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Hannah Arendt (1906 1975) -was born on October 14, 1906, in Hanover, Wilhelmine, Germany.

. -raised in Konigsberg -she was the only child of Paul and Martha (Cohn) Arendt, both prodigy of entrepreneurs from Russian-Jewish families. -When she was seven, her father died of paresis (syphilitic insanity). -Her mother married Martin Beerwald in 1920, bringing two older stepsisters, Eva and Clara Beerwald, into Hannah Arendt's home. -Arendt was an avid reader from a young age, and by her sixteenth year her literary interests included Kant, and Goethe. -In 1924 she graduated from high school in Koenigsberg. -Perhaps inspired by the theology and romantic thought of Kierkegaard's poetry that was also in her library, she decided to study theology at the University of Marburg with Rudolf Bultmann. -Martin Heidegger was lecturing at Marburg on Existenzphilosophie, and writing what would eventually become Sein und Zeit [Being and time] in 1927. -It was during her time at Marburg that Arendt began her long relationship with Heidegger, sparked by a brief and passionate affair. -The affair ended when Arendt learned of Heidegger's involvement in the National Socialist party, but the friendship, however strained, would continue for years to come, and Heidegger's phenomenological method had a notable influence on Arendt's work. -Arendt went on to study the phenomenological method with Husserl, then became a student at the University of Heidelberg, studying with the existentialist Karl Jaspers. -It is under Jaspers that she wrote her dissertation on St. Augustine's concept of Love (Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin). -Jaspers and Arendt maintained a close relationship throughout their lives. -Arendt's unique approach to political thought is derived from her education in and fidelity to the phenomenological method. -Unlike typical political writing or philosophy which might begin with an analysis of general political concepts or empirical data associated with political science and impose conceptual structures on experience after the fact, she begins by prioritizing human life in its 'factical' and experiential character. -By using the phenomenological method, returning to 'the things themselves', she attempts to reveal the fundamental structures of political experience, or political being-in-the-world, in its distinct existence apart from other ways of being. -In September 1929 Arendt earned her doctorate, and married Gnther Stern (whose nom-de-plume was Gnter Anders). -Anti-Semitism was on the rise in Germany, and Arendt undertook a project that would help her understand the conflict between German Nationalism and minority status. -The book Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewish Woman was a biography of a Jewish salon hostess in Berlin in the early 1800s who converted to Christianity. It remained unpublished until 1958. -In 1933, with National Socialism on the rise, Arendt increased her political activity. -In association with the German Zionist Organization lead by Kurt Blimenfeld, she assisted the publication of information regarding victims of Nazism. -She was arrested by the Gestapo for conducting research on anti-Semitic propaganda, but managed to escape her prison sentence and fled to Paris.

-In Paris she gained the friendship of Walter Benjamin and Raymond Aron, and continued her political activism through work with Youth Aliyah moving Jewish children from Germany to Palestine. -In 1939 Arendt divorced her first husband and remarried the following year to Heinrich Blcher who she had met in 1936. -Blcher, a political refugee from Germany, was a communist, and had been a member of the Spartacus League run by Rosa Luxemburg. Only six months into their marriage in 1940 the couple was separately interned in Southern France, the fate of many other stateless Germans when the Wehrmacht invaded. -Arendt managed to escape from Gurs where she was interned, she reunited with Blcher, and in May 1941 found safe passage to neutral America. -During the rest of World War II, Arendt lived in New York, and worked on what would eventually be published as The Origins of Totalitarianism. This text was finally published in 1951, the same year she became a citizen of the United States. -The Origins of Totalitarianism was received enthusiastically, and made Arendt an intellectual celebrity. It was reprinted as an expanded edition in 1958, having taken into account the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. -In New York Arendt worked in two main intellectual circles. Her writing appeared early on in the journal Jewish Social Studies, and she became friends with the editor and his wife, Salo and Jeannette Baron. -She wrote arguments for a Jewish army in other magazines like Jewish Frontier and Aufbau [Reconstruction]. -She worked as an editor at Schocken Books, a German Jewish publishing firm that had been reestablished in New York and Palestine. -Baron charged Arendt with the task of redistributing Judaic artifacts and salvaged treasures for the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction. -Her other intellectual circle of activity included Dwight Macdonald and Mary McCarthy, and was associated with the Partisan Review. -In this circle she met the critic Alfred Kazin who aided her with her writing of The Origins of Totalitarianism. -In 1952 Arendt received a Guggenheim Foundation Grant for the study of Marxism and totalitarianism. -Her next three books came from this work: The Human Condition (1958); Between Past and Future (1961); and On Revolution (1968). -In these texts we can read her desire to reconstruct political philosophy in phenomenological terms. -The controversial text Reflections on Little Rock (1959) studied the emerging Black civil rights movement. -She wrote articles for the New York Review of Books in the 1960s and early 1970s criticizing the abuse of executive power and what she calls the "imperial presidency" associated with military intervention in Vietnam. -She became the first woman to hold a full professorship at Princeton University and she went on teaching at the University of Chicago, Wesleyan University, and the New School for Social Research in New York. -Arendt published the most controversial work of her career in 1963 with Eichmann in Jerusalem. -Arendt covered Eichmann's trial in Isreal as a correspondent for The New Yorker in 1960, when Isreali security forces had captured the S.S. lieutenant colonel responsible for the transportation of Jews to death camps.

-Eichmann in Jerusalem is the collection of revised articles from her coverage of the trial. -According to her text, Eichmann had not had a sadistic will to do evil, but had been thoughtless; he had failed to think about what he was doing. -Her concept of the banality of evil caused considerable friction between herself and the organized Jewish community, as her book was read by some as an elevation of Eichmann's character and a questioning of Jewish innocence. -Arendt was concerned that the ability to act according to conscience and rational thought was becoming obscured by partisanship and nationalism, combined with modernization. -Most of her writing studies the sense of a shared world and the possibilities of freedom grounded therein. -Arendt's writing on the Eichmann trials lead to a series of lectures on judgment, the neo-Kantian meditation which were part of the work for The Life of the Mind (1978). -While in Aberdeen, Scotland, delivering these Gifford Lectures, she survived a heart attack. The second and fatal attack occurred while entertaining the Barons in her New York apartment on December 4, 1975. -The first two volumes of The Life of the Mind were published posthumously, Volume 1 Thinking and Volume 2 Willing, as her death cut short her work on the third volume,Judging. -Arendt's life became the inspiration for the novel An Admirable Woman (1983) by Arthur A. Cohen, possibly because her personal struggles and romantic life were so intriguing. -Her romantic interests included Leo Strauss, Hans J. Morgenthau, and W.H. Auden. -During her life she fiercely guarded her privacy, tending to resist doing interviews or appearing on television. -Although she was one of the United States' most prominent intellectuals, she refused the AngloAmerican philosophical tendencies of pragmatism, empiricism, and liberalism. -Her texts have had an enormous impact on political theory, and many conferences, books and anthologies continue to celebrate her work. -In 1975 Hannah Arendt was awarded the Sonning Prize by the Danish government for Contributions to European Civilization, an award that has never before been received by an American or a woman. Nichelle Pascual (Arendt part2) Chapter2 THE PUBLIC AND THE PRIVATE REALM 4 Man: Social or a Political Animal *viva activa- human life is actively engaged in a world of MEN and of man-made things Environment- things and men form this for each of mans activities *no human life is possible without a world which directly or indirectly testifies to the presence of other human beings *How is mans life conditioned? By the fact that men live together; seen ONLY is action which is constantly dependent upon the presence of others and not on the activity of labor which does not need the presence of others -man is by nature political, that is social -societas (latin) indicated an alliance between people for a specific purpose -men cannot live outside the company of men *according to Greek thought, the human capacity for political organization is not only different but stands in direct opposition to that natural association whose center is the home (oikia) and the family *what are the two orders of existence: the private life and his bios politikos -sharp distinction between what is his own (idion) and what is communal (koinon)

