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2K vizualizări15 paginiIn the present paper we propose a new empirical relationship between the specific grinding energy, the clinker work index and the specific surface (Blaine) of the product of the clinker fine-grinding in ball mills. This model enables the prediction of the electrical power consumption in clinker grinding (cement production), which contributes significantly to the cement production cost. Furthermore, the above proposed model is used for an approximate correlation of the cement fineness(Blaine) and the d80 of the cement produced.

Dec 10, 2008

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In the present paper we propose a new empirical relationship between the specific grinding energy, the clinker work index and the specific surface (Blaine) of the product of the clinker fine-grinding in ball mills. This model enables the prediction of the electrical power consumption in clinker grinding (cement production), which contributes significantly to the cement production cost. Furthermore, the above proposed model is used for an approximate correlation of the cement fineness(Blaine) and the d80 of the cement produced.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

2K vizualizări

11 vot pozitiv11 vot negativ

In the present paper we propose a new empirical relationship between the specific grinding energy, the clinker work index and the specific surface (Blaine) of the product of the clinker fine-grinding in ball mills. This model enables the prediction of the electrical power consumption in clinker grinding (cement production), which contributes significantly to the cement production cost. Furthermore, the above proposed model is used for an approximate correlation of the cement fineness(Blaine) and the d80 of the cement produced.

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K.G. Tsakalakis

School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780,

Zografou, Athens, Greece, e-mail: kostsakg@metal.ntua.gr

Keywords: Energy consumption in comminution, Clinker grinding, Particle size, Blaine fineness, Process

optimization, Modelling

ABSTRACT

The current (2004) world cement production was about 2.11 billion tonnes per annum

and it is increasing at about 1% per annum. The cement industry, as other mineralogical

transformation process industries (lime, glass, ceramics, extractive metallurgy, etc.), is

high energy intensive. Production costs and environmental concerns are emphasizing the

need to use less energy, and therefore, the development of more energy efficient grinding

and classification machines is of great importance.

For all dry grinding applications, cement production is certainly the most important. The

increasing demand for “finer” cement product and the need for reduction in energy

consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) reinforce the need for grinding

optimisation. There is much potential in optimising conventional cement clinker grinding

circuits, and in the last decades significant progress has been achieved.

In the present paper we propose a new empirical relationship between the specific

grinding energy, the clinker work index and the specific surface (Blaine) of the product

of the clinker fine-grinding in ball mills. This model enables the prediction of the

electrical power consumption in clinker grinding (cement production), which contributes

significantly to the cement production cost.

Furthermore, the above proposed model is used for an approximate correlation of the

cement fineness (Blaine) and the d80 of the cement produced.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

1

1. INTRODUCTION

glass, ceramics, extractive metallurgy, etc.), consumes large amounts of energy. Energy

accounts for about one third of the cement production cost. Each tonne of cement

produced requires not only large amounts of fuels (coal, fuel oil, natural gas), but

additionally a significant amount of electrical power as well.

For the reduction of the cement production cost and for environmental concerns, the

utilization of alternative fuels (scrap tires, spent solvents, sewage sludge, etc.), which is

compatible with the general principles of waste management, is nowadays a common

practice in many European and developed countries.

The estimate of the world energy consumption for cement production (Tsakalakis, 2003;

Tsakalakis, 2005a) and its significance is:

1. 2.11 billion tonnes cement x 4.0 GJ/tonne cement = 8.44 x 109 GJ (energy from fossil

fuels) for a mean energy consumption of 4.0 GJ/tonne cement (CEMBUREAU,

2004).

2. Additionally, 110 kWh/tonne cement electrical energy is consumed in cement

production (raw meal crushing-grinding, homogenisation, clinker burning and

cooling, finish milling, conveying, packing and loading, etc.).

This power corresponds to: 2.11 billion tonnes cement x 110 kWh/tonne cement =

232.1x109 kWh = 0.835 x109 GJ and it is produced from fossil fuels with thermal

potential 0.835 x109 GJ/0.4 = 2.088 x 109 GJ (assuming fuel combustion efficiency

40%).

3. Thus, the total energy consumed annually for the world cement production is:

(8.44 x 109 GJ+2.088 x 109 GJ) = 10.328 x 109 GJ

Since, the world total (2004) primary energy consumption was about 420 Quads Btu

corresponding to 443.1 x 109 GJ, the percentage of the energy consumed by the

cement industry is: (10.328/443.1)x100 = 2.33%, from which 0.47% refers to the

electrical energy consumed in the cement making process.

