Sunteți pe pagina 1din 31

1

Cand veti termina de studiat acest volum veti putea sa:

Formulati pluralul substantivelor si sa detectati genul cuvintelor. Folositi corect principalele timpuri verbale. Explicati de ce engleza pe care o vorbiti va fi cu atat mai interesanta cu cat veti putea folosi mai multe cuvinte descriptive.

CUPRINS
SELECTION 1 SELECTION 2 METODE DE STUDIU Citire, ascultare, scriere CUVINTE 3 5

Singularul si pluralul Genul cuvintelor Acum, mai tarziu sau saptamana trecuta Cuvinte descriptive Cuvinte pentru indicarea cantitatii UNIT 1 REVISION: Plurals. Gender of Words. Now, Yesterday or Tomorrow? Present Simple Descriptive Words The Future Tense-Simple Future Present Perfect Simple Present Continous And Simple Past Continous Present perfect Continous 15 19 21 25

UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5

UNIT 6

29

METODE DE STUDIU
STUDIEREA CURSULUI Studiul 3

Acesta este primul din cele trei volume de studiu Telemarketing Promotion care ofera o introducere facila in folosirea limbii engleze , pentru cei fara prea multe cunostinte in domeniu. Este de asemenea un excelent curs de recapitulare pentru cei care au terminat scoala cu multi ani in urma si care au uitat multe din cunostintele acumulate. Veti vedea ca in aceste volume preliminare , in majoritatea exemplelor date sunt folosite numai cuvinte simple. Gramatica este de asemenea explicata intr-un mod simplu , fara a va solicita sa invatati prea multi termeni de specialitate. Dupa ce veti fi studiat cu atentie aceste trei volume, lucrand fiecare set de verificari, pe masura ce ajungeti la ele in timplul studierii cursului, veti fi invatat suficient pentru a va exprima corect si clar in limba engleza. Fiecare mapa de curs contine un numar de 10 teste, care constituie o parte importanta a studiului dumneavoastra. Fiecare test trebuie rezolvat integral in scris si trimis spre corectare indrumatorului personal. In acest fel, va verificati pas cu pas cunostintele acumulate. In aproape fiecare casa se afla un dictionar englez roman si orice student care nu are acasa unul poate face rost. Tineti dictionarul langa dumneavoastra in timp ce studiati sau cititi.

Folositi-va si timpul liber pentru a citi, nu numai perioadele de studiu. In timp ce cititi, invatati cuvintele noi si modul in care ele se inlantuie in fraze. Astfel, capacitatea dumneavoastra de a intelege engleza creste. Este foarte important sa cititi: cititi articole din ziare si reviste chiar si reclame, desi acestea nu sunt totdeauna un ghid de incredere pentru o engleza mai buna.

Faceti din ascultarea limbii engleze, ori de cate ori este posibil, o parte a studiului dumneavoastra. Daca ascultati la radio sau la televizor, veti invata mai multe cuvinte, cum sa le legati intre ele si cum sa le pronuntati corect. A asculta si a sta de vorba cu alte persoane este un alt exercitiu, dar aici exista in cele mai multe tari o dificultate, intru-cat nu toti oamenii pronunta la fel, diferentele depinzand in primul rand de zona de origine a persoanelor in cauza. Dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti si sa vorbiti engleza standard, adica acea forma a englezei care nu prezinta variatii regionale. Nu exista in engleza standard cuvinte sau structuri gramaticale care sa nu fie folosite in tarile unde se vorbeste engleza ca limba nativa. Cand vorbim familiar, folosim probabil cuvinte specifice zonei in care traim; dar dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti si sa vorbiti engleza standard. De asemenea, oamenii fac greseli in vorbirea englezei; trebuie sa invatati sa depistati aceste greseli, astfel incat sa nu le repetati. In sfarsit, engleza vorbita si cea scrisa nu sunt absolut identice; putem vorbi mai liber, mai familiar decat scriem.

Citind, ascultand si vorbind puteti invata nu numai cuvinte, ci si cum sa le folositi in fraze, dar este chiar mai important sa exersati folosind aceste cuvinte pentru a va exprima propriile idei. Incercati sa folositi cuvintele noi pe care le auziti sau le cititi si curand va veti da seama ca puteti sa va scrieti propriile ganduri.

