Sunteți pe pagina 1din 31

REVIEW OF PRESENT TENSE VERBS

l. Review of tense/person/number endings:

ejemplos:

- AR VERBS
- o
- as
- a
- amos
- an

- ER VERBS
- o
- es
- e
- emos
- en

hablo
hablas
habla
hablamos
hablan

como
comes
come
comemos
comen

- IR VERBS
- o
- es
- e
- imos
- en

vivo
vives
vive
vivimos
viven

2. There are many irregular verbs with stem changes. See some examples below.

VERB
CONOCER
PARECER
PONER
SALIR
CAER
TRAER
HACER
VER
SABER
DECIR
OR
INCLUIR
DAR
IR
SER
ESTAR
VENIR
TENER
CABER
SEGUIR
DORMIR
JUGAR
QUERER
RER

I.s.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

conozco
parezco
pongo
salgo
caigo
traigo
hago
veo
s
digo
oigo
incluyo
doy
voy
soy
estoy
vengo
tengo
quepo
sigo
duermo
juego
quiero
ro

II.s.
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

conoces /
pareces /
pones
/
sales
/
caes
/
traes
/
haces
/
ves
/
sabes
/
dices
/
oyes
/
incluyes/
das
/
vas
/
eres
/
ests
/
vienes /
tienes /
cabes
/
sigues /
duermes /
juegas /
quieres /
res
/

III.s.
conoce /
parece /
pone
/
sale
/
cae
/
trae
/
hace
/
ve
/
sabe
/
dice
/
oye
/
incluye/
da
/
va
/
es
/
est
/
viene /
tiene /
cabe
/
sigue /
duerme /
juega /
quiere /
re
/

I.pl.
conocemos
parecemos
ponemos
salimos
caemos
traemos
hacemos
vemos
sabemos
decimos
omos
incluimos
damos
vamos
somos
estamos
venimos
tenemos
cabemos
seguimos
dormimos
jugamos
queremos
remos

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

III. pl.
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

conocen
parecen
ponen
salen
caen
traen
hacen
ven
saben
dicen
oyen
incluyen
dan
van
son
estn
vienen
tienen
caben
siguen
duermen
juegan
quieren
ren

3. There are a number of verbs with stem changes. In the following cases the
stem vowel diphthongizes whenever it is stressed. See the following
examples:

a. stressed - o changes to ==> -ue

CONTAR: cuento / cuentas / cuenta / contamos / cuentan

b. stressed - e changes to ==> -ie

PENSAR: pienso / piensas / pienso / pensamos / piensan

c. the following verbs have these types of vowel changes.


-- * Note that some have additional changes as well.

-o ==> -ue

-e ==> -ie

APROBAR

ENCONTRAR

DEFENDER

APRETAR

APOSTAR

MOVER

COMENZAR

PENSAR

ACOSTAR

CONSOLAR

HERVIR

PERDER

DORMIR

DEVOLVER

NEVAR

MENTIR

VOLVER

LLOVER

DESPERTAR

SENTIR

PODER

PROBAR

SUGERIR

PREFERIR

RESOLVER

SOAR

NEGAR

QUEBRAR

RECORDAR

MORIR

SENTAR

QUERER

CONTAR

RODAR

TRONAR

* TENER

* VENIR

* OBTENER

* DETENER

4. In other cases the stem vowel changes as follows:

- note that here again there is no change in the first person plural
(nosotros) verb forms.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

a. -e changes to ==> -i

SEGUIR:

sigo / sigues / sigue / seguimos / siguen

- Other verbs of this type are:

SERVIR (sirvo.....)

MEDIR

(mido.....)

PEDIR

(pido......)

REPETIR (repito....)

REIR

(rio......)

REIR

(ro.......)

VESTIR (visto.....)

5. There are additional types of changes:

a. In some cases the stem vowel -u- changes to > -ue.

JUGAR:

juego / juegas / juega / jugamos / juegan

b. In some cases only one form is irregular.

CABER:

quepo / cabes / cabe / cabemos / caben

- Other verbs of this type are:

CAER / TRAER / HACER / PONER / PARECER / CONOCER


- see the examples on page l

c. Some verbs suffer spelling (orthographic) changes.

