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Biology IGCSE Revision WorkBook edited to contain only material for 4th form end of year exam


g) Gas exchange


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understand the role of diffusion in gas exchange

understand gas exchange in a leaf (of carbon dioxide and oxygen) in relation to respiration and photosynthesis understand that respiration continues during the day and night, but that the net exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen depends on the intensity of light explain how the structure of the leaf is adapted for gas exchange describe the role of stomata in leaves

describe simple controlled experiments to investigate the effect of light on net gas exchange from a leaf, using hydrogencarbonate indicator describe the structure of the thorax, including the ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and pleural membranes understand the role of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, in ventilation explain how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange by diffusion between air in the lungs and blood in capillaries understand the biological consequences of smoking in relation to the lungs and the circulatory system describe a simple experiment to investigate the effect of exercise on breathing in humans

Gas Exchange in Flowering Plants: Remind yourself of the structure of the leaf (Section 2e Nutrition in Flowering Plants). Remember that CO2 and O2 diffuse in and out of leaves through stomata. Remember that CO2 is used in photosynthesis and produced by

respiration, whereas O2 is used in respiration and produced in photosynthesis! Both processes run all the time. So the net amount of glucose the plant produces (i.e. the amount it gets to use for growth etc) is governed by the formula; Net Glucose = Total production Amount used in respiration The amount the plant uses in respiration in nearly constant. However, the total production is not. It is dependent on the rate-limiting factors (i.e. light intensity, CO2 level, water availability, temperature etc). In winter the net glucose production is virtually zero, whereas in summer the net glucose production is large. Therefore, plants grow a lot during the summer and not much during winter! Experiment: Use of leaves and Hydrogencarbonate indicator to show how light affects gas exchange Hydrogencarbonate Indicator colours: Neutral red; Alkaline purple; Acid yellow (orange) a. Put hydrogencarbonate indicator into three boiling tubes; record the indicators colour b. In tubes 1 and 2 suspend a large leaf above the indicator; tube 3 is the control c. Completely cover tube 2 with foil; Bung the tops d. Shine a light on all three tubes. e. Record the colour of the indicator after several hours Tube 1 should go purple CO2 removed (an acidic gas) . Tube 2 should go yellow - CO2 released; tube 3 will remain red

Gas Exchange in Humans:

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Breathing in (inhaling) Inhaling is an active process, i.e. requires energy for muscle contraction 1. Intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribcage up and out 2. Diaphragm contracts moving down 3. The volume of the Thoracic Cavity increases 4. The pressure in the Thoracic Cavity decreases to below atmospheric pressure 5. Air is drawn into the lungs to equalize the pressure

Breathing out (exhaling) The entire process is passive, i.e. no energy is required as there is no muscle contraction. 1. Intercostal muscles relax, the ribcage moves in and down 2. Diaphragm relaxes moving up 3. The volume of the Thoracic Cavity decreases 4. The pressure in the Thoracic Cavity increases to above atmospheric pressure 5. Air leaves the lungs to equalize the pressure

Alveoli and their adaptations:

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Adaptations for gas exchange: - Alveolus is one cell thick - Capillary wall is one cell thick - Many alveoli produce a huge surface area - Alveoli wall is moist - Breathing maintains a high concentration gradient for O2 and CO2 - Blood movement maintains a high concentration gradient for O2 and CO2 Smoking Cigarette smoke contains the chemicals in the table below: Chemical Tar Nicotine Effect Contains carcinogens. Speeds heart rate and damages arteries, causing furring of artery walls


Carbon Monoxide


(atherosclerosis). This leads to heart disease and vascular diseases. It is also addictive. Damages the DNA of alveoli cells. This can lead to them reproducing faster than normal, which will cause a tumour to form. The tumour is the start of cancer. Attaches permanently to haemoglobin, reducing the ability of the blood to carry O2 The list is endless. There are over 5000 poisonous chemicals in cigarette smoke (e.g. benzene, arsenic, lead, cyanide etc)

Also: alveoli can become blocked, making gas exchange more difficult. Cilia can become clogged up. Cilia are little hairs lining the lungs that waft and remove mucus. Bacteria become trapped in the mucus so are moved away from the lungs in turn. Alveoli can become damaged to give rise to emphysema. Experiment: the effect of exercise on breathing in humans
a. Take your own heart rate, breathing rate and skin

temperature at rest b. Do some controlled exercise c. Take the same measurements again.

