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United States
Constitution.


Contents
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Congress. US Constitution.

Nineteenth Amendment - Woman's Suffrage Rights


Contents Twentieth Amendment - Commencement of the Terms of the Presi-
dent, Vice President and Members of Congress.
Twenty-First Amendment - Repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment
Article 1. Twenty-Second Amendment - Presidential Tenure
Article 2. Twenty-Third Amendment - Presidential Electors for the District of
Article 3. Columbia
Article 4. Twenty-Fourth Amendment - Abolition of the Poll Tax Qualification
Article 5. in Federal Elections
Article 6. Twenty-Fifth Amendment - Presidential Vacancy, Disability, and In-
Article 7. ability
Twenty-Sixth Amendment - Reduction of Voting Age Qualification
Amendments Twenty-Seventh Amendment - Congressional Pay Limitation
First Amendment - Religion and Expression
Second Amendment - Bearing Arms
Third Amendment - Quartering Soldiers Click on a number in the list to go to the
Fourth Amendment - Search and Seizure first page of that article or amendment.
Fifth Amendment - Rights of Persons
Note:
Sixth Amendment - Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions The best way to read this ebook is in Full
Seventh Amendment - Civil Trials Screen mode: click View, Full Screen to set
Eighth Amendment - Further Guarantees in Criminal Cases Adobe Acrobat to Full Screen View. This mode
Ninth Amendment - Unenumerated Rights allows you to use Page Down to go to the next
page, and affords the best reading view. Press
Tenth Amendment - Reserved Powers
Escape to exit the Full Screen View.
Eleventh Amendment - Suits Against States
Twelfth Amendment - Election of President
Thirteenth Amendment - Slavery and Involuntary Servitude
Fourteenth Amendment - Rights Guaranteed, Privileges and Immunities
of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection
Contents

Fifteenth Amendment - Rights of Citizens to Vote


Sixteenth Amendment - Income Tax
Seventeenth Amendment - Popular Election of Senators
Eighteenth Amendment - Prohibition of Intoxicating Liquors
Congress. US Constitution.
1

The We the People of the United States, in Order to form a


more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tran-

United States quility, provide for the common defence, promote the general
Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and
our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for

Constitution. the United States of America.

Article 1.
Section 1.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives.
Contents

Section. 2.
Clause 1: The House of Representatives shall be composed
of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the
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2 3

several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Clause 4: When vacancies happen in the Representation
Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue
Branch of the State Legislature. Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
Clause 2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall Clause 5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their
not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of
seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, Impeachment.
when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall
be chosen. Section. 3.
Clause 3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be appor- Clause 1: The Senate of the United States shall be com-
tioned among the several States which may be included within posed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legis-
this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall lature thereof, (See Note 3) for six Years; and each Senator
be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Per- shall have one Vote.
sons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, Clause 2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in
and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Per- Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as
sons. (See Note 2) The actual Enumeration shall be made equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Sena-
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of tors of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the
the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth
Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Num- Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth
ber of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and
Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representa- if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the
tive; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof
New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachu- may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting
setts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. (See
Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva-
Contents

Note 4)
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Clause 3: No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have
Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a
Congress. US Constitution.
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Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as
be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. to the Places of chusing Senators.
Clause 4: The Vice President of the United States shall Clause 2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in
be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in
they be equally divided. December, (See Note 5) unless they shall by Law appoint a
Clause 5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and different Day.
also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice Presi-
dent, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the Section. 5.
United States.
Clause 6: The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Ma-
on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United jority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a
States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be
shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in
the Members present. such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may
Clause 7: Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not provide.
extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualifica-
tion to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit Clause 2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Pro-
under the United States: but the Party convicted shall never- ceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and,
theless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
and Punishment, according to Law.
Clause 3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceed-
Section. 4. ings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such
Contents

Clause 1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elec- Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas
tions for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in and Nays of the Members of either House on any question
each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on
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the Journal. Section. 7.