2. CEMENT PRODUCTION

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

2

Approximately 1.5 tonnes of raw materials are required per 1 tonne of finished cement.

Cement production process typically involves:

• grinding limestone (and other raw materials to achieve the right chemical composition)

to about 90% passing 90 microns in a dry circuit,

• production of clinker by the chemical reaction (pyro-processing at high temperatures)

between the components of the raw meal in rotary kilns,

• grinding (finish milling) the clinker nodules to a product (cement) 100% passing 90

microns in a dry circuit.

As it is evident in Fig. 1, the grinding process, taking place at the beginning and the end

of the cement making process, consumes approximately 56.1% (i.e. 26.1+30) of the total

electrical energy used in cement production (Stoiber, 2002).

100%

Conveying, packing,

90% loading, 5.1%

Clinker burning and

24,6

80% cooling, 24.6%

Raw meal homogenisation,

in cement production processes

Electrical power distribution %

70%

1.6%

60% 4,4 Strip mining, raw material

extraction, 5%

50%

Fuel (coal) grinding, 4.4%

30

40%

Clinker grinding-cement

30% production

20% Raw meal grinding, drying,

26,1 26.1%

10% Raw material crushing,

3,2 prehomogenisation, 3.2%

0%

1

Figure 1. Electrical power distribution in cement production processes.

3. The electrical energy consumed in the cement making process is in the order of 110

kWh/tonne, about 30% of which is used for the raw materials preparation (crushing,

grinding) and about 30% for the finish milling (CEMBUREAU, 2004) of clinker and

additives (cement production).

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

3

Production costs and environmental concerns emphasize the need to use less energy and

therefore the development of more energy efficient machines for grinding and

classification.

For most of the twentieth century, the dry grinding circuits for the production of finished

cement from clinker consist of two-compartment tube mills and the air separators. It is

not also uncommon to produce the cement in an open circuit. Advances in cement

grinding technology are slow and these are limited to more developed countries.

Approximately 95% of the feed to the cement grinding circuit are clinker and the rest of

the feed are “additives”, which includes grinding aids.

The cement clinker grinding circuit reduces the feed from 80% passing size between 12

and 20 mm to 100% passing 90 microns. The conventional size reduction takes place in a

two-compartment ball mill; the first compartment of the mill is shorter for short retention

time than the second one.

Feed

1st compartment 2nd compartment

Size reduction Size reduction

R1 R2

Discharge

e

Diaphragm

Figure 2. Conventional clinker-grinding ball mills with a diaphragm (Source: Jankovic et al.,

1995).

The coarse clinker is ground in the first compartment where larger balls (80, 60, 50 mm)

are present and the fine grinding is achieved in the second compartment where smaller

balls (below 25 mm) are used. A diaphragm (Fig. 2), separating the two compartments,

allows only particles below a certain size to pass the second compartment. Ground

material leaves the mill through the discharge grate preventing grinding media (balls)

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

4

from going out the mill. A proportion of material, mostly fines, is “air-swept” out of the

mill. The final product is the fine fraction of the air classifier and the coarse fraction

returns to the mill. Due to the diaphragm separating the two compartments of the mill, it

can be, without any significant error, considered that the size reduction process actually

takes place in two successive grinding stages. The first size reduction phase happens in

the first compartment, where the great balls are present, and the second in the subsequent

with the small balls. The reduction ratio prevailing in the first compartment is supposed

to be R1 and in the second R2.

The overall reduction ratio R is the product of the two (R = R1 x R2) and the product of

the first size reduction stage, designated as din, is the feed of the next.

The cement properties and its performance in concrete production are based significantly

on the cement fineness. The cement fineness depends on the particle size distribution of

the cement and it is measured by the surface area or the Blaine index.

The Blaine index is expressed in cm2/g or m2/kg units and it is determined by the Blaine

air permeability test (Blaine apparatus). The method relates the fineness of cement to the

porosity of a standard specimen of compacted cement. The finer the cement (i.e. smaller

particles have larger surface area) the quicker it reacts with water, resulting in faster

setting and higher early strength.

If the particle size distribution is known, the Blaine index can be successfully predicted

(Zhang et al, 1995; Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, 2004), but several

researchers have proved that, although the surface area of two cements could be the same,

their particle size distribution could be markedly different (Fig. 3).

