A photocopy machine works by arranging positive charges (in the pattern to be copied) on the surface of a drum, then gently
sprinkling negatively charged dry toner (ink) particles onto the drum. The toner particles temporarily stick to the pattern on
the drum (Fig. 1625) and are later transferred to paper and melted to produce the copy. Suppose each toner particle has a
mass of
9.010
16
kg and carries an average of 20 extra electrons to provide an electric charge. Assuming that the electric
force on a toner particle must exceed twice its weight in order to ensure sufficient attraction, compute the required electric
field strength near the surface of the drum.
APPROACH The electric force on a toner particle of charge q = 20e is F = qE, where E is the needed electric field. This
force needs to be at least as great as twice the weight (mg) of the particle.
SOLUTION The minimum value of electric field satisfies the relation
qE =2mg
where q =20e. Hence
E =
2mg
q
=
2 9.0 10
16
kg
( )
9.8m/ s
2
( )
20 1.6 10
19
C
( )
= 5.5 10
3
N /C.
Example 16.7: Electric field of a single point charge.
Calculate the magnitude and direction of the electric field at a point P which is 30 cm to the right of a point charge Q =
3.010
6
C.
APPROACH The magnitude of the electric field due to a single point charge is given by Eq. 164. The direction is found
using the sign of the charge Q.
SOLUTION The magnitude of the electric field is:
E = k
Q
r
2
=
9.0 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
( )
3.0 10
6
C
( )
0.30m ( )
2
= 3.0 10
5
N/C.
The direction of the electric field is toward the charge Q, to the left as shown in Fig. 1626a, since we defined the direction as
that of the force on a positive test charge which here would be attractive. If Q had been positive, the electric field would have
pointed away, as in Fig. 1626b.
NOTE There is no electric charge at point P. But there is an electric field there. The only real charge is Q.
Example 16.8: E at a point between two charges.
Two point charges are separated by a distance of 10.0 cm. One has a charge of 25 microCoulombs and the other +50
microCoulombs. (a) Determine the direction and the magnitude of the electric field at a point P between the two charges that
is 2.0 cm from the negative charge (Fig. 1627a). (b) If an electron (mass = 9.1110
31
kg ) is placed at rest at P and then
released, what will be its initial acceleration (direction and magnitude)?
APPROACH The electric field at P will be the vector sum of the fields created separately by Q
1
and Q
2
. The field due to
the negative charge Q
1
points toward Q
1
, and the field due to the positive charge Q
2
points away from Q
2
. Thus both fields
point to the left as shown in Fig. 1627b, and we can add the magnitudes of the two fields together algebraically, ignoring the
signs of the charges. In (b) we use Newtons second law (F = ma) to determine the acceleration, where F=qE (Eq. 165).
SOLUTION (a) Each field is due to a point charge as given by Eq. 164, E = kQ/ r
2
. The total field is
)
(
) (
(b) The electric field points to the left, so the electron will feel a force to the right since it is negatively charged. Therefore the
acceleration a = F/m (Newtons second law) will be to the right. The force on a charge q in an electric field E is F = qE (Eq.
165). Hence the magnitude of the electrons initial acceleration is
)(
( E
1
and E
2
) before doing any calculations, we made sure our
calculation could be done simply and correctly.
Example 16.9(1): E above two point charges.
Calculate the total electric field (a) at point A and (b) at point B in Fig. 1628 due to both charges, Q
1
and Q
2
.
APPROACH The calculation is much like that of Example 164, except now we are dealing with electric fields instead of
force. The electric field at point A is the vector sum of the fields
due to Q
1
, and
due to Q
2
. We find the magnitude of
the field produced by each point charge, then we add their components to find the total field at point A. We do the same for
point B.
SOLUTION (a) The magnitude of the electric field produced at point A by each of the charges Q
1
and Q
2
is given by E =
kQ/r
2
, so
)(
)
( )
)(
)
( )
.
