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CAESAR II

Recent changes in ASME B31.3 and their implementation in CAESAR II

Recent B31.3 Updates


Cyclic factor in allowed expansion stress range Longitudinal stress due to sustained loads Allowed stress for occasional loads Appendix P Appendix S Weld joint strength reduction B31E Unless indicated otherwise all ASME B31.3 references are to the 2010 Edition

A Note on the Code Edition and the Current CAESAR II Version


CAESAR II Version 2011 was released on November 22, 2010 ASME B31.3 2010 Edition was issued on March 31, 2011 CAESAR II 2011 does not directly reference B31.3 2010

Expansion Stress Range


Expansion stress range must be less than SA SA is defined in equations (1a) & (1b) SA is a function of the cyclic factor f

Expansion Stress Range


The definition of f has changed

A Plot of f

Expansion Stress Range


Changes to high and low cycle factors f Equations put in and simplified table removed f factors extended from 2,000,000 cycles to an unlimited number of cycles f factors of greater than 1 permitted for less than 7,000 cycles

Extension to Lower Cycles


An increase in f , up to 1.2 is permitted This is the margin between the allowable displacement stress range and twice yield 1.2*1.25(Sc+Sh) =1.5*[2/3(Syc)+2/3(Syh)] =Syc+Syh Shakedown behavior is preserved Not permitted for temperatures in the creep regime Not permitted for some materials where the existing rules may be non-conservative

Extension to Higher Cycles


An endurance limit stress range was calculated based on ASME OM-3*, which provides guidelines for evaluation of nuclear power plant piping vibration An f factor of 0.15 gives an endurance limit stress range for typical carbon steel material The factor of 0.15 is conservative for austenitic stainless steel material
* ASME OM-3: Pre-operational and Initial Startup Vibration Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Piping Systems

High Cycle Fatigue


Recent work (Hinnant and Paulin) has shown the original fatigue curves developed by Markl are flatter than they should be This makes them potentially unconservative at high cycles Work is underway to develop a new appendix (proposed as Appendix W) to provide improved rules for high cycle fatigue Expect f=6N-0.2 to become f=17N-0.32

CAESAR II Implementation

To simplify this exercise, use Equation (1a): SA=f(1.25Sc+0.25Sh)

CAESAR II Implementation

f=6N-0.2 Maximum=1.0

CAESAR II Implementation
SA=f(1.25Sc+0.25Sh)=f*100MPa

f=6N-0.2 Maximum=1.2

An Equation for Longitudinal Stress Due to Sustained Loads

Previous Editions: 302.3.5(c) The sum of longitudinal stresses, SL, in any component in a piping system, due to sustained loads such as pressure and weight, shall not exceed Sh.

An Equation for Longitudinal Stress Due to Sustained Loads


Until 2010, the Base Code provided verbal description for limits on longitudinal stress due to sustained loads
Includes stress due to axial load and bending moment Use wall thickness minus allowances States that loads are usually calculated based on nominal thickness and stress resulting from those loads are based on thickness less allowances (corrosion/erosion/mechanical) Does not address torsion Does not address stress indices

New Paragraph 320


Provides a specific equation for calculating longitudinal stress due to sustained loads Previously presented in Code Case 178 Stress due to torsion is specifically included Stress indices are included

Stress Indices
0.75i included as a stress index for calculating bending stress due to sustained loads Applicability of 0.75 for components other than elbows is questionable, but the benefits of having a consistent approach led to incorporation 0.75 factor same as B31.1

Stress Due to Axial Load


Axial force term now specifically includes axial force due to internal pressure, the pressure stress is no longer added as PD/4t (CAESAR II, by default, uses PAin/Axs) As such, equation is always correct, considering the potential effect of expansion joints

CAESAR II Implementation
B31.3- 2010 paragraph 3.20 can be applied now by setting the Code Case 178 switch to TRUE in the Configuration file This does not incorporate axial and torsion stress indices

Allowable Stress for Occasional Loads

Alternative Allowable for Occasional Loads


For temperatures above 800F (427C), the sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight, other sustained loadings, and stresses produced by occasional loads, SL, must not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature times a strength reduction factor. SL 0.90(Syt)(X)(Ec); Ec is casting quality factor
Where the strength reduction factor X = 1.0 for austenitic stainless steels and 0.8 for other materials This alternative may not be used for materials with non-ductile behavior.

CAESAR II Implementation
CAESAR II does not identify basic allowable stresses controlled by creep This adjustment to the allowed stress limit for sustained plus occasional loads remains the responsibility of the user.