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

5

Cumulative passing %

Particle size x, μm

Figure 3. Particle size distributions of three cements of the same approximately fineness (Blaine).

Source: Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, 2004

The cement industry has for many years adopted fineness control as the main parameter

for the control of the finish grinding process. However, it was noted that cements with the

same chemical composition and surface area could perform differently, particularly in

early strength and normal consistency (workability). Extensive research also established

that the superfine particles (i.e. those less than 3 microns) affected the concrete slump and

workability, but contributed little to the strength of cement. Cement particles larger than

32 microns were found to be too large to hydrate completely during the hydration

reaction. Thus, it was established that the cement particles belonging in the size range

between 3 and 32 microns are the optimum for cement performance (QCL, 2004). In Fig.

4 the particle size distribution of a cement, having Blaine fineness 3587 cm2/g, is shown.

From the distribution it is evident that the particle size d80 = 30 μm (80% passing). It is

also shown that 15% of the total is finer than 3 μm.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

6

Figure 4. Cement particle size distribution (Blaine fineness 3587 cm2/g), Source: QCL, 2004.

It is well known that the electrical power consumed in the clinker fine grinding for

cement production (Stamboltzis and Tsakalakis, 2003; Schnatz, 2004) depends on:

the size of the clinker particles (feed),

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

7

the mechanical characteristics of the clinker (hardness, work index, density)

the particle size distribution of the cement being in close relationship with its

specific surface (Blaine fineness),

the mill dimensions (length, diameter, L/D ratio), and finally

the mill operating conditions (fraction of the mill filling fL , mill critical speed fC,

mill grinding load).

For the prediction of the power consumption and the production cost of cement, the use

of the specific electrical power consumption (kWh/tonne clinker) is necessary. This

specific power consumption is a function (Fuller, Bulletin M-2 5M 6/76) of the cement

fineness and the clinker work index (wi, kWh/short ton).

In the present paper, applying multiple linear regression to data received from mill

manufacturers (Fuller, Bulletin M-2 5M 6/76; MARCY, CATALOG 101-B), the

following empirical model (Tsakalakis, 2005b) was developed:

4

E 101.7410 FBl 0.035wi 0.4714

(1)

FBl is the cement fineness (Blaine) in cm2/g and

wi is the clinker work index (kWh/short ton)

The conversion factor (1 short ton = 0.907 tonne) has been embodied in the coefficients

of the model. Applying Eq. (1) for various values of the cement fineness from 3200-5000

cm2/g with an incremental step 200 and for wi 12, 14, 16 and 18 kWh/short ton

respectively, the specific grinding energy E was predicted.

The graphical representation of Eq. (1) on semi-log paper for various values of clinker

work-indexes wi is shown in Fig. 5. The model predicts the specific grinding energy of

the clinker undergoing dry grinding in ball mills.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

8

5200

12 14 16 18

5000

4800

Specific surface Blaine, cm/g

4600

2

4400

4200

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

3000

10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100

Specific grinding energyE , kWh/tonne

Figure 5. Graphical representation of Eq. (1) for various values of clinker work-indexes wi (dry

grinding in ball mills).

In Fig. 6 the experimental values are compared with those predicted from Eq. (1). From

this figure, it is shown that the accuracy achieved is very good.

70

Work index Wi =12 kWh/s.t.

Calculated specific grinding energy E, kWh/tonne

Work index Wi = 16 kwh/s.t.

Line y=x

60

50

40

30

30 40 50 60 70

Exp erimental sp ecific grinding energy E, kWh/tonne

(Fuller Traylor Grinding M ill Sy stems)

Figure 6. Comparison of the experimental and calculated specific grinding energy values of dry

clinker grinding in ball mills. Solid line corresponds to y=x.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

9

6. ESTIMATING THE d80 OF THE CEMENT PRODUCT

It has also been shown earlier (Tsakalakis and Stamboltzis, 2004) that, the specific

grinding energy E (kWh/tonne) in ball mils is given by:

R = Df /d80 is the particle reduction ratio

Df is the particle size of the feed in μm (80% passing) and

d80 is the particle size of the product in μm (80% passing).

