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Presoaks Generally speaking, detailers are the biggest users of presoaks. A good presoak presoak tr.v.

presoaked, presoaking, presoaks To soak (laundry) before washing. n. 1. The act or an instance of presoaking. 2. A liquid preparation in which laundry is presoaked. will loosen up the dirt, grease and road film from the car surface and make it ready for the car washing soap. The presoak is applied to the car and left on for 10-30 minutes. It may or may not be rinsed before applying the car wash soap. A standard presoak formula will contain good builders, surfactants with excellent wetting and penetrating properties and perhaps some solvents such as glycol ethers Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol, also sometimes called Cellosolve. These solvents typically have higher boiling point, together with the favorable solvent properties of lower molecular weight ethers and alcohols. . The pH is adjusted at 9-12. Most presoak formulas have a high pH and contain fair amounts of electrolytes such as phosphates, carbonates and silicates. The surfactants suitable for this application must meet two important requirements: They must be stable in high pH as well as in high electrolyte electrolyte (lk`trlt'), electrical conductor in which current is carried by ions rather than by free electrons (as in a metal). environment. Maintaining pH stability is more important because the electrolyte stability can be compensated by the addition of an appropriate hydrotrope such as sodium xylene xylene (z`ln) or dimethylbenzene (d'mthlbn`zn), C6H4(CH3)2 sulfonate sulfonate n. A salt or ester of sulfonic acid. v. 1. To introduce one or more sulfonic acid groups into an organic compound. 2. To treat with sulfonic acid. . Most amphoterics have good alkali alkali (l`kl) [Arab., al-gili=ashes of saltwort], hydroxide of an alkali metal. Alkalies are readily soluble in water and form strongly basic solutions with a characteristic acrid taste. stability. In fact, amphoterics are stable in alkaline as well as acidic acidic /acidic/ (ah-sidik) of or pertaining to an acid; acid-forming. acidic, adj having the properties of an acid; acid-forming properties. solutions. Ethoxylated amines include coconut amine amine (mn`, m`n): see under amino group. amine Any of a class of nitrogen-containing organic compounds derived, either in principle or in practice, from ammonia (NH3). with five moles Moles Definition A mole (nevus) is a pigmented (colored) spot on the outer layer of the skin (epidermis).

Description Moles can be round, oval, flat, or raised. They can occur singly or in clusters on any part of the body. of ethylene oxide ethylene oxide Occupational medicine A gas used to sterilize medical supplies and other materials or tallow tallow, solid fat extracted from the tissues and fatty deposits of animals, especially from suet (the fat of cattle and sheep). Pure tallow is white, odorless and tasteless; it consists chiefly of triglycerides of stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids. amine with 10 moles of ethylene oxide, amine oxides such as lauramine oxide or cocamine oxide, cocamidopropylhydroxy sultaine and amphoterics such as sodium cocoamphopropionate, all of which are good examples of the surfactants that can be used in presence of electrolytes as well as in high and low pH applications. Here are some starting formulas to consider when developing presoak products:
Presoaks with Phosphates Ingredients Water TKPP Sodium cocoamphopropionate Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water STPP Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water STPP Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water TKPP Sodium cocoamphopropionate Monoethanolamine Glycol ether EB Preservatives, dyes Non-Phosphate Presoaks Ingredients Water Tetrasodium EDTA Sodium carbonate Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 88.0 2.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 q.s. % Wt. 87.0 10.0 3.0 q.s. % Wt. 88.0 8.0 4.0 q.s. % Wt. 90.0 8.0 2.0 q.s. % Wt. 87.0 5.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 q.s.

Ingredients Water Tetrasodium EDTA Sodium carbonate Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Lauramine oxide Preservatives, dyes

% Wt. 90.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 q.s.

Car Wash Soaps Car wash soaps should have a multitude of attributes, including: high foam, the ability to cut through the road film on the car and remove dirt, grease and grime; rinsability; non-damaging to paint or car surfaces and biodegradablity. Car wash soaps can be formulated as powders or liquids. Powders are a mixture of builders such as phosphates, carbonates and silicates blended in a ribbon blender and surfactants such as linear alkyl alkyl /alkyl/ (alk'l) the monovalent radical formed when an aliphatic hydrocarbon loses one hydrogen atom.