*what constitutes bios politikos? action (praxis) and speech (lexis) realm of human affairs everything merely necessary or useful is strictly excluded -these two preceded the polis and the highest of the human capacities; they belonged to each other; co-equals -thought was secondary to speech *How is speech transmitted into action? Finding the rights words at the right moment, quite apart from the information or communication they may convey is action. -arts of war and speech as the two principal subjects of education *How does speech and action become more and more independent? Emphasis shifted from action to speech; speech becoming more and more a form of persuasion rather than a specifically human way of answering, talking back or measuring what was done. *what is to be political? To be political, to live in polis, meant that everything was decided through words and persuasion and not through force and violence *How is speech related to Aristotles definition of man as zoon politikon? For this definition can only be understood with the addition of the concept of zoon logon ekhon (a living being capable of speech) *What is mans highest capacity? For Aristotle it is not logos, not speech or reason, but nous, the capacity of contemplation, whose chief characteristics is that its content cannot be rendered in speech. *definition of man outside the polis: slaves and barbarians were deprived not of the faculty of speech but of a way of life in which speech and only speech made sense and where the central concern of all citizens was to talk with each other *Household rule vs. political rule: -head of the household similar tp the head of the kingdom; but his power is not as perfect as the king -power of the tyrant was less great than the power with which the household ruler ruled over his household of slaves and family Why? Not that the powers of the political ruler was checked by the powers of the combined household rulers but that the political realm were mutually exclusive 5 the Polis and the Household *Origin of the private to public; with the social realm, how does the distinction blurred? With the household as the private sphere and the political realm as the public sphere existed as separate entities since the rise of the ancient-state; with the emergence of the social realm (a new phenomenon in the modern age), the distinction is blurred because its political form can be found in the nation-state *why does the division between public and private become blurred? because we see the body of peoples and political communities in the image of a family whose everyday affairs have to be taken care of a gigantic, nation-wide administration of housekeeping. No longer about political science but national economy or social economy which indicates a collective housekeeping with which a society can be conceived of as one super-human facility *what is the ancient thought about these matters? The term political economy is a contradiction in terms, whatever was related to the life of the individual and the survival of the species, was a nonpolitical, household affair by definition *what prohibited the polis from violating the private lives and made it hold sacred the boundaries surrounding each property? not respect for private property but the fact that without

owning a house. a man could not participate in the affairs of the world because he had no location in it which was properly his own Horoi- the boundaries between one estate and another *what is the distinctive trait of the household sphere? In it, man lived together because they were driven by their wants and needs. It is I which is the driving force and its individual maintenance and the survival of the life of the species needs the company of others *what are the specific tasks of men and women? The lbor of man to provide nourishment and the labor of woman in giving birth *what is the relationship between private and public realm? The realm of the polis was the sphere of freedom; the mastering of the necessities of life in the household was the condition for the freedom of the polis. *How is freedom an essential condition for the polis? It is the freedom of society which requires and justifies the restraint of political authority. it is located in the realm of the social, and force or violence becomes the monopoly of the government *what is the importance/ justification for violence? Located in the political realm and are justified in this sphere because those are the only means to master necessity and to become free -because all human beings are subject to necessity, they are entitled to violence toward others; -it is the pre-political act of liberating oneself from the necessity of life for the freedom of the world *freedom- an essential condition of felicity/ eudaimonia, which was an objective status depending upon wealth and health *what are the twofold and doubled unhappiness of society? Physical necessity and ,man-made violence *why is man since he is social before he is political has nothing in common with the chaotic state of nature? It is from this, with which from violence can men only escape by establishing a government that through a monopoly of power and of violence, would abolish the war of all against all by keeping them all in awe. The concept of rule and being ruled was felt to be pre-political and belongs in the private rather than the public realm *what is the most elementary distinction of polis and the household? -Polis: knew only equals -household: the center of the strictest inequality; freedom did not exist *what does it mean to be free? Not to be subject to the necessity of life or to the command of another and not to be in command oneself; to be free from the inequality present in rulership and to move in a sphere were neither rule nor being ruled existed *why does freedom do not exist in the household? In the household, the ruler is considered to be free only to the extent that he had the power to leave the household and enter the political realm were all are equals *what is the concept of equality? To live and to deal only with ones peers and presupposed the existence of unequals who were always the majority of the population in a city-state *How does equality became the essence of freedom? Equality os the essence of freedom; *the social and the political realm are much less distinct. Politics is nothing but a function of society, that action, speech, and thought are primarily superstructures upon social interest. *how is the household act becoming a collective concern? the rise of the society meant the rise of the household