All measurements should increase because your rate of respiration increases (to supply the muscles with extra energy for contraction). In order to get respiration to happen faster, you need more O2, so the breathing and heart rate increase.

h) Transport

understand why simple, unicellular organisms can rely on diffusion fro movement of substances in and out of the cell understand the need for a transport system in multicellular organisms describe the role of phloem in transporting sucrose and amino acids between the leaves and other parts of the plant describe the role of xylem in transporting water and mineral salts from the roots to other parts of the plant explain how water is absorbed by root hair cells

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recall that transpiration is the evaporation of water from the surface of a plant explain how the rate of transpiration is affected by changes in humidity, wind speed, temperature and light intensity describe experiments that investigate the role of environmental factors in determining the rate of transpiration from a leafy shoot

All organisms respire and need to exchange gases with their environment. Unicellular organisms exchange gases directly over their cell membrane. Their surface area is large compared to their volume (large SA:vol ratio) Multicellular organisms their surface area is very small compared to their volume (small SA:vol ratio). Therefore, gas exchange across their surface would be inadequate. Thus they need to have specialised gas exchange organs with large surface areas (e.g. leaf, lung , gills) and a circulation system to distribute the gases to all cells

Transport in Flowering plants: Plants have two different networks of tubes inside them; Phloem: transports sucrose and amino acids up and down the stem Xylem: transports water and minerals up the stem

Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the surface of a plant. Water moves from the roots, through the stem and finally out of the leaves. In the Roots: - Water enters root hair cells by osmosis from the soil. Root hair cells increase the roots surface area:

Taken from:

In the Stem: - Water moves out of the top of the xylem into leaf cells - This generates a low pressure at the top of the xylem - This sucks water molecules up the xylem - This is called transpiration pull In the leaf:

- Water enters the leaf in xylem vessels in veins - The water moves by osmosis into leaf mesophyll cells, - Where it evaporates into the air spaces and finally diffuses out of the stomata into the air. Factors affecting the rate of transpiration: Factor Temperature (increases transpiration) Humidity (decreases transpiration) Wind Speed (increases transpiration) Light intensity (increases transpiration) Effect on transpiration rate Increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of molecules. This makes diffusion, osmosis and evaporation happen faster When the air is humid then there is more water vapour in it. Humid air is less able to accept more water molecules by evaporation. Lowers concentration gradient for diffusion from the leaf Wind blows water vapour away from the stoma, keeping the concentration gradient high. Light causes stoma to open. Wider stoma can allow greater diffusion of water vapour out of the leaf.

Experiment: the effect of the factors on the rate of transpiration.

a. Set up a potometer as shown below

b. Set the bubble in the capillary tube to zero c. Time how long it takes to move a given distance or measure distance moved in given time d. Alter conditions and repeat (fan = wind; vary light intensity with lamp; put in clear plastic bag to increase humidity; change temperature etc)

A Potometer

Transport in Humans:

recall the composition of the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma understand the role of plasma in the transport of carbon dioxide, digested food, urea, hormones and heat energy describe the adaptations of red blood cells for the transport of oxygen, including shape, structure and the presence of haemoglobin understand that vaccination results in the manufacture of memory cells, which enable future antibody production to the pathogen to occur sooner, faster and in greater quantity recall that platelets are involved in blood clotting, which prevents blood loss and the entry of micro-organisms. describe the structure of the heart and how it functions understand reasons for the change in heart rate during exercise describe the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries and understand their roles recall the general plan of the circulation system to include the blood vessels to and from the heart, the lungs, the liver and the kidneys

