Sunteți pe pagina 1din 77

M.

Marchesi

The Art of Singing


Book 1, Opus 21

PREFACE
The present Second Edition of my or Art of Singing," which ] have revised and enlarged in accordance with the experience of the last twelve years of my teaching, comprises the theoreticopractical part of my system. It includes Exercises and elementary and progressive Vocalises for the development of the mechanism of the voice; a series of two-part Vocalises, for practice in singing a second part,and lastly, Melodies with words, to combine articulation with vocalisation. I embrace' this opportunity to again call attention to the fact already set forth in various prefaces to my other works, namely, that in order to achieve speedy and successful results, it is necessary to set difficulties before the pupil one by one, and to assist him in overcoming them by presenting them in natural and progressive order. Teachers and students cannot be too strongly urged to spend as much time as possible over the elementary vocal studies, and to pass on to singing with words only when the pupil's voice is perfectly placed throughout its entire compass, when the three registers are completely blended, and when the vocal organ has acquired a sufficient degree of ease and flexibility. I assume that each teacher, before undertaking the difficult task of the formation of the voice, and the weighty responsibility for the artistic future of his pupils, will have studied anatomy, physiology and acoustics to the extent requisite for explaining and enforcing the following precepts.
I.

Position

if the Pupil

The position of the body, while singing, should. be as natural and unconstrained as possible. The pupil should stand straight, the head erect, shoulders drawn back without effort, and the chest expanded. All stiffness in the body must be avoided in order to secure the greatest possible freedom of action to the organs concerned in voice-production.
2.

Position

if the Mouth

• Besides the Vocalilel contained 10 this Method. IlaYe al., pabU.lled a series ot .pecial Progressfye Vocalises tor Soprano, Keno-Soprano and Contralto. a. weU al Bravura Studies wldl word •• which may be employed to advanta,e for the developmeat and perfect control of 'he Yoice. Thne arc publillaed by MeMn. Au,. eraal ill H&IIlbu•• B. Sed 'n Leipaig. aael B. Schoa io Ma,.occ &DdCologne.

The smiling mouth recommended by so many early and modern masters is entirely contrary to the laws of the formation of tone. The pupil should open the mouth quite naturally, lowering the chin, as though to pronounce the vowel A (ah) slighdy darkened, and should keep it unmoved during the continuance of the emission of the tone. It is necessary to remind the student, that the lower jaw alone opens, the upper jaw remaining fixed; hence the necessity of lowering the chin.

.J.

Rupiration

Normal respiration, characteristic of a healthy penon, is diaphragmatic or abdominal. In the


1

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

two other ways (which we reject), namely, clavicular and lateral respiration, the lungs are but partially filled, hence the necessity of breathing more frequently and the impossibility of singing long phrases in one breath.

chest-note of almost all Contralto and MezzoSoprano voices will vary between:

4.

The Attack of a Tone


(Stroke of the Glottis)

The mechanical action which constitutes the attack, or placing of the voice, is produced by preparing the glottis and the mouth to form some particular vowel-sound. Now, the type of vowel preferable for the formation and development of the voice is the Italian A (ah), slightly darkened as indicated in § 2.The pupil should understand clearly that the stroke of the glottis is a normal function of the vocal organ, and that he has simply to subordinate to his will the spontaneous action which was developed at his first attempt to cry as an infant. 1t is, in point of fact, by means of this innate aptitude that we form all vowels in speaking.

There are some Contralto voices which, on account of an unusual position of the larnyx, never succeed in developing the head-voice. Such voices of narrow compass, which use only the chest- and middle registers, are, however, rare exceptions, and can aspire only to a concert-career. The limit of the middle register for all female voices may vary between the following notes :

The general rule, however, places f as the high note:

6. Method of Practising
Rational and progressive study is capable of developing great elasticity as well as considerable suppleness in the muscles of the sound-producing organs without ever fatiguing them; whereas, the least excess of practice produces exhaustion. At the commencement of his studies the pupil should, therefore, not sing too long at a time, and during the first few days he should not practise more than five or ten consecutive minutes. Practice thus limited may be repeated three or four times a day at long intervals. The time devoted to exercising the voice may' be increased five minutes at a time up"to half an hour. If, as happens frequently, the pupil, not taking these precepts to heart, practises at home longer than the teacher has sanctioned, the sad result, the overtaxing of the voice (of the vocal cords), will speedily ensue.

5.

The Three Registers

of the

Female Voice

Female voices are classed thus: Contralto, Mezzo-Soprano, dramatic Soprano and high, light Soprano (sfogato). The upper limit of the chest-register in all female voices varies between these notes:

Contralto and Mezzo-Soprano voices usually have a chest-register of much greater compass than Soprano voices, extending more or less into the lower notes. In order to equalize and blend the chest-register with the middle register, the pupil must slightly darken the last two chest-notes in ascending the scale and open them in descending. Every strain made on the upper notes of a lower register not only increases the difficulty of developing the strength of the first notes of the following register, but in the end renders the blending of the two registers completely impossible. When the limits of the registers are not clearly defined, there will always be a series of uncertain, weak and false tones in singing scales with full voice, or in sustained passages. According to the modern pitch, the highest 2

7.

Analy.ris

Most pupils who study singing are not very musicaL Consequently, they begin to sing the exercises and scales mechanically, guided solely by ear, without paying any attention to the length of each measure and to rhythmical division, and thus without appreciating the value of each separate note. This habit of allowing oneself to be guided by ear is very harmful, and causes an incalculable waste ot

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

time to the pupils. Furthermore, by thus always feeling for the note, the pupil is obliged. to repeat the same passage incessantly, which, instead of assisting progress, ends by fatiguing the vocal organs From the first lesson, therefore, the student should accustom himself to analyse, that is, to reftect- on what he has to do ; in a word, it is necessary that practical work should be preceded by mental study. If this analytic system of study be adopted by the pupil from the beginning, it will prove very useful to him throughout the progressive stages of his studies, and also in the practice of his profession when studying new roles.

8.

Style

With the exception of national songs which have an entirely popular and local character, peculiar to each nationality, there are only two styles in the world, a good style and a bad style, just as there are but one good and one bad method of singing. It is utterly wrong, therefore, to talk of a German, French, English or Italian style or method of singing in the strict sense of the term. In all ages, in fact, we have had hundreds of examples to show that great singers of both sexes, belonging to diverse nationalities, have been received with equal enthusiasm in Rome, Paris, London, Vienna, St. Petersburg, etc. Many teachers of singing maintain that in modem vocal music, where sustained and declama-

tory phrases have replaced rapid runs and graceful turns, singers do not need to develop the mechanism of the voice, as this only fatigues the vocal organs and robs the pupil of valuable time. As regards fatigue of the voice from study, Its avoidance depends entirely on the skill of the teacher and the intelligent receptivity of the pupil. As to the technical requirements of sustained and declamatory phrases, the truth of the matter is quite the contrary of the above statements. A singer who has learned to breathe properly, equalized her voice and blended the registers, and who has systematically developed the ftexibility of the larynx, and the elasticity of glottis and resonant cavities, so as to be able to produce all possible shades of timbre, intensity and expression, can unquestionably sing sustained and declamatory phrases perfectly well without fatigue or effort, that is to say without exaggeration or screaming; whereas, another singer, who is struggling with her breathing and the mechanism of her voice, and who consequently exaggerates and disfigures the modern musical phrase by screaming, very soon ends by fatiguing her voice. Every art consists of a technico-mechanical part and an esthetic part; he who is insufficiently prepared to overcome the difficulties of the former, wiJI never attain perfection in the latter, be he even a genius. January, 1890.

MATHILDE

MARCHESI.

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Exercices elementaires gradues pour le develnppement de la voix.


Emission de volx.

Progressive elementary exercises for the development of the voice.


Emission of the voice (Attack).
The student must open the mouth without any contortion, hold it quite still and then breathe slowly. Then each note is to be clearly uttered, upon the vowel Atah) contracting the glottis beforehand, but without spas modic effort or jerkiness.

L' eleve ouvrira la bouche sans affectation aucune, en la tenant parfaitement tranquille et en aspirant lentement. II attaquera en suite les sons tres nettement sur la voyelle A, en serrant la glotte et en evitant toute secousse ainsi Que tout effort.

fI

L ent0, con f orza egua 1 e.


4-

Canto.
eJ~

~4

,
.~~

1. ~ PianO·

tJ

. .

-6

-6

~-6

-6

'"' Lb'"' 1-:1


I

L.~'"1-:1
'1

I':

~I':

19-

"1'-9'"

II'~~

~r-9'"
I

I~

v"

I'l e-~ . e:g '1~"(';


1 I I I
I

I
11

..1

· ·
,.,
eIl
. tJ

I~~

~ "'1 ;~n

lit" Co'l
Ioln

.iTllCo'

It: ,~

~6-

it6"'"

1~~
ft

TT

~b~J._£_

de

'"'"

fL

"'"'"
.LL ~~

~p

-e:.. "? I.~

-eo

q1! · ·
IJ

~??'

Iif#"$ QI1??'

~':j q6b
I

#~ #~
I

Port de voix chromatique, ?J__J

"

Portamento

in semitones.
j_
1

2.

eJ~

r...._../ ..

~""..___/

---u:f
.il~.

11...
v· ...

e-

t ~ IJ r"
I
I'

t~_t .. tK! ~
I
1

PI' ......
I

...
..i

Jz._

..
~ I

..1

.e.

,.,
eJ,.,
eJ

--1

-----I

-~.
~

J,._~

.....--..._

1,.

.~.

b.
~

.il

l.

..i

. ·

.fL

~I

b~

~t Iq~

F~

~'~I

~tt_

_k.

~J

M. Marchesi I'l
e;
I

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

.__,...