HUIR:

huyo / huyes / huye / huimos / huyen

OLER:

huelo / hueles / huele / olemos / huelen


See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

EJERCICIOS

Complete las oraciones con la forma apropiada del verbo.

(Complete the following sentences with the appropriate verb form. See the
vocabulary items at the end of the exercise.)

A. Me llamo Casimiro. Yo __________ estudiante en la Universidad de


California
ser
en San Diego. Yo _________________ cuatro cursos: biologa, matemticas,
seguir
espaol y redaccin. En la clase de redaccin nosotros ___________________
escribir
mucho y yo ______________ que as yo ______________ a aprender a escribir
pensar

ir

bien. En biologa yo ______________ todo tipo de experimentos y en


hacer
matemticas yo _____________________ problemas de clculo. El prximo
resolver
trimestre yo __________________ seguir un curso de filosofa, pero ahora yo
querer
no _______________. En la clase de espaol yo ___________________ lo que
poder

repetir

________________. De noche yo ____________ con las conjugaciones


irregulares
or

soar

de los verbos. Al da siguiente yo no ___________________ nada en clase.


recordar
El ltimo ao de estudio yo ______________________ estudiar en Espaa con
el
querer
programa de la Universidad de California. Ahora poco a poco yo
_____________
comenzar
a sentirme bilinge.
See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

B.Yo no ____________________ a ese hombre, pero la gente ___________________


conocer
decir
que _________ un brujo benvolo. ____________
<l> ser
<yo> saber

que no todos ______________


<ellos> pensar

lo mismo, pero yo_____________ no tratar con l porque le ________________


preferir
<yo> tener
mucho miedo.
{Vocabulario: gente = people; brujo = warlock; benvolo = good; lo mismo =
the
same thing; todos = everybody; tratar con = to deal with; tener
miedo = to be afraid}

C.La ambulancia ________________________ a los heridos a ese hospital porque


llevar
___________________ ms cerca y as los mdicos __________________________
estar
poder
atenderlos ms pronto.

{Vocabulario:llevar = to take/carry; heridos = wounded; atender = to care


for}

D. Complete las oraciones con la FORMA DEL PRESENTE del verbo indicado.
1. Los viernes ellas siempre ____________________muy tarde porque____________
a bailar con sus amigos.
- They always go to bed very late on Fridays because they go out dancing
with their friends.
2. Nunca ____________________ antes de las 2 a.m. y para el otro da siempre
____________________ dormir hasta el medioda.
- They never get back before 2 a.m. and the next day they always want to
sleep until noon.
3. Nunca ___________________ suficientes lpices en la caja y algunos
alumnos nunca_________________ con qu escribir.
- There are never enough pencils in the box and some students never find
anything with which to write.
4. A Antonio

no le _____________________

las comidas exticas; l siempre

_____________________ la misma cosa: una hamburguesa.


- Antonio doesn't like exotic foods; he always asks for the same thing: a
hamburger.
5. Si me _____________ esta noche te ______________ todo lo que ____________.
- If you call me tonight I'll tell you everything I know.
See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

7. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones. Use el tiempo presente.


(Translate the following sentences. Use the present tense.)

** Note: Some of the sentences are in the present progressive or future


tense in English, but in Spanish these are translated with the present.

Example: Why is the baby crying?

===>

a. I'll give you $500 dollars for the car.

Por qu llora el beb?

DAR

______________________________________________________________________

b. I'm telling you the truth. DECIR

______________________________________________________________________

c. I'm going to my biology class. IR

______________________________________________________________________

d. I know all the numbers in Spanish. SABER

______________________________________________________________________

e. I know Mxico City well. CONOCER

______________________________________________________________________

f. I know my phone number and address. SABER

______________________________________________________________________

g. I'm leaving on the midnight train. SALIR

______________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

h. I'll bring the wine to the party. TRAER

______________________________________________________________________

i. Help! I'm falling! CAERSE

______________________________________________________________________

j. I sleep eight hours every night. DORMIR

______________________________________________________________________

k. It rains every spring and it snows in the winter. LLOVER / NEVAR

______________________________________________________________________

l. I wake up at 5:00 a.m. DESPERTAR

______________________________________________________________________

m. They prefer to return tomorrow. PREFERIR

______________________________________________________________________

n. He'll return this afternoon. VOLVER

______________________________________________________________________

o. I'm runnning 2 miles a day. CORRER

______________________________________________________________________
p. She always breaks the test tubes (las probetas). QUEBRAR

______________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS

Los pronombres reflexivos son:

ME -

TE

- SE

- NOS

l. Los pronombres reflexivos se usan cuando el sujeto y el objeto


directo son la misma persona:

Juan se viste temprano.

