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Compliance Framework for Terminals

C-K. Chou, Ph.D. * Chairman, Technical Committee 95 International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Piscataway, New Jersey USA
*speaking as an individual and not for IEEE

Steps to address RF exposure safety

Scientific research Peer-reviewed publication Consensus standards Regulations

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C95.1-2005 IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz

Science-based recommendations are made to protect against all established adverse effects in human beings associated with RF exposure 3 kHz to 5 MHz, minimize effects associated with electrostimulation 100 kHz to 300 GHz, protect against effects associated with heating Adopted by ANSI on November 2, 2006 IEEE ICES

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IEEE C95.7-2005 Recommended Practice for Radiofrequency Exposure Safety Programs Designed to complement IEEE C95.1-2005. To provide reasonable and adequate guidance for the controlled exposure to prevent or control hazards associated with RF sources

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Exposure limits based on IEEE C95.1-1991 and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 86 (1986) Measurement methods based on IEEE 1528 (published in 2003) Newer regulations by KDB Knowledge Data Base
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Interaction of IEEE ICES with Federal RF Interagency Working Group

Federal RF Interagency Working Group consists of officials from Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Communications Commission, Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Meeting on May 9, 2006 to introduce the new C95.12005 standard, harmonization with ICNIRP on peak SAR, and power density limits for general population exposure Meeting again on September 30, 2009

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Regulatory Status of Whole Body Exposure Limits for Antenna Sites

ICNIRP Guidelines Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, France, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, India, Ireland, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Omen, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovak, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Taiwan, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, UK, Venezuela IEEE 1991/NCRP 1986 standard (FCC) Bolivia, Canada, Estonia (IEEE1991), Panama, USA Below ICNIRP and IEEE Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Russia,

Belgium, Chile, Greece, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland IEEE ICES

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C95.1 standard revision Terminology Clarification

RF radiation => RF exposure Avoid confusion with ionizing radiation Safety limits => exposure limits Exposure limits with large safety margins

Safety limit

Persons in Restricted General Public Environment Exposure Limit Exposure Limit

Large Safety Margins


FCC View on SAR labeling

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) For Cell Phones: What It Means For You There is considerable confusion and misunderstanding about the meaning
of the maximum reported Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values for cell phones (and other wireless devices). ..the SAR values collected by the FCC are intended only to ensure that the cell phone does not exceed the FCCs maximum permissible exposure levels even when operating in conditions which result in the devices highest possible but not its typical - RF energy absorption for a user.*

The Bottom Line

.SAR between individual cell phones, which, in any event, is an unreliable comparison of RF exposure to consumers, given the variables of individual use.

* The average terminal output power for 3G voice calls was below 1mW for any environment
including rural, urban, and dedicated indoor networks. Bioelectromagnetics, online: 19 OCT 2011
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For threshold effects, when a large margin of safety is assured, anything below is safe.

Whether it is a 50 foot tall or a 5 foot tall boat, they are all safe to go under the Golden Gate Bridge. New Delhi, India Feb 8, 2012 IEEE ICES
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SAR Assessment Standards

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Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human exposure
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IEC TC106 (members from 34 countries)

Scope: characterization of the electromagnetic environments with regard to human exposure measurement methods; instrumentation and procedures calculation methods assessment methods for exposure produced by specific sources (in so far as this task is not carried out by specific product committees) basic standards for other sources assessment of uncertainties

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WG1: Measurement and calculation methods for low frequency (0 to 100 kHz) electric and magnetic fields and induced currents WG2: Characterization of low frequency electric and magnetic fields from specific devices WG3: Measurement and assessment of high frequency (100 kHz to 300 GHz) electromagnetic fields WG4: Characterization of high frequency electromagnetic fields and specific absorption rate (SAR) produced by specific sources WG5: Generic standards: general application and common practices

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Reaffirmed in 2007

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A revision made to extend frequency range to 6 GHz in ballot

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Adopted by CENELEC as EN62209-1:2006 Edition 2 is under revision

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IEEE ICES TC34 Subcommittee 1 (Experimental Methods)

1528 to address 0.3 - 6 GHz measurement methods

Approved by IEEE voting at 92% (July 17, 2011)

Collaborates with IEC 62209-1 measurements 0.3 6 GHz

Efforts to develop IEC/IEEE dual logo standard

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Hand-held and bodymounted wireless devices Adopted by CENELEC as EN62209-2:2010 Corresponding draft product standard under voting by EU National Committees

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IEEE ICES TC34 SC1 & IEC TC106 MT1-62209 Experimental methods

Address head & body SAR 0.3 - 6 GHz by measurements Goal: IEC/IEEE dual-logo standard Current topics hand effect to head SAR, separation distance in body SAR and hand SAR (in future) Revised versions of IEEE 1528 and IEC 62209-1 CDV

New features frequency range > 6 GHz, Fast SAR, SAR test reduction

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Radio Base Station standards

IEC 62232-2011

Determination of RF field strength and SAR in the vicinity of radio communication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure

Technical report IEC 62669-2011

Case studies supporting IEC 62232

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Worldwide Harmonization of RF standards

One RF exposure standard

IEEE C95.1/ICNIRP guidelines (Harmonized on major issues and limits) Converge of science based standards IEC 62209-1/IEEE 1528 (at ear) (Totally harmonized) IEC 62209-2 (in front of face, body)

One portable device SAR measurement standard

Other portable and mobile devices SAR computational standards

IEC and IEEE close collaboration, Dual logo IEEE ICES

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ICNIRP and IEEE have RF exposure standards, with large safety margins to protect all population IEEE and IEC have RF exposure assessment standards FCC 1997 regulation was based on IEEE 95.1-1991 and NCRP report 86 (1986) IEEE C95.1-2005 has harmonized with ICNIRP guidelines on SAR limits and power density limits for general public exposures No more international RF exposure standard supports the local peak SAR limit of 1.6 W/kg averaged in 1 g tissue

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Harmonization One Sun in the Sky

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Thank you