*after the downfall of the Roma empire, it was the Catholic Church that offered men a substitute for the citizenship which had formerly been the prerogative of municipal government -no matter how worldy the church become, it was essentially and other-worldy concern which kept the community of believers together *feudal lord vs household ruler Feudal lord: could render justice within the limits of his rule Household ruler: knew neither of laws nor justice outside the political realm *How does the public realm grew out of the private? Private individuals have interests in common, material and spiritual, and that they can retain their privacy and attend to their own business only if one of them takes it upon himself to look out for this common interest. -virtue of courage as one of the most elemental political attitudes *why is courage a political virtue par excellence? To leave the household, to devote ones life to the affairs of the city demanded courage because only in the household was one primarily concerned with ones own life and survival. Whoever entered the political realm had first to be ready to risk his life Slavishness: that too great love for life which obstructed freedom *what is good about the life of the citizens? Good to the extent that by having mastered the necessities of sheer life, by being freed from labor and work, and by overcoming the innate urge of all living creatures for their own survival, it was no longer bound to the biological life process. *no activity that served only the purpose of making a living, of sustaining only the life process, was permitted to enter the political realm *how is the mastering of the necessities related to the good life in the polis? The desire to be freed from its burden, the philosophers could justify only by demonstrating that even this freest of all ways of life was still connected with and subject to necessity -without mastering the necessities of life in the household, neither life nor the good life is possible, but politics is never for the sake of life. Household life exists for the sake of the good life in the polis 6the Rise of the Social *the border between the public and the private has not just been blurred but has also changed beyond recognition the meaning of the two terms and their significance *what is privacy in the modern sense? Sharply opposed to the social realm; about sheltering the social st Jean-Jacques Rousseau: 1 articulate explorer/ theorist of intimacy, arrived at his discovery through a rebellion not against the oppression of the state but against societys unbearable perversion of the human heart. -the intimate and the social were subjective modes of human existence *what is the rebellion of the heart? it is from where the modern individual and his endless conflicts, his inability either to be at home in society or to live outside it altogether originated. *the rebellious reaction against society was directed first of all against the leveling demands of the social, against what we would call today the conformism inherent in society *whether a nation consists of equals or non-equals is of no great importance in this respect, for society always demands that its members act as though they were members of one enormous family which has only one opinion and one interest. *what is the rule of conformism? it is far from being an equality among peers, not so much of an equality among household members before the despotic power of the household ruler. In society, where the natural strength of one common interest and one unanimous opinion is tremendously

enforced by sheer number, actual rule exerted by one man, representing the common interest and the right opinion, could eventually dispensed with *what is the rule of no-man? The one-man rule or monarchical rule has been transformed into a kind of no-man rule but it does not cease to rule for having lost its personality Bureaucracy: the most social form of government; it is not necessarily no-rule but in some circumstances can in fact be the most cruel and tyrannical versions of rule. *what is the sense in which society excludes action? Society excludes the possibility of action because it is expecting from its members a certain kind of behavior which tends to normalize its members, to make them behave, to exclude spontaneous action or outstanding achievement *what is mass society? Family absorbed into social groups; the social groups absorbed into one society; with the emergence of mass society, the realm of the social has reached the point where it embraces or controls all members of a given community equally and with equal strength *how does the society equalize? It equalizes under all circumstances and the victory of equality in the modern world is the recognition that society has conquered the public realm *how is public realm for the promotion of individuality? To belong to the few equals meant to be permitted to live among ones peers, in the public realm, one has to distinguish himself from all others to show that he was the best of all; the public realm is the only place where men could show who they really and inexchangeably were . -with this chance, men are willing to share in the burden of jurisdiction, defense and administration of public affairs. *how can economics achieve a scientific idea? When men had become social beings and unanimously followed certain patterns of behavior so that those who do not follow the rules could be considered abnormal. Statistics: the social science par excellence - its laws are valid if there are large numbers or long periods involved; acts/events can statistically appear only as deviations -increased in population means an increased in validity and decreased of deviation *how is the meaningfulness of everyday relationships disclosed? Not in everyday life but in rare deeds just as the significance of a historical period shows itself only in the few events that illuminate it. *Why/ How does the polis restricted the population growth? It is through which the polis can survived *what is the unfortunate truth about behaviorism? The more people there are, the more likely they are to behave and the less-likely to tolerate non-behavior; with these, events will lose their significance *what is statistical uniformity a harmless scientific ideal, the no longer secret political ideal of a society which, entirely submerged in the routine of everyday living, is at peace with the scientific outlook inherent in its very existence *what is the communist fiction? Not Karl Marx but the liberal economists who introduce this; to assume that there is one interest of society as a whole which with an invisible hand guides the behavior of men and produces the harmony of their conflicting interests; what wa s produced in the complete victory of society *the reality of conflict as the hypothetical fiction of harmony *Karl Marx: the socialization of man would produce automatically a harmony of all interests *what prevented society from smooth functioning? Certain traditional remnants that interfered and still influenced the behavior of backward classes

*what is wrong in Marxs concept of pure administration? He was right in predicting it as the withering away of the state but wrong in assuming that it can only be brought through a revolution and more wrong in believing that the complete victory of society would mean the eventual emergence of the realm of freedom *the rise of the behavioral science as the final stage of development when social behavior has become the standard for all regions of life *what is the outstanding characteristic of the new realm? It is the irresistible tendency to grow, to devour the older realms of political and private as well as the more recently established sphere of intimacy since the admission of the household and housekeeping activities to the public realm -this growth derives its strength from the fact that through society it is the life process itself which in one form or another has been channeled into public realm *importance of the private realm of the household? This is where the necessities of life, of individual survival as well as of continuity of the species were taken care of and guaranteed *what is the one-ness of mankind? Conformism which allows for only one interest and one opinion; while it can guarantee the survival of the species, it can also threaten humanity with extinction *how does society constitutes the public organization of the life process itself? In a relatively short time, the new social realm transformed all modern communities into societies of laborers and jobholders, they became at once centered around the one activity necessary to sustain life *before laboring activity has been stationary but as it enter the public stature, it liberated its from its circular, monotonus recurrence and transformed it into a swiftly progressing development *the emancipation of labor preceded the emancipation of the working class *what is considered as the unnatural growth of the natural? It is considered the constantly accelerated increase in the productivity of labor, factors: 1,division of labor-the organization of laboring; only happens in the public realm 2.mechanization of labor processes *what is excellence in the public realm? It is always assigned to the public realm where man could excel and distinguish himself from the rest. Its definition required the presence of others constituted by ones peers -arete for the Greeks -virtu for the Romans *how is excellence in laboring affecting our capacity for speech and action? When we become excellent in the laboring we perform in the public, our capacity for speech and action lost its former quality since the rise of the social realm banished these into the sphere of the intimate and the private. -no activity can become excellent if the world does not provide a proper space for its exercise 7The Public Realm: the Common *1. what is reality? That which appears in public and that which can be seen and heard by everybody *how is intimacy transformed to a reality? The passions of the heart, thoughts of the mind, has an uncertain shadowy kind of existence unless they are deprivatized and deindividualized into a shape that fit them for public appearance. It occurs in storyteeling and in artistic transpositions of individual experience *why dont we need those artistic transpositions? Everytime we talk about things that can be experienced only in privacy or intimacy we bring them out into a sphere of reality which they will a have a different intimacy they never could have had before.