(i.e., Juan viste "a Juan".)

- Juan gets dressed (dresses himself) early


PERO :

Juan viste al nio. / Juan lo viste.


- Juan dresses the child. Juan dresses him.

==> OJO: Ver que a veces el verbo aparece con preposicin:

Juan se casa con Mara.


Juan is marrying Mara. (getting married to)

2. En algunos casos el sujeto y el objeto indirecto son la misma persona:

Juan se compra una camisa nueva.

(i.e., Juan compra para "Juan")

- Juan buys himself a new shirt. (Juan buys for Juan)

Juan se pone el sombrero para salir. (literally: "on himself")


- Juan puts on his hat to go out.
PERO :

Juan le compra una camisa nueva a su hermano.


- Juan buys his brother a new shirt.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

3. Los pronombres reflexivos tambin se usan para indicar cambios de


disposicin. En ingls esto se indica con el verbo 'become" o "get' +
adjetivo.

Julio se cansa fcilmente. = Julio gets tired easily.


Juana se enoja rpidamente.= Juana gets mad right away.
Juan se hace el tonto.

= Juan acts dumb.

Juan se re mucho.

= Juan laughs a lot. (starts laughing)

4. Los reflexivos tambin se usan para indicar una accin recproca.Veamos


estos ejemplos:

Los nios siempre se pelean.

= The boys always fight with each other.

Las chicas se ven los domingos.= The girls see each other on Sunday.

Nos queremos mucho.

= We love each other very much.

Ellos se engaan.

= They deceive each other.

La madre y la hija se parecen.


-

The mother and daughter look like each other.

En las guerras los soldados se matan sin razn.


- In wars (in wartime) soldiers kill each other needlessly.

5. El reflexivo se usa con verbos intransitivos que indican movimiento


para sealar la voluntad/la decisin del agente. Veamos los siguientes
ejemplos para contrastar IR

vs. IRSE; SALIR vs. SALIRSE

Juan va a la tienda.

- Juan goes/is going to the store.

Juan se va a la guerra.

- Juan is going off to war.

Martina sale del trabajo a las 3. - Martina gets off work at 3:00.
Eva se sale de la casa de noche.

- Eva sneaks out of the house at night.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

10

----- Aqu hay una lista parcial de algunos verbos reflexivos y sus
significados.
l. levantarse
sentarse
acostarse
despertarse
baarse
despeinarse
afeitarse
peinarse
lavarse
pararse
cepillarse
cansarse

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

Estdielos y luego haga el ejercicio que sigue.


get up
sit down
go to bed
wake up
bathe
mess up one's hair
shave
comb oneself
wash oneself
stand up
brush
get tired

vestirse
=
to get dressed
acercarse = to approach
alejarse
= to distance oneself
mojarse
= to get oneself wet
secarse
= to dry oneself
esconderse = to hide
arrodillarse = to kneel
asearse
= to tidy up
casarse con = to marry
ducharse
=
to shower
calzarse
= to put on shoes
divorciarse de = to get a divorce

2. ponerse + adjetivo = to become


quitarse = to take off
abotonarse = to button up
vestirse = to put on

ponerse + artculo = to put on


abrocharse = to snap on
atarse = to tie up/lace/knot
mudarse = to change/to move

3. enojarse = to get angry


entristecerse = to become sad
hacerse + adj. = to become + adj.
divertirse = to have fun/enjoy
adj.
enfadarse = to get angry
recobrarse = to get well

alegrarse = to get happy


enriquecerse = to get rich
ponerse + adj. = to become + adj.
volverse + adj. = to become +
desmayarse = to faint
recuperarse = to recuperate

4. rerse de = to laugh at

parecerse a = to look like

EJERCICIO
Complete la oracin con la forma apropiada del verbo en el PRESENTE. Vea
el vocabulario al final del ejercicio.