The direction of E
A1
points from A towards Q
1
(negative charge) whereas E
A2
points from A away from Q
2
, as shown; so the
total electric field at A,
, has components
.
Thus the magnitude of
is
()
()
,
And its direction is = 76
o
.
(b) Because B is equidistant (40 cm by the Pythagorean theorem) from the two equal charges, the magnitudes of E
B1
and E
B2
are the same; that is,
)(
)
( )
.
Also, because of the symmetry, the y components are equal and opposite, and so cancel out. Hence the total field E
B
is
horizontal and equals E
B1
cos + E
B2
cos = 2E
B1
cos . From the diagram, cos = 26 cm / 40 cm = 0.65 Then
)()
,
And the direction of
and
)(
)
( )
.
3. Add vectorially, and use symmetry when possible. The y components of
and
)()
,
And the direction of
= =
NOTE: The potential energy doesnt depend on the mass, only on the charge and voltage. The speed does depend on m.
Example 17.4: Potential Energy due to a Positive or a Negative Charge
Determine the potential at a point 0.50 m (a) from a +20 C point charge, (b) from a 20 C point charge.
APPROACH: The potential energy due to a point charge is given by Eq. 175, V=kQ/r.
SOLUTION: (a) at a distance of 0.50 m from a positive 20C point charge, the potential is
V
m
C
C m N
r
Q
k V
5
6
2 2 9
10 6 . 3
50 . 0
10 20
) / 10 0 . 9 ( =


.

\

= =
.
(b) For the negative charge,
V
m
C
C m N
r
Q
k V
5
6
2 2 9
10 6 . 3
50 . 0
10 20
) / 10 0 . 9 ( =


.

\

= =
.
NOTE: Potential can be positive or negative. In contrast to calculations of electric field magnitudes, for which we usually
ignore the sign of the charges, it is important to include a charges sign when we find electric potential.
Example 17.5: Work done to bring two positive charges close together.
What minimum work must be done by an external force to bring a charge q=3.00C from a great distance away (take )
to a point 0.500m from a charge ?
Approach: To find the work we cannot simply multiply the force times distance because the force is not constant. Instead we
can set the change in potential energy equal to the (positive of the) work required of an external force (Chapter 6), and
(
and
using
.
Solution: The work required is equal to the change in potential energy:
(
) (
),
Where
and
) (
(
)(
) .
Note: we could not use Eqs. 174 here because they apply only to uniform fields. But we did use Eq. 173(
(
()
()
NOTE This is the resistance when the bulb is burning brightly at 40W. when the bulb is cold, the resistance is much lower,
as we saw in
). Since the current is high when the resistance is low, light bulbs burn out most often
when first turned on.
Example 189: Electric heater.
An electric heater draws a steady 15.9 A on a 120V line. How much power does it require and how much does it cost per
month (30 days) if it operates 3.9 h per day and the electric company charges 9.2 cents per k Wh?
APPROACH Given the current and voltage, we use Eq. 185 to find the power. We must multiply the power (in k W) by the
time (h) used in a month to find the energy transformed in a month, and then multiply by the cost per energy unit. $0.092 per
k Wh, to get the cost per month.
SOLUTION The power is
( )( )
Or 1.80 k W. The time (in hours) the heater is used per month is (3.0 h/d)(30d) = 90 h, which at 9.2 /k Wh would cost (1.80
k W)(90 h)($0.092 /k Wh) = $15.
NOTE Household current is actually alternating (ac), but our solution is still valid assuming the given values for V and I are
the proper averages (rms) as discussed in Section 187.
Example 1810: Lightning bolt.
Lightning is spectacular example of electric current in a natural phenomenon (Fig. 1818). There is much variability to
lightning bolts, but a typical event can transfer 10
9
J of energy across a potential difference of perhaps 5 10
7
V during a
time interval of about 0.2 s. Use this information to estimate (a) the total amount of charge transferred between cloud and
ground, (b) the current in the lightning bolt, and (c) the average power delivered over the 0.2 s.
