or Excel are used, although these cannot be regarded as real database softwares. Remote-sensing images are digital datasets recorded by satellite operating agencies and stored in their own image database. They usually have to be converted into the format of the spatial (raster) database before they can be downloaded.

Spatial Data Management Geo-Relational Data Model All spatial data files will be geo-referenced. Geo-referencing refers to the location of a layer or coverage in space defined by the coordinate referencing system. The geo relational approach involves abstracting geographic information into a series of independent layers or coverages, each representing a selected set of closely associated geographic features (e.g., roads, land use, river, settlement, etc). Each layer has the theme of a geographic feature and the database is organized in the thematic layers. With this approach users can combine simple feature sets representing complex relationships in the real world. This approach borrows heavily on the concepts of relational DBMS, and it is typically closely integrated with such systems. This is fundamental to database organization in GIS. Topological Data Structure. Topology is the spatial relationship between connecting and adjacent coverage features (e.g., arc, nodes, polygons, and points). For instance, the topology of an arc includes from and to nodes (beginning of the arc and ending of the arc representing direction) and its left and right polygon. Topological relationships are built from simple elements into complex elements: points (simplest elements), arcs (sets of connected points), and areas (sets of connected arcs). Topological data structure, in fact, adds intelligence to the GIS database. Attribute Data Management All Data within a GIS (spatial data as well as attribute data) are stored within databases. A database is a collection of information about things and their relationships to each other. For example, you can have an engineering geological database, containing information about soil and rock types, field observations and measurements, and laboratory results. This is interesting data, but not very useful if the laboratory data, for example, cannot be related to soil and rock types. The objective of collecting and maintaining information in a database is to relate facts and situations that were previously separate. The principle characteristics of a DBMS are: Centralized control over the database is possible, allowing for better quality management and operatordefined access to parts of the database; Data can be shared effectively by different applications; The access to the data is much easier, due to the use of a user-interface and the user-views (especially designed formula for entering and consulting the database); Data redundancy (storage of the same data in more than one place in the database) can be avoided as much as possible; redundancy or unnecessary duplication of data are an annoyance, since this makes updating the database much more difficult; one can easily overlook changing redundant information whenever it occurs; and The creation of new applications is much easier with DBMS. The disadvantages relate to the higher cost of purchasing the software, the increased complexity of management, and the higher risk, as data are centrally managed. Relational Database -- Concepts & Model The relational data model is conceived as a series of tables, with no hierarchy nor any predefined relations. The relation between the various tables should be made by the user. This is done by identifying a common field in two tables, which is assigned as the flexibility than in the other two data models.

However, accessing the database is slower than with the other two models. Due to its greater flexibility, the relational data model is used by nearly all GIS systems

Choosing geographic data The main purpose of purchasing a geographic information system (GIS)* is to produce results for your organization. Choosing the right GIS/mapping data will help you produce those results effectively. The role of base-map data in your GIS, The common characteristics of geographic data, The commonly available data sources Guidelines for evaluating the suitability of any data set for your project.

The world of GIS data is complex, by choosing the right data set, you can save significant amounts of money and, even more importantly, quickly begin your GIS project. Data: The Core of Your Mapping / GIS Project When most people begin a GIS project, their immediate concern is with purchasing computer hardware and software. They enter into lengthy discussions with vendors about the merits of various components and carefully budget for acquisitions. Yet they often give little thought to the core of the system, the data that goes inside it. They fail to recognize that the choice of an initial data set has a tremendous influence on the ultimate success of their GIS project. Data, the core of any GIS project, must be accurate - but accuracy is not enough. Having the appropriate level of accuracy is vital. Since an increase in data accuracy increases acquisition and maintenance costs, data that is too detailed for your needs can hurt a project just as surely as inaccurate data can. All any GIS project needs is data accurate enough to accomplish its objectives and no more. For example, you would not purchase an engineering workstation to run a simple word-processing application. Similarly, you would not need third-order survey accuracy for a GIS-based population study whose smallest unit of measurement is a county. Purchasing such data would be too costly and inappropriate for the project at hand. Even more critically, collecting overly complex data could be so time-consuming that the GIS project might lose support within the organization. Even so, many people argue that, since GIS data can far outlast the hardware and software on which it runs, no expense should be spared in its creation. Perfection, however, is relative. Projects and data requirements evolve. Rather than overinvest in data, invest reasonably in a well-documented, wellunderstood data foundation that meets today's needs and provides a path for future enhancements. This approach is a key to successful GIS project implementation.