l. Manolo ___________________ a las 5:00 de la maana y __________________


despertarse

levantarse

a las 5:l5 a.m. l ___________________ los dientes y _____________________


cepillarse

ducharse

en 15 minutos, ______________________ en 10 minutos y ____________________


afeitarse

vestirse

en 3 minutos. Antes de salir ______________________ y ____________________


peinarse

ponerse

desodorante. A las 5:45 ___________________ al auto y ____________________


subirse

irse

a la oficina.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

11

2. Los estudiantes siempre _________________ cuando ellos ________________


divertirse

ponerse

los trajes de bao y _______________________ a la piscina.


tirarse

3. Yo __________________la chaqueta antes de salir porque ________________


abotonarse

ponerse

fro afuera en el invierno.

4. Esteban ________________ bien las cintas de los zapatos y _____________


atarse

quitarse

los lentes para jugar futbol.

5. Victoria y Samuel _______________ mucho y por eso quieren casarse


quererse
en agosto pero por ahora ___________________ todos los fines de semana y
verse
_____________________ todos los das.
escribirse

6. Agustn _______________ a Europa el sbado; l _____________________


irse

llevarse

toda su ropa; as _________________ de su familia para no volver jams.


alejarse

vocabulario: antes de = before; por eso = that's why; por ahora = for now;
cintas = laces; traje de bao = bathing suit; desodorante =
deodorant; chaqueta = jacket; lentes = glasses; llevarse = to
take off with, to take with oneself; jams = not ever

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

12

EJERCICIO: REPASO DE LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES EN EL PRESENTE


1. Verbs changing stem: from -e- to -ie- and from -o- to -ue-.
Complete las siguientes oraciones con la forma PRESENTE del verbo.
a. En la selva siempre _______________ pero nunca ________________.
llover
nevar
b. Yo _____________ ir a la biblioteca porque all ellos _____________
querer
tener
varios peridicos espaoles.
c. El zorrillo ________________ mal pero despus de baarnos nosotros
oler
_____________________ bien.
oler
d. Cuando mis amigos ___________________ a verme yo no _______________
venir
poder
estudiar ni leer.

e. Durante los das feriados siempre ________________ muchas personas


<holidays>
morir
en las carreteras.
f. Esta noche l ________________ a leer la novela aunque l no tiene
comenzar
ganas de hacerlo. [aunque=although; tener ganas=to feel like]

2. Ejercicio sobre verbos irregulares. Cuidado con los cambios ortogrficos.


a. Los pjaros siempre _______________ cuando yo ___________ al patio.
huir
salir
b. Yo __________ de Nueva York; slo ________ en California de vacaciones.
ser
estar
c. Yo no

__________________ a nadie en mi familia.


parecerse

d. Mario ____________
medir

6 pies, 3 pulgadas y ___________ el pelo negro.


tener

e. l siempre __________ de mis chistes, pero yo nunca ______________


See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

13

rerse

rerse

de los suyos. [chistes=jokes;los suyos=his]


f. Ella ___________________ temprano, _____________________ temprano y
acostarse
despertarse
______________________ rpidamente.
vestirse
g. Ella nunca ________________ nada bueno porque siempre _____________
soar
tener
pesadillas. [pesadillas = nightmares]
h. T nunca ________________ los libros a la biblioteca. Yo siempre lo
devolver
__________________.
hacer
i. El nio _______________ en esa sillita pero yo no _______________.
caber
caber
j. Yo no te _________________ nada porque te ______________________ y
decir
conocer
_______________ que t no ____________________ or nada.
saber
querer
k. Yo te ____________ l0 dlares por ese libro si me lo ______________ hoy.
dar
traer
EJERCICIOS:
Ahora traduzca las siguientes oraciones.
1. At l0:00 p.m. Olga undresses and goes to bed.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

2. Every morning I wake up at 6:00 but I don't get up till 6:30.


shower, dry myself with a big towel and get dressed.