*the presence of others who see and hear what we see and hear assures us of the reality of the world and ourselves *what is the most intense feeling? It is the great bodily pain, at the same time it is the most private and least communicable of all; we are unable to transform it into a shape fit for reality to such an extent that we can forget it more quickly and easily than anything else Pain and Death is so subjective and removed from the world of things and men that it cannot assume an appearance at all *pre-requisites of our feeling for reality? -appearance -existence of public realm *only those which are considered to be relevant, worthy of being seen or heard can be tolerated so that the irrelevant becomes auomatically a private matter *why does it not mean that private concerns are generally irrelevant? There are very relevant matters which can survive only in the realm of the private Ex. Love in distinction from friendship -love can only become false and perverted when it is used for political purposes such as the change or the salvation of the world *what the public realm consider as irrelevant can have an infectious and extraordinary charm which the people may adopt as their way of life *is the public realm great or not? It can be but it cannot be charming because it is unable to harbor the irrelevant *2 the public signified the world itself in so far as it is common to all of us and distinguished from our privately owned place in it.- to live together in the world means essentially that a world of things is between those who have it in common *the public realm gathers us together and yet prevents our falling over each other *what makes mass society difficult to bear? It is not the number of the people but that the world between them has lost its power to gather them together, to relate and to separate them *how does the early Christian philosophy binds people? It binds people who felt that that they had lost their interest in the common world and felt themselves no longer related and separated by it Through Charity according to the Augustinian brotherhood *what is the unpolitical/ unpublic character of the Christian community? Defined in the demand that it should form a body whose members were to be related to each other like brothers of the same family *is worldliness acceptable as a political phenomenon? Possible only on the assumption that the world will not last *only the existence of a public realm and the worlds subsequent transformation into a community of things which gathers men together and relates them to each other depends entirely on permanence *th e public space is to be erected not just for one generation but should transcend the life-span of mortal men *what is the common world? What we enter when we are born and what we leave behind when we die; what we have in common not just with those living among us but even to those who preceded us and those who will come next to us -can only be achieved through the publicity of the public realm which can be saved from the natural ruin of time *men entered the public realm because they wanted something of their own or something they have in common with others to be more permanent than their earthly lives

*what is the curse of slavery? That from being obscure they should pass away leaving no trace that they have existed. Aristotle, considering human affairs, one must not consider man as he is and not consider what is mortal in mortal things, but think about them only to the extent that they have the possibility of immortalizing *what is public admiration? Of the same nature with monetary reward and can actually become substitute for each other; it is something to be used and consumed, actually consumed by individual vanity *the rest of reality does not lie in the public presence of others, but rather in the greater or lesser urgency of needs to whose existence or non-existence nobody can ever testify except the one who happens to suffer them *it is not that there is a lack of public admiration for poetry and philosophy in the modern world, but that such admiration does not constitute a space in which things are saved from destruction by time. *how does the worldly reality truly and reliably appear? everybody sees and hears from a different position, to see something in a variety of aspects without changing their identity so that those who gathered around them know they see sameness in utter diversity *to mean the destruction of the common world is the destruction of many aspects in which it presents itself to human plurality -can only happen in radical isolation or on conditions of mass hysteria or mass society -end of the common world has come when it is seen only under one aspect and is permitted to present itself in only one perspective 8The Private Realm: Property *what do you mean by the privacy of the private life? To be deprived of things essential to human life; to be deprived of an objective relationship which lies on the absence of others Whatever he does remains without significance and consequence to others and what matters to him is without interest to other people *what is the mass phenomenon of loneliness? Assumed in its most extreme and most antihuman form; the mass society not only destroys the public realm but the private as well, deprives men not only of their place in the world but of their private home, where they once felt sheltered against the world and where, at any rate, even those excluded from the world could find its substitute in the warmth of the hearth and the limited reality of human life. *what is the privative trait of privacy extinct by the rise of Christian morality? Christian morality has always insisted that everybody should mind his own business and that political responsibility constituted first of all a burder, undertaken exclusively for the sake of the well-being and salvation of those it freed from worry about political affairs *the desirability and undesirability of privately owned property *the word private immediately loses its private character and much of its opposition to the public realm in general; property possesses certain qualifications which though lying in the private realm, were of utmost importance to the political body *what is the misunderstanding on the concept of private property and wealth? Because of the modern equation of property and wealth on one side and propertylessness and poverty on the other *it is property as well as wealth which is the chief condition for admission to the public realm and fullpledged citizenship *wealth and nature are of an entirely different nature

-showed in the present emergence everywhere of actually or potentially very wealthy societies which at the same time are essentially propertyless, because th wealth of the individual consists of his share in the annual income of society as a whole *since all civilizations rested upon the sacredness of private property and wealth was never sacred, how about property? property meant to have ones location in a particular part of the world and therefore to belong to the body politic that is to be the head of one of the families which together constituted the public realm. *how is property essentially/ intimately connected to the family? It is in a way that expulsion of a citizen could mean not merely the confiscation of his estate but the actual destruction of the building itself -poverty did not deprive the head of a family of this location in the world and the citizenship resulting from it. -if he happened to lose his location, he almost automatically lost his citizenship and the protection of law as well *the non-privative trait of the household realm originally lay in its being the realm of birth and death which must be hidden from the public realm because it harbors the things hidden from human eyen impenetrable to human knowledge * what is the origin of laws? the exterior appearance appears in the realm of the city through the boundaries between the household and the other, from where the law was originally identified with -actually a space, a kind of no-mans land between the private and the public, sheltering and protecting both realms while at the same time, separating them from each other *the law of the city-state was neither the content of political action nor was it a catalogue of prohibitions, as all modern laws do Thou Shalt Nots of the Decalogue *why/ how is private property important? it is one of the self-evident condition for admission to public realm -to have no private place of ones own meant to be no longer human; a means for ones livelihood *How is admission to public life first demands private property? because the poverty forces the free man to act like a slave. Therefore, private wealth become a condition for admission to public life not because its owner was engaged in accumulating it but, on the contrary, because it assured with reasonable certainty that its owner would not have to engage in providing for himself the means of use and consumption and was free for public activity. *public life was possible only after the much more urgent needs of life itself had been taken care of Labor- the means to take care of them -the wealth of a person was frequently counted in terms of the number of laborers, slaves, he owned. *what is the meaning of of property in light of poverty? to own property is to be master over ones own necessities of life and to be a free person, free to transcend his own life and enter the world *property to be used for political life, if not, he voluntarily turns himself into a slave *how does property and wealth assumed sacredness? When wealth as the source of income coincided with the piece of land on which a family was located, in an essentially agricultural society -there could be no free public realm without a proper establishment and protection of privacy *why is general expropriation of private property more evil? The abolition of private property, while it might cure the evil of poverty, was only too likely to invite the greater evil of tyranny.