Are Your Data Needs Simple or Complex? Before you start your project, take some time to consider your objectives and your GIS data needs. Ask yourself, "Are my data needs complex or simple?" *Italicized words can be found in the Glossary at the end of this document except for words used for emphasis or words italicized for reasons of copyediting convention or layout. If you just need a map as a backdrop for other information, your data requirements are simple. You are building a map for your specific project, and you are primarily interested in displaying the necessary information, not in the map itself. You do not need highly accurate measurements of distances or areas or to combine maps from different sources. Nor do you want to edit or add to the map's basic geographic information. An example of simple data requirements is a map for a newspaper story that shows the location of a fire. Good presentation is important; absolute accuracy is not.

If you have simple data needs, read this paper to get the overall picture of what GIS data is and how it fits into your project. A project with simple data requirements can be started with inexpensive maps. Your primary interests will be quality graphic- display characteristics and finding maps that are easy to use with your software. You need not be as concerned with technical mapping issues. However, basic knowledge of concepts such as coordinate systems, absolute accuracy, and file formats will help you understand your choices and help you make informed decisions when it's time to add to your system. What issues suggest more complex GIS data needs? Building a GIS to be used by many people over a long period of time. Storing and maintaining database information about geographic features. Making accurate engineering measurements from the map. Editing or adding to the map. Combining a variety of information from different sources.

An example of a system requiring complex data would be a GIS built to manage infrastructure for an electric utility. If your data requirements are complex, you ought to pay particular attention to the sections of this paper that discuss data accuracy, coordinate systems, layering, file formats, and the issues involved in combining data from different sources. Also keep in mind that projects evolve, and simple data needs expand into complex ones as your project moves beyond its original objectives. If you understand the basics of your data set, you will make better decisions as your project grows.

Basics of Digital Mapping Vector vs. Raster Maps The most fundamental concept to grasp about any type of graphic data is making the distinction between vector data and raster data. These two data types are as different as night and day, yet they can look the same. For example, a question that commonly comes up is "How can I convert my TIFF files into DXF files?" The answer is "With difficulty," because TIFF is a raster data format and DXF (data interchange file) is a vector format. And converting from raster to vector is not simple. Raster maps are best suited to some applications while vector maps are suited to others.

Figure 4

Raster data represents a graphic object as a pattern of dots, whereas vector data represents the object

as a set of lines drawn between specific points. Consider a line drawn diagonally on a piece of paper. A raster file would represent this image by subdividing the paper into a matrix of small rectangles-similar to a sheet of graph paper-called cells (figure 1). Each cell is assigned a position in the data file and given a value based on the color at that position. White cells could be given the value 0; black cells, the value 1; grays would fall in-between. This data representation allows the user to easily reconstruct or visualize the original image.

Figure 5 A vector representation of the same diagonal line would record the position of the line by simply recording the coordinates of its starting and ending points. Each point would be expressed as two or three numbers (depending on whether the representation was 2D or 3D, often referred to as X,Y or X,Y,Z coordinates (figure 2). The first number, X, is the distance between the point and the left side of the paper; Y, the distance between the point and the bottom of the paper; Z, the point's elevation above or below the paper. The vector is formed by joining the measured points. Some basic properties of raster and vector data are outlined below. Each entity in a vector file appears as an individual data object. It is easy to record information about an object or to compute characteristics such as its exact length or surface area. It is much harder to derive this kind of information from a raster file because raster files contain little (and sometimes no) geometric information. Some applications can be handled much more easily with raster techniques than with vector techniques. Raster works best for surface modeling and for applications where individual features are not important. For example, a raster surface model can be very useful for performing cut-andfill analyses for road-building applications, but it doesn't tell you much about the characteristics of the road itself. Terrain elevations can be recorded in a raster format and used to construct digital elevation models (DEMs) (figure 3). Some land-use information comes in raster format.

Figure 6

Raster files are often larger than vector files. The raster representation of the line in the example above required a data value for each cell on the page, whereas the vector representation only required the positions of two points.