Clause 4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, Clause 1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in
shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or
than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
two Houses shall be sitting. Clause 2: Every Bill which shall have passed the House of
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law,
Section. 6. be presented to the President of the United States; If he ap-
Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a prove he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, Objections to that House in which it shall have originated,
and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. (See Note who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and
6) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two
of the Peace, beprivileged from Arrest during their Atten- thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be
dance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by
to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or De- which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by
bate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all
other Place. such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by
Clause 2: No Senator or Representative shall, during the yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and
Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Of- against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House
fice under the Authority of the United States, which shall respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President
have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been
encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Of- presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as
fice under the United States, shall be a Member of either if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjourn-
House during his Continuance in Office. ment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Contents

Clause 3: Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the


Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may
be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be
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presented to the President of the United States; and before Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors
the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discov-
disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the eries;
Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules Clause 9: To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme
and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. Court;
Clause 10: To define and punish Piracies and Felonies
Section. 8. committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of
Clause 1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and col- Nations;
lect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and Clause 11: To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and
provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and
United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be Water;
uniform throughout the United States; Clause 12: To raise and support Armies, but no Appro-
Clause 2: To borrow Money on the credit of the United priation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than
States; two Years;
Clause 3: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, Clause 13: To provide and maintain a Navy;
and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; Clause 14: To make Rules for the Government and Regu-
Clause 4: To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, lation of the land and naval Forces;
and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies through- Clause 15: To provide for calling forth the Militia to ex-
out the United States; ecute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and re-
Clause 5: To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and pel Invasions;
of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Mea- Clause 16: To provide for organizing, arming, and disci-
sures; plining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as
Clause 6: To provide for the Punishment of counterfeit- may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserv-
ing to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Offic-
Contents

ing the Securities and current Coin of the United States;


Clause 7: To establish Post Offices and post Roads; ers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to
Clause 8: To promote the Progress of Science and useful the discipline prescribed by Congress;
Congress. US Constitution.
10 11

Clause 17: To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases be passed.


whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) Clause 4: No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid,
as may, byCession of particular States, and the Acceptance of unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein
Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United before directed to be taken. (See Note 7)
States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased Clause 5: No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles ex-
by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the ported from any State.
Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, Clause 6: No Preference shall be given by any Regulation
dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;And of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those
Clause 18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be
proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Govern- Clause 7: No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury,
ment of the United States, or in any Department or Officer but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a
thereof. regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expen-
ditures of all public Money shall be published from time to
Section. 9. time.
Clause 1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons Clause 8: No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the
as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or
shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Con-
thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be gress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of
imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
each Person.
Clause 2: The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus Section. 10.
shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Clause 1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or
Contents

Invasion the public Safety may require it. Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin
Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and
Clause 3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of
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12 13

Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obliga-


tion of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
Clause 2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Con-
gress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, ex-
cept what may be absolutely necessary for executing its in-
spection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Im-
posts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for
the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such
Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the
Congress.
Clause 3: No State shall, without the Consent of Con- Article 2.
gress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War
in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with Section. 1.
another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, un- Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a Presi-
less actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not dent of the United States of America. He shall hold his Of-
admit of delay. fice during the Term of four Years, and, together with the
Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as fol-
lows
Clause 2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the
Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal
to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to
which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Sena-
tor or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or
Contents

Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.


Clause 3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States,
and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall
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not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And Clause 4: The Congress may determine the Time of
they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give
Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the
certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of United States.
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. Clause 5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a
The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Sen- Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of
ate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President;
and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall
greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Num- not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been
ber be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and Clause 6: In Case of the Removal of the President from
have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Repre- Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge
sentatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for the Powers and Duties of the said Office, (See Note 9) the
President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the Same shall devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress
five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resig-
chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes nation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President,
shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such
having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed,
Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a or a President shall be elected.
Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In Clause 7: The President shall, at stated Times, receive for
every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person hav- his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased
ing the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have
Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any
have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Contents

the Vice President. (See Note 8) Clause 8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office,
he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:I do sol-
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emnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Of- Clause 3: The President shall have Power to fill up all
fice of President of the United States, and will to the best of Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate,
my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of
the United States. their next Session.