alkyl n. benzene sulfonate (LAS) and nonylphenol ethoxylate adsorbed onto the powder. Liquid car wash soaps are a blend of surfactants, builders and solvents dissolved in water. The economical version of car wash soaps are made with LAS and some sodium carbonate sodium carbonate, chemical compound, Na2CO3, soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol. Pure sodium carbonate is a white, odorless powder that absorbs moisture from the air, has an alkaline taste, and forms a strongly alkaline water and sodium metasilicate pentahydrate dissolved in water. This is the very basic formula for the car wash soap. If more flash foam is needed, a little sodium lauryl ether ether, in chemistry ether, any of a number of organic compounds whose molecules contain two hydrocarbon groups joined by single bonds to an oxygen atom. sulfate sulfate, chemical compound containing the sulfate (SO4) radical. Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogens with a metal (e.g., sodium) or a radical (e.g., ammonium or ethyl). is added. If more creamy, dense foam is desired, an amphoteric such as sodium cocoamphopropionate can be added. For foam stability and viscosity building an amide, betaine betaine /betaine/ (betah-en) the carboxylic acid derived by oxidation of choline; it acts as a transmethylating metabolic intermediate and is used in the treatment of homocystinuria. or amine oxide can be used. Amides will give more foam stability and viscosity building whereas the amine oxide and betaine will increase the foam quantity but may not increase the viscosity as much as the amide will. Glycol ethers or other solvents can be used to improve grease removal and penetration into the road film. The bulk of the surfactant system used in a car wash soap is anionic anion n. A negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis.

[From Greek, neuter present participle of anienai, to go up : ana-, ana- surfactants due, mainly, to the cost. The most commonly used, primary surfactant system is a combination of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES (SuSE Linux Enterprise Server) See SuSE Linux. ). Other surfactants are used as additives to this basic surfactant system. There are four kinds of chemistries that are suitable for this purpose: Amides: Both 2:1 and 1:1 amides can be used as additives in car wash soaps. While 1:1 amides such as cocamide DEA Cocamide DEA, or cocamide diethanolamine, is a diethanolamide made by reacting fatty acids in coconut oils with diethanolamine. It is a viscous liquid and is used as a foaming agent in bath products like shampoos and hand soaps, and in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent. 1:1 will build the viscosity and will act as a foam stabilizer stabilizer: see airplane. and booster. They can be used at a level of 2-4% in a car wash soap formula. The 2:1 amides will not only act as viscosity and foam boosters but will also aid cleaning and degreasing performance. The use level is 24%. Betaines A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as an ammonium ion or phosphonium ion (generally: onium ions) which bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group and sultaines: Betaines and sultaines (or sulfobetaines) will enhance foaming, build viscosity and add to the cleaning performance of the formula. Use levels of 3-5% are recommended. Sulfobetaines are used when a large quantity of builders such as phosphates, carbonates and metasilicates are present in the formula. Amine oxides: Lauramine oxide and other amine oxides are excellent detergency detergency n. The power or quality of cleansing. Noun 1. detergency - detergent quality; the quality of having cleansing power detergence usefulness, utility - the quality of being of practical use boosters. They also act as foam stabilizers, foam enhancers and viscosity builders. A use level of 4-6% is recommended. Here are some starting formulas for car wash soaps:
Car Wash Soaps Ingredients Water TKPP Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (40%) Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (28%) Sodium cocoamphopropionate Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 60.0 2.0 3.0 20.0 10.0 5.0 q.s.

Ingredients Water Sodium carbonate Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (40%) Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (28%) Lauramine oxide Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Sodium carbonate Tetrasodium EDTA Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (40%) Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (28%) Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Sodium carbonate Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Sodium citrate Glycol ether EB Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (40%) Sodium lauryl ether) sulfate (28% Cocamide DEA Preservatives, dyes

% Wt. 60.0 2.0 3.0 20.0 10.0 5.0 q.s. % Wt. 59.0 2.0 1.0 3.0 20.0 10.0 5.0 q.s. % Wt. 56.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 4.0 20.0 10.0 3.0 q.s.

Car Wash-n-Wax This is a two-in-one product that cleans the car and then beads and sheets the water for easy drying. The term "wax" may not be appropriate here because the car does not get waxed--just dried--though it does get some shine due to the mineral oil and/or quat used in the formula. Since this soap contain quats, anionic surfactants such as LAS or SLES should not be added to formula. Similarly, builders such as phosphates, silicates and carbonates are not used because of the quats. Here the main surfactants are either amphoterics or nonionics, both of which are compatible with quats. A wide variety of surfactants can be used in this application. For the soap portion of the formula, amphoterics, including sodium cocoamphopropionate, sodium cocoamphoacetate, cocamidopropyl betaine Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a

zwitterionic surfactant with a quaternary ammonium cation in its molecule. It is a viscous pale yellow transparent liquid and is used as a surfactant in bath products like shampoos and hand soaps, and in cosmetics as an emulsifying agent , cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, amine oxides and ethoxylated amines can be used in various combinations. For the beading beading, n the scribing of a shallow groove (less than 0.5 mm in width or depth) on a cast that outlines the major connector. It is used to transfer the design to the investment cast and ensure tissue contact of the major connector. and sheeting action, quats such as dicocodimonium chloride are widely used. Ethoxylated quats can be used where a water-soluble quat is needed. Some suggested starting formulation guidelines for car wash-n-dry products are shown here:
Car Wash-N-Dry Formulas Ingredients Water Sodium cocoamphopropionate Dicocodimonium chloride Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Sodium cocoamphopropionate Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Dicocodimonium Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Mineral seal oil Dicocodimonium chloride Glycol ether EB Ethoxylated cocamine (5 mole) Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 70.0 25.0 5.0 q.s. % Wt. 65.0 20.0 10.0 5.0 q.s. % Wt. 50.0 10.0 10.0 5.0 25.0 q.s.