Ar fi inutil sa invatati cum se scrie sau cum suna un cuvant, daca nu stiti si ce inseamna: in aceasta consta ajutorul dictionarului. Trebuie sa fiti pregatiti pentru o munca grea si constanta, dar asigurati-va ca stiti intelesul fiecarui cuvant nou si in acest fel veti putea sa-l folositi corect.

SINGULARUL SI PLURALUL
6

Ce sunt cuvintele?
Cuvantul este reprezentat de un sunet sau un grup de sunete Prin care toti membrii unui grup inteleg acelas lucru. Limba reprezinta totalitatea cuvintelor. Cand scriem, folosim litere pentru a nota sunetele cuvintelor. Fiecare sunet existent intr-o limba poate fi reprezentat de o anumita litera sau de un grup de litere. Scrierea s-a dezvoltat probabil intr-un mod similar limbii vorbite. La inceput, se pare ca oamenii comunicau unul cu altul prin desene. In timp desenele au ajuns sa reprezinte lucruri asociate cuvintelor, mai de graba decat obiectul propriu-zis. Astfel un soare desenat putea insemna caldura sau lumina. Prin repetitie, desenele s-ar fi simplificat din ce in ce mai mult, ajungand in cele din urma sa arate ca literele alfabetului scris. Tot asa, aceste simboluri ar fi ajuns sa reprezinte sunete independente( probabil sunetele initiale ale obiectelor) si nu obiecte sau idei.

UNU SAU MAI MULT DE UNU?


Deseori dorim sa vorbim sau sa scriem despre mai mult de o persoana sau un lucru, si cel mai simplu mod de a face acest lucru este sa adaugam litere, ca in exemplele urmatoare:

Singular A dog Un caine The dog Cainele Plural Two dogs Doi caini Some dogs Niste caini Several dogs Mai multi caini One dog Un caine,numeral

Termenii singular si plural sunt destul de expliciti : Singular inseamna numai unul, in vreme ce plural inseamna mai mult de unul. Exemplu : Bed (pat) House (casa) Picture (tablou) Building (constructie) Boat (barca) River (rau) Tree (copac) Plant (planta) Flower (floare) Girl (fata) Boy (baiat) Ship (vapor) Ball (minge) Ocean (ocean) Mountain (munte) Forest (padure) Lion (leu) Bird (pasare) Room (camera) beds Houses Pictures Buildings Boats Rivers Trees Plants Flowers Girls Boys Ships Balls Oceans Mountains Forests Lions Birds Rooms

Exista cateva moduri de a forma pluralul cuvintelor. Acestea vor fi explicate in cele ce urmeaza.

Plurals : Solve the following exercises but do not send theam to Another Life Services. 1. Write down the singular form of these words: Geese 8

Feets Mices Sheeps 2. Write down the plural of the following words : Street Bus Woman Tooth Nouns ending in o Volcano Tomato volcanoes tomatoes

Most words ending in o add es for plural; but when there is a vowel before the o just add s. Radio Studio And also : Photo Piano photos pianos radios studios

Nous ending in ss, sh, ch, x form their plural by adding an es Class Church Brush Box classes churches brushes boxes

THE GENDER OF NOUNS : Masculine Male Feminine female


9

Common both sexes

Actor Boy Husband king Lion Man Master Steward

Actress Girl Wife Queen Lioness Women Mistress stewardees

Child, baby Spouse Monarch Person

The ending ess is one of the ways of forming the feminine of a masculine word : 1. Write down the feminine of the follwing words : Prince Dog Baron 2. Write down the masculine of the following words : Lady Women Cow

NOW , LATER OR LAST WEEK ?


TODAY, TOMORROW, YESTERDAY I and the action

Tense Aspect SIMPLE

Present I eat

Past I eat yesterday

Future I shall eat tomorrow

10

CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT + CONTINUOUS

I am eating I have eaten I have been Eating

I was eating I had eaten I had been Eating

I shall be eating I shall have eaten I shall have been eating

Note that each Tense has four aspects,that last one being a combination of the previous two.The Continuous suggests a preogressive kind of action, the Perfect an action covering an interval of time, as opposed to a moment ( as it is with the Simple Aspect ).