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Blood consists of 4 main parts;

Plasma mostly water used for transporting substances around the body (i.e. CO2 glucose, amino acids, other products of digestion, urea, hormones and heat energy). Red Blood Cells adapted to carry O2 around the body. O2 attaches to haemoglobin, which the RBCs are filled with. Other adaptations of RBCs include; - Smooth edges

- Biconcave shape (increases surface area for gas exchange and allows folding down tight capillaries) - Made in huge quantities - No nucleus (so more room for haemoglobin) Platelets help clot the blood. This stops blood loss and also prevents micro-organisms from entering the body. White Blood Cells are part of the immune system. There are responsible for killing invading micro-organisms. Different types of WBCs do this:

phagocytes engulfing/ingest and destroy (digesting) the microorganisms and lymphocytes make and release antibodies that are specific to the particular type of pathogen attacking the cells. Vaccinations against pathogens result in an immune response that makes memory cells. If the person is reinfected with the same pathogen, the memory cells will allow rapid antibody production which is sooner, quicker and in larger amounts than without the vaccination. The Human Heart: You need to know: 1. the names of the 4 chambers of the heart 2. the names of all of the arteries and veins attached to the heart 3. the names of the two sets of valves in the heart 4. how the heart works 5. the structure of the heart
Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Vein Semi-lunar valve

Tricuspid Valve

Bicuspid valve

Remember, the atria contract first. The L & R atria contract at the same time. The ventricles contract second. The L & R ventricles contract at the same time. Then the heart relaxes.
1. Blood enters the atria whilst the heart relaxes

2. Both atria start to contract, pushing the blood into the ventricles

through the open atrioventricular valves

3. When the ventricles are full they begin to contract 4. The atrioventricular valves shut to stop backflow 5. Blood is forced out of the heart into the circulatory system through the open semi-lunar valves 6. When the ventricles finish contracting the semi-lunar valves shut, stopping backflow. 7. Blood flows back into the heart Valves open and close because of the relative blood pressure differences either side of them. Blood has to pass through the heart twice to complete a full circuit of the body. This is called a double circulation. During exercise adrenaline is released from the adrenal Adrenaline has two effects of the heart; 1. Makes it beat faster 2. Makes each beat harder The combined effect is to massively increase the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute to supply the increased respiration in muscles with oxygen and glucose and to remove carbon dioxide. Artery, Vein and Capillary: Artery:
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Arteries carry high pressure blood away from the heart. Key Points: 1. Thick muscle layer to withstand high pressure blood

2. Elastic tissue allows artery to stretch when blood is forced into it and to recoil as heart relaxes to push blood along 3. Protective collagen layer 4. Relatively small lumen Vein:

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Veins carry low pressure blood towards the heart.

Key Points: 1. Thin muscle layer (low pressure blood) 2. Valve to stop backflow 3. Protective collagen layer 4. Large lumen (decreases effect of friction) Capillary:

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Capillaries are adapted for exchange they are not connected directly to the heart.

Key Points: 1. Walls are one cell thick (cells are called endothelial cells) 2. Lumen is the same width as one RBC (therefore more of RBC in contact with wall, therefore smaller diffusion distance) 3. No muscle or elastic tissue 4. Tiny (only 8 m in diameter) can fit between cells Something extra youre expected to know: The vessel taking blood to the kidneys is the renal artery The vessel taking blood away from the kidneys is the renal vein The vessel taking blood to the liver is the hepatic artery Blood also goes to the liver from the gut along the hepatic portal vein The vessel taking blood away from the liver is the hepatic vein

Section 3: Reproduction and Inheritance

describe the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction

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understand that fertilisation involves the fusion of a male and female gamete to produce a zygote that undergoes cell division and develops into an embryo