But, the ball mills used for clinker finish milling are equipped with two separate

compartments. Due to the diaphragm separating the two compartments of the mill, it can

be thought, without any significant error, that the size reduction process takes place

actually in two successive grinding stages. The first size reduction phase happens in the

first compartment, where the great balls are present, and the second in the subsequent

with the small balls. The reduction ratio prevailing in the first compartment is supposed

to be R1 and in the second R2.

Hence, the overall reduction ratio R is the product of the two (R = R1 x R2) and the

product of the first size reduction stage, designated as din, is the feed of the next.

Thus, Eq. (3) used for clinker grinding in two compartment ball mills must be applied as

follows:

E = E1 + E2 (4)

where, E1 is the energy needed for the first size reduction phase and

E2 is the energy needed for the second grinding phase.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

10

E1 is given by:

and E2 is:

The factor 0.87, set in Eq. (6), derived from Fig. 7. E2 is, by a percentage 13%, less than

the energy calculated from Eq. (5). This percentage represents losses, assigned to the mill

rotation mechanism and the friction. These losses, approximately estimated to 13% (i.e.,

8.5+4.5), have already been accounted in Eq. (5). It is obvious that, there are not any

additional mill rotation mechanism and friction losses corresponding to the second mill

compartment.

50 46,7

45

40

31

Percentage, %

35

30

25

20

15

8,5

10 6,3

4,5

5 0,6 2,4

0

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Figure 7. Approximate electrical power distribution in conventional cement mills (ball mills).

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

11

Therefore, the total energy consumption for the clinker grinding in two-compartment

mills can be calculated by:

E 23.7 wi D f 0.193 din 0.962 0.87 23.7 wi din 0.193 d80 0.962 (7)

Application

For the cement shown in Fig. 3, the Blaine fineness is FBl = 3587 cm2/g and assuming

that the work index of the clinker wi = 14.5 kWh/short ton, Eq. (1) gives:

E = 40.09 kWh/tonne

Making also the assumption that Df =16 mm = 16000 μm and observing that d80 = 30 μm

(Fig. 4), the arising overall reduction ratio is R = 533.33.

1

23.7 14.5 533.330.193 0.769

d 80

79.03m

40.09

The above calculated value for d80 is far away from that observed in Fig. 4.

Let Df = 16000 μm and an equal reduction ratio 22.36 for the two grinding stages (i.e.

22.362 = 500). Thus, the product 80% from the first compartment is 715.56 μm (i.e. din =

715.56 μm).

Substituting in Eq. (7) for E = 40.09 kWh/tonne, Df = 16000 μm, din = 715.56 μm, wi =

14.5 kWh/short ton and solving for d80 yields: d80 = 33.66 μm.

The above value (33.66 μm) seems to be sufficiently close to that (30 μm) observed in

Fig. 4.

Thus, the overall size reduction ratio becomes R = 16000/33.66 = 475.34.

Alternatively, choosing an arbitrary initial size-reduction ratio R1 = 15 (i.e. din = 1066.67

μm), instead of that R1 = 22.36 which was previously received, the corresponding value,

in that case, is d80 = 35.18 μm. The overall reduction ratio becomes now R = 454.82.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

12

The above assumption seems to be reasonable, due to the great size of the particles fed in

the first compartment and its shorter length resulting in short retention time. Hence, the

initial reduction ratio R1 should be less than R2, prevailing in the second compartment.

Similarly, applying the same procedure for the different cements shown in Fig. 8, the

results obtained for d80 are presented in Table 1.

Cumulative passing %

Particle size x, μm

Figure 8. Particle size distribution of various cements.

Source: Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, 2004

Table 1. Comparison of the data observed in Fig. 8 with those predicted from the proposed

procedure

Equal reduction ratio r = R0.5 Assumed (arbitrary) initial

Data from Fig. 8

(assumed) reduction ratio R1

Overall Overall Overall

Blaine d80 d80 d80

reduction Initial reduction reduction

fineness, observed, predicted, predicted,

ratio, R R1 = R0.5 ratio R, ratio R,

FBl, cm2/g μm μm μm

calculated calculated Initial calculated

2500 55 290.9 17.06 57.15 280 R1 = 15 57.70 277.30

3000 41 390.24 19.75 44.70 357.94 45.84 349.04

4000 30 533.33 23.06 27.76 576.37 29.28 546.45

5000 23 695.7 26.38 17.41 919.01 18.91 846.11

From Table 1 it is observed that, the proposed procedure predicts satisfactorily the d80

values corresponding to the fineness of the various cements. There is no significant error

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

13

when an arbitrary initial reduction ratio is chosen. These values are indicative, due to the

fact previously explained, that cements of the same fineness could have quite different

particle size distributions.