Regular verbs from the Past by adding ed at the end, but there are also verbs wich have two forms for the past : these are called irregular verbs ( see Appendix 2 in the Preliminary Course )

Exemple: He, She, It and the Action

PRESENT He eats He is eating She eats

PAST He eat He was eating She eat

FUTURE He will eat He will be eating She will eat

REMEMBER For the 3rd person singular, add s at the end of the verb! The Present Tense of the Verb to like

11

AFFIRMATIVE SINGULAR I like You like He She likes It PLURAL we like you like they like

Verbs ending in s, ss ,ch, sh, z, o, add es for the the 3rd person singular: To To To To To cross- he crosses buzz-it buzzes push-she pushes do-he does go-she goes

See also Appendix 3.

The Present of the Verb TO HAVE


AFFIRMATIVE 1 I have You have He has She has It has We have You have AFIRMATIVE 2 Ive You;ve Hes Shes Its Weve Youve 12 INTERROGATIVE Have I? Have you? Has he? Has she? Has it? Have we? Have you?

They have

Theyve

Have they?

NEGATIVE 1 I have not You have not He has not She has not It has not We have not You have not They have not

NEGATIVE 2 Ive not Youve not Hes not Shes not Its not Weve not Youve you havent Theynot

NEGATIVE INTEROGARTIVE 3 1 Ihavent Have I not? You havent? Have you not? He hasnt? She hasnt? It hasnt? We havent? You havent They havent? He Has she not? it Have we not? Have you not? Have they not?

NEGATIVE 2 Havent I? Havent you? He Havent she? It Havent we? Havent you? Havent they?

Affirmative: I have=Ive

Present Tense of the Verb TO SEE


AFFIRMATIVE I see You see INTERROGATIVE Do I see? do you see? NEGATIVE 1 I do not see You do not see? NEGATIVE 2 I dont see? You dont see? INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE Do I not see? Dont I see? Do you not see? Dont you see?

13

He see She sees It see

Does he see? Does she see? Does It see?

We see you see They see

Do we see? Do you see? Do they see?

He does not see She does not see It does not see We do not see You do not see They do not see

He doesnt see? She doesnt see? It doesnt see? We dont see? You dont see? They dont see?

Doesnt He see? Doesnt she see? Doesnt It see?

Do we not see? Dont we see? Do you not see? Dont you see? Do they not see? Dont they see?

Present Tense of the Verb TO READ


AFFIRMATIVE I read You read INTERROGATIVE Do I read? Do you read? NEGATIVE 1 I do not read You do not read 14 NEGATIVE 2 I dont read? You dont read?
INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE Do I not read? Dont I read? Do you not read? Dont you read?

He reads She reads It reads

Does he read? Does she read Does it read?

He does not read She does not read It does not read We do not read You do not read They do not read

He doesnt read? She doesnt read? It doesnt read? We dont read? You dont read? They dont read?

Doesnt he read? Doesnt she read? Doesnt it read?

We read

Do we read?

Do we not read? Dont we read? Do you not read? Dont you read? Do they not read? Dont they read?

You read They read

Do you read? Do they read?

DESCRIPTIVE WORD What kind of? Person or thing?


The way we speak would be very boring without using various descriptive word to help us express ( and explain ) the colour, shape and size . the feautures of the things we speak about. 15

Here you have some adjectives. Look in the dictionary for their meaning and write it down in the coumms bellow. Red White Green Black COLOUR Yellow Purple Blue Pink Orange Brown Square Straight SHAPE Oval Flat Round Curved Triangular Excellent Kind Pleasant Generous CHARACTERISTICS Delicious Friendly + Beautiful Helpful Nice Happy Unpleasant Mean CHARACTERISTICS Awful Miserable Ugly Nasty Big Gigantic Enormous Huge High Little SIZE Large Long Medium Minute Small Tall Tiny Vast Try to find other words that express shape, characteristics ( good or bad ), kind and size and add them to the ones given here. As you have probably noticed, there are people using a word or a couple of word very often. Try to avoid this and learn as many descriptive word as you can, rather than saying: a nice evening , some nice people, a nice soup, nice books, nice movies, an enjoyable holiday.