The size of the cells in a raster file is an important factor. Smaller cells improve image quality because they increase detail. As cell size increases, image definition decreases or blurs. In the example, the position of the line's edge is defined most clearly if the cells are very small. However, there is a trade-off: Dividing the cell size in half increases file size by a factor of four. Cell size in a raster file is referred to as resolution. For a given resolution value, the raster cost does not increase with image complexity. That is, any scanner can quickly make a raster file. It takes no more effort to scan a map of a dense urban area than to scan a sparse rural one. On the other hand, a vector file requires careful measuring and recording of each point, so an urban map will be much more timeconsuming to draw than a rural map. The process of making vector maps is not easily automated, and cost increases with map complexity. Because raster data is often more repetitive and predictable, it can be compressed more easily than vector data. Many raster formats, such as TIFF, have compression options that drastically reduce image sizes, depending upon image complexity and variability. Raster files are most often used: For digital representations of aerial photographs, satellite images, scanned paper maps, and other applications with very detailed images. When costs need to be kept down. When the map does not require analysis of individual map features. When "backdrop" maps are required.

In contrast, vector maps are appropriate for: Highly precise applications. When file sizes are important. When individual map features require analysis. When descriptive information must be stored.

Raster and vector maps can also be combined visually. For example, a vector street map could be overlaid on a raster aerial photograph. The vector map would provide discrete information about individual street segments, the raster image, a backdrop of the surrounding environment.

Digital Map Formats- How Data Is Stored The term file format refers to the logical structure used to store information in a GIS file. File formats are important in part because not every GIS software package supports all formats. If you want to use a data set, but it isn't available in a format that your GIS supports, you will have to find a way to transform it, find another data set, or find another GIS. Almost every GIS has its own internal file format. These formats are designed for optimal use inside the software and are often proprietary. They are not designed for use outside their native systems. Most systems also support transfer file formats. Transfer formats are designed to bring data in and out of the GIS software, so they are usually standardized and well documented. If your data needs are simple, your main concern will be with the internal format that your GIS software supports. If you have complex data needs, you will want to learn about a wider range of transfer formats,

especially if you want to mix data from different sources. Transfer formats will be required to import some data sets into your software. Vector Formats Many GIS applications are based on vector technology, so vector formats are the most common. They are also the most complex because there are many ways to store coordinates, attributes, attribute linkages, database structures, and display information. Some of the most common formats are briefly described below Common Vector File Formats Format Name Software Platform ARC/INFO* ARC/INFO* AutoCAD* Many Internal or Developer Transfer Transfer Internal Internal Transfer Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ESRI Autodesk Autodesk United States Geological Survey (USGS) Hewlett-Packard MapInfo Corp. MapInfo Corp. Bentley Systems, Inc. New US standard for vector and raster geographic data. Used to publish US Census Bureau maps. Used to publish Digital Chart of the World. Widely used graphics transfer standard. Used to publish USGS digital maps. Used to control HP plotters. Comments Transfers data across ARC/INFO* platforms.

Arc Export ARC/INFO* Coverages AutoCAD Drawing Files (DWG) Autodesk Data Interchange File (DXF) Digital Line graphs (DLG) Hewlett-Packard Graphic Language (HPGL) MapInfo Data Transfer Files (MIF/MID) MapInfo Map Files MicroStation Design Files (DGN) Spatial Data Transfer System (SDTS)

Many

Transfer

Many MapInfo* MapInfo* MicroStation* Many (in the future)

Internal Transfer Internal Internal

Transfer

US Government

Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Many Referencing (TIGER) Vector Product Format (VPF) Military mapping systems

Transfer

US Census Bureau

Both

US Defense Mapping Agency

Raster Formats Raster files generally are used to store image information, such as scanned paper maps or aerial photographs. They are also used for data captured by satellite and other airborne imaging systems. Images from these systems are often referred to as remote-sensing data. Unlike other raster files, which express resolution in terms of cell size and dots per inch (dpi), resolution in remotely sensed images is expressed in meters, which indicates the size of the ground area covered by each cell.

