=
(
=
(
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
(4)
III. DERIVATION OF THE SCC CURVES
The complex shortcircuit MVA method was employed to
evaluate the SCCs along a feeder. Therefore, the shortcircuit
MVA of each equipment; such as generators, transformers,
motors, feeders, etc. need be found first. For practical
purposes, the sample system as shown in Fig. 1 was designed
according to an actual underground distribution system of
Taipower in an urban area with little modifications.
Table I lists the parameters of the sample distribution
system required for the evaluation of the SCCs. The
transformer capacities, the nominal voltage of the primary
system, the line impedance of the feeders, and the length of tie
line were all kept constant in the following discussions. For
the base case, incoming line shortcircuit duties are assumed to
be 5000 MVA. The lengths of the feeder cables are all assumed
to be 10 km, and the per unit impedance of the three main
transformers are assumed 0.1672 pu.
As conversion was made, Table II and an MVA diagram
were developed. Referred to the MVA diagram, the short
circuit MVA quantities of all equipments were combined. The
series MVA quantities were combined as resistances in
parallel, and the parallel MVA quantities were added
arithmetically. Finally, the short circuit MVA quantities of the
fault point were found.
TABLE I PARAMETERS OF THE SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Parameters Variables Base Case Ranges
Incoming line
shortcircuit duties
MVA
sa
,
MVA
sb
5000 MVA 20%~200%
Transformer
capacities
S
T1
, S
T2
,
S
T3
60 MVA 100%
Transformer
impedances
Z
T1
, Z
T2
,
Z
T3
0.1672 pu,
X/R=34.1
90%~110%
Feeder lengths of
F#1 and F#2
L
1
, L
2
10 km 20%~200%
Tie line length L
TL
0.3 km 100%
Feeder impedances Z
0.1075+j0.14
37 /km
100%
TABLE II CORRESPONDING SHORTCIRCUIT MVA OF EACH EQUIPMENT
Equipment Base Case Ranges
MVA
sa
, MVA
sb
5000 MVA
1000 MVA~10000
MVA
MVA
T1
, MVA
T2
,
MVA
T3
359 MVA 326 MVA~399 MVA
MVA
L1
, MVA
L2
290 MVA
145 MVA~1448
MVA
MVA
TL
9653 MVA 9653 MVA
A. Radial Arrangement
For the system shown in Fig. 1(a), the MVA diagram of
this radial arrangement was shown in Fig. 2. Assumed a three
phase fault occurs at a point on the main feeder at a distance of
(1k)L
1
m from the feed point, the SCC at the fault point can
be expressed as
1 1
1
,
(1 )
1 1 1 F
SC Radial
sa T K L
MVA
MVA MVA MVA
(
= + +
(
JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK JJJJJK
(5)
Where
sa MVA
JJJJJK
is the incoming line shortcircuit duty at the
primary side of the substation transformer A.
1
T MVA
JJJJJK
is the corresponding shortcircuit MVA of the main
transformer #1.
1
(1 ) K L MVA
JJJJJK
is the shortcircuit MVA of the feeder section
between the fault point (any location on the main feeder) and
feed point (the secondary busbar of the main transformer)
K: variable from 1 to 0, for indicating the fault location
Substituting (1) and (2) into (5), the SCC of the fault point
on the radial feeder can be formulated as
1 1
1
1
( ) ( )
,
1
2
1
(1 ) ( )
T pu T pu
F
sa T
SC Radial
L
R jX
j
MVA S
MVA
K L R jX
KV
+ (
+
(
(
=
(
+
+
(
(
JJJJJK
(6)
Based on (6), the SCC curves were developed as shown in
Fig. 3. There are five curves in Fig. 3. The solid curve show
the SCCs along the feeder F#1 under the conditions of base
case. The other four curves show the deviations of the
corresponding SCCs from the base case for two values of the
incoming line shortcircuit duties and two values of the
transformer impedances. The smaller the incoming line short
circuit duty or the greater the transformer impedance is, the
smaller the corresponding SCCs obtain, as shown in Fig. 3.
These two factors predominantly affect the SCCs along the
feeder.
,
F
SC Radial MVA
JJJJJK
F
1
T MVA
JJJJJK
sa MVA
JJJJJK
1
(1 ) K L MVA
JJJJJK
F
Fig. 2. MVA diagram of radial arrangement
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
K
S
.
C
.
C
.
(
M
V
A
)
20%*MVAsa
MVAsa=5000 MVA, ZT1=0.1672pu, L1=10 km
200%*MVAsa
90%*ZT1
110%*ZT1
Fig. 3. SCCs along the primary feeder for radial arrangement
B. Normally closed Loop Arrangement
Type I: The MVA diagram of a normally closed loop
arrangement of Type I was shown in Fig. 4. Assumed fault
occurs at a point on the main feeder at a distance of (1k)L
1
m
from the feed point, the SCC at the fault point can be
expressed as
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
,
(1 )
1 1
1
1 1
TL
sa T
F
SC TypeI
KL
K L
L L
MVA MVA
MVA
MVA
MVA
MVA MVA
+
(
 