'"--..l!---

l~

----.....
:

I'l
e.J

... ... ... ~.


fi'1'. ~ ~
.
L.

~"::

..

"'~----...""
~~
-t

~u- ___ _ b•

•?

.... "4

'.
I

==I

:;s

Port de voix chromatique.

Portamento

in Semitones.

fJ
tJ
TI I I I I I
I

1J
tJ " .... .,...,..'...

I
TI-

~q1~

q'" 1',
L

"1"1" ...

. .

L
I

I.

l._~. __

..."...... ,~ I~'"....... .... '


I.

'''1-

11'ft. -

b. _

!~.~ •

b.~._ ~,.~."l

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Port de voix chromatique et diatonique ,


1\

Portamento in Tones and Semitones.

4.
@)

fI
eJ

4~

-51-~

.~

-._./

:.__.!Y"

n .._

.___,.,_
.~

~
:
I

pf7~

~ J

[,~~

.-9

"1-9

~~

111-9 ~

1~4
I

1 (;of

1It1l(;of

:tt"""
n n
I

I
I
I I

""
'I
t!.

~
I

1'\ e. if

--T

-11'
11

--I
I

I
I

1
~tI'

...l

I
f;I
(.I

rJ

4-

-6J.

-6

4-

. .
~ e ~
t!.

~i9"

,.".

,2_

#~

nfL

#~

u-P-

-~?l ·iT
1 I

...__.

..._

..._
.~ I' ~

~U'

~u

U.__g...9

I~?J

iJ

~~

!.'~

I~"I~ tt~
1
11

~~
I

~1t

J ~J ,J bJ'
11'r

1'--[

Port de voix diatonique.


1'\

5.
t!.fI
t!.

.
.

-&o___..

___.
~

9-....../ ...

Portamento in Diatonic Tones.

r
...

_l

'----'

· -;-~i ·.
"'-1
fI

...__
-&0

<:»

~,

hi
'--f
=<c:»

e~

~r;.,I

~~
_,.,_

Port de voix ,

6.
t!.1\
@)

---........

_-

Po.rtamento.

4__./

-__..;

7l~"
r---.

· ·

#3 -

I~J
,-__

-z~.
I

11 J
[
11

-<r
I

-61:__.../

~~

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing I

Book 1, Opus 21

7.

~
@.)

..,._

,..
~

4_/ , J

U_/

-___,

11

11,
1111'-1
J

I
Ii

I1

uJ

~~ J I
I

....__.-

"--.....-

<:»

r----r
·
.,

--

l'-l!f
---.

-,
--...,

IKr
J

·~71 ~
I

'~ r i I~" ,1
I

......._,..

,
I

.,
.....__.,
1

,..
8.
@.)

-----...

4.-/

u___../

-___
1 I
-

-..-.....
I
F__/
I

fJ
@.)

iJ
I

i'l1'J"-"'"

".j _'I_~'" • · ·
I

<:» ~

...-::=---

!:...

1 :-......
1

-- -1
I

.....__-

\...___#
I

~I

.--.~
I

II

~
............

9.

fJ

~
fJ

4___"'"

G<___../

-,.j J
' 1

~.,I

----,
I~ ~.
I

------

............

.,
1-9 ...
U~

<:»

·
,..
10
@.)

I~~~J .; ·
I

...

'''-f
~

,
I'"!..

•• lJ .

1-9 ~
.1"0"-""'"

?t:f
I
I

..........._

#.
I

\...___-;

...
!,J
I

fJ
@.)

...

...

..

.. ~

rr

....~
J

<c:» ·
Tierce
Exerciee

<c:»

<;

. .

....

..

~ :

<>
---......._____
:

-"'""

...

<c:»

..

<:»
<c:»
:

.... ~

........___..

. .

chromatique.
I

Chromatic Thirds.
Exercise in blending the registers.

pour la fusion des rE'gistres.

fJ

11.

~
fJ
@.)

~~.
~
Iif_

.9·"· ~ ...

... ,.
~

~. ".

.. tt·
U.

rr

.. ..
Id

'"

etc. 9·

1-----------

-=

~----L

""

fi"
'I

...

••
L

I,
1

etc.

r.-

~---------------

..

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Gammes.
Les voix it Fetat naturel sont presque toujours rudes, inegales, lourdes et ppu etendues, Aprt-s avoir assure it. chaque son Ia justesse d'intonation par Ia pose de Ia voix, il faut viser a developper Ie volume, l'intensite et l'etpndup de I'urgane vocal, et it I'll fondre Ips registrps. Celui qui voudrait arr iver a chanter Ia gam me sans s';;trp exer ce d'abord sur deux notes, puis sur trois, ptc., courrnit risque de ne jarnais bien faire aucun trait. LPB g'amlliPS et It's exer clces doivent ctrp transP()S~s suivant If' gpurp de voix , en montant et en descendant par demi-tons, sans toutefois depasser It's limites qUf' chaque voix peut atteindre.On recornmande dans la gamme l'intonation precise des demi-tons.ainsi que Ngl;iite Ia plus parfaite.)

Scales.
Voices in their natural state are nearly always rough, unequal and of restricted compass and agility. When the intonation of every tone is assured by practising emission, attention must be directed towards developing the volume, intensity and range of the vocal organ, also the blending of its registers. The student who attempts to sing scales before having practised them by two and then three notes at a time, runs the risk of never being able to execute any musical fir;urev.i.th clearness. The scales and exercises (both ascending and descending) are to be transposed by semitones for the different kinds of voices, but care must be taken both in the highest and lowest notes not to strain the voice. Attention must be paid to the exact intonation of the semitones, likewise to the most perfect smoothness .

Il

12. 18.

.;

Il
.;

Il
f.!

.......... .....
,

.......
-6" . -6 "

••
I

.. ..
""

.u
.u .u

••

. ..
IJI·
,",'

_l

.u

etc .

..

..
......

.
~


~

"

etc.

-e-

·
I

: .

t.t .,.
I
_l

!.

..
I

.
I .Ij.

• L Iz_ ~
1

I. "
_0

.z ;.k

Jl._

~.etc . ._
·1

Il

14·
f.!fJ

....
~
I
1

.....
.. ......
I


.1

..
"'i~'"
I
I I

.u

..
· ·
fl

•-

.. ..
I

..
.. 1 •

,t/I_

etc .

_._
I

.
_

-I'+t ..

etc .

1:l.

..
@J

Il

..... ... ... ..

.. ...
?:f

..
L

"

..

..II

.s-


I

..

.s-

..
I

·11.s-

Il ~
@J

1l

.u

f.!

.. ..
I

-6'-

..
I

-I I

etc .

<.I

+t~

etc .

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

16

"
tJ~ el

•• 1: .
';I:

.. :1:1 1

...
~

..
\

j,$

· ·
~.iJ.

.
I I

-,. I.·
~.


.:#:1

:
\

~~
-\

ell) JJ

.::-~ .
I

.
~

, ,

___..,

,..._,__
etc.

r
I

el

. .
~


I

.
.

"':f $

(}i

· r 11i ·

.·"7-

etc .

17.
el~

...... -

......
.......

4!J

· ·
ru
4!J~ JJ

....
-

. ....
I'"

.\

.. .. ....

.".

....
I

..... ..

'~
-I

.
etc.
etc.

..
..
I

4!J

. ...
..
,___..
I

.. ...... .. ..
I I

..
\

: ~
4!J

·..
I

IT·

18

.
<

,....
-,

....

..
7i 7i
~

~ tJ

"7"· ·

..

..

...

..
-6

..

........

..
I

",
4!J~ ,

el

. .

.. ...

....

.. ..
I

jJ,

u
'~4

..

... ..
9

l000I.

..
I

.. ... ..
I

..

-..
"'7

etc.

etc.

"l

.........., ••

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21
I

r"'"T'-r-!

,..,..,...,

19.
~~ ~ : ~r
~~ I

...........

...
~

... ,. ... ...



lO


~

.. .. ..

....

etc.
I

---4-

r""M""'1

. .
~

.........
~

..
I

.~-9

.. .. .. ...

--..........
L
I

..
I

UI

etc.

20.

~ ~ ~

· ·
~L ..-

...

..
-

.....

.......
.
.u.
_l_

... ... ... ...

.. ..

.. ... ..
.
I

~~ I

. .
I
~lO ~.

.. ... ... ..
I

.~.
It.
r

..
I

.. ..

- --.:

..... .. ...
.

- ..
...
I

etc.
I

.. ..
. L._b
~

etc.

21
~~ .. It. ~

....... ...

...

....

· ·
~

It

.•

...

-, .. ... .
~ ~ ~

... ...
,

L. b •

...

...
10

..

......

.. ...
....

..

etc.

...

etc.

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Les g-.ammeset les exercices doivent etre chantes a pleine voix, sans toutefois Ia forcer. En etudiant it demi-voix, Ia tension de la g-Iotte ne se developpera jamais, et Ie son n'atteindra pas l'Intenslte voulue, On recommaude a I'eleve de ne jamais travailler plus dim quart
d' heiire

a la

fois.

The scales and exercises must-be sung with full voice, but without forcing. If the mezzavoce is used in practising, the tension of the glottis will not be developed and the voice will fail to attain the desired intensity, The student is advised not to practise for more than a quarter of an hour at a time.

11

22·

eJ

.....
,.
~ ~

_...._
~. 09-


I

!:lIS

..
~

.-

~ ~


u

-~
I!!IIIIII

etc.
r:7

1'1

23 ·

eJ

_,.

..
~

-r

..
~

!!dill

etc.
.~

24·

eJ

.... .....
-

, ,
.g
I

...

••

.....,
~ ~

",

25·

eJ

..
.~

. .,

-=

..