EXERCISE:

16

Answer the following questions but do not send them to ANOTHER LIFE SERVICES. Use a dictionary to identify the following word. You are given the first two letters of the word, the number of letters of the whole word and its meaning.

ci..................... ch.. be. de. ex. en .. ex.. .. me.. mi mi.

8 letters 8 letters 9 letters 9 letters 8 letters 9 letters 9 letters 6 letters 6 letters 9 letters

shaped like a circle bright and lively lovely to look at tasting very pleasant stirring stimulating which gives pleasure or joy very good indeed neither large nor small very small indeed very sad and depressed

WORD TO SHOW QUANTITY


How much and How many? Fiind in the dictionary the meaning of the words: About Any

17

Few Little Much Many None Several Some

Compare Womens Objects Cups of coffee Oil Water coffee

Many

BUT

Much

The Future Tense-Simple Future The Simple Future of the Verb TO WATCH
AFFIRMATIVE 1 AFFIRMATIVE 2 18 TRADUCERE

I shall watch You will watch He will watch She will watch It will watch We shall watch You will watch They will watch

Ill watch Youll watch Hell watch Shell watch Itll watch Well watch Youll watch Theyll watch

Voi privi Vei privi Va privi Vom privi Veti privi Vor privi

NEGATIVE 1 I shall not watch You will not watch He will not watch She will not watch It will not watch We shall not watch You will not watch They will not watch

NEGATIVE 2 I shant watch You wont watch He wont watch She wont watch It wont watch We wont watch You wont watch They wont watch

INTERROGATIVE Shall I watch Will you watch Will he watch Will she watch Will it watch Shall we watch Will you watch Will they watch

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 Shall I not watch? Will you not watch? Will he not watch? Will she not watch? Will it not watch? Shall we not watch? Will you not watch? Will they not watch?

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 2 Shant I watch? Wont you watch? Wont he watch? Wont she watch? wont il watch? Wont we watch? Wont you watch? Wont they watch?

19

The Present Perfect Tense The Present Perfect of the Verb TO PLAY

20

AFFIRMATIVE 1 I have played You have played He has played She has played It has played We have played You have played They have played

AFFIRMATIVE 2 Ive played Youve played Hes played Shes played Its played Weve played Youve played Theyve played

INTERROGATIVE Have I played? Have you played? Has he played? Has she played? Has it played? Have we played? Have you played? Have they played?

NEGATIVE 1 I have not played You have not played He has not played She has not played It has not played We have not played You have not played They have not played

NEGATIVE 2 Ive not played Youve played Hes not played Shes not played Its not played Weve not played Youve not played Theyve not played

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 Have I not played? Have you not played? Has he not played? Has she not played? Has it not played? Have we not played? Have you not played? Have they not played? 21

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 2 Havent I played? Havent you played? Hanst he played? Hanst she played? Hanst it played? Havent we played? Havent you played? Havent they played?

The Present Perfect of the Verb TO DO


AFFIRMATIVE 1 I have done You have done He has done She has done It has done We have done You have done They have done AFFIRMATIVE 2 Ive done Youve done Hes done Shes done Its done Weve done Youve done Theyve done INTERROGATIVE Have I done? Have you done? Has he done? Has she done? Has it done? Have we done? Have you done? Have they done?

NEGATIVE 1 I have not done You have not done He has not done She has not done It has not done We have not done You have note done They have not done

NEGATIVE 2 Ive not done Youve not done Hes not done Shes not done Its not done Weve not done Youve not done Theyve not done

22

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 Have I not done? Have you not done? Has he not done? Has she not done? Has it not done? Have we not done? Have you not done? Have they not done?

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 2 Havent I done? Havent you done? Hasnt he done? Hasnt she done? Hasnt it done? Havent we done? Havent you done? Havent they done?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE PAST CONTINOUS The Present Continous of the verb TO SMILE Affirmative 1 I am smiling You are smiling Affirmative 2 Imsmiling Youre smiling 23 Interrogative Am I smiling? Are you smiling?