= + ( `

(

+ +
(

+
( 
\ .
(
)
JJJJJK JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK
(7)
Where
,
F
SC TypeI MVA
JJJJJK
is the SCCs along the primary feeder of Type
I arrangement.
Similarly, Substituting (1) and (2) into (7), the SCCs along
the primary feeder of Type I arrangement can be formulated
as:
( )
1
1( ) 1( )
1
1
2
,
1
2
1 2
1
(1 ) ( )
( )
T pu T pu
sa T
F
L
SC TypeI
L
TL
R jX
j
MVA S
KV
MVA
K L R jX
KV
KL L L R jX
+
+
(
= + ` (
+
(
+
(
(
+ + +
(
)
JJJJJK
(8)
Based on (8), seven SCC curves, relating the incoming line
shortcircuit duty, transformer impedance, the length of feeder
F#2 and the fault location, have been developed, as shown in
Fig. 5. The solid curve show the SCCs along the feeder F#1
under the conditions of base case. The other six curves show
the deviations of the corresponding SCCs from the base case
for two values of the incoming line shortcircuit duties, two
values of the transformer impedances and two values of the
lengths of feeder F#2. The effects of the incoming line short
circuit duty and the transformer impedance are the same as
that of the feeder with radial arrangement. The effects of the
incoming line shortcircuit duty and the transformer
impedance on the SCCs along the feeder F#1 is the largest in
the feed point and the smallest in the end of the feeder. On the
contrary, the effects of the length of feeder F#2 on the SCCs
along the feeder F#1 is the smallest in the feed point and the
largest in the end of the feeder.
1
T MVA
JJJJJK
1
(1 ) K L MVA
JJJJJK
1
KL MVA
JJJJJK
2
L MVA
JJJJJK
TL
L MVA
JJJJJK
F
sa MVA
JJJJJK
,
F
SC TypeI MVA
JJJJJK
F
Fig. 4. MVA diagram of a normallyclosed feeder arrangement of type I
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
K
S
.
C
.
C
.
(
M
V
A
)
20%*MVAsa
MVAsa=5000 MVA, ZT1=0.1672pu, L1=10 km
200%*MVAsa
90%*ZT1
110%*ZT1
20%L2
200%L2
Fig. 5. SCCs along the primary feeder for a normallyclosed feeder
arrangement of Type I
Type II.1: The MVA diagram of a normally closed loop
arrangement of Type II.1 was shown in Fig. 6. According to
the system structure, the SCCs along the Feeder #1 can be
represented as
1 1
2 2
1
1
1
1
(1 )
1
, .1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
TL
T K L
F
SC TypeII
sa
T L
L KL
MVA MVA
MVA
MVA
MVA MVA
MVA MVA
(
 
(
+


(
\ .
(
  (
= +
`
+

(

( +

(
+ +

(
\ .
)
JJJJJK JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK
(9)
Substituting (1) and (2) into (9) yields
( )
1 1
1
2 2
2
1
1
( ) ( )
1
, .1
2
1
( ) ( )
2 1
2
1
(1 ) ( )
( )
sa
T pu T pu
T
F
SC TypeII
L
T pu T pu
T
TL
L
j
MVA
R jX
S
K L R jX
MVA
KV
R jX
S
L L KL R jX
KV
+
(
+  
(
+

(

+
(

+
(

=
`

(
\ .
+   (
+  (
 (
 (
+ + +
 (

(
\ .
JJJJJK
1
)
(10)
Based on (10), seven SCC curves were developed as shown
in Fig. 7. The curves in Fig. 7 are similar to the corresponding
curves shown in Fig.7. However, the levels of the SCCs are
all going up and the effects of the factors are enlarged.
1
T MVA
JJJJJK
1
(1 ) K L MVA
JJJJJK
1
KL MVA
JJJJJK
2
L MVA
JJJJJK
TL
L MVA
JJJJJK
sa MVA
JJJJJK
2
T MVA
JJJJJK
, .1
F
SC TypeII MVA
JJJJJK
Fig. 6. MVA diagram of a normallyclosed feeder arrangement of type II.1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
250
300
350
400
450
500
K
S
.
C
.
C
.
(
M
V
A
)
20%*MVAsa
MVAsa=5000 MVA, ZT1=0.1672pu, L1=L2=10 km
200%*MVAsa
90%*ZT1
110%*ZT1
20%*L2
200%*L2
Fig. 7. SCCs along the primary feeder for a normallyclosed feeder
arrangement of Type II.1
Type II.2: The MVA diagram of a normally closed loop
arrangement of Type II.2 was shown in Fig. 8. According to
the system structure, the SCCs along the Feeder #1 can be
represented as
( ) 1 2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
, .2
(1 )
1
1
1 1
TL
T T
sa
F
SC TypeII
L
K L
L KL
MVA MVA
MVA
MVA
MVA
MVA
MVA MVA
+ +
(
 