~b.~~

...

.-

~•

~.' -

..

etc.

etc.

26·

A
eJ

~1::::I!.o..

-4''''

....
-.09-

...
I

'

27.

~
'!I

-......

.-!!I "'"""'"

..

1'1

28·

eJ

..
""""""
~

1'1

29·

eJ

., .........

Iiiiiiiii

.....

~.
~

=- -""'"'IiiiiiI

.
~

.II

-.

b.~1111!!!!!.0

~.
~

etc.

.. ~-.

~ ~

etc.

.II

~ ~

etc.

"'"

.-....

'""'-

.~..

etc.

0(

Il
eJ 11'5 "1'5

I u ~1'5 d.

.LI
0Dr

II:.

I.
I

'I

.It
I

em.
io'J

I
II

'I

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Les gammes et les exercices devront eire transposes dans les tons les mieux adaptes it la voix de I'eleve, ~

The scales and exercises are to be transposed to those keys most suitable to the voice.

in-

30.
eJ /}

...

81.
e.!

... ..

.., .e
I

.,

..

'"
v

..

..

=
'J

..
v
..JI,

etc.

__ _;::;:;:t

etc.

32.
e.!-

-4-

33.
eJ

""'"'--

-.... ".
-==
~

...

. .. -9-

..
~

.,

I!!!!!!!!!I

-==
_ v

-- -- -==.. -~.
~

etc.

34
e.!

....

35
eJ

~-

36

eJ

-~ ....
-==
--..
~

....... ••

-l9-

..
~

--- ..
..
~
_J!ooo

ete.

. Ji
~

..
~.J!oIoo

-"!!!!!I

...
_


v

ete.

.J!!ooo.

~ etc.

-9-

..
...

37.
eJ

......
...
~

,
'w

~...I!!!!!!!!!I~

~
v

..

-I::jiiiiiiil-v

etc.

..

II
v

-9-

. .,

.. ..
",..---;.

-==-..8=ii! __
etc.
'J

,
'w

38 .
eJ

/}

39.
@)

.... -

-9-

.. ---.:--..

..
v

.u

.;;:---...

-~

etc.
v

!!!!:::I

etc.
\

<::
I.

<::r
It.

~
eJ

-e-

l~

1'5

'U'

~-6
L.I._

......

'""

'"'

:
I

., t
1

etc.

I.~ ~ .
I

'I

12

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

40
@)

....
~
,

.JIII!!!!!!IIiI r


'

41
@)

....
_I

.._....


I

..

---I I

.-.-

- --==:i
I

..
I

.===:=
1

@)

. .
I

....

......

-..

~
~

_."fIt

~
f!)

~.IooooiiiiiI
--..oil

..~

_.

- ......
..._"".

~ ~
I!!oooo.....

I':',


--=r
..

I':',

t1
f!)

. .
~J.I, .ij

... ...
'"
~'3 ~
f!)

... ...
I
9

...

=====

.. ..
~ 3 3
!•


7

#
I':',

-:gJ:"

I':',

.,
3j".1oo1 .3
9

3 .•

.,

3_*

42.
1IJ.1. ~.

--B'
3

__.

·3 ...

3 ....

.,

_
0

...!
3

43.
@)

.......

~.IoIl:I:,
f!)

......
1

3.... '
~

3·... '

...._

3 .•

.......

..... .1

.,.,.,

T:t:$

I.L

14~J.llFrtr~'Iqljp ,1,;Pip 'I,,pim lIJlR'~ Ir


!
, 3 3 3

i~ II
I':',

13

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

ternent et en respirant a chaque mesure, afin de bien developper la voix et d'en etablir l'egalite. if Lorsque n~Ieve sera plus avarice on pourra accelerer If' mouvernent Slues dans nne seule et reunir deux ou trois respiration. me-

Les

gammes

doi vent

etre

ehantees

d'abord len-

The scales are to be sung slowly at first, taking breath at each bar in order to exercise the voice and give it evenness. ... When the pupil is more advanced, the tempo may be quickened, and two or even three measures sung in one breath.

;.L~F&?mIJ ~:y.'l

Example.

Exemple.

Take breath.

Respires,

iI

IJn
3

14

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Continuation des Exercices 44 au 53.

Continuation of Exercises 44 to 53.

Exempie.

Respirez.

44.£3! ciWEb I J
S.

.) =i

Example.

Take breath,

II

It/cn -h IJ l;t II

.9 ~

PI{'.

15

fJ *> 54·.
eJ

... .~

-~
..
I

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

I']

55.
@)

--I
I

..

.-.I!!!!!II

..-

.-.!!!!II

111

1'\
@J

111

...

fJ

56
eJ

.....
-.

-- ..........
_I:!!!o..

~~ ~

......

~~

..
~

,-...

....

-~

111

""'

t\

:'57.
eJ

.~.

.. •.
~
I

..."!!!!!I~

.~.
I

,.,
eJ

... ..
I

.oO!

.._,

..
!±.

..


I I

..
~~

...

..

·
fJ ~

5R
eJ

.....
..
I

........

.......
_r"-I!!!O

_I:!!!!...


.-!I

c;ii"'""

t\
eJ

!±.

~ -..

......
I

".

...
I

-~
j

.....
bo..

""'iiiiiI;I

t\ ~
eJ

H.

..
c:::::s::.

..
I

..
I

..
I

.. .. ..

...

· ·
Exernple. Ex.impl«.

54. ~ e ~

!n'·qnJj I J 1

Respirez . Tdke bre .. th ,

liD greg_' J I
16

II err,

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

11

...,
f1

~
f1

.......
..

-. .~

..-o'I!!!III

..

.-oII!!!!!!I

Book 1, Opus 21

r-w. •
....---!

....
,-..

I
I

...

t:'\

rr.

t:'\

· ·
fJl

...
~

..
~


t:'\

...
...
~

-;J

~
III

..
~~

...,
1\
I

.. - ~

-- -..
'"""'

..

..
~

~~

..,.
~ t!!...

.-o!!!!!IlI~

.... .,
..-!!!it

rt-.

.~.

..

t:'\

.
/':'\

...

· ·
f\~ ~.


....


I I

••
...

.,. • •

/':'\

...
fJ
J,I

--~

*. •

~
11 J,I H.
V

-~

:I:

..

..-

-=::

.-

~~

- -it
~

..

~...
.-

.......

- .. ......

......

t:'\

~~

-""'l!!I

/':'\

.I

.-

.,
...

rr. :I:

./':'\

· ·

.1

"

17

Il

60.
eJ

..
.... ~

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing ,.--....

Book 1, Opus 21
",---:;.

Il

61.

~ ~
eJ

..
...

-..

~~
-__/

~~

..........:;~

-~
I

C!!!!oo.

/"]L

-~
_.-....._
.-.!!!

., ~- ~..
I

-1IIII::I:III

......

I
(_/

. .

...

Les gammrs du 62 all 73 sont surtout desfinrrs aux Sopranos lrgrrs; il ne fuut It's aborder qut' lor sque Ia voix a Mja atteint un certain df'gr~ de f'lexibilite.
1'\ 11 1+

U2.
eJ ~ oU 1+.
t

..,.
,

- ...... ..... ......


r:::I"I"'

...

=h

....

-.*"' ....
.J!!I~
.

-=

........
I!!Ii:S!!

The scale -passages Nos.62 to 73 are particularly intended for a light soprano voice; they should be practised only after the organ has acquired a certain amount of flexibility.

~ ~

=~

..
~ ~

J...

I=P'"
I::!!!..=~

... ........ --~~

--

-P'"

.. ....

-....

lloU

1+.

fH
eJ

..,

...

==1:I:::::I!!.1!oo.

Il.u ~
eJ

..,

~.u 1+ e. ~.u tt.

- .............. ........
-

...

~
I

...,....

.-04

==
...o!I

..... '"
iii;;; ..

P'-iiiii~

'"

P'"

= -_.,

...

'.*"' ....

67

~
Il .u tt.
eJ

..,.

....

.... ..........
.
J

- ..... -~ ..... .. -.... -- .


-

et=P

EE!lIiiIIiiIiiI

-.
...tII!i!Ii

~
...I::t!.

== -....IOIOIS.

"'

'"

'"

.... = --

~
.

.....

~I

~
.1

..

.....
po-

--\

--

.. ..
I de.
18

. .

..
I

u
I

66. ra0jlijjlJ

'B

Example.

Exemple ,

Take breath.

Re-spi rez ,

I"

M. Marchesi fl
tJ

The Art of Singing r»:


I!!!oo.

Book 1, Opus 21

r-~ •.

r-•.

-~
I'l .,.-...,.,

CV

~r.".

..--

...........

-~ ,.
I
I

--

-1iIiiiii::::i

_ ......

.-.!!!I

===' .....
~
r:;

1'1
tJ

~1
,

~--~
I

I=i=:::I
.,_./

I!!oooo..

?;

-~
--I
-;

....

1':\

1':\


11':\

. ff:: • .

Il:'\

...

I,.,
1

.. ....... r •
-6

::

1':\


.
........
~
1':\

I'I~ ~.
tJ

. .,..
.....

~ ~
~I!!!!!!!!!I~

...
-...;;:;

fl.I.L ~.
·tJ

~==~..
P"'"

..

e=
...

.....

r::::::ij

.. .....
~~

.#!

=
.

...
'"'"

Il.u ~.
eJ

-.:;;j

.. .. ...

......

Il.u ~.
eJ

Il~ ~.
eI

......
.......

....

=-...:=1

•. ~==C1155
• IJiIII
1iIiiiiI~

"""

b""""",="",_

""'" ==-

..
IOi"""

..
"";;::J

. .. ...
.......
1

.:::.::all:!!..