Then I

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

3. The boy ties his shoelaces after he puts on his socks.


See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

14

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

4. My mother laughs when I tell her that I don't have fun at parties.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

5. My teacher gets very angry when I sit down on her desk.


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

6. When the singer takes off his shirt, all the girls faint.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

7. After marrying the millionaire, she'll buy herself a huge Cadillac.


(marrying = infinitivo en espaol)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
8. We need to sit near the door. In this way we will get near the
refreshments. {to get near = use present tense of ACERCARSE; in this
way = as; refreshments = refrescos)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

9. Mara puts on her gloves and hat after she gets dressed and combs her
hair.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

10. The couples kneel at the altar when the priest marries them.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

15

11. The mother bathes her baby first and then she takes a bath.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

12.

The barber shaves the customer first and then dries his face.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

13. The girls go crazy when they listen to Springsteen. (volverse locas)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

14. The actor takes off his wig when he takes a shower. (wig = peluca)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

15. I'm going to the zoo and I'm taking the kids.
(zoo = zoolgico; to take (with oneself) = llevarse
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

16

OTROS VERBOS - TIEMPO PRESENTE

1. Hay tres verbos que se traducen como el verbo del ingls TO BE:

HABER, ESTAR y SER

En las siguientes semanas vamos a aprender los usos de estos tres verbos.

a.HABER

- El verbo HABER tiene varios usos.

Uno de ellos es situar lo

indefinido. Veamos los siguientes ejemplos:

- Hay una fiesta en casa de Yolanda.


- There's a party at Yolanda's house.

- Hay hormigas debajo de la casa.


- There are ants under the house.

- Las expresiones del ingls - THERE IS y THERE ARE {There exist(s)}- se


traducen con la expresin HAY.

==> OJO: - El verbo HAY se usa para situar lo singular y lo plural.

- HABER en este uso es invariable; no se conjuga; no concuerda en nmero.

- Hay una silla.

- There is one chair.

- Hay diez sillas.

- There are ten chairs.

b.ESTAR. - el verbo ESTAR se usa para situar lo definido (excepto eventos).


Veamos los siguientes ejemplos:

- Los libros estn en los estantes.


- The books are on the shelves.

- Las hormigas estn en el piso.


-

The ants are on the floor.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

17

recordemos que el verbo ESTAR se conjuga as:

estoy

estamos

ests
est

estn

==> OJO: - es importante ver que lo indefinido va con HABER y lo definido con
el verbo ESTAR:

- Hay un lpiz debajo de la mesa.


- There's a pencil under the table.

- El lpiz est debajo de la mesa.


- The pencil is under the table.

c.

SER

el verbo SER se usa para situar eventos definidos. Veamos estos


ejemplos. Ver que puede situarse el evento temporalmente o
espacialmente.

- El concierto es en la cafetera de Revelle.


- The concert is at the Revelle cafeteria.

- La pelcula es

a las 8:30 p.m.

- The film showing is at 8:30 p.m.

- La fiesta es en mi casa.
- The party's at my house.

2.

TENER. El verbo TENER tiene varios usos.

Vea los siguientes ejemplos.

TENER - to have.

Tengo dos hermanos.

TENER QUE - to have to

Tengo que estudiar esta tarde.


-

I have two brothers.

I have to study this afternoon.

l tiene que salir maana.


-

He has to leave tomorrow.

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

18

TENER tambin se usa para indicar estados fisiolgicos o psicolgicos:


Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo
Tengo

hambre.
sed.
dolor de cabeza.tos.
catarro.
fiebre.
fro.
calor.
miedo.
el pelo largo. los ojos negros.20 aos.
razn.
-

I'm hungry.
I'm thirsty.
I have a headache.
I have a cough.
I have a cold.
I have a fever.
I'm cold.
I'm hot.
I'm afraid.
My hair is long./ I have long hair.
My eyes are black.
I'm twenty years old.
I'm right.

TRADUZCA LAS SIGUIENTES ORACIONES.


1.

Tomorrow I have to go to the library because I need a book.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
2.

The students have to see the doctor because they have the flu.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
3.

There's a cold beer in the refrigerator if you're thirsty.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
4. There are at least 10 ways to write a paper. (ways to = maneras de)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
5.

There's a meeting at 4:00 p.m. but I can't go because I have to sleep.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
6.

The students are in the library because there's an exam tomorrow.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

19

7.

There are two students in the library who are afraid of you.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
8.

You're right. The meeting's at the cafeteria this evening.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
9.