APPROACH We estimate the charge Q, recalling that potential energy change equals the potential difference V
ba
times the
charge Q, Eq. 173. We equate PE 10
9
J. Next, the current I is Q/t (Eq. 181) and the power P is energy/time.
SOLUTION (a) From Eq. 173, the energy transformed is PE = QV
ba
. We solve for Q:
.
(b) The current during the 0.2 s is about
.
(c) The average power delivered is
.
We can also use Eq. 185:
P = IV = (100 A)(5 10
7
V) = 5 GW.
NOTE Since most lightning bolts consist of several stages, it is possible that individual parts could carry currents much
higher than the 100 A calculated above.
Example 1811: Will a fuse blow?
Determine the total current drawn by all the devices in the circuit of Fig. 1820.
APPROACH Each device has the same 120V voltage across it. The current each draws from the source is found from
I = P/V , Eq. 185.
SOLUTION The circuit is Fig. 1820 draws the following currents: the lightbulb draws
I = P/V =100 W/120 V = 0.8 A ;
the heater draws
1800 W/ 120 V =15.0 A ; the stereo draws a maximum of
350 W/ 120 V = 2.9 A ; and the hair dryer
draws
1200 W/ 120 V =10.0 A . The total current drawn, if all devices are used at the same time, is
0.8 A +15.0 A +2.9 A +10.0 A =28.7 A .
NOTE The heater draws as much current as 18 100W lightbulbs. For safety, the heater should probably be on a circuit by
itself.
Example 1812: Hair dryer.
(a) Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000W hair dryer connected to a 120V line. (b) What happens if it is
connected to a 240V line in Britain?
APPROACH We are given
and
, so
, and
Then
The resistance is
The resistance could equally well be calculated using peak values:
(b) When connected to a 240V line, more current would flow and the resistance would change with the increased
temperature. But let us make an estimate of the power transformed based on the same 14.4 resistance. The average power
would be
()
This is four times the dryers power rating and would undoubtedly melt the heating element or the wire coils of the motor.
Example 1813: Stereo power.
Each channel of a stereo receiver is capable of an average power output of 100 W into an
8 O loudspeaker (see Fig. 1814).
What are the rms voltage and the rms current fed to the speaker (a) at the maximum power of 100 W, and (b) at 1.0 W when
the volume is turned down?
APPROACH We assume that the loudspeaker can be treated as a simple resistance (not quite true see Chapter 21) with
R = 8.0O. We are given the power P, so we can determine
V
rms
and
I
rms
using the power equations, Eqs. 189.
SOLUTION (a) We solve Eq. 189c for
V
rms
and set
P =100 W(at the maximum):
V
rms
= PR = 100 W
( )
8.0O
( )
=28 V.
Next we solve Eq. 189b for
I
rms
and obtain
I
rms
=
P
R
=
100 W
8.0O
= 3.5 A.
Or we could use Ohms law (
V = IR):
I
rms
=
V
rms
R
=
28 V
8.0 O
= 3.5 A.
(b) At
P =1.0 W,
V
rms
= 1.0 W
( )
8.0 O
( )
= 2.8 V
I
rms
=
2.8 V
8.0 O
= 0.35 A.
Example 1814: Electron Speeds in a Wire.
A copper wire, 3.2 mm in diameter, carries a 5.0A current. Determine the drift speed of the free electrons. Assume that one
electron per Cu atom is free to move (the others remain bound to the atom).
APPROACH We can apply Eq. 1810 to find the drift speed if we can determine the number n of free electrons per unit
volume. Since we assume there is one free electron per unit atom, the density of free electrons, n, is the same as the density of
Cu atoms. The atomic mass of Cu is 63.5 u (see Periodic Table inside the back cover), so 63.5 g of Cu contains one more or
6.02 X 10
23
free electrons. We then use the mass density of copper (Table 101),
D
= 8.9 X 10
3
kg/m
3
, to find the volume of
this amount of copper, and then n = N/V. (We use
D
to distinguish it here for for resistivity.)