Some common raster formats are described below Format Name Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) Band Interleaved by Line (BIL) Band Interleaved by Pixel (BIP) Band Sequential (BSQ) Digital Elevation Model for (DEM) PC Paintbrush Exchange (PCX) Software Platform Military mapping systems Man Many Many Internal or Transfer Both Developer US Defense Mapping Agency Common remotesensing standard. Common remotesensing standard. Common remotesensing standard. United States Geological Survey (USGS) Zsoft US Federal Government USGS standard format digital terrain models. Widely used raster format. New US standard for both raster and vector geographic data; raster version still under development. Widely used raster format. Comments

Both Both Both

Many

Transfer

PC Paintbrush Both

Spatial Data Many (in the Transfer Standard future) (SDTS) Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) PageMaker

Transfer

Both

Aldus

An Example of Raster and Vector Integration

Figure 7: An Example of Raster and Vector Integration Vectors & Raster Data Models - Merits & Demerits.
RASTER MODEL VECTOR MODEL

Advantages Simple data structure Easy and efficient overlaying Compatible with RS imagery High spatial variability is efficiently represented Simple for own programming Same grid cells for several attributes

Advantages Compact data structure Efficient for network analysis Efficient projection transformation Accurate map output.

Disadvantages Complex data structure Difficult overlay operations High spatial variability is inefficiently represented Not compatible with RS imagery

Disadvantages Inefficient use of computer storage Errors in perimeter, and shape Difficult network analysis Inefficient projection transformations Loss of information when using large cells Less accurate (although interactive) maps

Hybrid System

It is an integration of the best of Vector and Raster Models. The GIS technology is fast moving towards Hybrid model GIS. The Integration of Vector and Raster System Hybird System

Figure 8: The Integration of Vector and Raster System Hybird System

Analysis of Geographic Data


ANALYSIS - What? & Why? The heart of GIS is the analytical capabilities of the system. What distinguish the GIS system from other information system are its spatial analysis functions. Although the data input is, in general, the most time consuming part, it is for data analysis that GIS is used. The analysis functions use the spatial and nonspatial attributes in the database to answer questions about the real world. Geographic analysis facilitates the study of real-world processes by developing and applying models. Such models illuminate the underlying trends in geographic data and thus make new information available. Results of geographic analysis can be communicated with the help of maps, or both. The organization of database into map layers is not simply for reasons of organizational clarity, rather it is to provide rapid access to data elements required for geographic analysis. The objective of geographic analysis is to transform data into useful information to satisfy the requirements or objectives of decisionmakers at all levels in terms of detail. An important use of the analysis is the possibility of predicting events in the another location or at another point in time. ANALYSIS - How? Before commencing geographic analysis, one needs to assess the problem and establish an objective. The analysis requires step-by-step procedures to arrive at the conclusions. The range of geographical analysis procedures can be subdivided into the following categories. Database Query. Overlay. Proximity analysis. Network analysis. Digital Terrain Model. Statistical and Tabular Analysis.

Spatial Analysis It helps us to: Identify trends on the data. Create new relationships from the data. View complex relationships between data sets. Make better decisions.

Geographic Analysis Analysis of problems with some Geographic Aspects. Alternatives are geographic locations or areas. Decisions would affect locations or areas. Geographic relationships are important in decision-making or modelling.

Some examples of its application: Nearest Neighbour. Network distances. Planar distances.

Spatial Analysis - An Application

Image 1

Where should we build a road from a point A to point B? How do we minimise the impacts of building this road? Relationship of Modelling to Analysis Decision Models search through potential alternatives to arrive at a recommendation. Decision support models process raw data into forms that are directly relevant to decision making. Data characterisation models are used to develop a better understanding of a system to help characterise a problem or potential solutions.

Difficulties of Geographic Analysis Plenty of data. Spatial relationships are important but difficult to measure. Inherent uncertainty due to scale. any data sources. Difficult to make data sources compatible. Difficult mathematics. Quantity vs. Quality Questions. Multiple objectives. GIS can address some (but not all) of these difficulties.

Network Analysis

Network models are based on interconnecting logical components, of which the most important are: 1. "Nodes" define start, end, and intersections 2. "Chains" are line features joining nodes 3. "Links" join together points making up a chain. This network can be analyzed using GIS.A simple and most apparent network analysis applications are: Street network analysis, Traffic flow modelling, Telephone cable networking, Pipelines etc.