Whitewall Tire Cleaners Whitewall tire cleaners are formulated to remove the tough road film, grease, grime and dirt from the tire. They are heavy in caustics and builders. The surfactants used in this application must be stable to high pH and electrolytes. Amphoterics such as sodium cocoamphopropionate will work well in this application. Other surfactants that can provide a performance advantage in this application include ethoxylated amines and hydroxysultaines. Some suggested starting formulation guidelines are as follows:
Whitewall Tire Cleaners Ingredients Water Potassium hydroxide (45%) % Wt. 67.0 13.0

TKPP Sodium cocoamphopropionate Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Potassium hydroxide (45%) Sodium carbonate Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Monoethanolamine Glycol ether EB Tetrasodium EDTA (48%) Cocamine ethoxylate (5moles) Preservatives, dyes

12.0 8.0 q.s. % Wt. 77.0 8.0 4.0 3.0 8.0 q.s. % Wt. 74.0 3.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 q.s.

Engine Cleaners/Degreasers As the name suggests, these products are formulated to cut stubborn grease and road film. These products are highly alkaline with surfactants that have excellent wetting and penetrating properties. Glycol ethers are commonly used as grease removers in these formulas. Some formulators also use other solvents such as kerosene kerosene or kerosine, colorless, thin mineral oil whose density is between 0.75 and 0.85 grams per cubic centimeter. A mixture of hydrocarbons, it is commonly obtained in the fractional distillation of petroleum as the portion boiling off or d-limonene. A microemulsion of d-limonene is an excellent form for this application. The surfactants used in this application include amphoterics and ethoxylated amines. Here are some suggested formulations for engine cleaners and degreasers:
Engine Degreaser Ingredients Water Monoethanolamine Glycol ether DPM Sodium cocoamphopropionate Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water TKPP Glycol ether DPM Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Preservatives, dyes Ingredients % Wt. 68.0 10.0 15.0 7.0 q.s. % Wt. 68.0 10.0 15.0 7.0 q.s. % Wt.

Water Potassium hydroxide Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Glycol ether DPM Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water d-limonene Glycol ether DPM Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water TKPP d-limonene Glycol ether DPM Tallowamine ethoxylate (10 mole) Preservatives, dyes

71.0 5.0 7.0 12.0 5.0 q.s. % Wt. 54.0 10.0 6.0 30.0 q.s. % Wt. 68.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 q.s.

Windshield Washers Windshield washers are designed to remove grease and dirt from the glass. The soil is comparatively light and the glass substrate is a hard, non-porous surface, which makes it easier to clean. Here the important requirement is that the surfactant should not leave spots and streaks. Most formulators use alcohol, generally IPA IPA - International Phonetic Alphabet , to prevent the formula from freezing. Dipropylene glycol glycol (gl`kl), dihydric alcohol in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. monomethyl ether and other glycol ethers are used as solvents to dissolve any oil or grease and grime. Ammonia or other suitable alkalis are used to impart alkalinity alkalinity n. The alkali concentration or alkaline quality of a substance that contains alkali.

alkalinity 1. the quality of being alkaline. 2. to the formula. Surfactants are used in low amounts, 0.2-1.0%, to provide the wetting and penetrating action to the formula. Commonly used surfactants in this application include decamine oxide, caprylic/capric amidopropyl betaine, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine and caprylic/capric amphoacetate. Here are two starting formulas:
Windshield Washer Fluid

Ingredients Water Isopropyl alcohol 6.0 Glycol ether DPM Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine Monoethanolamine Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Isopropyl alcohol Glycol ether DPM Caprylic/capric amphoacetate Ammonia Preservatives, dyes

% Wt. 89.0

4.0 0.5 0.5 q.s. % Wt. 89.0 6.0 4.0 0.5 0.5 q.s.

Windshield Treatments There are some products on the U.S. market which are intended to treat the windshield in such a way that when rain drops on the windshield, the water sheets off without the use of wipers For the town in Belgium which was called 'Wipers' by British soldiers during World War One, See Ypres.