SOLUTION The mass density
D
= m/V is related to the number of free electrons per unit volume, n = N/V, by
( )
3 28
3 3
3
23
10 4 . 8
/ 10 9 . 8
10 5 . 63
10 02 . 6 (
) 1 (
) 1 (
/


.

\

= = = =
m
m kg
kg
electrons
mole n
mole N
m
N
V
N
n
D
D
The crosssectional area of the wire is
2 6 2 3 2
10 0 . 8 ) 10 6 . 1 )( 14 . 3 ( m m r A
= = = t
Then, by Eq. 1810, the drift speed is
s m
m C m
A
neA
I
v
d
/ 10 7 . 4
) 10 0 . 8 )( 10 6 . 1 )( 10 4 . 8 (
0 . 5
5
2 6 19 3 28
=
= =
which is only about 0.05 mm/s.
NOTE We can compare this drift speed to the actual speed o free electrons bouncing around inside the metal like molecules
in a gas, calculated to be around s m/ 10 6 . 1
6
at 20C.
Example 195: Current in one branch
What is the current through the 500 ohm resistor in Fig. 198a?
APPROACH We need to find the voltage across the 500 ohm resistor, which is the voltage between points b and c in Fig. 19
8a, and we call it V
bc
. Once V
bc
is known, we can apply Ohms law, V=IR, to get the current. First we find the voltage
across the 400 ohm resistor V
ab
, since we know that 17mA passes through it.
SOLUTION V
ab
can be found using V=IR:
V
ab
= (0.0174A)(400O) = 7.0V
Since the total voltage across the network of resistors is V
ac
=12.0V, then V
bc
must be 12.0V7.0V=5.0V. Then Ohms law
applied to the 500 ohm resistor tells us that the current I1 through that resistor is
I
1
=
5.0V
500O
=1.0 10
2
A =10mA
This is the answer we wanted. We can also calculate the current I2 through the 700 ohm resistor since the voltage across it is
also 5.0V:
I
2
=
5.0V
700O
= 7mA
Example 196: Bulb brightness in a circuit.
The circuit shown in Fig. 199 has three identical lightbulbs, each of resistance R. (a) When switch S is closed, how will the
brightness of bulbs A and B compare with that of bulb C? (b) What happens when switch S is opened? Use a minimum of
mathematics in your answers.
RESPONSE (a) With switch S closed, the current that passes through bulb C must split into two equal parts when it reaches
the junction leading to bulbs A and B. It splits into equal parts because the resistance of bulb A equals that of B. Thus, bulbs
A and B each receive half of Cs current; A and B will be equally bright, but they will be less bright than bulb C.
(b) When the switch S is open, no current can flow through bulb A, so it will be dark. We now have a simple oneloop series
circuit, and we expect bulbs B and C to be equally bright. However, the equivalent resistance of this circuit (
= R+ R) is
greater than that of the circuit with the switch closed. When we open the switch, we increase the resistance and reduce the
current leaving the battery. Thus, bulb C will dim when we open the switch. Bulb B gets more current when the switch is
open (you may have to use some mathematics here), and so it will be brighter than with the switch closed, and B will be as
bright as C.
Example 197: Analyzing a circuit.
A 9.0 V battery whose internal resistance r is 0.50 is connected in the circuit. (a) How much current is drawn from the
battery? (b) What is the terminal voltage of the battery? (c) hat is the current in the 6.0 resistor?