The other obvious applications would be service centre locations based on travel distance. Basic forms of network analysis simply extract information from a network. More complex analysis, process information in the network model to derive new information. One example of this is the classic shortest-path between two points. The vector mode is more suited to network analysis than the raster model. A Road Network

Image

Tabular Statistical Analysis If in the above road network we have categorised the streets then in such a case the statistical analysis answers questions like What unique categories do I have for streets? How many features do I have for each unique category? Summarize by using any attribute?

Database Query

The selective display and retrieval of information from a database are among the fundamental requirements of GIS. The ability to selectively retrieve information from GIS is an important facility. Database query simply asks to see already stored information. Basically there are two types of query most general GIS allow: viz., Query by attribute, Query by geometry. Map features can be retrieved on the basis of attributes, For example, show all the urban areas having the population density greater than 1,000 per square kilometer, Many GIS include a sophisticated function of RDBMS known as Standard Query Language (SQL), to search a GIS database. The attribute database, in general, is stored in a table (relational database mode.) with a unique code linked to the geometric data. This database can be searched with specific characteristics. However, more complex queries can be made with the help of SQL. GIS can carry out a number of geometric queries. The simplest application, for example, is to show the attributes of displayed objects by identifying them with a graphical cursor. There are five forms of primitive geometric query: viz., Query by point, Query by rectangle, Query by circle, Query by line, Query by polygon, A more complex query still is one that uses both geometric and attributes search criteria together. Many GIS force the separation of the two different types of query. However, some GIS, using databases to store both geometric and attribute data, allow true hybrid spatial queries. Overlay Operations The hallmark of GIS is overlay operations. Using these operations, new spatial elements are created by the overlaying of maps. There are basically two different types of overlay operations depending upon data structures: Raster overlay It is a relatively straightforward operation and often many data sets can be combined and displayed at once. Vector overlay The vector overlay, however is far more difficult and complex and involves more processing. Logical Operators The concept of map logic can be applied during overlay. The logical operators are Boolean functions. There are basically four types of Boolean Operators: viz., OR, AND, NOT, and XOR. With the use of logical, or Boolean, operators spatial elements / or attributes are selected that fulfill certain condition, depending on two or more spatial elements or attributes. Vector Overlay During vector overlay, map features and the associated attributes are integrated to produce new composite maps. Logical rules can be applied to how the maps are combined. Vector overlay can be performed on different types of map features: viz., Polygon-on-polygon overlay Line-in-polygon overlay Point-on-polygon overlay

During the process of overlay, the attribute data associated with each feature type id merged. The resulting table will contain both the attribute data. The process of overlay will depend upon the modelling approach the user needs. One might need to carry out a series of overlay procedures to arrive at the conclusion, which depends upon the criterion. Polygon-on-Polygon Overlay

Polygon-on-Polygon Overlay Difference between a Topologic Overlay and a Graphic Over plot

Difference between a Topologic Overlay and a Graphic Over plot Raster Overlay In raster overlay, the pixel or grid cell values in each map are combined using arithmetic and Boolean operators to produce a new value in the composite map. The maps can be treated as arithmetical variables and perform complex algebraic functions. The method is often described as map algebra. The raster GIS provides the ability to perform map layers mathematically. This is particularly important for the modelling in which various maps are combined using various mathematical functions. Conditional operators are the basic mathematical functions that are supported in GIS. Conditional Operators Conditional operators were already used in the examples given above. The all evaluate whether a certain condition has been met. = eq 'equal' operator <> ne 'non-equal' operator < lt 'less than' operator <= le 'less than or equal' operator > gt 'greater than' operator >= ge 'greater than or equal' operator

Many systems now can handle both vector and raster data. The vector maps can be easily draped on to the raster maps.

Raster Overlay

Raster Overlay Buffer Operation Using these operations, the characteristics of an area surrounding in a specified location are evaluated. This kind of analysis is called proximity analysis and is used whenever analysis is required to identify surrounding geographic features. The buffer operation will generate polygon feature types irrespective of geographic features and delineates spatial proximity. For example, what are the effects on urban areas if the road is expanded by a hundred meters to delineate a five-kilometer buffer zone around the national park to protect it from grazing.