He is smiling She is smiling We are smiling You are smiling They are smiling

Hes smiling Shes smiling Were smiling Youre smiling Therre smiling

Is he smiling? Is he smiling? Are we smiling? Are you smiling? Are they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1 I am not smiling You are not smiling He is not smiling She is not smiling It is not smiling We are not smiling You are not smiling They are not smiling

NEGATIVE 2 Im not smiling Youre not smiling Hes not smiling Shes not smiling Its not smiling Were not smiling Youre not smiling Theyre not smiling

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 Am I not smiling? Are you not smiling? Is he not smiling? Is she not smiling? Is it not smiling? Are we not smiling? Are you not smiling? Are they not smiling?

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 2 Arent I smiling? Arent you smiling? Isnt he smiling? Isnt she smiling? Isnt it smiling? Arent we smiling? Arent you smiling? Arent they smiling?

24

Simple Past Continous of the Verb TO SMILE

AFFIRMATIVE I was smiling You were smiling He was smiling She was smiling It was smiling We were smiling You were smiling 25

They were smiling INTERROGATIVE Was I smiling? Were you smiling? Was he smiling? Was she smiling? Was it smiling? Were we smiling? Were you smiling? Were they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1 I was not smiling You not were smiling He was not smiling She was not smiling It was not smiling We were not smiling You were not smiling They were not smiling

NEGATIVE 2 I wasnt smiling You werent smiling He wasnt smiling She wasnt smiling It wasnt smiling We werent smiling You werent smiling They werent smiling

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 Was I not smiling? Were you not smiling? Was he not smiling? Was she not smiling? Was it not smiling? Were we not smiling? Were you not smiling? Were they not smiling?

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 2 Wasnt I smiling? Werent you smiling? Wasnt he smiling? Wasnt she smiling? Wasnt it smiling? Werent we smiling? Werent you smiling? Werent they smiling?

26

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUSLY Present Perfect Continuous of the Verb TO PLAY

AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

27

I have been playing You have been playing He has been playing She has been playing It has been playing We have been playing You have been playing They have been playing

Ive have been playing Youre have been playing Hes have been playing Shes have been playing Its have been playing Were have been playing Youre have been playing Theyre have been playing

Have I been playing? Have you been playing? Has he been playing? Has she been playing? Has it been playing? Have we been playing? Have you been playing? Have they been playing?

NEGATIVE 1 I have not been playing You have not been playing He has not been playing She has not been playing It has not been playing We have not been playing You have not been playing They have not been playing

NEGATIVE 1 Ive not been playing Youve not been playing Hes not been playing Shes not been playing Its not been playing Weve not been playing Youve not been playing Theyve not been playing

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 Have I not been playing? Have you not been playing? Has he not been playing? Has she not been playing? Has it not been playing? Have we not been playing? Have you not been playing? Have they not been playing? 28

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE 2 Havent I been playing? Havent you been playing? Hanst he been playing? Hanst she been playing? Hanst it been playing? Havent we been playing? Havent you been playing? Havent they been playing?

Aspectele verbului in limba engleza Verbele in limba engleza pot avea patru aspecte: simplu ( Simple ), progresiv ( Continous ), pefect ( Perfect ) si perfect progresiv ( Perfect Continous ). Fiecare

29

dintre aceste aspecte poate aparea la oricare dintre cele trei timpuri: present (Present ), trecut ( Past ) si viitor ( Future ). Aspectele progresiv si perfect le corespunde cate un verb auxiliar ( cu care se formeaza ), care preia timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ; aspectul progresiv perfect se formeaza prin combinarea celor doua auxiliare .

Astfel: Continous Tense se formeaza cu auxiliarul to be : to be + infinitivul verbului de conjugat + ing ( la timpul si persoana verbului conjugat ) Perfect Tense se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have : to have ( la timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ) + forma a 3 a verbului conjugat Perfect Continous Tense se formeaza cu ambele auziliare. to be si to have: To have + been + infinitivul de conjugat + ing.

Transformarea timpurilor verbale in trecerea de la vorbire directa la cea indirecta

30

DIRECT SPEECH Present Continuous Present Simple Present Perfect Past Perfect Past Simple Past Continuous Shall/will Can Must Could Ought to May

INDIRECT SPEECH Past Continuous Past Simple Past Perfect No change Past Perfect No change Would No change Could No change No change Might

31