The Wipers were a punk rock group formed in Portland, Oregon in 1977 by guitarist Greg Sage, drummer Sam Henry and bassist Dave Koupal. . The product forms an invisible barrier that repels rain, sleet sleet, precipitation of small, partially melted grains of ice. As raindrops fall from clouds, they pass through layers of air at different temperatures. If they pass through a layer with a temperature below the freezing point, they turn into sleet. and snow on contact. Raindrops bead up and are blown away by the aerodynamic wind flow from driving. The directions for use of these products calls for cleaning the glass, then applying the product to a dry cloth and wiping onto the exterior glass. The product is then wiped with a dry towel until clear. Aminofunctional silicones are well suited for this application because of their substantivity, durability and detergent-resistant properties. A starting formula is as follows:
Windshield Treatment Ingredients Aminofunctional silicone IPA % Wt. 2.5 97.5

Car Drying Aids

After the car is washed in an automatic car wash, it is sprayed with rinse/drying aid. The main purpose of this aid is to bead up the remaining water on the car surface so it can be easily removed by the blast of air. The "beading up" of water is caused by the accumulation of small water droplets into a large bead. The product that forces the water to form beads is not a true wax; it is a mixture of quat and mineral seal oil Noun 1. seal oil - a pale yellow to red-brown fatty oil obtained from seal blubber; used in making soap and dressing leather and as a lubricant animal oil - any oil obtained from animal substances . The formation of beads of water on a car surface is generally accomplished by a microemulsion of mineral seal oil in water formed with the help of a quat. A common formula for this so-called hot wax or drying aid is shown here.
Hot Wax Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Mineral seal oil Glycol ether EB Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 20.0 25.0 5.0 50.0 q.s.

The dicocodimonium chloride creates a microemulsion of mineral seal oil in water. This microemulsion is a dispersion of droplets of oil in the water. The droplet droplet very small drop of fluid.

droplet nuclei the finite particles of matter which are transmitted from animal to animal. size is so small that the light passes through them and does not get reflected back, which is why it appears as a clear solution rather than a dispersion. Macroemulsions such as skin care creams and lotions lotions, n.pl nonoily treatments intended to be applied to the skin for a variety of cosmetic or medicinal purposes. are also dispersions of fats, oils and waxes in water but here the oil droplets that are dispersed in water are much larger than the droplet size in a microemulsion. A macroemulsion such as a skin care lotion appears white because the light does not pass through and gets reflected back. The hot wax formula for drying aids also includes glycol ether. Glycol ether provides the required solubilization and HLB to create the microemulsion. Sometimes the formula also needs a nonionic surfactant. Preferred surfactants are ethoxylated amines such as cocoamine with five moles of ethylene oxide. Therefore another formula can be made as follows.
Hot Wax Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Mineral seal oil Glycol Ether EB Exothylated cocoamine Water % Wt. 20.0 25.0 5.0 2.0 48.0

Preservatives, dyes

q.s.

Drying aids form a thin, nearly invisible layer of quat and mineral seal oil on the car's surface. The quat molecules tend to attach themselves to the surface and bring the mineral seal oil with them to form an efficient hydrophobic hydrophobic /hydrophobic/ (-fobik) 1. pertaining to hydrophobia (rabies). 2. not readily absorbing water, or being adversely affected by water. 3. layer. When water comes in contact with this layer it immediately gets repelled and forced to stick together rather than stick to the car surface, which makes water bead off. The quat causes a reduction in surface tension. Addition of nonionic surfactants causes further reduction in surface tension; thus the nonionic helps sheet the water off the car. Nonionic surfactants such as nonylphenol ethoxylates or alcohol ethoxylates can be used, but they wash away part of the quat. Ethoxylated amines are more compatible with quats due to a pseudo-positive charge on the nitrogen (created by the shift of electrons) in ethoxylated amines. All of our test results point to the fact that ethoxylated amines work much better than other nonionics in this application. Here are three car drying/rinse aid starting formulations in premium, standard and economy qualities:
Premium Quality Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Exothylated cocoamine Glycol ether EB Mineral seal oil Water Preservatives, dyes Standard Quality Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Exothylated cocoamine Glycol ether EB Mineral seal oil Water Preservatives, dyes Economy Quality Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Exothylated cocoamine Glycol ether EB Mineral seal oil Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 9.0 3.0 2.0 14.0 72.0 q.s. % Wt. 13.6 2.4 3.0 20.0 61.0 q.s. % Wt. 18.0 2.0 5.0 25.0 50.0 q.s.

Adding silicone quats to the formula will enhance the beading and sheeting action, as well as cause quick breaking of foam and will help leave a shine on the car while protecting the surface. Here's a sample starting formula:
Car Drying / Rinse Aid Premium Quality Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Exothylated cocoamine Silicone quat Glycol ether EB Mineral seal oil Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 18.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 25.0 47.0 q.s.