APPROACH To find the current out of the battery, we first need to determine the equivalent resistance R
eq
of the entire
circuit, including r, which we do by identifying and isolating simple series or parallel combinations of resistors. Once we find
I from Ohms law,
so R
eq1
= . This is in series with the resistor. The net resistance of the lower arm of the circuit is then
The equivalent resistance
so
) . This 4.8 is in series with the 5.0 resistor and hence the 0.50 internal resistance of the
battery, so the total equivalent resistance
b) The terminal voltage of the battery is
( )()
c) Now we can work back and get the current in the 6.0 resistor. It must be the same as the current through the 8.7 . The
voltage across that 8.7 will be the emf of the battery minus the voltage drops across r and the 5.0 resistor:
( )( ) Applying Ohms law, we get the current (I)
( )( )
Example 199: Jump starting the car.
A good car battery is being used to jump start a car with a weak battery. The good battery has an emf of and internal
resistance of 0.020. Suppose the weak battery has an emf and internal resistance of 0.10. Each copper jumper cable
is long and in diameter, and can be attached as shown in Fig. 1915. Assume the starter motor can be
represented as a resistor
. Determine the current through the starter motor (a) if only the weak battery is
connected to it, and (b) if the good battery is also connected, as shown in Fig. 1915.
APPROACH We apply Kirchhoffs rules, but in (b) we will fist need to determine the resistance of the jumper cables using
their dimensions and the resistivity (
)()
(
()
()
since (
) ( ) .
The loop rule for the lower hoop, including the weak battery and the starter, gives
()
()
The junction rule at point B gives
We have three equations in three unknowns. From Eq. (iii),
and we substitute this into Eq. (i):
(
)
()
()
()
Combining this last equation with Eq. (ii) gives
quite a bit better than in the result of part (a), only 40A. The other
currents are
is in the opposite direction from that assumed in Fig. 1915. The terminal voltage of the weak 10.1V
battery is thus
()() .
NOTE The circuit shown in Fig. 1915, without the starter motor, is how a battery can be charged. The stronger battery
pushes charge back into the weaker one.
Example 1910: Equivalent Capacitance.
Determine the capacitance of a single capacitor that will have the same effect as the combination shown in Fig. 1919a. Take
C
1
= C
2
= C
3
= C.
APPROACH First we find the equivalent capacitance of C
2
and C
3
in parallel, and then consider that capacitance in series
with C
1
.
SOLUTION Capacitors C
2
and C
3
are connected in parallel, so they are equivalent to a single capacitor having capacitance.
C
23
= C
2
+ C
3
= 2C.
This C
23
is in series with C
1,
Fig. 1919b, so the equivalent capacitance of the entire circuit, C
eq
, is given by
C C C C C C
eq
2
3
2
1 1 1 1 1
23 1
= + = + = .
Hence the equivalent capacitance of the entire combination is C
eq
=
3
2
C, and it is smaller than any of the contributing
capacitors, C
1
= C
2
= C
3
= C.
Example 1911: Charge and Voltage on Capacitors.
Determine the charge on each capacitor in Fig. 1919a of Example 1910, and the voltage across each, assuming C = 3.0F
and the battery voltage is V = 4.0 V.
APPROACH We have to work backward through Example 1910. That is, we find the charge Q that leaves the battery,
using the equivalent capacitance. Then we find the charge on each separate capacitor and the voltage across each,. Each step
uses Eq. 177, Q = CV.
SOLUTION The 4.0V battery thinks it is connected to a capacitance C
eq
=
3
2
C =
3
2
(3.0F) = 2.0 F. Therefore the
charge Q that leaves the battery, by Eq. 177, is
. 0 . 8 ) 0 . 4 )( 0 . 2 ( C V F CV Q = = =
From Fig. 1919a, this charge arrives at the negative plate of C
1
, so Q
1
= 8.0 C. The charge Q that leaves the positive plate is
split evenly between C
2
and C
3
(symmetry: C
2
= C
3
) and is Q
2
= Q
3
= Q = 4.0 C. Also, the voltages across C
2
and C
3
have
to be the same. The voltage across each capacitor is obtained using V = Q/C. So
V F C C Q V
V F C C Q V
V F C C Q V
3 . 1 ) 0 . 3 ( ) 0 . 4 ( /
3 . 1 ) 0 . 3 /( ) 0 . 4 ( /
7 . 2 ) 0 . 3 /( ) 0 . 8 ( /
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
= = = =
= = =
= = =
Example 278: Xray Scattering.