Appendix P

Alternative Flexibility Analysis Rules in Appendix P


They are alternative rules Either the Base Code or Appendix P may be used for evaluating expansion stress range If either is satisfied, the system is Code compliant it may fail one and pass the other, but both are conservative

Operating Conditions
A more complete fatigue analysis, looking at differences between operating conditions, rather than displacement stress only Nonlinear effects are inherently included, as are shifts in support effort There is no ambiguity related to the inclusion of SL in the allowable stress, as in the Base Code. (SL can change based on active, nonlinear support configuration.) (1b): SA=f[1.25(Sc+Sh-SL)]

Appendix P
Fatigue analysis based on differences of combined load states, as it would be in a detailed fatigue analysis such as per Section VIII, Div 2. The stress range is computed and compared to the allowable of 1.25f(Sc+Sh) SL is not included in the allowable, prevention of ratchet is handled in a different fashion

Appendix P
Shut down at ambient temperature is one of the operating conditions (so the range from that to other operating conditions is considered) Stresses due to axial loads are always included, so that they are included if they are significant (which is a Base Code requirement)

Appendix P
Stress intensification factors provided for axial loads based on committee judgment
The higher, out-plane sif for bending is used as the axial sif, except for elbows Since axial load on an elbow creates bending on the other side of the elbow, no additional sif on axial load is included Basically considers axial load as an equivalent bending

Control of Ratchet
Ratchet is prevented by also limiting maximum operating stress This limit effectively reduces the allowable displacement stress range as the stress due to sustained loads increases Maximum operating stress limited to 1.5(Sc+Sh)

CAESAR II Implementation

CAESAR II Implementation

For this job, f=1.2

CAESAR II Implementation

Appendix S

Appendix S
Example flexibility analysis problems now provided in Appendix S Demonstrate Code intent for flexibility analysis
A simple case A case illustrating a nonlinear support, with the pipe lifting off of a support A case with moment reversal

CAESAR II Implementation
CAESAR II results were included in these examples

Default Configuration was NOT used

CAESAR II Implementation

CAESAR II Implementation

CAESAR II Implementation

Weld Joint Strength Reduction Factor


The creep strength of welds may be lower than the creep strength of the base material Mandatory consideration in membrane stress Optional in bending stress

Weld Joint Factor

Weld Joint Factor in Wall Thickness Calculation

The failure of this 30 inch diameter steam line, operating at 900 psi and 1000 degF, shutdown the Mohave, California power plant. The failure occurred along a longitudinal weld in the pipe. BEAR engineers determined that although the weld metal was stronger than the pipe steel at room temperature, the creep, or high temperature deformation rate of the weld metal was 10 times greater than the pipe's base metal. This mismatch led to failure after 10 years of operation. The ASME Piping Codes have been changed to prevent this type of failure based in part on analysis work performed by BEAR on this failure and others. - http://www.bearinc.com/projects/refinerypowerplants.html

Weld Joint Strength Reduction Factors


Introduced in the 2004 edition Task Force formed to include them in B31.1 and Section I developed a consensus that has led to some changes in the 2008 edition of B31.3 Applies in the creep regime, starting at a temperature 50oF below the temperature, Tcr, at which creep properties govern when establishing the allowable Recognizes that many weldments have creep strength less than the base material

Weld Joint Factor


Factor, W, applies in pressure design Factor W did apply to girth welds for longitudinal stress due to sustained loads but this was changed as a compromise to get consistent rules between Codes Code now states that application of W for evaluation of longitudinal stresses due to sustained loads is the responsibility of the designer

Weld Joint Factor


Factor, W, does not apply for stress due to occasional loads because of their short duration Factor, W, does not apply to thermal expansion type stress since these stresses relax in the creep regime and are not sustained Values may be developed by creep tests

Weld Joint Factors


Single curve for all materials now replaced with material specific curves Start temperature depends upon start temperature at which creep governs the allowable stress Slope of factor versus temperature is generally the same as the prior B31.3 curve Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritics assigned a factor of 0.5 in the creep regime if the PWHT is Subcritical

Weld Joint Factors


Autogenous welds in austenitic stainless steel assigned a factor of 1.0 Section III, Subsection NH referenced for alternative factors for 304 SS welded with 316 SS rod

CAESAR II Implementation
In CAESAR II,Wl references the longitudinal welds Here, a value of 0.85 is entered for 304 stainless steel at 600C

CAESAR II Implementation
By default, circumferential welds are not checked

CAESAR II Implementation
In CAESAR II, Wc references the value specified for girth welds Here, the value of 0.85 is entered

CAESAR II Implementation
Some CAESAR II materials have W specified You can add your own data as well

ASME B31E
New standard for evaluation of piping systems for earthquake loads Intended to be referenced by all B31 Codes Provides design by rule for most systems Requires detailed analysis for only critical larger diameter systems Provides a new allowable stress for seismic loads

ASME B31E
Currently ASME B31.3 does not explicitly reference B31E:
B31.3 B31E

Both documents reference the US Building Code ASCE 7

B31E
B31E defines allowable stress for sustained plus seismic load Minimum of:
2.4S 1.5SY 60ksi (408MPa)

AND, an allowed limit for forces produced by seismic anchor movement

B31E - 2010
The 2010 Edition defines ASCE 7 terms for setting seismic load.

CAESAR II Implementation
There are unresolved issues with using the seismic demand requirements of the ASCE 7 building code for piping.
ASD v LRFD (0.7 factor in LRFD gives ASD) Value for R for piping

CAESAR II does not presently address B31E.

In Conclusion
Over the last few B31.3 Editions there have been several changes that reflect the improved analytical capabilities beyond the slide rule for which the Code was originally designed. CAESAR II has kept pace with these changes and has participated in this development.

Thank You for Your Attention


Any Questions?