Troubleshooting The standard procedure for making the formulas found in this article is to add all ingredients in the order listed except water. Mix well and make sure that the batch is homogenous homogenous - homogeneous and smooth, free of lumps or particles, before adding water. Add water slowly with good agitation. The mixer must be able to create a vortex. A variety of problems can be encountered when making a car drying/rinse aid formula. Cold weather adds to the problems since emulsions in general, and microemulsions in particular, are sensitive to low temperatures. Order of addition as well as speed of mixing is important to create a crystal-clear batch. Mineral seal oil (MSO (1) (Multiple System Operator) Typically refers to a cable TV organization that owns more than one cable system, but it may refer to an operator of only one system. ) quality is an important factor. Mineral seal oils are mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic aliphatic /aliphatic/ (al?i-fatik) pertaining to any member of one of the two major groups of organic compounds, those with a straight or branched chain structure.

aliphatic adj. hydrocarbons and their ratios vary from supplier to supplier and from batch to batch. Recent increases in crude oil prices may have caused some alterations in the quality of mineral seal oil. The quality and hardness of water is another variable. Hard water that contains calcium and magnesium can cause variations in the formulation. Order of addition, speed of addition and mixing equipment are also important factors. When making a batch, it is recommended to add MSO, quat and glycol ether and mix them very well. The mixing equipment must be able to create a vortex and bring the bottom part of the mixture to the top; otherwise, a portion of the quat can stay at the bottom. The water should be added slowly with constant mixing. Whenever the batch does not turn out clear there are some adjustments that should be made. Here are a few examples:

* Add more quat. As discussed earlier, the quality of MSO can vary. If the MSO has more aliphatic material, it will take more quat to emulsify emulsify v. To make into an emulsion.

emul sifica tion n. . * Add more EB. Some batches take a little more EB to make the microemulsion. * Add exothylated cocoamine. The addition of 1-2% exothylated cocoamine also helps. If the viscosity of the batch is higher or there is a gel formation, add 0.5% of betaine. Occasionally, the addition of 2-5% propylene glycol will also help dissolve any precipitation. Foaming Drying Aids A drying aid which is becoming more popular in the U.S. is heavily pigmented and makes colored bubbles as it is sprayed on the car for water beading and sheeting purposes to dry the car in an automatic car wash. These drying aids contain less mineral seal oil and more nonionic or amphoteric surfactant to produce foam. The typical quats can be used for the drying action. Mineral seal oil may or may not be used. If mineral seal oil is used, the quantity should be reduced due to its defoaming action. Ethoxylated quats can also be used. The ethoxylation makes them watersoluble and relatively more foam producing than the regular dicoco quats. Additives that increase foam volume and stability include cocoamidopropyl betaine, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, lauramine oxide and cocamine ethoxylate. Here are some suggested starting formulas for foaming drying/rinse aids:
Foaming Drying/Rinse Aid Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Mineral seal oil Exothylated cocoamine Glycol ether EB Water Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Dicocodimonium chloride Mineral seal oil Exothylated cocoamine Cocamine oxide Glycol ether EB Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 20.0 10.0 25.0 5.0 40.0 q.s. % Wt. 20.0 5.0 5.0 25.0 5.0 40.0 q.s.

Car Polishes Car polishes provide gloss, protect and clean the car's painted surfaces. A wide variety of auto polishes are available on the market. The polish can be formulated in three different physical forms--namely paste, liquid and spray. Modern car polishes often contain at least some of the following ingredients: Silicones and their derivatives have excellent performance in polish formulas. Polydimethyl siloxanes and various organo modifications are used in this application. As a general rule, higher viscosity fluids give more gloss and durability but are difficult to process and difficult to buff and rubout rubout n. Slang 1. A murder or killing. 2. Destruction or obliteration: the rubout of a rival gang. . The lower viscosity fluids are easier to formulate with and apply. Emulsions are very easy to incorporate in a formula. Aminofunctional silicones are widely used for their substantivity and detergent resistancy. Silicone resins can also be used for their durability. Thus in general, silicones provide water repellency and protection as well as gloss and durability. The primary function of the solvents in a car polish is to clean the surface dirt, grease and grime and prepare the surface for the polish. They also act as the carrier for waxes, silicones and other actives to the surface. Solvents should be carefully chosen because high KB value solvents can damage the painted surfaces. Generally a solvent with less than 40 KB value is recommended. Common solvents are deodorized mineral spirits Mineral Spirits also called Stoddard solvent [CAS 8052-41-3][1], is a petroleum distilate commonly used as a paint thinner and mild solvent. In Europe, it is referred to as white spirit. , deodorized kerosene and VM&P naphtha naphtha (np`th, nf`), term usually restricted to a class of colorless, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. . Waxes are used in the polish in order to control the viscosity of the formula, provide hardness and some gloss to the film, improve emulsification and stability of the emulsion emulsion: see colloid. emulsion Mixture of two or more liquids in which one is dispersed in the other as microscopic or ultramicroscopic droplets (see colloid). Emulsions are stabilized by agents (emulsifiers) that (e.g. , control bleeding, improve opacity Refers to being "opaque," which means to prevent light from shining through. For example, in an image editing program, the opacity level for some function might range from completely transparent (0) to completely opaque (100). , provide lubrication lubrication, introduction of a substance between the contact surfaces of moving parts to reduce friction and to dissipate heat. A lubricant may be oil, grease, graphite, or any substancegas, liquid, semisolid, or solidthat permits free action of and increase durability. Common waxes include carnauba carnauba (krn`b, nou`), wax obtained from the wax palm, or carnauba (Copernicia cerifera), of Brazil. It is secreted by the leaves, apparently in defense against the hot winds and droughts of its native habitat, , beeswax beeswax: see wax.