....... ..... -=:!::I

.............
E3~
IIi!!;;I ilia

1':\ .

.......
1':\

-.... T
..o!IIII

..... ........
-

1':\

I'l .u

~.

._h.

...
~

..,
lloU

.-..::!

--~ .......
I

""'-

..... --

It!...

1':\

.... T

a.

_I

..,
:
u

."

...

.19

.. ..

..
1

1':\

1':\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

"J
@.

-~~
I

.._

_._
-....

..I!!!!IIIII

~ ~
p0-

..,.. _.,.. - -_.

"J

~~ ~
@.

-.- - .. ".
I

..

......!!!!!!I

- -...

I!!!!!I!!!!!!!!

0!'!!!IIIIIl!

=----

· ·

..
I

...
~
-.-;;

fl
e,

I!!dI!!!!I

fJ
@.l

..

...,...•.....,..

....
EiP

_
""'-'.!!!!I!I

_.,.. __ _ ......

-==!!!!!!!!!I!!!!!!"'!!I!!!!!!!I

..
I

-.'
I

fJ l"*'
@.l

..
I

...

..
I Take breath.
Res.p irez ,

· ·

20

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

jj

70.
@,

7ft

,.._,

~I

71.
@.

.-....

.~

~
.

-~
it

.".-

-......

'

.".

.-.

.- .

f}

rr.
'0

-- ...•. ...~,.
.fI.

-.......

.....

~
.... Jf'

r.-..

,.~
~

r.-..

t:\

t:\

r.-..

@,

it
t:\

tt
t:\

f"':\

t:\

21

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Gamme chromatique.
Dans les commencements on jouera la gamme ehromatique au piano, en meme temps que 1'61eve Ia chante, afin que l'intonat.ion soit parfaitement juste. On transposera ces gammes comme Ies precedentes par demi.Ions. Pour aequer ir une intonation parfaite , on tudiera les g-ammes ehromatiques dans un rnouvement

The Chromatic Scale.


The chromatic scale must at first be played on the piano ", hile the pupil sings the notes, so that v a true intonation may be acquired. These scale-exercises must be transposed, like the preceding ones, by semitones. In order to sing the chromatic scale correctly in tune, it must be practised slowly.

e-

tres modere.

74

I"l e fJ
1

9ft."1T'

--==
~

TI

.-."

.....

-tt"-

11

I ..
j

;:

. .
~
11 .,

,
I

e fl
eJ

..
it

t::::!!I

_
1

"

~ ~

1.11

"I

"

=====-- #

. .
~
e fJ ,e
I

J:

:t

.u.
11 -,

~_

...u...

.. =I

##

if~~

,.101..~~

~.u_~

.JJ.•

b.

e.
I')

~ ~

\e .;

~~

:
22

M. Marchesi ~ .~ I.. I
11

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21
I. I
II

~
I't

-~ ~ ~

~~

"

~$
:


,
I

r.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
T

TT

,,-

.. 1t.. -

11

. .

::

II ·1

..

..
S

t:'\

.. ~.... fr""

fJ

,J ,
+-

TT

-,

.. v..... ·

..
:
I"l ,
@

J.
,
~
I

J
,
~

:.~
I

r•
etc.

75.

..

TI

-,

76.

·
·
· ·

~ .. ~ "fI" ...

.. ... -

..

..

,
,,-

..

~
I"l

77.

... ;

"9
o

.. ..
~ ~

eta.

L .. 9

7R

~ ~

3 3

I""""

etc .

"3

..

...

"3

..

I'l

·
:;.

..

..
1'=

.. ..
I

.qq~~ f7
11

eto •

..
"

J•
I

etc.


23

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Gamme chromatique et diatonique.


.>f-)

II

79

@.l

... ~..... ft..

--

q*

• ft·

l'

-~ ~ ~

Chromatic and Diatonic

Scales .
..",.. I!!'Ooo

-,

~.
r

,.
-.1

fl,
t.

<
fl t!

.,

T.._.. ...

r~

.~c:::::.....

11

fl

,
I

~ I
1

.1

.., r...._....--r
· ·
fl .• ~ I
..

bl'

,
~

t!
f)
4!

~.
~1.

.~.
I
~
=i

_.L

I I

..
1

t
,

·• ·
fI

..
I I

-~\


J
I

c-~

~~

_h._~

f'\

..,
· ·
I'j

«-,

~
I

-I I
{"-

n
I


~

q~~
~

_._

.
-".:'"

4!

"
l

..,

.
*-.Jt,., :J.

_*

. .., .
:
.y.) 79

II

..
I
ResJ!irez. Take breath.

/':'.

~
Exemple. Example .

!l

AM

ij

letc.
24

r----

LJ.JJIIJ

1I

_J

/':'.

• ----

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

l.I ,.