*individual appropriation of private property will in the long run respect private property no more than socialization of the accumulation process 9The Social and the Private *rise of the social coincided with the transformation of the private care for private property into a public concern *instead of claiming access to the public realm because of their wealth, demanded protection from it for the accumulation of more wealth *Bodin: government belonged to kings and property to subjects Duty of the kings: to rule in the interest of their subjects property *wealth can be accumulated to a point where no individual life-span can use it up, so that the family rather than the individual becomes its owner.--> idea of inheritance *permanence of wealth: wealth remains something to be used and consumed no matter how many individual life-spans it may sustain; when wealth generate more capital *how is permanence of wealth of a different character? it is the permanence of a process rather than the permanence of a stable structure (process of accumulation) *what was common about common wealth? -private interests is what is common among all men -the government, appointed to shield the private owmers from each other in the competitive struggle for more wealth *the new meaning of property as the possession of the body? Property had its source in man himself, in his possession of a body and his indisputable ownership of the strength of this body labor power -lost its worldly character and was located in the person himself *what is our only reliable property? skill and labor power *what is the greatest threat? It is not the abolition of private ownership of wealth but the abolition of private property in the sense of a tangible, worldy place of ones own *the difference between what we have in common and what we own privately is first that our private possessions, which we consume and use daily, are much more urgently needed than any part of the common world; without property the common is of no use *how is necessity and life related? Necessity and life are so intimately related and connected that life itself is threatened where necessity is altogether eliminated. *the second outstanding non-private characteristics of privacy is that the four walls of ones private property offer the only reliable hiding place from the common public world -a life spent entirely in public, in the presence of others, becomes shallow *it is only natural that the non-privative traits of privacy should appear most clearly when men are threatened with deprivation of it *men have always been conscious of their existence and importance *what is the distinguishing mark of modern political and economic theory? Lies on its stress upon the private activities of property-owners and their need of government protection for the sake of accumulation of wealth at the expense of the tangible property itself *socialization of man the invasion of privacy by society *only the modern age, in its rebellion against society has discovered how rich and manifold the realm of the hidden can be under conditions of initimacy there is a bodily part of human existence that needed to be hidden in privacy (bodily functions and material concerns) *women and slaves belonged to the same category and were hidden away not only because they were somebody elses property but because their life was laborious, devoted to bodily functions

10The Location of Human Activities *only the necessary, the futile, and the shameful have their proper place in the private realm *what is the most elementary meaning of the two realms? That there are things that need to be hidden and others that need to be displayed publicly if they are to exist at all *How did goodness came with the rise of Christianity? Goodness became known with the rise of the latter; good works as one important variety of possible human action. *why is hiding essential for GOODNESS? It is one activity taught by Jesus in word and deed; the moment a good work becomes known and public, it loses its specific character of goodness, of being done for nothing but goodness sake. -can exist only when it is not perceived, whoever sees himself performing a good work is no longer good but at best, is a useful member of society or a dutiful member of the church -only goodness must go into absolute hiding and flee all appearance if it is not to be destroyed *to be in solitude means to be with ones self *the person who is in love with goodness can never afford to live a solitary life *why is a man inlove with goodness a lonely man? Because he must hide from them and cannot even trust himself to witness what he is doing *why do goodness needs to be forgotten? they must be forgotten the moment they were done because even memory will destroy their quality of being good; they can never become part of the world -this what makes goodness, an essentially non-human superhuman quality *solitude is the authentic way of life of the philosopher -it is simply unbearable for any length of time and needs the company of God, the only imaginable witness of good works, if it is not to annihilate human existence altogether. *goodness is not only impossible within the confines of public realm but it is even destructive of it. *all methods by which one may indeed gain power but not glory are bad *badness that comes out of hiding is impudent and directly destroys the common world; goodness that comes out of hiding and assumes a public role is no longer good *what is the reason for the Churchs becoming a corrupting influence in Italian politics? For Machiavelli, it is the participation in secular affairs and not the individual corruptness of bishops and prelates -either the public realm corrupted the religious body and thereby became itself corrupt, or the religious body remained uncorrupt and destroyed the public realm altogether *why is the reformed church even more dangerous in Machiavellis eyes? Because it teaches people to be good and not to resust evil- with the result that wicked rulers do as much evil as they please. The Human Condition Chapter III Labor In the following chapter, Karl Marx will be criticized. 11 The Labor of Our Body and the Work of Our Hands No distinction between labor and work in Ancient and Modern times

Every European language, ancient and modern, contains two etymologically unrelated words for what we have to come to think of as the same activity, and retains them in the face of their persistent synonymous usage. The reason why this distinction should have been overlooked in ancient times and its significance remained unexplored is the contempt for labor, originally arising out of a passionate striving for freedom from necessity and a no less passionate impatience with every effort that left no trace, no monument, no great work worthy of remembrance. occupations which did not consist in laboring, yet were undertaken not for their own sake but in order to provide the necessities of life, were assimilated to the status of labor,

The Institution of Slavery To labor meant to be enslaved by necessity and this enslavement was inherent in the conditions of human life. Because men were dominated by the necessities of life, they could win their freedom only through the domination of those whom they subjected to necessity by force. Greek theory of the nonhuman nature of the slave Aristotle denied not the slave's capacity to be human, but only the use of the word "men" for members of the species man-kind as long as they are totally subject to necessity What the modern thinkers do? glorification of labor as the source of all values and its elevation of the animal laborans to the position traditionally held by the animal rationale Reason: Labors "productivity," and the seemingly blasphemous notion of Marx that labor (and not God) created man or that labor (and not reason) distinguished man from the other animals was only the most radical and consistent formulation of something upon which the whole modern age was agreed Unproductive Labor Smith and Marx despised unproductive labor as parasitical, actually a kind of perversion of labor contempt for the "menial servants" who like "idle guests . . . leave nothing behind them in return for their consumption they left behind them in return for their consumption was nothing more or less than their masters' freedom or productivity Productivity the original source of all productivity lies in the natural forces of the earth, their standard for productivity was related to the creation of new objects and not to the needs and wants of men. Labor and Work the distinction between productive and unproductive labor contains the more fundamental distinction between work and labor Labor Produces a Productivity of Its Own (Marx)

productivity does not lie in any of labor's products but in the human "power," whose strength is not exhausted when it has produced the means of its own subsistence and survival but is capable of producing a "surplus," that is, more than is necessary for its own "reproduction (Arbeitskraft) labor of some suffices for the life of all.

Their reality depends entirely upon human plurality, upon the constant presence of others who can see and hear and therefore testify to their existence In order to become worldly things, that is, deeds and facts and events and patterns of thoughts or ideas, they must first be seen, heard, and remembered and then transformed, reified as it were, into thingsinto sayings of poetry, the written page or the printed book, into paintings or sculpture, into all sorts of records, documents, and monuments.