The dictionary's on the shelf but there's a list of verbs on the desk.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
10.

The rock concert is tonight in Los Angeles.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
11.

There's a hurricane in the Gulf of Mxico.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
12.

The Olympic Games are in Spain, but there's a boat race in the San
Diego bay.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
13.

Buenos Aires is in Argentina but Lima is in Peru.

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
14. Chile is south of Peru but Ecuador is north of Peru.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

20

El VERBO GUSTAR
El verbo GUSTAR es pasivo.

El sujeto del verbo es siempre el objeto que a

uno le gusta. (i.e., The verb agrees with the object liked.)

I like wine.

- Me gusta el vino.

(Wine is pleasing to me.)

I like books.

- Me gustan los libros.(Books are pleasing to

I like apples.

Me gustan las manzanas.

I like watermelon.

Me gusta la sanda.

me.)

(*Note that the verb is plural if objects liked are plural.<libros/gustan>)


(**Note the use of the article in Spanish: el vino, la sanda, etc.)

Los pronombres que van con el verbo GUSTAR son formas dativas. stas son:
ME / TE / LE / NOS / LES.
He likes...
She likes...
We like...
They like...
You like...
I like...

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

Vea los ejemplos y sus traducciones:

l le gusta...
ella le gusta...
nosotros nos gusta...
ellos les gusta...
ellas les gusta...
usted le gusta...
ti te gusta...
ustedes les gusta...
m me gusta...

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

l le gustan...
ella le gustan...
nosotros nos gustan...
ellos les gustan...
ellas les gustan...
usted le gustan...
ti te gustan...
ustedes les gustan...
m me gustan...

Las frases introductorias (A + pronombre) no son necesarias, a menos que


se especifique la persona o sea necesario enfatizar el pronombre para
aclarar:

Mary likes sherry.

- A Mary le gusta el jerez.

Mrs. Garca likes beer.

- A la Sra. Garca le gusta la cerveza.

She likes beer but he doesn't.- A ella le gusta la cerveza pero a l


no.
He likes peanuts.

- Le gustan los cacahuates.

I like milk.

- Me gusta la leche.
See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

21

I like milk but he doesn't.

- A m me gusta la leche pero a l no.

Cuando los pronombres con "a" se usan, pueden aparecer al principio de la


oracin o al final

Si aparecen al final son an ms ENFTICOS.Ver el

ejemplo.

A m me gusta el pastel de manzana.

- I like apple pie.

Me gusta el pastel de manzana a m.

- I'm the one that likes apple pie.

Cuando lo que agrada es una accin, denotada por un infinitivo, se usa la


forma singular del verbo.

Me gusta comer zanahoras.


Le gusta salir de noche.
Me gusta nadar y bailar.
Traduzca las siguientes oraciones. Vea el vocabulario al fondo.
1.

He likes to

smoke a pack of cigarettes daily, but she doesn't.

______________________________________________________________________
2.

She doesn't like high heels but she likes tennis shoes.

______________________________________________________________________
3.

They like fried chicken but I don't.

______________________________________________________________________
4.

I like old blue jeans.

______________________________________________________________________
5.

He likes to play baseball but we like to play basketball.

______________________________________________________________________
6.

Juan likes detective novels but I like short stories.

______________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

22

7.

Mr. Lpez likes erotic movies but Mrs. Lpez likes horror movies.

______________________________________________________________________
8.

We like the newscast on T.V. but she doesn't.

______________________________________________________________________
vocabulario: pack of cigarettes = cajetilla/paquete de cigarrillos; high
heels = tacones altos; tennis shoes = zapatillas de tenis;
blue jeans = pantalones de mezclilla; basketball = baloncesto
newscast = noticiero/noticiario; short stories = cuentos

OTROS VERBOS PASIVOS

En espaol hay otros verbos como GUSTAR. Veamos los siguientes ejemplos:

a. DOLER: to hurt
-- A Julin le duele la cabeza.
- Julian's head hurts.
-- A m me duele el cuello.
- My neck hurts.
-- A l le duelen los pies.
- His feet hurt

=> OJO: (note that the possessive adjective is not generally used in
Spanish with parts of the body.)

b. MOLESTAR: to bother, to be bothersome to (*)

-- A nosotros nos molesta el ruido.