Flowering Plant Reproduction

describe the structures of an insect-pollinated and a windpollinated flower and explain how each is adapted for pollination understand that the growth of the pollen tube followed by fertilisation leads to seed and fruit formation recall the conditions needed for seed germination

understand how germinating seeds utilise food reserves until the seedling can carry out photosynthesis understand that plants can reproduce asexually by natural methods (illustrated by runners), and by artificial methods (illustrated by cuttings)

Human Reproduction

recall the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems understand the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle

describe the role of the placenta in the nutrition of the developing embryo understand how the developing embryo is protected by amniotic fluid recall the roles of oestrogen and testosterone in the development of secondary sexual characteristics

There are two types of reproduction: Sexual: reproduction in which two gametes (sex cells) fuse to create a new offspring that is genetically different to the parents. Two parents are involved. The gametes are produced by meiosis a form of nuclear division which halves the number of chromosomes. Each gamete has one set of chromosomes (haploid). The fusion of two haploid gametes by fertilisation results in a zygote that has one set of chromosomes from each gamete. A cell with two sets of chromosomes is called diploid. The zygote undergoes cell divisor by mitosis to develop into an embryo Asexual: reproduction without fusion of gametes. It involves one parent only and produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.

Two definitions to learn: Fertilization: the process in which a male and a female gamete fuse to form a zygote Zygote: a cell that is the result of fertilization. It will divide by mitosis to form an embryo.

Human Reproduction - Male reproductive System:

Seminal Vesicle

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You must also learn the function of each of the parts of both the male and female reproductive systems Female reproductive system:

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Hormones and the menstrual cycle

In most women the cycle takes about a month, although it can vary from as little as 2 weeks to as long as 6 weeks. In the middle of the cycle is an event called ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg cell, or ovum.

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Inside a womans ovaries are hundreds of thousands of cells that could develop into mature eggs. Every month, one of these grows inside a ball of cells called a follicle. At the middle of the cycle (about day 14) the follicle moves towards the edge of the ovary and the egg is released as the follicle bursts open. This is the moment of ovulation. While this is going on, the lining of the uterus has been repaired after menstruation, and has thickened. This change is brought about by the hormone oestrogen, which is secreted by the ovaries in response to FSH. Oestrogen also has another job. It slows down production of FSH, while stimulating secretion of LH. It is a peak of LH that causes ovulation. After the egg has been released, it travels down the oviduct to the uterus. It is here in the oviduct that fertilisation may happen, if sexual intercourse has taken place.

The hormone Progesterone (produced in the ovary) completes the development of the uterus lining, which thickens ready for the fertilised egg to sink into it and develop into an embryo. If the egg is not fertilised the ovary stops making progesterone. The lining of the uterus is then shed through the womans vagina, during menstruation. If the egg is fertilised, the ovary carries on making progesterone, the lining is not shed, and menstruation doesnt happen. The first sign that tells a woman she is pregnant is when her monthly periods stop.
Text: modified from Longman IGCSE textbook

- The embryo moves down the fallopian tube towards the uterus - It embeds into the lining of the uterus and develops a placenta - This brings the embyos blood supply close to the mothers but they do not mix - After 8-10 weeks development is complete and the embryo becomes a foetus - Diffusion across the placenta occurs o foetus to mother CO2, water urea o mother to foetus O2, glucose, amino acids, minerals - Adaptations of the placenta for diffusion include: o Large surface area (lots of villi-like projections) o Thin walls (short diffusion distance) o Blood supplies move (keep concentration gradient high) - Embryo develops an amniotic sac which fills up with amniotic fluid. This helps cushion the embryo/foetus and protects it.

Secondary Sexual Characteristics

During puberty boys make testosterone in their testes and girls make oestrogen in their ovaries. These hormones develop secondary sexual characteristics.