Xrays of wavelength 0.140 nm are scattered from a very thin slice of carbon. What will be the wavelengths of Xrays
scattered at (a) 0, (b) 90, (c) 180?
APPROACH This is an example of the Compton effect, and we use Eq. 277 to find the wavelengths
SOLUTION (a) For = 0, cos = 1 and 1 cos = 0. Then Eq. 277 gives = = 0.140 nm. This makes sense since for
= 0, there really isnt any collision as the photon goes straight through without interacting. (b) For = 90, cos = 0, and
1 cos = 1. So
)(
;
that is, the wavelength is long by one Compton wavelength (= 0.0024nm for an electron). (c) For = 180, which means the
photon is scattered backward, returning in the direction from which it came (a direct headon collision), cos = 1, and 1
cos = 2. So
() .
NOTE The maximum shift in wavelength occurs for backward scattering, and it is twice the Compton wavelength.
Example 279: Pair production.
(a) What is the minimum energy of a photon that can produce an electronposition pair? (b) What is this photons
wavelength?
APPROACH: The minimum photon energy E equals the rest energy
m
0
c
2
( )
of the two particles created, via Einsteins
famous equation
E = m
0
c
2
(Eq. 268). There is no energy left over, so the particles produced will have ZERO KE. The
wavelength is
=c / f where
E = hf for the original photon.
SOLUTION: (a) Because
E = m
0
c
2
, and the mass created is equal to two electron rest masses, the photon must have energy
E =2 9.1110
31
kg
( )
3.010
8
m/s
( )
2
=1.64 10
13
J =1.02 MeV
1 MeV=10
6
eV=1.6010
13
J
( )
. A photon with less energy cannot undergo pair production.
(b) Since
E = hf = hc/, the wavelength of a 1.02MeV photon is
=
hc
E
=
6.6310
34
J s
( )
3.0 10
8
m/s
( )
1.64 10
13
J
( )
=1.2 10
12
m,
which is 0.0012 nm. Such photons are in the gammaray (or very short Xray) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (Fig.
228).
NOTE: Photons of higher energy (shorter wavelength) can also create an electronposition pair, with the excess energy
becoming kinetic of the particles.
Example 2710: Wavelength of a ball.
Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a .20 kg ball moving with a speed of 15 m/s.
APPROACH We simply use Eq. 278.
SOLUTION =
)
( )(
Example 2711: Wavelength of an electron.
Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential difference of 100 V.
APPROACH if the kinetic energy is much less than the rest energy, we can use classical KE= 1/2mv
2
. For an electron, m
0
c
2
= 0.511 MeV. We then apply conservation of energy: the KE required by the electron equals its loss in PE. After solving for
v, we use eq 278 to find the de Broglie wavelength.
SOLUTION change in KE equals loss in PE, so KE = 100 eV. The ratio KE/ m
0
c
2
= 100eV/(0.511x10
6
eV) = 10
4
, so
relativity is not needed. Thus
and
()(
)()
(
Then
)(
or 0.12 nm.
Example 2712: Wavelength of a Lyman line.
Use Fig. 2727 to determine the wavelength of the first Lyman line, the transition from n= 2 to n=1. In what region of the
electromagnetic spectrum does this lie?
APPROACH We use Eq. 2710, hf = E
u
E
t
, with the energies obtained from the figure to find the nergy and the
wavelength of the transition. The region of the electromagnetic spectrum is found using the EM spectrum in Fig, 278.
SOLUTION In this case, hf = E
u
E
t =
{3.4 eV (13.6eV)} = 10.2 eV = (10.2eV)(1.60 X 10^19 J/eV) = 1.63 X 10
18
J.