.~.1. . I
~~~

81.
@)

II I ... " ....

rr

II

~
II!!!!!!!a .

fJ

-J+..... ~

82.
@)

!
83.

~.".

TI

.1.." , .~.

__

1":\

v~

r:-..

Gammes mineures.
On transposera autres gammes. Ies gammes mineures ainsi que Ies

Minor Scales.
The minor scales must he transposed in the same way as the others.

~
eJ

Gamme melodique. Jl;Ie/odic Scale.

...
~

"-

...
['II

84.

Gamme harmonique. Harmonic Scale.

...
.tj Go

.l""""'t

..
Go

..
'II

. .....
JI

!
85.
87.

~
.e'f!i

t:\

@)

. .

ln
I

ln I

{.\

fJ
eJ

.... -

'1_!J

I~

..._....,
3

......
3

86

~
eJ

...
r-.
-e/':\

~
eJ

-- I

r-'-

......

88. •

..
'

...
r:-..
-e/':\

j_

.1. ....... t -

r:-..
~

""*
~

>__._ -t

----

.-

.....

r:-..
..LJII

25

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Lf"S exereiees de deux, trois, q~latre, six, sept et huit notes, servent it fondre les registres, a preeiser I'intonation et a perfeetionner l'agilife. On ehantera ces exereiees comme Ies gammes, lentement'd'abord,enrespirallt par Intervalles t'f en les transposant, suivant Ie genre de voix, en mont ant ou en descendant d'un demi-ton, on pourra en accelerer le mouvement quand l'eleve sera plus awncf. J'ai ~erit quelques exercices en clef de Soprano pour initier les elhes it. Ill. lecture de eette clef'.

The exercises of two, three, four, five, six, seven and eight notes are for the purpose of blending the registers, rendering the intonation certain, and improving the fluency. They are to be sungslowlyatflrst.Iikethe scales, taking suitable breath, and they are to be transposed, ac, cording to the range of thevoice, a semitone higher or lower. ,Vhen the pupil has made some progress,the tempo may be quickened. Several exercises have been written inthe Soprano clef in order to render the student acquainted with it.

89·

...

_~

1"""1

1113

·IW
II

a"

,.....

.....
1"""'1

91.
, eJ

"3

-........,~ -

--

• •

._ ,...,...,

1""1

.....

I".0oI

92

·Ie)

II

.93. 1113

- ..
3

-;""3

__..
__

,
r

h~

l"'1'-li

.~~

,...,..., JIi"f""I

,__

,-r"'1

I0-I-l-

.... _

-_.,..~
-

-...

--

f':\

..- ....

f':\
..D

~~...JIII!!Iooo

....
~ ~~

.e:
.a.
~

..... .......
I"'""M ~

94.
1113
II


r-T""'I

"

,..,...,
9"

........

95.

Ie.
II

=s»:

96.

e.

97.

--~--. 9

...... '
~ __"""M r
...... r

- ......

,..,...,

.m
1113
II I

u-

98·

......
9

1..1...1 i000i.oi

......
,}-

J...I..j

1..1.....1

....... I

••

- ....... .~
~
.

- .,..,..,
~

_m_

.....
-

r.-..
f':\

.....
-

f':\

- .............

- .....
I

,......,.

f':\

..D

;J
~

1~
~

1
I

I I

lei

. .

r--r
I

r.-..

[I

.,.

1P
~
I

26

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

109

-1<)

-IIJ3

110. 111.1
-

--

111

....
~ e.

... ..

....

...

112

.. "'71·"·

....... -

113
II;)

--

114 .

113
~.

.-

115

..........
"

........

116.

e.

............... - ..
- ..
1

117. lin

..
...
I
: .

118.

...
I

Ilin
lJ
eJ

....
R

· · ·

· · ·

.
I

•• ·

·
I

· ·

.
--..

·
etc. 28

_.

..

...

ib9.

E:lI:emple. Example.

J J J J 30 J J J J J J I j J Il J J J j

Respirez. Take breath.

, "I

"

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21 (.\


IIi:)


..-

_. _.

{.\

113

t.

"
·....

t:\

-_.
t:\

fJ ~

..
.-

- ... -...

{.\

Ilia

.. -

(.\

IIi:)
fJ
eJ

fJ
eJ

..
1m
~ lin
fJ
eJ

... .... _
. _. .
I

- - -....... - - --

{.\

a-.

_e...

t:\

· · ...

...

_.

· · ... ·

--

. :s::

;::
.

{.\

· · · · .

-;
{.\

29

M. Marchesi *)

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

_. _
--

119·

Iia

120

Ilia
-~

121·

eJ

....,...

....-....

-.-.

..

Il

122
eo

Ilia
124

...

..
r

Ilia
f)

125
eJ

..-........

-._

f)

126 ·

eJ

.....

127 ·

.~

.
I..

ilia

_-_
;
Bxemple. Example.

128 ·
I

liD Il

~~

.~

..
Respirez. Take breath.

..
I


l

il9l.F~ J J J 53 J J JJJJJJj

dJJJJJJ H3 etc.
30

M. Marchesi •• 1*"••

••

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

t:\

II~

•• •
IIU
1'\
eJ

t:\

..-

..... ..
.....

t:\

~
eJ

t:\

1113

.- •. _ .~._.._.
._._

_
E

t:\

t:\

111~
fJ
eJ

t:\

__ _

1'1
eJ

III~

_~_ - _ . ..... ..
....

.... ...

t:\

t:\

t:\

III~
1'1
eJ

I
I

~
I

...
31

...

..

...
r

t:\

---

t:\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Traits d'agiliie.
Les traits d'agilite devront etre ehantes d'une seule respiration et ne seront abordes que lorsque l'eIeve sera en etat de les execnter ainsi. On les transposera comme tous les exercices ,

Exercises on florid passages.


These exercises must be sung in one breath and should be studied only when the student is able to execute them in this manner. They are to be transposed, like the rest.
...--:I

129

...

eo

.,
--===:

1:30

o
e.

- - .. ... _IlL

. ..

..
I

...
-

....
-

--==== -====

..o!!III

..-~.
.•.

etc.

. """"
..

131

e.

.. ....

..

..
~

..-~.
..

etc.

eta.

Il

132

eo fI

... .....
...-...

- ...
I

. ..
_._-

133

~
1'1

-.J..

-_1.

-..
..

ere..

..

ere.

134
e.I

•..... -r

II

135
I~ .
I')

.. ..
-

....._.J:::::::!.

.. -.
-

......
I

.. .. ~-I

.•.
.

..
...
~

etc.

eta.

136 .

Ie.

....
~
A

~ ~

-- -....

...
I

..

.. -

etc.

137
4!

...
fI

;;;0.-

...
I

..
..
I

.....!!!!I-

eta.

138
eI

...-

.......

.__,

. ...
I I

~-

..

---

.
J
_l

...III

etc.

~
It.!

etc. :
"'0 "7

32

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Gammes variees.
Lorsque l'agilite et l~galite des gammes seront parfaitement etabliea.on pouna les chanter -le differentes manieres; it inflexion, pointees, piquees , liees et piquee s, piquees et liees,fllitees, syncopeea.crescendo et diminuendo.forte et piano.Cet exercice est speeia, Iernent destine aux voix Iegeres. Les sons piques se produisent en attaquant rapidement et netternent chaque note (coup de glotte.) On aura soin de ne pas exagerer I'etude des notes piquee s.La repetition continue du coup de glotte fatigue Ia voix , Le fli'ite est un pique prolong-e. Les gammes inflexion sont excellente s pour affermir I'agilite.

Scales in various ways.


When fluency and evenness in singing scales have been' attained, they can be practised in various ways: With accents, dotted notes, staccato, slurred and staccato, staccato and slurred, syncopated, erescendo and diminuendo, forte and piano. This exercise is chiefly intended for a light soprano voice. In order to sing the staccato (piqncs) notes, each separate note must be quickly and very clearly attacked. The staccato should not be too continuously practised. The rapid' succession of strokes of the glottis is fatiguing to the voice. The flute is a protracted pique. Accented notes are an excellent exercise for improving the fluency.

>-

>-~>-

189
@,

••
>-~>-

..
~>-

>-~>-

~~

>-

f'l

140
@,

......
. .
~

fI
@J

...


>>-

>-

==-->-_ >-

-~

.~

>-

>-

>-

>-_


T

""""'--==

--==

--

....._...
I

-.._____....--

•..______.!!

..11
e. fI e

...-o!!I

/'"'.

~ ~

...~
'-._..'

~
e

,.-..

/'"',

l •

~ ~
•l

ll
, y

Yy

~
~.._:

~
\.._.
,

;;;Iii"'"

yy

-......'

._...
J.

.._.....

J. • J.

<:»

.._,-

'-'

'-...

...
,

/':\

~
<:» ._/

__
~

/':\
'

--._;'~

/':\ /':\

-.._____....--

-.._____....-I

-.._____....-Kes troz,

-----I

33

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Repeated notes.
Dans ees exereices afin de faire sentir la note repetee, on fera usage dbne tegere aspiration (ha, ha),sans In this exercise, in order to make the repeated notes perceptible,they must be lightly aspirated (ha, ha),but without overemphasis.

toutefois Pexagerer,

1\

141.

~
1\

~~'----. -... ..
I

....I!!!!!!!!I.

....IIIIIIl. -

-=~
l:1li ...... -

...-.....-..

~I!!!!I!!I

142.
lei
1\

III:!!!

~
I

e.

. .

..

..
I

I
'-l!_J-

---~
-1iiiiiiiiiiiI-===:i

-----

.___..-

..._.... ~

...

.
r.-.

"*

-,;

..
I

.....--..

..
,

..

......

- -"I

.... r.-.
lJr.-.
9="

Tl'iolet.
En etndiant le triolet, l~)eve doit marquer de note pour eviter linegalite.
1\ 9

Triplets.
la seconIn practising triplets the pupil must accent second note in order to avoid unevenness.
I

the

143.

~ ~

....
'"
.......

11

11.

144.
eJ

tf· 9

145.

e ~

...... ........
.'1

11

"
-it..

..
..

"

...... -


I
I

...... ., - - .,- .. ... .... .. ...


9 9

- ..

etc,

etc,

etc.

_lIIIIIIIII!III

146.

eo
~

...... r
~

• -wJ*

147.

.. ......
'"
I.J!. ..,

.L.

'"

-_
-

"71*- ...

--- ..
TI

.....

.,.

......

....--

..-.
.!l Co

L
.?

148.

-tt ..- ..

..""jo:T~

..
ICo

..

etc .

..
,
.

etc.

..

etc.

~
eI
15

11!l

115

'4

..
. l 34

r'"

--

iT"
....r.J..

etc.

:
~

r;-.

19__

~I

~...__.. 1!7_____

;r.- 'I

M. Marchesi 1'\ 9
/1

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

149

.~

*;*. a

<>

a
"113

...

a -3"
9

.•. a
~

I- ;(. .

etc.

150

@J

"
~1tf3
"119

_l

~.-La

..!L

-Rr ...
I.

T'1"a

'il

etc.

'd

"9

1'1

I~
<

-6

~~
I

... ...
.ll

.....

f
II

. .
~.

~ 1'1 ~
II

*;*.
~
(I

--------a
~ r

.1

.. 3"

-9

~
3u _

//

~--- ------=----~

etc,

J..

.- 'I

•.~
I

Ta
I

.. ~

1T(I

..
1

.~

"//

.....
_l

-- .- ,.......,
"
J

--

.....
~

_l

:
I

.. - -

- - ..
J.
_l _l

1'1 ~
1'1

1""'""'1"""

"
. .

........

--R"-

-"11

- ......... ........ --~ .. _ 11

f:\

f:\ ~ ~ ......... tt"

I
<

..
I

..
35

'----~~'

f:\

f:\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Arpeg-es.
On ehantera I'arpege avec l'egalite la plus parfaite, en evitant surtout de donner des eclats de voix dans les notes du haut. On passera avec precision dim ton un autre, non pas ~n detachant, mais en liant legerement Ies notes.On transposera les Arpeges eomme tous les exercices par demi-ton.

Arpeggios.
Arpeggios must be sung with absolute evenness, and all forcing of the upper notes avoided.The voice must go from one note to the next, without detach; ing them, but slightly slurring them together. These arpeggios are to be transposed by semito nes , like the other exercises.

..

151.

~ ~

rr ~
I

~
I

...

r.-..

152.

.-oII!!!!!I

s=r-:

<:»
I

..

_
I

l
155.

I r.-..

...

r.-..

Ir.-..

.1"':\

~r.-..

t.

..
~
e

-e>
I

J
r-~

====::iI

<cs:>

...
-~

r.-..

1 56
~iiiiiiiiiiiiiii

~~~

I ~

~ ~
I

...

t:'\

_lr.-..

-_
r.-..

_lr.-..

!!r

157.

..
e.

1'1

...
I

~~

___:.....-'

__

.~<cz-: •
I

~r.-..

r.-..

_l158.~
~

~~

_"..--- ==== ..
=====I
"

......__-

---....___::;

t.

Ir.-..

..
I

1"':\

1
~ ~

Jr.-..

.._

~r.-..

__

i9"

_,;I

t--~

-r-. t:'\

36

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

fJ J.I

Ii.

..-!!II

~ I'l ~ H.
@

-f!ooooI.

....

--1

-,

"*

'I :
Tl

...

..
I

-.

1':\

T
I

1':\


1':\

37

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

_1l ~

__

e}

eJ

"
:

.=- I

===

__.
~
I

••

'l

~piiI""" -

--

IliOiiiiiiiiI

~
I

.-

==

---=--1.0...;

~-===
I
I

_,.....,-

::::--..

Sons files.
On ne pent commencer a travailler II's sons files avant que Ia voix n'ait acquis III certain degre de souplesse et de flexibilite. Le son est, sans contredit.ltop dit:. fieile pour Ies eommenqants.

Swelled Tone (Messfl tli voce).


This exercise should not be attempted beforefuevoice has attained a certain amount of smoothness and flexibility. Swelling on a tone is, unquestionably, too difficult for beginners.

me

1\

165.
e}

~..,.'"---'~
II

eJ

. .

..,.
~ eo

;Ji-

II"~~

y~

-e

..,.

..,. -

II

. ---:t

.,,,
I L"1!5

I.

l':
P"u
_..A...

.,~
L..::-

-/~

~ -II

te.
'<,

Ie}
II
eJ

~Q....

Y''-.._/~~''

__..:;;...._.".-

~~

'U'

~
""U

'""

..-- I::--.

t.J,~~
I 38

.~~
PEt-

,I.~
1'&

.Iz.O-:::::= ~
~'-"~

eto.