Boys Girls -

Growth and development of male sexual organs Triggers sperm manufacture (spermatogenesis) Causes growth of pubic and body hair including facial hair Causes larynx to enlarge and voice breaks (deepens) Causes muscle to grow, e.g. chest Sexual drive develops

Menstrual cycle begins, eggs released by ovaries every month Growth and development of female sexual organs Growth of armpit and pubic hair Increase in body mass; widening of hips Breasts develop Sexual drive develops

Inheritance Syllabus
recall that the nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes on which genes are located understand that a gene is a section of a molecule of DNA describe a DNA molecule as two strands coiled to form a double helix, the strands being linked by a series of paired bases: adenine (A) with Thymine (T), and cytosine (C) with guanine (G) understand that genes exist in alternative forms called alleles which give rise to differences in inherited characteristics recall the meaning of the terms dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype genotype and codominance describe patterns of monohybrid inheritance using a genetic diagram understand how to interpret family pedigrees predict probabilities of outcomes from monohybrid crosses recall that the sex of a person is controlled by one pair of chromosomes, XX in a female and XY in a male, and describe the determination of the sex of offspring at fertilisation using a genetic diagram understand that division of a diploid cell by mitosis produces two cells which contain identical sets of chromosomes, and that mitosis occurs during growth, repair, cloning and asexual reproduction understand that division of a cell by meiosis produces four cells, each with half the number of chromosomes, and that this results in the formation of genetically different haploid gametes understand that random fertilisation produces genetic variation in offspring

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understand that variation within a species can be genetic, environmental, or a combination of both recall that in human cells the diploid number of chromosomes is 46 and the haploid number is 23 recall that mutation is a rare, random change in genetic material that can be inherited describe the process of evolution by means of natural selection understand that many mutations are harmful but some are neutral and a few are beneficial understand how resistance to antibiotics can increase in bacterial populations understand that the incidence of mutations can be increased by exposure to ionising radiation (e.g. gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays) and some chemical mutagens (e.g. chemicals in tobacco)

DNA is a double stranded molecule, the strands of which coil up to form a double helix. The strands are linked by a series of paired bases

Thymine (T) pairs with Adenine (A) Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C)

The bases are a crucial part of the DNA. The sequence of bases is what carries the genetic code.

The nucleus of every cell contains the chromosomes made from DNA wrapped around proteins. DNA is a very long molecule that carries the genetic code. The code is organised into genes. Each gene instructs the cell how to make a specific protein. The proteins are what control the cell (e.g. enzymes are proteins, so are structural proteins like collagen). Sometimes more than one version of a gene occurs. The different versions are called alleles (i.e. we all have the gene for iris pigment, but there are different colours of iris pigment, same gene but different alleles).

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Humans have 23 different chromosomes inside their cells. We have two copies of each chromosome, therefore, each cells contains 46 chromosomes. Gametes only have one copy of each chromosome (haploid number i.e. 23) and body cells have two copies of each chromosome (diploid number i.e. 46) Key Word Summary:

This topic, more than any other, confuses people. Learn these thoroughly! DNA: A molecule which carries the genetic code Gene: A section of a molecule of DNA that carries the instruction for a cell to make a specific protein Allele: A different version of a gene Chromosome: Coiled up DNA wrapped around proteins Haploid number: the number of different chromosomes in a gamete (23 in humans; 6 in kangaroos) single chromosomes Diploid number: the total number of chromosomes in body cells (46 in humans; 12 in kangaroos) chromosomes in homologous pairs Cell Division: There are two types of cell division; - Mitosis used for growth, repair & asexual reproduction - Meiosis used to produce gametes for sexual reproduction Mitosis
1. Produces 2 daughter cells 2. Daughter cells are diploid (i.e. have 23 pairs of chromosomes) 3. Daughter cells are genetically identical to each other 4. Daughter cells are genetically identical to parent cell 5. Occurs in one stage 6. Happens everywhere in the body

1. Produces 4 gametes 2. Daughter cells are haploid (i.e. only have 23 chromosomes) 3. Gametes are genetically different to each other 4. Gametes are genetically different to parent cell 5. Occurs in two stages 6. Happens in reproductive organs only

Therefore, random fertilization produces a diploid cell (which will grow by mitosis) from two haploid gametes. Each parent gives only one of each of the pairs of chromosomes to their gametes. A pair of chromosomes will have exactly the same genes on them in the same places (homologous chromosomes), but not necessarily the same alleles! This is the source of genetic variation in gametes.