+ ( =
` 
(

+ +
(

+
(

( \ .
)
JJJJJK JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK
(11)
Equation (11) can be rewritten as
( )
1
1 1
2
2 2
1
1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
, .2
1
2
1
2
2 1
1
(1 ) ( )
( )
T
T pu T pu
T
sa
F T pu T pu
SC TypeII
L
L
TL
S
R jX
j
S
MVA
R jX
MVA
KV
K L R jX
KV
L L KL R jX
 

+

+

 +

+
\ .
=
`
(
+ (
+
(
+
(
(
+ + +
(
)
JJJJJK
(12)
Based on (12), seven SCC curves were developed as shown
in Fig. 9. The curves in Fig. 9 are similar to the corresponding
curves shown in Fig.7. However, the levels of the SCCs are
all going up because the two transformers were operated
parallel in this arrangement.
1
T MVA
JJJJJK
1
(1 ) K L MVA
JJJJJK
1
KL MVA
JJJJJK
2
L MVA
JJJJJK
TL
L MVA
JJJJJK
F
sa MVA
JJJJJK
2
T MVA
JJJJJK
, .2
F
SC TypeII MVA
JJJJJK
F
Fig. 8. MVA diagram of a normallyclosed feeder arrangement of type II.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
K
S
.
C
.
C
.
(
M
V
A
)
20%*MVAsa
MVAsa=5000 MVA, ZT1=0.1672pu, L1=L2=10 km
200%*MVAsa
90%*ZT1
110%*ZT1
20%L2
200%L2
Fig. 9. SCCs along the primary feeder for a normallyclosed feeder
arrangement of Type II.2
Type III: The MVA diagram of a normally closed loop
arrangement of Type III was shown in Fig. 10. According to
the system structure, the SCCs along the Feeder #1 can be
represented as
1 1
3
2 1
1
,
(1 )
1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
TL
F
SC TypeIII
sa T K L
sb T
L L KL
MVA
MVA MVA MVA
MVA MVA
MVA MVA MVA
 
= + +


\ .
 
+ +


+

+ +

\ .
JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK
JJJJJK JJJJJK JJJJJK
(13)
Rewritten (13) as
( )
1 1
1
3 3
3
1
( ) ( )
,
1
2
1
( ) ( )
2 1
2
1
(1 ) ( )
1
( )
T pu T pu
F
sa T
SC TypeIII
L
T pu T pu
sb T
TL
L
R jX
j
MVA S
MVA
K L R jX
KV
R jX
j
MVA S
L L KL R jX
KV
+  
+


=

+
+


\ .
+  
+ + 

+

+ + +


\ .
JJJJJK
(14)
Based on (14), seven SCC curves were developed as shown
in Fig. 11. The curves in Fig. 11 are similar to the
corresponding curves shown in Fig. 7.
1
T MVA
JJJJJK
1
(1 ) K L MVA
JJJJJK
1
KL MVA
JJJJJK
2
L MVA
JJJJJK
TL
L MVA
JJJJJK
F
sa MVA
JJJJJK
2
T MVA
JJJJJK
sb MVA
JJJJJK
,
F
SC TypeIII MVA
JJJJJK
F
Fig. 10. MVA diagram of a normallyclosed feeder arrangement of type III
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
250
300
350
400
450
500
K
S
.
C
.
C
.
(
M
V
A
)
20%*MVAsa
MVAsa=MVAsb=5000MVA, ZT1=0.1672pu, L1=L2=10km
200%*MVAsa
90%*ZT1
110%*ZT1
20%L2
200%L2
Fig. 11. SCCs along the primary feeder for a normallyclosed feeder
arrangement of Type III
IV. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, the SCC curves were developed in Matlab by
a easy, straightforward and planningoriented method, the
complex shortcircuit MVA method. The SCC curves
representing the SCCs along a feeder for various network
arrangements were plotted easily based on the formulas
obtained. Some major factors of the shortcircuit capacity, such
as the incoming line shortcircuit duty, the feeder length, the
transformer impedances are considered. Hence, the derived
formulas are all functions of these three major factors. The
SCC evaluation formulas and the SCC curves make clear the
SCCs along the primary feeders and are of value to the
distribution engineers for determining the ICs of protective
devices, especially during the planning stage.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
One of us (WeiTzer Huang) wants to heartily thank the
Chienkuo Technology University, for this article was extension
form the project CTU94RPEE014030.
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