- Noise bothers us.
-- A ella le molestan mucho los zancudos.
- Mosquitoes bother her a lot.

(*) Este verbo puede usarse de manera activa tambin:

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

23

-- Yo molesto en esa casa.


- I'm in the way in that house.

c. DESAGRADAR/AGRADAR : to displease/to please

-- A ella le agrada ir al cine pero le desagrada ir a la iglesia.


- She likes to go to the movies but she dislikes going to
church.

- Hay tambin una serie de construcciones semejantes. Veamos los ejemplos


a continuacin, recordando siempre que cuando se trata de un uso pasivo
es necesario incluir el pronombre y asegurarse de la concordancia.

DAR PENA = to be sad about


- Me da pena no poder venir a la fiesta.
- It saddens me not to be able to come to the party.
DAR RABIA = to be angry about/to be enraged by
- Le da rabia verme contigo.
- He can't stand to see me with you.
DAR CORAJE = to be angry at
- Nos da coraje tener que mentirles.
- We are angry at having to lie to them.
DAR GUSTO = = to be happy about
- Me da mucho gusto conocerlo.
- I'm very happy to meet you.
DAR TRISTEZA = to be sad about
- Te da tristeza saberlo, verdad?
- It saddens you to find out about it, right?
EJERCICIO:
Traduzca las siguientes oraciones.
l. His stomach hurts and his feet hurt too. DOLER
__________________________________________________________________________
2. The light bothers me. MOLESTAR
__________________________________________________________________________
See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

24

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

25

3. She dislikes popular music. DESAGRADAR


__________________________________________________________________________
4. It makes me angry to hear those politicians. DAR RABIA
__________________________________________________________________________
5. It makes me happy to see you again. DAR GUSTO
__________________________________________________________________________
6. It saddens me to see you depressed. DAR PENA (depressed = deprimido)
__________________________________________________________________________
7. It bothers him to have to work tomorrow. MOLESTAR
__________________________________________________________________________
8. That music saddens me a lot because it makes me remember that I like to
dance but I can't. DAR TRISTEZA/HACER RECORDAR/GUSTAR (because = porque)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
9. I love to see her smile and dance. (love = encantar)
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
10. It pains us to think that you don't have a place to go.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
11. These sandals bother me and that's why my feet hurt today.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

26

REPASO DEL TIEMPO PRESENTE


Cuando usted escriba sus composiciones sobre las lecturas (readings), lo ms
probable es que use el tiempo PRESENTE, a menos que se pida lo contrario en
las especificaciones ("Temas para la Composicin").

Traduzca el siguiente prrafo.

Consulte el glosario al pie de la pgina.

______________________________________________________________________
In one of Julio Cortzar's stories, there's a woman in Argentina
______________________________________________________________________
who makes mental contact with a woman in Hungary. The main
______________________________________________________________________
character's name is Alina Reyes. She's a wealthy young woman who
______________________________________________________________________
lives the good life in Buenos Aires. But sometimes Alina senses that
______________________________________________________________________
there is a woman in Budapest who is hungry in the cold and snow. She
______________________________________________________________________
also knows that the beggar woman lives with a man who beats her.
______________________________________________________________________
Alina can feel the blows and the pain. Until one day Alina travels to
______________________________________________________________________
Budapest and the two women meet on a bridge. And then....
______________________________________________________________________
GLOSARIO.
to sense
to beat
to feel
to know
to travel
to meet
until

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

sentir
golpear
sentir
saber
viajar
encontrarse
hasta que

that/who = que
Hungary = Hungra
main = principal
sometimes = a veces
character = personaje
contact = contacto
then = entonces

pain = dolor
blows = golpes
bridge = puente
beggar woman = mendiga
wealthy = rica

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

27

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE


The present Progressive tense in English is formed with the verb TO BE +
present participle:

He's going./ She's coming home. This tense is used to

indicate that something is happening now or is in progress now: It's


raining./ She's sleeping./ They're eating. etc.

In Spanish we use the PRESENT tense to indicate that something is in


progress or happening right now. We do not need the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
for this function, although it is an option.

==> OJO:

In Spanish the present participles are called "gerundios," like the

English gerunds, but they NEVER function as nouns.