Alleles for the same gene can be; - Dominant always affect the phenotype (allele represented by capital letter) - Recessive never affect the phenotype in the presence of a dominant allele (allele represented by lower case letter); must be homozygous to show its effect. - Codominance when two alleles both contribute to the phenotype, e.g. pink snapdragon flowers from a cross between red and white parents Inheritance patterns are always given using a genetic diagram.

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Note the gametes are always written in circles

More Key Words: Phenotype: physical appearance of a characteristic Genotype: the combination of alleles an individual possesses Heterozygous: two different alleles in genotype (i.e. Bb) Homozygous: both alleles the same in genotype (i.e. BB or bb)

Genetic crosses can also be shown using family pedigrees: /2009/biology/images/24_q.gif

Inheritance of gender is governed by the 23 rd chromosome pair; the sex chromosomes. Boys have an X and a Y chromosomes, girls have two X chromosomes

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Note: The gender of the baby is determined by the sperm (carries X or Y: the egg only carries X)

Variation, Mutation and Natural Selection: Variation within a species is produced in three ways: 1. By the environment, e.g. differences between identical twins 2. Through the genotype, e.g. human ability to roll the tongue 3. By a combination of both, e.g. IQ, height New alleles arise in the population through mutation. Mutation - a rare, random change in the genetic code of a gene. The mutated gene will therefore produce a slightly different protein to the original non-mutant gene. The new protein might; 1. Work just as well as it did before (neutral mutation) 2. Work better than before (beneficial mutation) 3. Work worse / not at all (harmful mutation) Mutation has led to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Overuse of antibiotics increases the chance of resistance so that when antibiotics are further used, only resistant bacteria survive and reproduce. Thus resistance increases in bacterial populations Mutations can be inherited or happen on their own. The frequency that mutation occurs naturally can be increased by exposure to ionising radiation (e.g. gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays) and some chemical mutagens (e.g. chemicals in tobacco). Beneficial mutations give a selective advantage to the individual. Individuals with this kind of mutated allele are more likely to survive, reproduce and pass their alleles on. This is the basis of Natural Selection
1. Organisms in a population show variation

2. Some individuals have advantageous characteristics determined by

their alleles 3. These individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce

4. They are more likely to pass on the advantageous characteristics

to the next generation

Evolution: the change in organisms over time results in the formation of new species from an original species

Selective Breeding Syllabus

understand that plants with desired characteristics can be developed by selective breeding understand that animals with desired characteristics can be developed by selective breeding

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Selective Breeding Man selects the characteristics that he wants to develop Individual organisms with the desired characteristics are identified and bred together The offspring which express the desired characteristics are identified and bred together The process is repeated over many generations Examples of this are: increased yield (e.g. starch content) and reduction of stem length in wheat increased yield of meat (muscle development) and milk in cattle.

Genetic Modification Syllabus

describe the use of restriction enzymes to cut DNA molecules at specific sites and ligase enzymes to join pieces of DNA together

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describe how plasmids and viruses can act as vectors, which take up pieces of DNA, then insert this recombinant DNA into other cells understand that large amounts of human insulin can be manufactured from genetically modified bacteria that are grown in a fermenter evaluate the potential for using genetically modified plants to improve food production (illustrated by plants with improved resistance to pests) recall the term transgenic means the transfer of genetic material from one species to a different species