Section. 2. Section. 3.
Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of He shall from time to time give to the Congress Informa-
the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia tion of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Con-
of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the sideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and ex-
United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the pedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both
principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement be-
any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, tween them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he
and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he
Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Im- shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall
peachment. take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall
Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice Commission all the Officers of the United States.
and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two
thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, Section. 4.
and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the
appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeach-
Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the ment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high
United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise Crimes and Misdemeanors.
provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the
Contents

Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior


Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the
Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
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18 19

other public Ministers and Consuls;to all Cases of admi-


ralty and maritime Jurisdiction;to Controversies to which
the United States shall be a Party;to Controversies between
two or more States;between a State and Citizens of an-
other State; (See Note 10)between Citizens of different
States, between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands
under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the
Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
Clause 2: In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other pub-
lic Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be
Article 3. Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In
all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall
Section. 1. have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Con-
one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Con- gress shall make.
gress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, Clause 3: The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Im-
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their peachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in
Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed;
receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be
diminished during their Continuance in Office. at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have
directed.
Section. 2.
Clause 1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Section. 3.
Contents

Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of Clause 1: Treason against the United States, shall consist
the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their
under their Authority;to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be
Congress. US Constitution.
20 21

convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Wit-


nesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
Clause 2: The Congress shall have Power to declare the
Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall
work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the
Life of the Person attainted.

Article 4.
Section. 1.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the
Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall
be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2.
Clause 1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to
all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
Contents

Clause 2: A Person charged in any State with Treason,


Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be
found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive
Congress. US Constitution.
22 23

Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the
be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot
Clause 3: No Person held to Service or Labour in one be convened) against domestic Violence.
State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in
Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged
from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on
Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be
due. (See Note 11)

Section. 3.
Clause 1: New States may be admitted by the Congress
into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected
within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be
formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of
States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States
concerned as well as of the Congress.
Clause 2: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of
and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the
Territory or other Property belonging to the United States;
and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to
Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particu-
lar State.

Section. 4.
Contents

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this


Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect
Congress. US Constitution.
24 25

Article 5. Article 6.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall Clause 1: All Debts contracted and Engagements entered
deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Consti- into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as
tution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds valid against the United States under this Constitution, as
of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing under the Confederation.
Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all In- Clause 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United
tents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when rati- States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Trea-
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, ties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the
or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the
other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Con- Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in
gress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary not-
to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in withstanding.
any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Clause 3: The Senators and Representatives before men-
Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its tioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures,
Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United
Contents

States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or


Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious
Congress. US Constitution.
26 27

Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or


public Trust under the United States.

Article 7.
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall
be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution be-
tween the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the


States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven
and of the Independence of the United States of America the
Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our
Names,

GO WASHINGTONPresidt. and deputy from Vir-


ginia

[Signed also by the deputies of twelve States.]


Contents
Congress. US Constitution.
28 29

papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,


shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon
probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and par-
Amendments ticularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons
or things to be seized.
to the Constitution.
[The Bill of Rights]
Fifth Amendment - Rights of Accused in
First Amendment - Religion and Expression Criminal Prosecutions.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other-
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment
wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridg-
of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval
ing the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the
forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Govern-
or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same
ment for a redress of grievances.
offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him-
Second Amendment - Bearing Arms.
self, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms,
use, without just compensation.
shall not be infringed.

Third Amendment - Quartering Soldiers Sixth Amendment - Rights of Accused in


No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
Criminal Prosecutions
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the
house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war,
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the
but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Contents

State and district wherein the crime shall have been commit-
ted, which district shall have been previously ascertained by
Fourth Amendment - Rights of Persons
law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusa-
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
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30 31

tion; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have Eleventh Amendment - Suits Against States
compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and The Judicial power of the United States shall not be con-
to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. strued to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or
prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of
Seventh Amendment - Civil Trials. another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be Twelfth Amendment - Election of President.
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re- The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote
examined in any Court of the United States, than according by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at
to the rules of the common law. least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with them-
selves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as
Eighth Amendment - Further Guarantees in President and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-
Criminal Cases President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists
they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of
Ninth Amendment - Unenumerated Rights the government of the United States, directed to the Presi-
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, dent of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all
the people. the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--The
person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall
Tenth Amendment - Reserved Powers be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole
The powers not delegated to the United States by the number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such
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Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers
to the States respectively, or to the people. not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President,
the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by
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ballot, the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this ar-
representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for ticle by appropriate legislation.
this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be Fourteenth Amendment - Rights Guaranteed,
necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due
shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall Process and Equal Protection
devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next fol- Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United
lowing, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No
President.--The person having the greatest number of votes State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such num- privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor
ber be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property,
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its
numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-Presi- jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
dent; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of Section. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the
the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole several States according to their respective numbers, counting
number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person consti- the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians
tutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the
to that of Vice-President of the United States. choice of electors for President and Vice President of the
United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and
Thirteenth Amendment - Slavery and Invol- Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature
untary Servitude thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State,
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, ex- being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United
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cept as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in
been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein
any place subject to their jurisdiction. shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such
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male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens Fifteenth Amendment - Rights of Citizens to
twenty-one years of age in such State. Vote
Section. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to
in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a of servitude.
member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or article by appropriate legislation.
judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of
the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebel- Sixteenth Amendment - Income Tax
lion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportion-
House, remove such disability. ment among the several States, and without regard to any
Section. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United census or enumeration.
States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for pay-
ment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing Seventeenth Amendment - Popular Election of
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither Senators
the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt Clause 1. The Senate of the United States shall be com-
or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against posed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people
the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requi-
be held illegal and void. site for electors of the most numerous branch of the State
Section. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by legislatures.
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
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Clause 2. When vacancies happen in the representation of