beeswax Commercially useful wax secreted by worker honeybees to make the cell walls of the honeycomb. A bee consumes an estimated 610 lbs (34. , paraffin paraffin, white, more-or-less translucent, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid. It melts between 47&degC; and 65&degC; and is insoluble in water but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters. and microcrystalline wax. A blend of two or more waxes impart several desired properties to the final formula. A wide variety of emulsifiers can be used to produce oil-in-water or water-in-oil systems. Sorbitan sorbitan /sorbitan/ (sorbi-tan) any of the anhydrides of sorbitol, the fatty acids of which are surfactants used as emulsifiers in pharmaceutical preparations; see also polysorbate 80. esters esters (esterz), n.pl organic compounds synthesized from acids and alcohols, typically possessing fruity aromas. , alkoxylated alcohols, alkoxylate polydimethyl siloxanes and fatty acid fatty acid, any of the organic carboxylic acids present in fats and oils as esters of glycerol. Molecular weights of fatty acids vary over a wide range. The carbon skeleton of any fatty acid is unbranched. Some fatty acids are saturated, i.e. soaps can be used as emulsifiers. A number of other surfactants including amphoterics, alkyl sulfates, alkanolamides and ethoxylated fatty amines can also be used as emulsifiers. Oleic oleic adj. 1. Of, relating to, or derived from oil. 2. Of or relating to oleic acid. and stearic acid stearic acid /stearic acid/ (ste-arik) a saturated 18-carbon fatty acid occurring in most fats and oils, particularly of tropical plants and land animals; used pharmaceutically as a tablet and capsule lubricant and as an emulsifying soaps are also used. Popular Abrasives Finely divided clays and diatomaceous earth diatomaceous earth: see diatom. diatomaceous earth or kieselguhr Light-coloured, porous, and friable sedimentary rock composed of the frustrules (silicate cell walls) of diatoms. products are used in polishes to remove stubborn road film and tar from the car surface. The abrasives remove surface scratches and slight imperfections and smooth out the surface to be polished. Common commercial products include Snow Floss, Super Floss and Kaopolite. The choice of abrasive depends on the type of surface to be polished. Newer cars with clear coats generally require a mild abrasive with a very fine particle size Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. The term may also be applied to other granular materials. . More aggressive abrasives with a larger particle size may be more suitable for older cars. Depending on the amount and composition of the oil phase in an oil-in-water emulsion, a thickener thicken tr. & intr.v. thickened, thickening, thickens

1. To make or become thick or thicker: Thicken the sauce with cornstarch. The crowd thickened near the doorway. 2. may or may not be needed. If the quantity of the oil phase is considerable and it contains a good amount of waxes, the formula may not need any other thickener. If the formula turns out to be thin, it will not be able to keep abrasives in suspension. In such cases a water phase thickener may be used. Common thickeners include carbopol, cellulose gums and magnesium aluminum silicate silicate, chemical compound containing silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, e.g., aluminum, barium, beryllium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, or zirconium. Silicates may be considered chemically as salts of the various silicic acids. . Liquid Car Polish with High Gloss and Detergent Resistancy
Ingredients Wax Odorless mineral sprits Aminofunctional siloxane Dimethicone emulsion Oleic acid Morpholine Kaopolite 1152 Water Preservative, perfume, dye % Wt. 5.8 32.1 3.5 4.7 1.7 0.9 10.0 41.3 q.s.

Paste Car Polish with High Gloss and Detergent Resistancy Ingredients Beeswax Carnauba wax Odorless mineral spirit Aminofunctional siloxane Dimethicone 350 Dimethicone 100,000 Stearic acid Morpholine Kaopolite Carbopol Water Preservative, perfume, dye Liquid Spray and Wipe Polish For New Clear Coat Cars Ingredients Silicone emulsion Water Preservative, perfume, dye % Wt. 10.0 90.0 q.s. % Wt. 4.8 2.0 34.4 3.5 4.3 1.8 1.6 0.9 10.0 0.2 36.5 q.s.

Tire Dressings Tire dressings bring out the depth of the color and provide gloss to the tire to make it

look newer and more attractive. Tire dressings also provide some protection to the tire from road film and environmental pollutants environmental pollutants, n.pl the substances and conditions, including noise, that adversely affect the health and well-being of the people within a community. . Tire dressings are generally very low viscosity products and can be applied with a pump sprayer. The formulations can be solvent based or water based. In the solvent based systems deodorized kerosene or mineral sprits are used as the carrier and base and silicone fluids are used as a gloss enhancer. Amino functional silicones add durability and detergent resistancy. Waterbased dressings can be simple water dilutions of silicone emulsions. Some suggested starting formulations are as follows.
Solvent-based Tire Dressing Ingredients Odorless mineral spirits Dimethicone 350 Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 90.0 10.0 q.s.