The formation of these

"gerundios" is determined by the infinitive forms, as follows:

VERB STEM

Examples:

-ar verbs

-er verbs

+ -ando

+ -iendo

hablar/hablando

trabajar/trabajando

comer/comiendo

tener/teniendo

vivir/viviendo

salir/saliendo

-ir verbs
+ -iendo

Mara est hablando con el profesor.- Mara is talking to the


professor.
El oso est comiendo.

- The bear is eating.

No est saliendo el agua.

- No water's coming out.

Irregular verbs sometimes have irregular participle forms. For example:

pedir/pidiendo; seguir/siguiendo; vestir/vistiendo; medir/midiendo;


huir/huyendo; ir/yendo; ver/viendo; ser/siendo or leer/leyendo.

The auxiliary verb is often ESTAR, but other auxiliaries are possible as we
shall see.
See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

28

EJERCICIOS
Provide the "gerundios" or present participles for the following verbs.

seguir/_______________

traer/_________________

leer/_________________

ir/____________________

vestir/_______________

medir/_________________

ver/__________________

correr/________________

poner/________________

estar/_________________

ser/__________________

huir/__________________

Change the following sentences to the present progressive tense.


(Cambie las siguientes oraciones del presente al progresivo.)
1.

El carpintero mide la madera con la cinta mtrica.

______________________________________________________________________
2.

El polica sigue la pista del traficante de drogas.

______________________________________________________________________
3.

El paciente pide un calmante para el dolor.

______________________________________________________________________
4.

Ese hombre se viste para salir al trabajo.

______________________________________________________________________
5. Mis amigos traen los refrescos y yo hago los tacos.
______________________________________________________________________
6. Arturo no ve esa telenovela.
______________________________________________________________________
7. Nosotros huimos del trfico y la contaminacin de Los ngeles.
______________________________________________________________________
8. Alicia lee el peridico todos los das porque busca trabajo.
______________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

29

PROGRESIVOS.
Como ya vimos, el progresivo se forma con el verbo auxiliar + el gerundio.
El auxiliar a veces es ESTAR, pero no siempre.

Vea los siguientes ejemplos:

- Los nios vienen cantando.


The children are singing [as they come].
- Los hombres van arando la tierra.
The men are plowing the soil [as they go along].
- Ando viendo las blusas.

I'm looking at the blouses.

- Sigue lloviendo. -It's still raining./It continues to rain.

Los verbos ESTAR, SEGUIR, ANDAR, VENIR, IR pueden funcionar como auxiliares
para formar el tiempo progresivo.

EJERCICIOS:
Traduzca las siguientes oraciones.
ejemplo. Consulte el glosario.

Use el auxiliar apropiado.

Siga el

Ejemplo:
1.

I like the new lawn mower that is cutting the grass around the trees.
Me gusta la mquina nueva de cortar zacate que va cortando la hierba
alrededor de los rboles.

2.

We like the deer that are running through the forest.

__________________________________________________________________________
3.

I'm still training because I like to be strong and healthy.

__________________________________________________________________________
4.

Who's the boy that's whistling on his way here?

__________________________________________________________________________
5.

I'm looking for a house in Del Mar but they're very expensive.

__________________________________________________________________________

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

30

6. The geologists are still measuring the San Andreas Fault.


__________________________________________________________________________
7.

That young man is fleeing from the policeman that's following him.

__________________________________________________________________________
8.

There he is.

He's running toward us.

__________________________________________________________________________
9.

Who's the man who's getting dressed in the other room?

__________________________________________________________________________
10. Vctor is going around town telling lies again.
__________________________________________________________________________
11. Fees at UCSD keep going up every year.
__________________________________________________________________________
12. It saddens me to know that you are not feeling well.
__________________________________________________________________________
13. They are having problems with their computer.
__________________________________________________________________________
14. We are making hamburgers and the students are selling them.
__________________________________________________________________________
Vocabulario: deer = venados; forest = bosque; to train = entrenarse;
healthy = bien de salud; to whistle = silbar; expensive =
caro; fault = falla; geologist = gelogo/a; fees = la matrcula;
lies = mentiras; hamburgers = hamburguesas

See pp. 175-189 for sample answers to odd-numbered exercises.

31