any State in the Senate, the executive authority of each State
shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided
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That the legislature of any State may empower the executive Nineteenth Amendment - Woman's Suffrage
thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill Rights
the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. Section 1. The right of the citizens of the United States to
Clause 3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it by any State on account of sex.
becomes valid as part of the Constitution. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article
by appropriate legislation.
Eighteenth Amendment - Prohibition of In-
toxicating Liquors Twentieth Amendment - Commencement of
Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this ar- the Terms of the President, Vice President and
ticle the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating Members of Congress.
liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exporta- Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President
tion thereof from the United States and all territory subject shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms
to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of
prohibited. January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if
Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their suc-
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- cessors shall then begin.
lation. Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different
the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Con- day.
stitution, within seven years from the date of the submission Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the
hereof to the States by the Congress. term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the
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Vice President elect shall become President. If a President


shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the be-
ginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed
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to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws
by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect thereof, is hereby prohibited.
nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitu-
until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. tion, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof
Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case to the States by the Congress. Effect of Repeal
of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of
Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of Twenty-Second Amendment - Presidential
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the Tenure
death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the
a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have de- President more than twice, and no person who has held the
volved upon them. office of President, or acted as President, for more than two
Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th years of a term to which some other person was elected Presi-
day of October following the ratification of this article. dent shall be elected to the office of the President more than
Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the office of President when this Article was proposed by
the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be hold-
seven years from the date of its submission. ing the office of President, or acting as President, during the
term within which this Article becomes operative from hold-
Twenty-First Amendment - Repeal of the ing the office of President or acting as President during the
Eighteenth Amendment remainder of such term.
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Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Section 2. This Article shall be inoperative unless it shall
Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within
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seven years from the date of its submission to the States by abridged by the United States or any State by reason of fail-
the Congress. ure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
Twenty-Third Amendment - Presidential article by appropriate legislation
Electors for the District of Columbia
Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Govern- Twenty-Fifth Amendment - Presidential
ment of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Vacancy, Disability, and Inability
the Congress may direct: Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall
to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Con- become President.
gress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the
but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President
be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of
shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of Presi- both Houses of Congress.
dent and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the Presi-
and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
as provided by the twelth article of amendment. of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he
article by appropriate legislation. transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such
powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President
Twenty-Fourth Amendment - Abolition of the as Acting President.
Poll Tax Qualification in Federal Elections Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to either the principal officers of the executive departments or
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vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit
President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker
Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or of the House of Representatives their written declaration that
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the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of Twenty-Sixth Amendment - Reduction of
his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the Voting Age Qualification
powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied
pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of or abridged by the United States or by any State on account
Representatives his written declaration that no inability ex- of age.
ists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
the Vice President and a majority of either the principle of- article by appropriate legislation.
ficers of the executive department or of such other body as
Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to Twenty-Seventh Amendment - Congressional
the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of Pay Limitation
the House of Representatives their written declaration that No law, varying the compensation for the services of the
the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an elec-
his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assem- tion of Representatives shall have intervened.
bling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in ses-
sion. If the Congress within twenty-one days after receipt of
the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session
within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble,
determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the Presi-
dent is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his of-
fice, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same
as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume
the powers and duties of his office.
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