Solvent-based Tire Dressing (with amino functional silicone) Ingredients Odorless mineral spirits Dimethicone 350 Aminofunctional silicone Preservatives, dyes Water-based Tire Dressing Ingredients Silicone emulsion Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 10.0 90.0 q.s. % Wt. 90.0 8.0 2.0 q.s.

Plastic and Vinyl Cleaners Car interiors include such diverse surfaces as plastic, vinyl and leather. All of them must be cleaned and cared for properly. A mild, low foaming cleaner is generally needed to do the job of cleaning while a thin film of an appropriate silicone derivative will work well for the care and appearance of the surface. For the cleaner part, a lowfoaming surfactant with good wetting properties on plastic and vinyl is required. Some of these surfactants include decylamine oxide, caprylic/capric amidopropylbetaine, and caprylic/capric amphoacetate. Builders such as EDTA EDTA: see chelating agents. , sodium citrate, sodium metasilicate and small amounts of TKPP can also be used. Glycol ethers will also boost soil removal. A plastic and vinyl polish is easy to make. A simple dilution of an appropriate silicone emulsion will do the job. Here are some starting formulas for plastic and vinyl cleaners.
Plastic and Vinyl Cleaner Ingredients % Wt.

Water Decylamine oxide Caprylic/capric amidopropylbetaine EDTA Glycol ether DPM Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Water Alcohol alkoxylate Caprylic/capric amphoacetate TKPP Glycol ether DPM Preservatives, dyes Ingredients Silicone emulsion Water Preservatives, dyes

92.0 3.0 2.0 0.5 2.5 q.s. % Wt. 94.0 1.0 2.0 0.5 2.5 q.s. % Wt. 20.0 80.0 q.s.

Leather Polish and Protectant Leather is a relatively soft and porous material. A leather polish and protectant formula should contain ingredients that can penetrate the pores and keep it moisturized and soft and also protect its surface from the harmful effects of foreign substances. Silicone fluid with about 100 cst viscosity will also do a good job. A suggested starting formula for one of these products is shown here:
Leather Polish and Protectant Ingredients Silicone liquid wax Dimethicone 100 Bees wax White mineral spirit Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 3.0 5.0 2.0 25.0 65.0 q.s.

Upholstery and Carpet Shampoo Carpet shampoos are based on anionic surfactants that dry into a powder and can be easily removed with a vacuum cleaner. Alkyl sulfates, sarcocinates and sulfosuccinates are often the primary surfactants in a carpet shampoo formula. For lower foam versions, naphthalene naphthalene (nf`thln'), colorless, crystalline, solid aromatic hydrocarbon with a pungent odor. It melts at 80&degC;, boils at 218&degC;, and sublimes upon heating. and cumene Cumene n. 1. (Chem.) A colorless oily hydrocarbon, C6H5.C3H7, obtained by the distillation of cuminic acid; - called also cumol ltname>. sulfonates are commonly used. Secondary

surfactants are used as detergency enhancers, spot removers, foam and viscosity modifiers and antibacterial antibacterial /antibacterial/ (-bak-tere-al) destroying or suppressing growth or reproduction of bacteria; also, an agent that does this.

antibacterial adj. agents. Ethoxylated amines, for example, can boost detergency and spot removal properties. Some amphoterics such as sodium cocoamphopropionate will also increase the detergency and the alkali stability of the formula. If a quat is used as an antibacterial agent in the formula then the anionic surfactants can not be used. In that case amphoterics become the primary surfactant. Various builders can be used when formulating a carpet cleaner. TKPP in small amounts (0.5-2.5%) does an excellent job as a builder. Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate is a corrosion inhibitor A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added in small concentration, stops or slows down corrosion of metals and alloys. A typical good corrosion inhibitor will give 95% inhibition at concentration of 80 ppm, and 90% at 40 ppm. and provides alkalinity. EDTA, sodium citrate and sodium carbonate can also be used. Sodium bicarbonate sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, chemical compound, NaHCO3, a white crystalline or granular powder, commonly known as bicarbonate of soda or baking soda. It is soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol. is also a popular additive in carpet cleaners. Glycol ethers act as cleaners and degreasers in a carpet shampoo formula. Propylene propylene /propylene/ (propi-len) a gaseous hydrocarbon, CH3CHdbondCH2.

propylene glycol a colorless viscous liquid used as a humectant and solvent in pharmaceutical preparations. glycol-based ethers such as DPM (Documents Per Minute) The number of paper documents that can be processed in one minute. can be used at a 2-5% level. If a perfume is used, it must be completely solubilized in the formula. Generally there are enough surfactants in the formula to dissolve the perfume. In other cases where a heavy dose of perfume is used or there are not enough surfactants to solubilize solubilize v. To make substances such as fats soluble in water by the action of a detergent or similar agent. the perfume, adding ethoxylated amines will help solubilize the perfume. Here are some starting formulas for auto carpet and upholstery cleaners:
Carpet Shampoo Ingredients Sulfosuccinate Cocamine ethoxylate (5 mole) Tetrasodium EDTA Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Acrylic polymer Water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 16.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 77.0 q.s.