Using Buffer

Using Buffer

Digital Terrain Model The object of Digital Terrain analysis is to represent a surface and its properties accurately. This is normally achieved by creating a digital terrain model, often known as DTM, formed by sampling the surface. A digital terrain model can be viewed in two different ways: as an isoline map, as an isometric model.

Isolines join points of equal value on a surface. The shading defines bands, including all heights, between the isolines. Isometric models can be shown in three-dimensional models. These models show the terrain in perspective so that the apparent height is proportional to the value of the point. Visualisation techniques are used to project the model from the given eyepoint. Spatial Analysis - a Process

Spatial Analysis a Process

Projection System
Maps are flat, but the surfaces they represent are curved. Transforming, three-dimensional space onto a two dimensional map is called "projection". This process inevitably distorts at least one of the following properties: Shape, Area, Distance, Direction, and often more.

It is known that a globe is a true representation of the earth, which is divided into various sectors by the lines of latitudes and longitudes. This network is called 'graticule'. A map projection denotes the preparation of the graticule on a flat surface. Theoretically map projection might be defined as "a systematic drawing of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitudes on a plane surface for the whole earth or a part of it on a certain scale so that any point on the earth surface may correspond to that on the drawing." Necessity of Map Projection An ordinary globe is rendered useless for reference to a small country. It is not possible to make a globe on a very large scale. Say, if anyone wants to make a globe on a scale of one inch to a mile, the radius will be 330 ft. It is difficult to make and handle such a globe and uncomfortable to carry it in the field for reference. Not only topographical maps of different scales but also atlas and wall maps would not have been possibly made without the use of certain projections. So a globe is least useful or helpful in the field of practical purposes. Moreover it is neither easy to compare different regions over the globe in detail, nor convenient to measure distances over it. Therefore for different types of maps different projections have been evolved in accordance with the scale and purpose of the map. Selection of Map Projection There is no ideal map projection, but representation for a given purpose can be achieved. The selection of projection is made on the basis of the following: The location and the extension of the feature of the globe. 1. The shape of the boundary to be projected. 2. The deformations or distortions of a map to be minimized. 3. The mathematical model to be applied to preserve some identity of graphical features. Based on these characteristics the utility of the projection is ascertained. Some Interesting Links : Map Projection Overview An Article by Peter H. Dana Map Projections An Article by Brian Klinkenberg Map Projection By Worlfram Research Map Projection Tutorial Why are map projections an issue in GIS? - British Columbia Map Projection Tutorial on Map Projection by Peter H. Dana

Map Projection Learn about Map Projection from United States Environmental Protection Agency

Classification Potentially there exits an unlimited number of map projections possessing one property or the other. The natures of these properties are so complex that they often possess one or more common properties. There is no projection, which can be grouped, in a single class. Moreover, if one attempts to obtain a rational classification of map projection, it will be rather difficult to achieve it. There can be as many classifications as many bases. Depending on different bases the following classifications may be suggested:
Basis 1. Method of Construction 2. Preserved qualities 3. Developable surface area Classes 1. Perspective 2. Non-perspective 1. Homolographic / Equal Area 2. Orthomorphic / Conformal 1. Cylindrical 2. Conical 3. Azimuthal / Zenithal 4. Conventional 1. Polar 2. Equation/Normal 3. Oblique 1. Gnomonic 2. Stereographic 3. Orthographic 4. Others

4. Position of tangent surface

5. Position of viewpoint or light

Classification based on methods of construction Mathematically the term 'projection' means the determination of points on the plane as viewed from a fixed point. But in cartography it may not be necessarily restricted to 'perspective' or geometrical projection. On the globe the meridians and parallels are circles. When they are transferred on a plane surface, they become intersecting lines, curved or straight. If we stick a flat paper over the globe, it will not coincide with it over a large surface without being creased. The paper will touch the globe only at one point, so that the other sectors will be projected over plane in a distorted form. The projection with the help of light will give a shadowed picture of the globe which is distorted in those parts which are farther from the point where the paper touches it. The amount of distortion increases with the increase in distance from the tangential point. But only a few of the projections imply this perspective method. The majority of projections represent an arrangement of lines of latitude and longitude in conformity with some principles so as to minimize the amount of distortion. With the help of mathematical calculations true relation between latitude and longitudes is maintained. Thus various processes of non-perspective projections have been devised. Some Interesting Links : Classification of Map Projection An Article from University of Waterloo

Classification based on preserved qualities While transferring the globe on a plane surface some facts should be kept in view: 1. Preservation of area, 2. Preservation of shape,

3. Preservation of bearing i.e. direction and distance. It is, however, very difficult to make such a projection even for a small country, in which all the above qualities may be well preserved. Any one quality may be thoroughly achieved by a certain map projection only at the cost of others.