~~

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Appoggiatura.
L'appoggiature est Ibrnement du chant le plus facile it executer, elle est, ainsi que son nom italien l~xprime, une note, sur Iaquelle appuie la voix pour passer ensuite une note reelle de l'accord. U appoggiature est generalement une note etrangere it I'harmonie. Elle peut etre superieure ou inferieure, et sa duree est tres variable. Si la mesure est paire, elle s'attribue la moitie de1a valeur de la note qu'elle precede; si la mesure est Impaire, elle emprunte la note prineipale ~ de sa valeur. Uappoggiature peut marquer toute es~ece d'intervalles, en commeneant par Ie demi-ton, La duree de l'appoggiature de.. pend d'ailleurs du caract ere de la phrase.

The Long Appoggiatura.


The long appoggiatura is the easiest of all ornaments to execute; it is, as its Italian name indicates, a note upon which the voice leans or rests before passing to a note of the harmony; the long appoggiatura being usually a note foreign to the chord. It may stand above or below the harmony-note and is of variable length. When the rhythm is duple, the long appoggiatura takes half the length of the note which it precedes; when the rhythm is triple, the appoggiatura takes two-thirds of the value of the large note. The long appoggiaturaean be made on several different intervals, beginning with a semitone, its length is also partly dependent upon the style of the movement.

166.
Appoggiatura.

I'l -tiJ I'l

I..

I..

b
-.....!

.
r

.
,...--.-.

h.

Execution. ~

---

- ......
0
T1

-...

r.,
I

I.-..

L.-

167.

Exemple: Example: ~ I~
I'l

Reeitatif de I'Opera. «Titus» de Mozart. Recitative from the opera "Titus" by Mozart.

Chant. Melody.

.
Ecco iI pun-to,

l-

. .
l'a
tua co - stan-za,
1

etc .

Vi - tel-Iia,
l

d'e - sa - ~i - ~ar
L

1r

Execution.

Piano.

~
1'1

.
Ecco il pun-to,
0

Vi

tel-Jia,

d'e - sa - ml - nar .f:

ra

etc. tua co - stan-~a.

. .

n:: ,

..
r ..

'r
JW

etc.

Chant. Melody.

~
@J

Reeitatif de l'Opera. «Noces de Figaro» de Mozart. Recitative from the opera "Figaro's "\Vedding" by .Mozart

.
braccio al ,

I'l

Giunse al=fi-ne il momento,

r ch"'" - d' senzt'a1' - anno, ego ro

III

i'i -dol mio ...


etc.

....

--

etc.

Execution.
@)

~ Piano. ~

Giu~se al- f'i-n~il fuomento,

che ~o - dro senz' af -fanrio,

in

braceio

al - fi - dol mio ...

r~
:

1=
39

?7
I

...
I

etc.

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Petite s note s .
L'aeciaccatura est nne petite note vive qui precede, a Ia distance d'un ton ou dun demi.ton, une seconde note moins courte qu'elle,
1\

The Short Appoggiatura.


(Accz"accatura.)
The short appoggiatura is a small short note which precedes a longer note at the interval of a tone or semitone,

168.

v
/'L

...

"7iir~

169.

f,.

......

r-..
-j'"*

"i:'* It..

1 ··
r.

-eo

..
-

..

-eo
I..


.-h
I..

-eo

,h

170.

7'·

II-

"

,eo

I.

II'


7'-

1 ··
1\

-eo .....

...
~

-eo

-eo

Mordant.
Le Mordant se compose de deux ou trois notes precedant Ia note destine'e former la rnelo die , L'ellwe aura soin d'executer ce groupe de deux ou trois notes avec rapidite, toufefois en I'etudiant dabord lentement, afin de faire ressortir nettement ehaque note.

The Mordent.
The Mordent consists of two or three notes which precede a melody-note. The pupil must execute these two or three notes very rapidly, but yet must not neg-leet to practise them slowly at first,so that each not« may be distinctly uttered.

c:;::::::!

_r;::::,

~
II-

171.
eJ

.... -1*

II"

~-.i*
..
i:

etc.

"
~
-eo_

__ ""6-

etc.

:
-e.
F"I

oe-

t.

!.l . f1
~
.,.

.u

fi
lo000o.I

],

jj

172.

~
1\ I

.. ,.
•• •
L~

COo

~-----iJ".

..

.u if"
_LI.

"".0. ~

"".~.

etc,

...

·
!r ________

ft.I.h

· · ·

'~

· rr...___.... ,-.
40

--

· ·

~.

· · ·

etc.

}'

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Grupetto.
Le Grupetfo est un ornement de tre petites notes, qui ne font pas die. II se compose de la reunion Inferieure et super ieure Ia note deux, trois ou quapartie de la melo . des appoggiatures principale.

The Turn. (Gruppetto.)


The Gruppetto is an ornament consisting of two or three small notes which do not belong to the melody , It is formed by the addition of the lower and hig-her appoggiatura to the principal note.

Ii

173. 174.

v
1\

V
Ii

.. ..
~

...

'-..-._./

..

~~~ ~

'-./

"

..

._..-

'"

~-!=I

I"':""!:I

'-./

'"

I'

..........
I

~
=:",

fi
I

Io..IiiI

175.

v
1\

....~
· ·

-cs:

.. .. ..~.
I

'--l1_.

_~
I


I

=
~ ~
I I

I5!Ia!a
I

"""'"
L

..
~
'" 11
I

..
"-"'

.. ..
'-.

fl

_e

..f!_~

~l'!

v
1\

.........

.-

...
1m
I
I

r---"!!I

1'1

........
L

- ...
..
I

1":\
1

"':"'ff*~

u
tI

.~

I!IIOlie

_l!:I:z:o

.m=!

.......

• It·___./
~
I

~
~I

EiiB!:I

~- ... ..
~~
'-".. -~.I

~ 11*,

1":\

~t:\
...._.. ~

U 1\

-#"

..

'

..

..

11":\

The Trill.

1':\

Trille.
Le frille est nne oscillation rrgulifre dn larynx. C'est nne alternation rap ide et egale de deux sons eontigns a la di stance d'un ton ou d'un demi , ton. Le seul moyen de parvenir a faire un bon tr ille e st de Ie t ra , vailler en mesurp, en comptant le nornbre de s batte ments, D\lbord il fant le travailler lenternent; 011 ponrra en augmenter le mouvement an fur et a mesure qllPIe gmiipr aura gag-ne de la souplesse, Pour pvitrr toute fatignf' la voix de femme, on pourra commencer I'etudt' du trillo par It' registre du medium; on aura soin de transposer Fexercice du triIle ainsi que tous Ips antres exercices ,

The trill if, a regular vibration of the larynx. It consi sts of a rapid and rhythmical repetition of two notes which lie close tog-ether, at the distance of a tone or a semitone , The only method of acquiring a perfect trill if, to practise it in ;-trid time) counting the number of the notes. It must be practised slowly at first and the beats doubled in speed only when the throat has become pliant. To avoid fatiguing the female voice) the trill should be practised by beginning- with the medium register, The trill-exercises are to be transposed, like the others.
I

1',

Manii:lrede travailler Ie trille.


:_../ '-...._......-"

176.

........... ,..._--"'
I

How to practise

the Trill.

v
fl
V

.___.... .___....

-.__..-


i~

...

etc.

0'_

#=

· ·

~ ~

I'fr#"
I

-K_

_*
r-:

..

~~~q#' etc.
I

41

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

177.

"
~
:...../

"
v

......._____...
#
_'UI

-..._..-

'-.:!.....

#__

ptW#"
~

:
'UI

II

----------:.--it

~~
--.::_

etc.

~
II I

. .
II

ti.

~~~$' etc .
I

JI.

179

"'"ci..

180. Different endings of trills . -tI;

Differentes terminaisons du trille.

178.

,..

~ ~ ~ ~

..

it-_

_.
--I

it:

1\ ~ ~,

--.

L-~

rJr
I

</r

Trille de tierces. Trills separated by a third -,J',;'

181.
Execution.

v
" Jl ~.

.~

-;., ~~.
V

.
II ~~,

-~ i9--!._

...
F=I<ir
I

_
-

....

.
/":\

~ v
II

JI.~.

JI.~. I
u

---it

--~

r.-... r.-...

~.
42

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Gammes de trtlles.
I':.IJ

Chain of Trills. •

*)182.
IV

..
...~---.....:.

Execution.

"
IV

.IJ

...~-

._.,
./'~

CJ

"jI.

IV

. .

::
I

:;

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 1, Opus 21

Trille d'octave.

octave -tr ills .


rIr
"-"

,., ~-If.

rIr

I=!

<Ir

183.
e.J

". ~ ~.
Execution.

~ <,

u
,.. ,II. ~,

.:>

~~~~
,

tJ

--19-__

---~
ir
"'"

-r-

P~""
l

,.,
tJ

ir

Jj

ri1'
r

..=:1.

f':'..

r,
tJ

,..
e.J

-#-=:
G

.~

i.\
I::::=E:I
Eiiii==r ~

.z-:

'"

f':'..

__ .
Exercice

_s


~

f':'..

Exercise

pour f'aciliter I'etude du trille aux gosiers qui manquent de souplesse . .A transposer comme tous Ies autres exerelees ,

,.,
184
e.J

...
>>-

>-

.... ...___.. ...___....


v#-

~-~~ -----.
44

to facilitate the study of trills for a voice lacking in agility. This exercise is to be transposed like the others.

P.rf. ~=== ... ...

--

---

----~
~

f':'..

"
IV

f':'..

:#

. .

'-J..__..."'_...__

.:>:

..

f':'..

M. Marchesi

The Art of Singing


Book 2, Opus 21

fl

Larghetto
~

Messa di Voce e Portamento,

Canto.