Genetic Modification
1. Extract target gene (human insulin gene) from donor cell. This is done by cutting the gene out of human DNA using a restriction enzyme 2. Small circles of bacterial DNA, called plasmids are also cut using the same restriction enzyme 3. The gene and the plasmid cut with the restriction enzyme have Sticky Ends and can stick together. 4. The gene and plasmid are then sealed together using DNA Ligase enzyme. 4. The plasmid is acting as a vector because it is carrying the insulin gene 5. The gene and plasmid form a Recombinant DNA molecule (DNA from different species joined together) 6. The recombinant DNA containing the insulin gene is put into bacterial cells they can now be placed in a fermenter where they will make human insulin which can be purified. Plasmids act as vectors of genes, but this job could also be done by viruses. Virus DNA can be joined to genes and the virus passes these into cells when it infects them. Scientists are experimenting with genetic engineering all the time. Plants are good to genetically engineer because they are more simple than animals and there are fewer ethical issues. Genetically modified (GM) crops have been engineered to:

- Have bigger yields - Be frost resistant (e.g. frost resistant strawberries) - Have resistance to pests - Grow in harsher environments (e.g. drought-resistant rice) - Have vitamins in them that they would not normally have (e.g. golden rice) - Have a longer sell-by date (e.g. non-squash tomatoes) - Be a different colour / taste to normal (e.g. chocolate carrots) - Have stronger taste (e.g. chilis) - Be easier to eat (e.g. easy-peel oranges) A transgenic organism is one in which the DNA of a different species has been inserted; i.e. it contains the genetic material of two different species.

Cloning Syllabus
describe the process of micropropagation (tissue culture) in which small pieces of plants (explants) are grown in vitro using nutrient media, and that this is used to produce commercial quantities of identical plants (clones) with desirable characteristics describe the stages in the production of cloned mammals involving the introduction of a diploid nucleus from a mature cell into an enucleated egg cell, illustrated by Dolly the sheep evaluate the potential for using cloned transgenic animals, for example, to produce commercial quantities of human antibodies or organs for transplantation

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Cloning is used to make many copies of a single individual. Usually the individual has a very desirable phenotype and has often been produced at the end of a selective breeding or GM programme. Cloning in plants: The easiest way to clone a plant is to take a cutting or a graft However, micropropagation (tissue culture) can be used in large-scale cloning programmes. The process is: - remove small pieces of chosen plant(e.g. tip of stem) - sterilise explant to kill any microbes - transfer onto jelly-like growth medium containing growth regulators and nutrients - once callus formed transfer to a tube with different nutrients and growth regulators roots and shoots develop - when large enough plant in compost or soil to grow plant This can be done on a huge scale to produce 1000s of plants from a single culture. Cloning can be used beneficially in agriculture to increase the yield of crop plants. All clones have same desirable characteristics. Cloning in animals: 1. Take an egg cell from a female animal 2. Remove its haploid nucleus (enucleate it) 3. Replace with the diploid nucleus from an adult donor cell (from the animal you want to clone) 4. Transfer embryo to surrogate mother 5. The embryo grows into an embryo clone of the adult, from which the donor nucleus came This process was used to create Dolly the sheep Cloning genetically engineered animals potentially allows us to massproduce very useful protein products such as commercial quantities of human antibodies or organs for transplantation. We can already used

transgenic bacteria to make human insulin. Now all diabetics have access to human insulin.

Industrial fermenters can be used for the growth of micro-organisms

A - Cooling water out B Stirring paddles C Oxygen bubbles entering D Product harvest line E Culture Broth F Cooling Jacket Empty fermenter are sterilised before use - steam cleaned to kill contaminating bacteria before innoculation with microbes

Important details: Cooling Jacket keeps the micro-organisms temperature; cools heat produced by respiration at their optimum

Paddles keeps stirring the mixture. Stops waste products building up and increases rate of reaction. Mixes micro- organisms with nutrients and air Nutrient medium supplies the fuel for respiration and the nutrients for growth and division Sterile Air Supply supplies clean O2 for aerobic respiration

Sensors monitor temperature and pH of medium and cause necessary adjustments; keeps fermenter at optimum conditions