According to the quality they preserve, projections may be classified into three groups :1. Equal area (Homolographic projection), 2. Correct shape (Orthomorphic or Conformal projection), 3. True bearing (Azimuthal projection). Classification based on developable surface area There are some surfaces over which the sphere may be projected. After projection such surfaces may be cut open onto flat surface. These developable surfaces include 1. Cylinder and 2. Cone. Cylindrical Projection When the graticule is prepared on the surface of a hollow cylinder it is called Cylindrical Projection. 1. Normal Cylindrical Projection - This is a perspective cylindrical projection. When a cylinder is wrapped round the globe so as to touch it along the equator, and the light is placed at the centre, the true cylindrical projection is obtained. Limitations: The scale is true only along the equator. The exaggeration of the parallel scale as well as the meridian scale would be very greatly increasing away from the equator. The poles can't be shown, because their distances from the equator becomes infinite. 2. Simple Cylindrical Projection - It is also called Equidistant Cylindrical Projection as both the parallels and meridians are equidistant. The whole network represents a series of equal squares. All the parallels are equal to the equator and all the meridians are half of the equator in length. The projection is neither equal area nor orthomorphic. Limitations : The scale along the equator is true. The meridian scale is correct everywhere because the parallels are drawn at their true distances. Latitudinal scale increases away from the equator. This leads to great distortion in shape and exaggeration of area in high latitudes. 3. Cylindrical Equal Area Projection - This cylindrical projection was introduced by Lambert. The properties are almost the same. The area between two parallels is made equal to the corresponding surface on the sphere at the cost of great distortion in shape towards higher latitudes; this is why it is an equal area projection. Limitations: Same as (ii). General Properties of Cylindrical Projection Cylindricals are true at the equator and the distortion increases as on moves towards the poles. Good for areas in the tropics

Conical Projection A cone may be imagined to touch the globe of a convenient size along any circle (other than a great circle) but the most useful case will be the normal one in which the apex of the cone will lie vertically above the pole on the earth's axis produced and the surface of the cone will be tangent to the sphere along some parallel of latitude. It is called 'standard parallel'. If the selected parallel (SP) is nearer the pole the vertex of the cone will be closer to it and subsequently the angle at the apex will be increasing proportionately. When the pole itself becomes the selected parallel, the angle of the apex will become 180 degrees, and the surface of the cone will be similar to the tangent plane of Zenithal Projection. On the other hand, when the selected parallel is nearer to the equator, the vertex of the cone will be moving farther away from the pole. in case equator is the selected parallel, the vertex will be at an infinite distance, and the cone will become a cylinder. Thus the Cylindrical and Zenithal Projections may be regarded as special cases of Conical Projections. Properties Conics are true along some parallel somewhere between the equator and the pole and the distortion increases away from this standard. Good for Temperate Zone areas

Zenithal Projection In Zenithal Projection a flat paper is supposed to touch the globe at one point and the light may be kept at another point so as to reflect or project the lines of latitude and longitude on the plane. Here the globe is viewed from a point vertically above it, so these are called Zenithal Projections. They are also called 'azimuthal' because the bearings are all true from the central point. In respect of the plane's position touching the globe, Zenithal Projection is of three main classes :1. Normal or Equatorial Zenithal (where the plane touches the globe at equator), 2. Polar Zenithal (where the plane touches the globe at pole), 3. Oblique Zenithal (where the plane touches the globe at any other point). According to the location of the view point Zenithal Projection is of three types :1. Gnomonic / Central (view point lies at the centre of the globe), 2. Stereographic (view point lies at the opposite pole) 3. Orthographic (view point lies at the infinity). Properties Azimuthals are true only at their centre point, but generally distortion is worst at the edge of the map. Good for polar areas.

Some Interesting Links : Projection Classification by 'Developable Surface' By Cartography - Spatial Data Techniques