Since = c/f, we have
) (
Or 122 nm, which is in the UV region of the EM spectrum, Fig. 228. See also fig. 2723.
NOTE An alternate approach would be to use Eq. 2716 to find , and it gives the same results.
Example 2713: Wavelength of a Balmer line.
Determine the wavelength of light emitted when a hydrogen atom makes a transition from the n = 6 to the n = 2 energy level
according to the Bohr model.
APPROACH We can use eq 2716 or 279 with R= 1.097x10
7
m
1
.
SOLUTION We find
) (
So
= 4.10 x 10
7
m or 410 nm. This is the fourth line in the Balmer series, and is violet in color.
Example 2714: Absorption wavelength.
Use Figure 2727 to determine the maximum wavelength that hydrogen in its ground state can absorb. What would be the
next smaller wavelength that would work?
APPROACH Maximum wavelength corresponds to minimum energy, and this would be the jump from the ground state up
to the first excited state (Fig. 2727). The next smaller wavelength occurs for the jump from the ground state to the second
excited state. In each case, the energy difference can be used to find the wavelength.
SOLUTION The energy needs to jump from the ground state to the first excited state is 13.6eV 3.4eV = 10.2eV; the
required wavelength, as we saw in Example 2712, is 122nm. The energy to jump from the ground state to the second excited
state is 13.6 eV 1.5 eV = 12.1 eV, which corresponds to a wavelength
)(
)
( )(
)
Example 306: Uranium decay energy release.
Calculate the disintegration energy when ( )
decays to ()
is the parent,
is the daughter.
SOLUTION Since the mass of the
decays is
Since , the energy Q released is
() (
)
And this energy appears as kinetic energy of the particle and the daughter nucleus.
NOTE Using conservation of momentum, it can be shown that the particle emitted by a
= m
D
v
D.
Thus v
= m
D
v
D
/m
) (
(
)
.
The total disintegration energy is Q = KE
+ KE
D
= 57KE
D
+ KE
D
= 58 KE
D
.
Hence
.
The lighter particle carries off (57/58) or 98% of the total KE.
Example 308: Energy release in
decay.
How much energy is released when
decays to
by emission?
APPROACH We find the mass difference before and after decay, . The energy released is ()
. The masses
given in Appendix B are those of the neutral atom, and we have to keep track of the electrons involved. Assume the parent
nucleus has six orbiting electrons so it is neutral; its mass is . The daughter is this decay
) ( )
And this is equal to
( )
which, from Appendix B is a mass of . So the mass difference is ,
which is equivalent to an energy change
()( ) or .
NOTE The neutrino doesnt contribute to either the mass or the charge balance since it has and .
Example 309: Sample Activity.
The isotope
has a halflife of 5730 yr. If at some time a sample contains 1.00 x 10 caron14 nuclei, what is the activity of
the sample?
APPRAOCH We first use the halflife to find the decay constant (Eq. 306), and use that to find the activity, Eq. 303b. the
number of seconds in a year is (60)(60)(24)(
) = 3.156 x 10
7
s.
SOLUTION the decay constant from Eq. 306 is
( )(
From Eq. 303b, the magnitude of the activity or rate of decay is
)(
)
= 3.83 x 10
10
decays/s.
Notice that the graph of Fig. 3010b stats at this value, corresponding to the original value of N = 1.0 x 10
22
nuclei in Fig. 30
10a.
NOTE the unit decays/s is often written simply as s
1
since decays is not a unit but refers only to the number. This simple
unit of activity is called the Becquerel: 1 Bq = 1 decays/s, as discussed in chapter 31.
Example 3010: Safety: activity versus halflife.
One might think that a short halflife material is safer than a long halflife material because it will not last as long. Is this an
accurate representation of the situation?
RESPONSE No. A shorter halflife means the activity is higher and thus more radioactive and dangerous. On the other
hand, a shorter halflife means the material will all decay to a low level sooner. For the same sample size N, a shorter halflife
material is more radioactive but for a shorter time.