1.

I" fl Ie

.
====-f

~ uJ j

.
==

Piano.

tit{

(lJ } (JJ .
~

}JJ
I

) rIiJ
I

_} 1J I

~illJ
I

"'-.!.Y

"

.
IV

.
/

.
~

..

fl

·
IJ

(J"

f ..
} I

} (T'~
r

) {ITJ
I
a tem. po ~

}~

..

} (IJ
f

_...t.

(J ..

ttr

1':\

ttr -.

I
_i

._,-

--..,

"
II!

1':\

--

_i

==
I

_!_

) (li.!._
I

~,
~

'"
I':.

a tempo;

) .f!:
--1:-

,,----....---..
eJ

1\

-----===
1

1r

--......

}iii ! (~ }[J- ) rr,r


:--

..

1':\

====/

._,

} ("iJ

} I.J
1'I'r

.. )w

}I

..
1

1':\

) fi..l
r

t (\)

! ((:J
-&

~
19=

1':\

r
Le signe

______.....

indique oil l'on doit respirer.

The sign.---.... shows where to take breath.

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing VON'

Book 2, Opus 21

Messa di
" Lento.

e Portamento.

2.

eJ

.."
"

p~

---6 •

.
-6 '"

--==:::: '-

'"

1!!11

~.
f"I.--.,
Ie.

. ~.

-6"

~. .
=:::

: .

~.
.
""Ili •

v.- ~

:t!i.

...

-6 •

-==-::.::::::.__
..... ""Ili
"

-.......

-'-6 •

r~'
...-::::::....

~ ~
c; •

· · · p.

"

..--.....
4

I"__"

=-1'1

I_

..

· '1 ·
·
»<

-6

-6 •
I-."

-6 •

r----r

"

. . ·

~~

......, ~

-6'

r
..'.

~
eJ

.
"Z: •

::::=::--

f--{

rr
'---'"' -r:
-6

--

'-6 •

-6'

-6

.
:

?:,j

1"-~
I

.
c; •

· · r~
·

,........."",

::::::--"

"
• -6

- Sc.

· -===
~. · ·
'"--"

<c:»:

-e,I ~

· ··
'""'
'-""


.

· · ·

-6

1"-..-

Jr r'-1
~ ___,

· ·

"
~._/

r r'
_,/

. . .

-6 •

. .
~

· f z_.....- f ·
.
-

~<==~~. ·

1'1-

1-«

. ~~
-6 • "

-6 "

· -~

::::.

e.

-r ,,__,
«.I"__"

. .

,:J

~
I

-6 •

r---..r

~.

--"

· · · ~.

~~r·
.-----::-

. . .

-6"

6"

-6'

-6 •

l~

r-.

" "

r~r"
·
-6 •

· "

~~

-:-"

"
«.I

--===
-6 •

"

= ===;OS •

<,

t:\

t:\
-6 • -6 • -6 •
-6

..-

..1..-6

I-c;; b_.. .

.-6 •

-6

.........

/i='

r~r'

r· r
'-._.../

=~ ·

:
/

· · ·

r~r

r~C-f

· ·

L.

· ·

t:\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Moderato

3.

t'1 .
1--

4--.-/
p
~

------

-.__,.-

_.!.

-- -I

Portam (>ntt).

""----.

,
-<

<:»
~

-T~
-

rail.

·. p-~~ . (

"

. ~.

.. •
~


.
~Lo

~~

...
:: 1:;-

......

.
~'-

.
:;Sj..

.
j;:.

.. ::

mil.

. ·
1":\
el

,
<

--~
II a

=e-->:
----::::

~
I

-I

'l! •

--1":\
1

fl a tempo

"
:


~

...l;

,.
.
=6.
<,

*1

..

lP_"" 'y ..,

"

..
-

· · ·

~.

-6

:;

~.
~

~~.

-=6 •

•·
(
-<

.....

---------~
-.iJ.~
<,

-..

<,

->

il
~

$#~. • · ·
:: ~.

q* ..

.. ..
~.

.#~.
-~.
~

.~~. . ..
-~.
-61:'

.
I
I I

--~

11 e

-6'-.....__/

---

:: oz:;.

-----v---::.

::
~

~.

:: ~.

1":\

'<, _.,

I
I
~l I T1....

.....__.....-6I

(
<

tJ
~

..
t:.

:- ...
~.

· ··

.
:;5..

..
3

:: 1:.

-= 1:'

.~..
J ..

!':\

1":\

r~~

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Portamento.
Andante
1D0880.

ilL.
I~_l

...-.- -. .
...

.....rr r
~"
I

-.........

...===-- --== =-II


<


~
4

,,- r ~ I J..l ..LJ I

~ffl~W
I ~

.,ffl_
~'-1

n-r
~IJ
~»~

JI

~ rU..LJ
I

,
I
I

I ~ .
,

...............

~Jl

.
.;._

"

e.

. .

'" I J
I

" rr [

II

~i1l
I

., I J
~"-1

" rl r

J I ~ IJ
I

/r-rr-

J I '" r T

rr»>

.~r~
T

~Jl

'\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Portamento.
AndantefJ

5.

.zr-«.

It!

~
It!

--=

~
4--

::::::=-.

. ....._
1?:
~
r

--==-

4-

""_ha.

~-

4-

-.

.
-

-.

Pf9--

"17 .

-~
~

--:--,

• -----------

~
t!
4

I~

""
v'

II 4-

==

==-· ·
19--

..r

=-q~:
I

.
4':

. eJ

"
__u.\112 :

"'fr'

bn.

-.

· · ~·
~

q!_:
•. it~

.
7i.

__

II
eJ

~
I

.......--..,

<,

---

j:=

~atl_

<::»

!
!

II

. eJ

~
,

----I

. -.

. ~-.
~

.
0/1'

==I

In:?:

I'{.

H~

.
, rail.

<::»
~
c;

<:» "-.J.
,

~---~

{.\

II eJ II

a tempo
-9

'-

== a tempo
"'fr'

4'

=I

It!

4'

.,bn'

,
4'

:&1-'

?fo:
.J.
,
_l

Ib,

-~
5

...--

----


c;

..t:'--,_

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Portamento.
II ~ Allegretto.

6.
I~ lloU ~

n~

..

..
==-----..

---•
.,
I

,.._

--....
'-._.

..
~
1

_,

.,
~ ~

..
==-

----~

~~

-.=

Il~---

~ Illot ~

.-

+-.

piitl~

• ..
1

~_J
~

~,...-..._~"
-=

==-

~J
~

~_f

.,~

--'-j
~ ~
I

0f
~ ~
I

"""""
I

~ ~

II lot .......... ~
I't1l
<, J--

-..___ ==-

r--::

ft.

......._....
~
-:&

. .

...,-:;
Tel~.

';

~J

~ ~
""/---._

~_y
~ ~

-u
..-iii

~J

::------1l1l .---(':\

~
IIJ.>
!~

<:»

(':\

(':\ ~

r.-.

,
~(':\

...
tf1

... ..

i"

...
11

colla voce

..

....__.,.

II

..

rr.
(':\


Chant soutenu,

...
Melody.

~J

II

A n dante mosso~
-;::-._

7.
'!-

~-

Canto spianato.
~>-C
....--. ::::::;;-_

Sustained

II I~

p-==::.'

==- --=' ===- -==== >>#7fi"


?;

-----....-~

«:

cr=~
=

-='

==-- -==
~

#-d'r

~
u

#~

..

?J

~ 6

'-"""u,.,J-J

-?;

1\

e ~
eo

-..__..~

:

M. Marchesi l

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Pin mosso

.. -----

,.
I.J·
I l'

.
I,

IJ •

.
-"___rJ

M
I~

""

j•

I
~
t.

. .

I:'

--.
I

--I

~
eo

,
*
I

I
I

.
~.
~

I.J•

I j.

I j.

~.: ....._. ~.

r---=----- r .
.
~

!!'[.

. ~. ...._.
.

J.

IJ

..

-....
===-J

.,.

·
t.V

.I ..

.I ..

(j)
I

r'
I

==---

·
~

F------r
;--

LJ

f'

I\I~

~
1'\

___

~ :

I ~.

r~r'
. 1IJ
1

IJ •
.
\


'I


1

~ 1---

·
1

·
,1

' I
I

--\

I.
I

--

;C-r'

j•

j•

-----'_:;:::::::'"

~ 1---

(lJ

(i.J

II 1-

~
I"l

.
I

..
L

~.

1'-

r'
-===::
::::

~,---...

-f'

Tempo I

I====-- -=~
:>

---

eo

. .
II

7J
I

~dP-

~?P

r~r'
...,--.,..

.
-.-.

.----. ~
1

"l:

"l:

~
II

- ====~ ~ ~

-------0:::::

--==;;:..===~7?
"l:

"-1*----"'"

{.\.

~:j: ri""i"'1
~

1#
"l:

~(~:j

Co

Co
Co

~r
I

{.\.

'"
f':\
r;-

:
"l:
I

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Canto spianato.
Chant soutenu. ~ .~.Cantabile. 8. Sustained Melody.