Skilled and Unskilled Worker Every activity requires a certain amount of skill It could acquire a certain importance through the modem division of labor The result of division of labor is that what is bought and sold in the labor market is not individual skill but "labor power," of which each living human being should possess approximately the same amount Manual and Intellectual Labor the underlying tie between the laborer of the hand and the laborer of the head is again the laboring process, in one case performed by the head, in the other by some other part of the body. Intellectual Labor is even less "productive" than labor; if labor leaves no permanent trace, thinking leaves nothing tangible at all Whenever the intellectual worker wishes to manifest his thoughts, he must use his hands and acquire manual skills just like any other worker the ancient distinction between "liberal" and "servile arts Highlight: The contempt for labor in ancient theory and its glorification in modern theory 12 The Thing-Character of the World Marx: labor's productivity is measured and gauged against the requirements of the life process for its own reproduction; it resides in the potential surplus inherent in human labor power, not in the quality or character of the things it produces Durability of Work Distinction between baker and carpenter and Consumer goods vs. Use objects Viewed as part of the world, the products of workand not the products of laborguarantee the permanence and durability without which a world would not be possible at all we would not even know what a thing is without having before us "the work of our hand Language It is language, and the fundamental human experiences underlying it, rather than theory, that teaches us that the things of the world, among which the vita activa spends itself, are of a very different nature and produced by quite different kinds of activities. Products of Action, Speech, and Thought Constitute the fabric of human relationships and affairs lack not only the tangibility of other things, but are even less durable and more futile than what we produce for consumption

Human life, in so far as it is world-building, is engaged in a constant process of reification, and the degree of worldliness of produced things, which all together form the human artifice, depends upon their greater or lesser permanence in the world itself. 13 Labor and Life The Least Durable The least durable of tangible things are those needed for the life process itself. all those "good things" which are "really useful to the life of man," to the "necessity of subsisting," are "generally of short duration will decay and perish by themselves the most natural of all things, they come and go, are produced and consumed, in accordance with the ever-recurrent cyclical movement of nature Life is a process that everywhere uses up durability, wears it down, makes it disappear, until eventually dead matter, the result of small, single, cyclical, life processes, returns into the over-all gigantic circle of nature herself, where no beginning and no end exist and where all natural things swing in changeless, deathless repetition. Birth and Death Without a world into which men are born and from which they die, there would be nothing but changeless eternal recurrence, the deathless everlastingness of the human as of all other animal species. Human Life it is itself always full of events which ultimately can be told as a story, it "somehow is a kind of praxis it follows a strictly linear movement whose very motion nevertheless is driven by the motor of biological life which man shares with other living things Growth and Decay Only when they enter the man-made world can nature's processes be characterized by growth and decay; only if we consider nature's products, this tree or this dog, as individual things, thereby already removing them from their "natural" surroundings and putting them into our world, do they begin to grow and to decay. Distinction Between Work and Labor unlike working, whose end has come when the object is finished, ready to be added to the common world of things, laboring always moves in the same circle, which is prescribed by the

biological process of the living organism and the end of its "toil and trouble" comes only with the death of this organism. Marx defined labor as "man's metabolism with nature," From the viewpoint of nature, it is work rather than labor that is destructive, since the work process takes matter out of nature's hands without giving it back to her in the swift course of the natural metabolism of the living body.

The Second Task Of Laboring its constant, unending fight against the processes of growth and decay of nature, keep the world clean and prevent its decay 14 Labor and Fertility The Rise of Labor Locke discovered that labor is the source of all property labor was the source of all wealth and found its climax in Marx's "system of labor,"39 where labor became the source of all productivity and the expression of the very humanity of man Money Locke, in order to save labor from its manifest disgrace of producing only "things of short duration," had to introduce money a "lasting thing which men may keep without spoiling" Reification Marx: productivity of labor begins only with reification - "the erection of an objective world of things" Unproductive Labor Smith calls "unproductive labor" all activities connected with consumption, as though this were a negligible and accidental trait of something whose true nature was to be productive.

They banish the citizens from the public realm and insist that they mind their private business while only the rulers should attend to public affairs The advantages of stability, security, and productivity would only be short-ranged o Because loss of power would be inevitable in a monarchy -Escape from the frailty of human affairs has composed the greater part of political philosophy since Plato Hallmark of this escape is the concept of rule o Rule- man can lawfully and politically live together only when some are entitled to command and the others forced to obey -Platos Statesman as the most fundamental version of escape from action into rule -2 modes of action which accdg to Greek understanding were interconnected: o archein(to begin/beginning) o prattein(to act/achieving) -For Plato, the modes of action, ought to be 2 altogether different activities The beginner has become a ruler who does not have to act at all but rules over those are capable of execution The action/actor has become the mere execution of orders -Plato was first to place a dividing line between thought (those who know but donot act) and action (those who act but do not know) -The Platonic division characterizes and originates from the household Nothing would ever be done if the master did not know what to do and did not give orders to slaves who execute them without knowing -For Plato, action should not play any part in human affairs -Through rule, the many becomes one in every respect. Rule as a chief device for ordering and judging human affairs -Introduced the principle of domination Criterion for ruling others is the capacity to rule ones self -Platonic separation of knowing and doing has remained the root of all theories of domination

THE HUMAN CONDITION- Hannah Arendt pp. 220-273 The Traditional Substitution of Making for Acting -Modern age not the first to denounce the uselessness of action and speech in politics It always have been a great temptation for men to find a substitute for action to avoid haphazardness and moral irresponsibility inherent in a plurality of agents -The calamities of action all arise from the human condition of plurality Attempt to do away with this plurality is always tantamount to the abolition of the public realm itself. -Salvation from the dangers of plurality is monarchy (or one-man rule) in its many varieties Platos solution of a Philosopher King is the least tyrannical variety -Problem with a monarchical form of government is that they work too well

-When not concerned with political philosophy, Plato describes the ideas as what shines forth most and as variations of the beautiful These ideas are transformed into goods (standards and rules) that are necessary to apply in politics and the means of eliminating the character of frailty in human affairs -The good as the highest idea for the Philosopher-King who wishes to be the ruler of human affairs ; the beautiful as the highest idea for the philosopher who wishes to contemplate the true essence of Being -Plato as the first to design the blue-print for the making of political bodies, and inspiration of all later Utopias But these Utopian schemes broke down quickly under the weight of the reality of real human relationships they could not control The Process Character of Action -Difficult to eliminate action in being one with human experiences or human affairs