Example 3011: A sample of radioactive
.
A lab has 1.49 ug of pure
, which has a halflife of 10.0 min (600sec). (a) How many nuclei are present initially? (b)
What is the activity initially? (c) What is the activity after one hour? (d) After approximately how long will the activity drop
to less than one per second?
APPROACH We use the definition of the mole and Avogadros number to find the number of nuclei. For (b) we get from
the given halflife and use the equation for the activity. For (c) and (d) we use the equation, and/or make a Table of the times.
SOLUTION (a) the atomic mass is 13.0, so 13.0g will contain 6.02 X 10
23
nuclei. Since we have only 1.49 X 10
6
g, the
number of nuclei N that we have initially is given by the ratio
So N subzero = 6.9 X 10
16
nuclei
(b) From the equation, = (.693)/(600s) = 1.16 X 10
3
per second. Then, at t = 0,
)(
(c) The halflife is 10.0 min, so the decay rate decreases by half every 10.0 min. We can make the Tale of activity after given
periods of time. After 1.0 hr, the activity is 1.25x10
12
decay/s.
Easy Alternate Solution (c) 60 minutes is 6 half lives, so the activity will decrease to (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
of
its original value, or
per second.
General Alternate Solution (c) The general way to find the activity, which works even when the time is not a perfect multiple
of T
1/2
, is to use Eq. 305. We set t = 60.0 min = 3600 s:
( )
NOTE The slight discrepancy in results arises because we kept only three significant figures.
(d) We want to determine the time t when
(
)
We take the natural log (ln) of both sides (remember ln
Example 3012: Decay Chain.
The decay chain starting with
in Fig. 3011 has four successive nuclides with halflives of 250,000 yr, 75,000 yr, 1600
yr, and a little under 4 days. Each decay in the chain has an alpha particle of a characteristic energy, and so we can monitor
the radioactive decay rate of each nuclide. Given a sample that was pure
decays
almost immediately, but it cannot decay until it is made. (this is like an automobile assembly line: if worker A takes 20
minutes to do a task and then worker B takes only 1 minute to do the next task, worker B still does only one car every 20
minutes).
Example 3013: An ancient animal
The mass of carbon in an animal bone fragment found in an archeological site is 200g. If the bone registers an activity of 16
decays/s, what is the age?
APPROACH First we determine how many Carbon14 atoms there were in our 200g sample when the animal was alive,
given the known fraction of carbon14, 1.310
12
. Then we use Eq. 30 3b to find the activity back then, and Eq. 30 5 to
find out how long ago that ws by solving for the time t.
SOLUTION The 200g of carbon is nearly all carbon12; 12.0g of carbon12 contains 6.02 x 10^23 atoms, so 200 g contains
(
6.02 10
23
atoms
12g
)(200g) =1.00 10
25
atoms .
When the animal was alive, the ratio of carbon14 to carbon12 in the bone was 1.3 x 10^12. The number of carbon14
nuclei at that time was
N
0
= (1.00 12
25
atoms)(1.312
12
) =1.310
13
atoms .
From Eq. 30 3b the magnitude of the activity when the animal was alive (t=0) was
(
AN
At
)
0
= N
0
where = 3.8310
12
s
1
as we calculated in Example 30 9. So the original activity was
(
AN
At
)
0
= N
0
= (3.8310
12
s
1
)(1.310
13
) = 50s
1
From Eq. 30 5
AN
At
= (
AN
At
)
0
e
t
where AN/ At is given as 16 s^1. Then
16s
1
= (50s
1
)e
t
or
e
t
=
50
16
.
We take natural logs of both sides to obtain
t =
1
ln(
50
16
) =
1
3.8310
12
s
1
ln(
50
16
)
= 2.98 10
11
s = 9400yr,
which is the time elapsed since the death of the animal.
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.