Low Foam Carpet Cleaner Ingredients Water TKPP Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Sodium bicarbonate Decamime oxide Capped alcohol ethoxylate Preservatives, dyes High Foam Carpet Cleaner Ingredients Water TKPP Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate Sodium cocoamphoacetate Magnesium lauryl sulfate Preservatives, dyes Carpet and Upholstery Cleaner Ingredients Water Sodium lauryl sulfate Cocoamine ethoxylate (5 mole) Sodium ccocamphopropionate TKPP Glycol ether DPM Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 71.0 12.0 2.0 5.0 3.0 7.0 q.s. % Wt. 72.0 5.0 3.0 5.0 15.0 q.s. % Wt. 84.0 5.0 3.0 2.0 5.5 0.5 q.s.

Odor Absorbers One of the current trends in auto carpet and upholstery cleaning is to add an odorcontrolling agent in order to neutralize neutralize to render neutral. malodors such as cigarette smoke, pet odors Odors anosmia Medicine. the absence of the sense of smell; olfactory anesthesia. Also called anosphrasia. anosmic, adj. halitosis bad breath; an unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth. or food smells. These odorcontrolling agents can be divided into three categories. One is a suitable perfume that can cover up the odor. The disadvantages of the perfume can be that it just covers up the malodor and when the perfume evaporates, the malodor will come back. Also perfume is a very personal thing and some people may not like the smell of the mixture of a

particular perfume with a malodor. The second category of odor controllers are chemicals with cavities in their molecules, such as cyclodextrin. The malodor and a strong perfume can be absorbed in these cavities and thus the perfume covers the odor and makes the perfume last longer. The third type is zinc ricinoleate. This material when activated by solubilizing in water will make complex with malodors, which generally contain nitrogen and sulfur. This complexing is permanent and the malodor molecule is not released even upon drying. Here are somestarting formulas for odor absorbing products:
Upholstery and Carpet Shampoo with Odor Absorber Ingredients Sodium lauryl sulfate Decylamine oxide Caprylic/capric amidopropylbetaine Zinc ricinoleate (50% con.) Water Preservatives, dyes Upholstery and Carpet Shampoo with Odor Absorber Ingredients Sodium naphthalene sulfonate Lauramine oxide Zinc ricinoleate (50% con.) TKPP Water Preservatives, dyes Carpet Cleaner with Odor Absorber Ingredients Zinc ricinoleate (50% con.) Propylene glycol Isopropyl alcohol Cocamine ethoxylate (5 moles) Sodium lauryl sulfate Deionized water Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 1.00 3.00 3.00 1.00 2.00 90.0 q.s. % Wt. 10.0 8.0 1.0 2.0 79.0 q.s. % Wt. 10.0 5.0 5.0 1.0 79.0 q.s.

Other Products for Car Interiors Cigarette smoke is one of the most common odors inside a car. Other malodors include pet odors, urine and food odors. There are several products on the North American market, which are used to fight odors inside an auto. Most of them are based on fragrances that cover up malodors. Zinc ricinoleate can be used to actually adsorb adsorb /adsorb/ (ad-sorb) to attract and retain other material on the surface; to conduct the process of adsorption.

adsorb v.

To take up by adsorption. these odors and thus eliminate them rather than just mask them with fragrance. A combination of a pleasant fragrance and zinc ricinoleate can also be formulated to provide the best of the both worlds. A suggested starting formula is as follows:
Car Interior Deodorizer Spray Ingredients Zinc ricinoleate (50% conc.) Tween 20 Deionized water Sodium citrate Preservatives, dyes % Wt. 2.0 4.0 91.2 2.5 q.s.

Due to the superwetting and surface tension reduction to very low levels of some of the silicone surfactants they can be used to formulate excellent glass cleaners with antifogging properties.
Interior Windshield Cleaner with Anti-fogging Effect Ingredients Dimethicone copoyol Isopropyl alcohol Deionized water % Wt. 1.0 49.0 49.0

In the past, maintaining a car's appearance required plenty of elbow grease. But today, manufacturers are making it easier for consumers to keep their cars looking new many years after they drive them off the dealer's lot. For more information contact Shoaib Arif at (614) 764-6684 or email: shoaib.arif@us.goldschmidt.com COPYRIGHT 2001 Rodman Publications, Inc. No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder. Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.