-The extent we have acted upon nature started with an experiment where men were no longer content to observe and contemplate whatever nature was willing to yield Men then end in prescribing their own conditions to natural processes and force these to fall into man-made patterns -Natural sciences have become the sciences of process Potentially irreversibleprocess of no return This transformation was held responsible by the underlying human capacity and ability to act -In the aspect of action the process are started with an outcome that is unpredictable Uncertainty rather than frailty becomes the character of human affairs -Thus, the central concept of the natural sciences is the concept of processes, and the actual human experience underlying it is action. -Strength of action process can grow while its consequences multiply Action processes endures in the realm of human affairs -The reason why we could ever foretell the outcome of any action is because action has no end. Can endure throughout time until the end of mankind itself -Reasons that could make man turn away from the realm of human affairs & hold in contempt their capacity for freedom He always becomes guilty of consequences he never intended or foresaw No matter disastrous the consequences of his deed, he can never undo it The process he starts is never consummated in a single event o Salvation from all of these seems to lie in non-acting & abstention to the whole realm of human affairs so that man can safeguard his sovereignty and integrity as a person -Yet if these recommendations were followed and were successful, then the result would be much like Stoicism Exchange of the real world for an imaginary one where these others would not exist It is simply the psychological power of imagination -Sovereignty is possible only through imagination paid for the price of reality Irreversibility and the Power to Forgive -animallaboranscould itself only through the mobilization of the capacity for making, fabricating, and producing of homo faber Homo faber erects a world of durability -Redemption of life sustained by labor is worldliness -Redemption of homo faberfrom its predicament of meaninglessness, is only through the interrelated faculties of action and speech, which produce meaningful stories -The possible redemption of irreversibility of the process started by acting, is the faculty of forgiving Without being forgiven, our capacity to act would be confined to one single deed from which we could never recover -The remedy for unpredictability is contained under the faculty to keep promises Without being bound to the fulfillment of promises, we would never be able to keep our identities; we would wander helplessly and without direction -These faculties correspond so closely to the human condition of plurality -The remedies can only function under the condition of plurality It is very dangerous to use the faculties in anything that does not involve the realm human affairs

Modern science and technology for example, seem to have carried irreversibility and human unpredictability into the natural realm, where no remedy can be found to undo what has be done -Discoverer of the role of forgiveness in the realm of human affairs was Jesus of Nazareth Certain teachings of Jesus of Nazareth are not primarily related to the Christian religious message, but sprang from the experiences in the small community of his followers, bent on challenging the authorities of Israel The power to forgive is therefore not derived from God, but is mobilized by men toward each other before they can hope to be forgiven by God In this respect, forgiveness is the exact opposite of vengeance o Vengeance- acts in the form of re-acting against an original trespassing Permits the chain reaction in every action, rather than putting an end to the st consequence of the 1 misdeed -Freedom contained in the Jesus teachings of forgiveness is the freedom from vengeance -An alterative to forgiveness is punishment Both attempt to put an end to something that without interference could go on endlessly -Forgiving and the relationship it establishes is always a personal affair in which what was done was forgiven for the sake of who. Clearly recognized by Jesus The reason for the current conviction that only love has the power to forgive For love, although it is one of the rarest occurrences in human lives, indeed possesses an unequaled power of self-revelationprecisely because it is unconcerned with what the loved person may be, with his qualities and shortcomingshis achievements, failings and transgressionsit destroys the in-between which relates us to and separates us from others. Unpredictability and the power of promise -Forgiving has always been deemed unrealistic in the public realm; whereas the faculty of making promises has been known throughout the tradition -2-fold nature of unpredictability: It arises simultaneously from the darkness of the human heart o The unreliability of men who can never guarantee today who they will be tomorrow Mans inability to rely upon himself or to have complete faith of himself o A price human beings pay for freedom -The function of the faculty of promising is to master these two-fold nature -The danger in all bodies politic that rely on contracts and treaties is that they leave the unpredictability of human affairs and unreliability of men as they are -When this faculty is used to cover the whole ground of the future, they lose their binding powerand the whole enterprise becomes self-defeating -Sovereignty assumes, in the case of many men mutually bond by promises, a certain limited reality. -If sovereignty is in the realm of action and human affairs, the chief distinction would be: In the realm of action- sovereignty is conceivable only in isolation In the realm of human affairs- sovereignty can only be achieved by the many bound together -The moral precepts of: readiness to forgive and, to make promises and keep them, are the only ones that are not applied to action from the outside They arise out of the will to live together with others in the mode of acting and speaking

-Without action or speech, we would be doomed to swing forever in the ever-recruiting cycle of becoming -Human affairs can only follow the law of mortality Only reliable law of a life spent between birth and death The only faculty of action that interferes with this law because it interrupts the inexorable automatic course of daily life. -Action, in the language of natural science, it is the infinite improbability which occurs regularly. -Action is the one miracle-working faculty of man -The miracle that saves the world is the tact of fatality which the faculty of action is ontologically rooted Only the full experience of this capacity can bestow upon human affairs faith and hope. THE HUMAN CONDITION- Hannah Arendt pp. 273-325 38 THE RISE OF THE CARTESIAN DOUBT DESCARTES one who opened modern philosophy First to conceptualize modern doubting Same position as the Greek THAUMAZEIN: the wonder at everything that is as it is INVENTION OF TELESCOPE changed the physical world view through the stepping in of making and fabricating (HOMO FABER) Man has been deceived by believing that the truth will be reveal if he remained true to what he saw with the eyes of the body and mind. Reason and faith in reason did not depend on sense perceptions per se but to the unquestioned assumption that the senses as a whole is RULED BY COMMON SENSE COMMON SENSE the sixth and highest sense of man; discovered under the Cartesian doubt The senses can be deceived but not the common sense DEMOCRITUS: predicted the victory of mind over the senses CARTESIAN DOUBT with outstanding characteristic of universality Doubts that intelligibility to human understanding does not at all constitute a demonstration of truth (ex. Vision did not at all constitute proof of reality) Explored the true dimensions by Kierkegaard leaped from doubt Doubts that a thing such as truth exists Old belief (2-fold assumptions): truth will reveal itself at its own accord and the human capabilities are adequate to receive it (ex: Hebrew antiquity, Christian and secular philosophy) Cartesian doubt was fully realized as indicated by the clear-cut separation of being and appearance OLD BELIEF: static relation of appearance and being. APPEARANCE hides and covers the TRUE BEING which forever escapes the notice of man

NEW BELIEF: the BEING is active and energetic, it creates its own appearances but these are delusions Inescapable two nightmares haunting the Cartesian doubt: 1. The reality of the world as well as human life is doubted 2. Because senses cannot be trusted, man is betrayed when he believed that God is the ruler of the universe