CONCLUSIONS

In the present work, an empirical model was derived, which gives the specific grinding

energy E as a function of the cement fineness FBl (Blaine) in cm2/g and the clinker Bond

work index wi (kWh/short ton).

This equation was connected with a previously proposed model giving the specific

grinding energy E as a function of the Bond work index wi, the size reduction ratio

R = Df /d80, and the d80 size of the product.

From the procedure developed, it is possible to correlate the cement fineness FBl with the

size d80 of the cement product. The calculated d80 values are indicative due to the fact that

cements of the same fineness could have quite different particle size distributions.

However, for the examples presented here, the predicted d80 values are close to those

derived from the cement particle size distributions.

This work shows that the proposed equations approach successfully the values given

from mill-manufacturers.

The whole methodology contributes to the specific grinding energy prediction, the

calculation of the cement grinding cost, and serves successfully in the modeling of the

cement grinding process. Additionally, it offers acceptable indications for the expected

d80 size of the product, and is helpful in foreseeing the performance of the cement

produced.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author is greatly indebted to Profs. E. Mitsoulis and G. Stamboltzis for helpful

discussions and suggestions.

Presented at the Ultrafine Grinding 06 (UFG 06), June 12-13, Minerals Engineering International (MEI), Falmouth-Cornwall,

U.K, http://www.min-eng.com/ultrafinegrinding06/paps.html

14

REFERENCES

1. Tsakalakis K.G., The Greek cement industry sector and its potential towards sustainable

development, Sustainable Development Indicators in the Mineral Industry (SDIMI 2003),

May 21-23, 2003, Milos Island, Greece.

2. Tsakalakis K.G., Scrap tyres management in the EU cement industry - an

economic/environmental approach, 2005a (submitted for publication to WASTE

MANAGEMENT).

3. CEMBUREAU, COMPETITIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN CEMENT INDUSTRY, The

European Cement Association, 2004,

http://www.cembureau.be/Cem_warehouse/2-

COMPETITIVENESS%20OF%20THE%20EUROPEAN%20CEMENT%20INDUSTRY.PDF

4. Stoiber W., 2002, Comminution Technology and Energy Management, LAFARGE Cement

Division in Verein Deutscher Zementwerke (VDZ) Kongress, September 2002.

5. Jankovic, A., Valery, W. and Davis E., Cement grinding optimization, 2004, Metso Minerals

Asia-Pacific, Perth, Australia.

6. Zhang, Y. M., Napier-Munn, T. J., Effects of particle size distribution, surface area and

chemical composition on Portland cement strength. Powder Technology 83, 1995, pp 245-

252.

7. Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, Zemente mit mehreren Hauptbestandteilen;

Untersuchungen zur Optimierung von Herstellung und Eigenschaften, AIF-

Forschungsvorhaben 13198N, 2004,

http://www.vdz-online.de/downloads/aif13198n/13198n.pdf

8. QCL Group Australia, Particle Size Distribution of Cement, Technical Note, August 1995.

9. Fuller Traylor Grinding Mill Systems, GATX-FULLER, Bulletin M-2 5M 6/76,

PENNSYLVANIA, U.S.A.

10. MARCY, Ball and Rod Mills, MINE AND SMELTER SUPPLY Co., CATALOG 101-B.

11. Stamboltzis G.A. and Tsakalakis K.G., Tumbling Mills Power Requirements, Mining and

Metallurgical Annals, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 1993, pp.17-26, (in Greek with English abstract).

12. Schnatz, R., Optimization of continuous ball mills used for finish-grinding of cement by

varying the L/D ratio, ball charge filling ratio, ball size and residence time, Int. J. Miner.

Process. 74S, 2004, pp. S55-S63.

13. Tsakalakis K.G., Relationship between electrical energy consumption and cement fineness in

clinker grinding, 5th Panhellenic Congress of the Panhellenic Society of Chemical Engineers,

pp. 445-448, 2005b, Thessaloniki, Greece (in Greek).

14. Tsakalakis K.G. and Stamboltzis G.A., Modelling the specific grinding energy and ball-mill

scale up, 11th IFAC Symposium on Automation in Mining, Mineral and Metal Processing,

2004, Nancy, France.

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15

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