Modern age lost the certainty that came with it. (example: one has to do good in life because of its uncertainty, Weber) The radical change in moral standards was inspired by the needs and ideals of the new scientists with their modern cardinal virtues: 1. Success 2. Industry 3. Truthfulness Descartes: though our mind is not the measure of things or of truth, it must assuredly be the measure of things that we affirm or deny(ex: even if there is no truth, man can be truthful) If everything has become doubtful, then doubting at least is certain and real. 39 INTROSPECTION AND THE LOSS OF COMMON SENSE INTROSPECTION sheer cognitive concern of consciousness with its own content Descartes and Leibniz wanted to prove not the existence of God but His goodness. The more man learned about the universe, the less he could understand the intentions and purposes for which he should have been created Reasons why Cartesian Introspection became important to Modern Age: 1. A thing may be processed into an object of consciousness and becomes part of the process itself which is an ever moving stream. 2. Though one cannot know truth as something given and disclosed, man can at least know what he makes himself. What men have in common is not the world but the structure of their minds. The faculty of reasoning can happen to be the same in everybody (ex: 2+2 = 4) REASON the faculty of deducing and concluding of a process which man at any moment can let loose within himself. Common-sense reasoning: it is the playing of the mind with itself Human beings are no more than animals that are able to reason. The Archimedean point says that there is an earth-bound creature, outside the earth, who tried to apply his universal world view to his actual surroundings. Cartesian solution: place the Archimedean point to humans 40 THOUGHT AND THE MODERN WORLD VIEW

Nightmare of mathematical equations: Every equation corresponds to convertibility in reality Connection between thought and sense experience: no matter which system man uses he will still be able to adopt it as a principle for making and acting The world of experiment seems always capable of becoming a man-made reality 41 THE REVERSAL OF CONTEMPLATION AND ACTION Most momentous of the spiritual consequences of the discoveries of the Modern Age: reversal of the hierarchal order between the VIVA CONTEMPLATIVA and the VIVA ACTIVA Modern technology did not originate from the tools man devised to ease his labor and build human artifice but to the non-practical search for useless knowledge. Man can only quench his thirst for knowledge only after he had put his trust to the ingenuity of his hands. (DOING vs. CONTEMPLATION) Nothing indeed could be less trustworthy for acquiring knowledge and approaching truth than passive observation or mere contemplation.

Activities that became under Viva Activa: 1. Making 2. Fabricating The use of experiment for the purpose of knowledge: consequence of man can only know of what he makes himself The shift from WHAT and WHY questions to HOW: the objects of knowledge can no longer be things or eternal motions but must be processes Inherent standards of Homo Faber: 1. Productivity 2. Creativity CONCEPT OF PROCESS remains invisible Was originally the fabrication process that disappears in the product The shift of importance of the finished product to production process PRODUCTION PROCESS was more important because the scientists are made to know, not to produce VICO the one who suggested that man must turn his attention to the things that owed their existence to the human kind PROCESSES became the guide for the making and fabricating activities of the homo faber in the modern age Introduction of process in making consummated the break with contemplation Two Fold Source of Contemplation: 1. The THAUMAZEIN: the shocked wonder of miracle Being, is the beginning of all philosophy. 2. Experiences of a craftsman: work makes perishable 43 THE DEFEAT OF HOMO FABER AND THE PRINCIPLE OF HAPPINESS

Two-fold conditions to reach certainty of knowledge: 1. That knowledge concerned only what one had done himself 2. That knowledge was of such a nature that it could be tested only through more doing SCIENTIFIC TRUTH need not to be eternal Need not to be comprehensible or adequate to human reason (implication of modernity) There was a radical change of reversal in the 17 century. It was only concerned about thinking and doing. THOUGHT and CONTEMPLATION are 2 DIFFERENT CONCEPTS: traditionally, thought was considered the most direct and important way to lead to the contemplation of the truth DIALOGICAL THOUGHT process to prepare the soul and lead the mind to the beholding of truth beyond thought and beyond speech ARRHETON the truth, incapable of being communicated through speech (Plato and Aristotle)
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Oldest measure of homo faber: Man is the measure of all things. What matters here is the reversibility of all the systems can happen at any moment in history without requiring either historical events or changes in the structural elements involved. But the concepts remain the same wherever they are placed. What man discovers in the region of the inner self is not an image of permanence for contemplation but the constant moving activity of the mind. THEORY OF COGNITION AND PSYCHOLOGY fully realized in modern philosophy Throughout the modern age, the influence of philosophers and importance decreased because the scientists believed that they have no use for a handmaiden. Philosophy suffered during the modern age than any other field of human endeavor. 42 THE REVERSAL WITHIN THE VIVA ACTIVA AND THE VICTORY OF HOMO FABER The 2 reversal within the viva activa came gradually and less dramatically than its predecessors. The triumphal victory of exchange value than use value: introduction of interchangeability, relativization and devaluation. Failure of homo faber to assert himself than the rapidity with which the principle of utility was found wanting and was superseded by the principle of the greatest happiness of the greatest number PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY the point of reference is man who uses matter to produce things If the relationship of man to the world is no longer secure, the product of production is no longer the true end and the produced thing is not valued for its predetermined usage. Man will not consider himself as a maker of objects and builder of human artifice but a toolmaker who makes tools that incidentally produces things.
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Bentham invented the PAIN AND PLEASURE CALCULUS. Sum totals of pleasures minus pains ANCIENT WORLD ALIENATION (all varieties) inspired by deep mistrust in the world MODERN WORLD ALIENATION inspired by deep mistrust of man What pain and pleasure, fear and desire, are actually supposed to achieve in all these systems is not happiness at all but the promotion of individual life or the guarantee of the survival of mankind. Two-fold principle of Humes Causality Principle 1. Everything that is must have a cause 2. The cause must be more perfect than its most perfect effect Two possible methods derived from Galilean discovery: 1. The method of experiment and of making 2. The method of introspection 44 LIFE AS THE HIGHEST GOOD The reason why life asserted itself as the ultimate reference point in modern age because the fundamental belief of in the sacredness of life survived and completely unshaken The victory of the Christian faith was largely due to the hope of the people who knew that their world was doomed Death is the wages of sin. Paul SUICIDE noble gesture to escape a life that has become burdensome. The focus on the laboring activity of man was somehow influenced by the Christian faith since it emphasized the importance of life. The laboring activity is a way to sustain the biological process of life. The reason why the Christian faith never developed a positive labor philosophy was due to the teachings of Christ that the life of contemplation is better than the life of action. The life of action was only shown when Jesus performed miracles. 45 THE VICTORY OF THE ANIMAL LABORANS PROCESS OF SECULARIZATION necessary to complete the victory of animal laborans SOCIALIZED MANKIND state of society where only one interest rules and the subject of this interest is either classes or mankind (Marx) The motive implied in self-interest disappears and what was left was the natural force. There are danger signs that man will be developing as Darwin imagined it.

REASON compared to a small particle which resembles the life and the behavior patterns in the society