.----

r
.----

r
..L-

...) \.....
r
.--

r
~~~
eo .._..~
I

r
~
____

r
I.
~.

.:::::::,;;...-

I*j
I

r
4___ --):;,/

~ -"
eJ

· ·
I
~JJ. __

*; ".

.1; \ •

-"]

1*)
~

<:
I
1"'-:::

11

-; -:

<: ~'r
) I

r
r::::::::. -

tJ

~~
..

-===== ====~

"'""""'"

I '-..3j

..

eJ

· ·
~ Jl

,I

I.)

I"')~

"]~

11

J
.----:

... ~ )

~)- f
I

~~

"r
~

tt-

r
l.I.

r
-

?i
~

~
~
eJ

#1./~
~ ~ :; :;s

-::::.-..

~ 'It ~

...) '" "fI

+t~.Y

· ·

"'J~

..=-==== / \....

?:

r
8

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

~Jl

-r:

tJ ~Jl

====
7i

-::::::---...

>...-

.
r

'I'aIt.

r.-.

""----""

-=

::::::=-

tJ

:
~

\ ...

...)~
t
!!i-

7)

<:
...
~

r.-.

...J
c--,

~
colla voce

... ff·

raIl.

T Diatonic Scale.

-&

\;.I

9.

tJ

"
~

Gamme diatonique. All egre tt o.


'P"'~

--..
i-

;::,...

--

:::;..._

_'

tJ

11lf

...
~

..
i::::::=-

...

..

..
i
;::,...

.J
~

<c:»

,,~
tJ

r~

.J
r
~:;;_

~=

j:

=-r

r~ r
~

~ ~

-.....

It
eJ

. ,,~
:

J ..
"

..
f
i-

..
i
~

..
i ~

tJ

.:==J..

---------~

.. .. r~
~ i<,

..
I
~

..
~
:::=-

==

1fr

ftj

.--::::::

==

::::::=-

It
eJ

--=

.~

. .
r

.J

J
i
~ ~

..

J
T
f:

..
..
lfJ"
~

-oj

~r ~

~~
tJ _

---~

r
<,

-- ..
~

r
===-

f:
_.t:'1

./.

II
tJ

<e:»
.J
~

..
:

..
r
~

oJ

..
i ~r

.J
i9

-oil

.. rI
_

r.-.

~r

..

... r.-.
~

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Gamme diatonique.
fit

Con grazia

.
I
?Iff I

10.

.,
A

----=
..--;--..>-

Diatonic Scale.
~ ....-T"'""--.>-

>-

.,

"1 «:
"

r:
....

••

.$

;t ...

:I

..
.........

..
~

..
::>

..
~

.
>-

.-

..,
~

..,
I

••
I

-i

.. ••

-i

..
r

-=
$$

~ _...
I

::>

h.


r

$"•

"f: •

...,
~

~---,.,
: ~

r
~

::=:::::::-

_-

... ..
--..

~....
..

....
.... ....

11

n., .,

11--:

,.
I I

...
.-

..,
~

...,

. .
II

.. ..
I I

..... .. .. ......
..1

---

;::..-

-... .. ...
..

_ -1"""'1""1

q... ...

....
~

.....
..
/":\

.. ..

....

..,

- --..
~

:--_

==== II
:

-••
10

..----

J~J~
1---1

...,

iJI#"~

f:f:

iJ*-fJ*"

jJ*-

jJ*-

..

..

..

.
c,I'

...

/":\

$"
u.

..

/":\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Gamme diatonique.
.1.u,

Diatonic Scale.
.-...

Con bri rIO.

....-:

11.
•J

71ff .......
,

..

--......
::::==~ >-

!
~
1lJJ.

1lJJ.

----

11

-->-

----- -----

>-

t
;-.....

eJ

. .

~
I

Ilu, ..-..

->-6

"I

"I

"I

...

-:::-.......
~ >~ ~

---=
;--:--......._ ::=:=>.

~.
>-

>-

. .
I
1lJJ.I

f:
I

1J

.z;-

--::::;:: --..

-==::: >~

~
.~1010
eJ

==== ::::::=>-

--==:::: ~
>.

.~.
\

...-...-. r-mJ
I
>-

~
=

~ :

q4
I

q4'
I

IqeV
I I

I
~

...
-::::::--..._
L..J...I".o.I

...
....____..

1lJJ. eJ ~JJ.

"
'---".~

---==--

===-=-- ~
•qe"-'"

-...._..-

...__

::::::::,.
"'---"

~-..... I~#

~ :

ti

8I I

'-0

-~~

L"-::I- ...

~1010 ------;:;:--.
eJ

atemp~

.zr--:

J ?"it-

a_!E!!:!o -:::---_

1':\
u

_....
.

Iljj. j ~

-----

~ a tempo

colla voce
TIl

..


I

~:
~~

,.

rr7 ·1
t

<z:»

1':\
c-

~ fa
-e-

tempo ~

1':\

~
11

~r

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

12

Gamme diatonique. Moderato


t":\

12.
tI

p4-___ ~
t":\

--~

Diatonic Scale.

-_
~
-

12
tI

~.
I

.
12 ~12 ~'
tJ

I'~
.~

1111' 4

;:

_,--~

::
·
~

-, J;
<:»
i ....~

---_..
-:;J
...__.-

,
~

""- * •__

<,___

---

f
4t
~
-::___..-

;i

-I

-_,

=~

1S"
~

1 I

---!
I

?J

l~
L_--/

12~
It)

-::::-.--.... ,

12
It)

:
#

,
!

",d

~----+-

--_
-

__

---- '"

=--

<c:»

-..-::
1

4-

-+-

:# ~_/

;
4t~

-6

· ·

~___../

...__

.1

- .'
-:::--..... -.____.....-

It)

" -12
!:.<

F'r=i

~
....__..
"'!'!>

;;;:;;;;;;I!__.-'

<:»

... -~.

--"!!!!!I-------

It)

'1

· ·

19,

__

~ ~~~

I
~
..!
tIiJ

..----..,
....___::_-r

--I

Ii

1S"
!

.._

<c:»

I'J.---..
tI

12
It)

---

- --I

:..----=::::;;

.I

"!


I
I

J
I

------...
I

t:\

t:\

t:\

...
12

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Gamme diatonique. 13 .
~jj.

Diatonic
~ ~ ~~

Scale.

1 Al egretto.

...-:::

t.

"}~
t.

.
tlg .....
f\

. .
:,-

.....

r
~

....

--...;;;

.....
-

.......
1\

t-,"

...

t\

..,.~

....,

-=
t\

=-[)

.. ..

....

~~
t.

......

-=
_?""

_>

.. >

->

f'J ..
I!.I

...

.,
I..

...r--.....
. ... ...
~ ~

•I

.,
=i =i
L.

--

_...

--------

'$ •
4
~

11

n». ~~
I!.I

1.-

f: •

~.~.

-- 4
-

...

~;- ;-

••
~
I'

t ~.
IJ ..
I!.I

••

'$ $
~ ~

--,,
~ 4

.::::-

.
~

:J

1t~~

jj
r

~r p

~.u


I

.,. .,
r

..I

a..o;;;: ;;;::::-...... /":\

a tempo

.... ....
l

--

.....
I"

., .,.
r

- rr.

a tempo

.... .. . ....
f\

.>:

:::--.

'"
I..J

~~- --.......
I!.I
Iljj.

~ ~

~.

I!.I

· ·

t\

.. ...

'""""

.,.,
f\ r'I

.,

...

r\

----=
-~

,-

)
y

/':',
II

....
13

r\

... ..

..

...
l

..

/':',

,......./':',

M" Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Gamme pointee .
Andante amoroso, ~_----::>

Dotted Scale.
__

~
eJ

TempoIl.~

-----'.~

----------____
~

.::.

.
~

---.
"
11'11

.-"'!. .....:::::.,

----

______________ --.......
"~

.~
iT,,~
"*___..-'

I'l

. .
~ ~ ~
«J
/"

...

:::..

I ttn:;

..........
.--:::=::::::piil

.....,
.

_"
~

:;;
-:::-J":\

"* ___./.._./ _

..
..
I

2t
_?

_____...,..-

..

______.-/
..--::;;:::;:::

..

t:\

~ :

t:\

PUt

<:» rroo

t"/DO

--..
~

EIJ

f
"*J

"1___/

71

..
I

«:»

..- ..
~

..
=

::>

---1'-

t:\

mil.

t:\

..-

..14

...

.1

colla voce

-4!'

..

li

t:\
".

..-

M. Marchesi 1\

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Tempo I

:>

It!

...-...

. ~.
III.

:>

Ii

:>

:>
'UU.

. . ..

~
t,

. .

~ ~ ~

-.
1\
I

..

...--::--

.""" ...-::-~

T_...,
*../

..
-

~
~ ~

.~

I'
~

t:\

-+

Groupes de quatre notes. Moderato.


----_ _______ I!!!!!I!!s=I

Groups of Four Notes.

15.
't,

pI :> :>

.:>

~
:>

1'1
@}

=*

_-----.....

.-----.
:>

IiiiiiiIiiiIiii

._...
::>

:>

--

.
I"l
t,

p~~
T

:::~
T T

:::

===
ill

:::

----::::::::

~I

It.

-- ------.. -~ , , , :;: .. .
~ ~
:> :>

----_ .
:>

••
T
"I

4:::
"I

:t :t

:::

--:>

.,.......-.....

>~

~ -==::

::::::==-

:::
tI

.. ..
,...._

:
tI

"11

r
I..

"
~

"11

1'1
, eJ

--::::::::::--

~>~~

~ ~

:::::=I
::>-

:::::::=::::;- .;;:_-

I"l

:::,-.

,e..

••
:

..

... ...
I

::;>

..
..
T~'"

.-

:>
r

...__...
-"I~

./'

..._ .....

----~
~

<i:»

..
--

,., I

eJ

1'1

-~

11

--......._
~ ~

eJ

"*'__ "*'

....__......

4t .. ]t .....__...-

q~~

I":;J.~":;J.


15

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

ad lib
~I e;

..--

,.---...

roll

II

.---~

motto

a tempo

-~

--- ;;;;::;:::

C """":

;:>

.......-...

=
~ ~

. e)

:i
:

Ie.
~I

:::==::>

, · ·
II
tJ
~I l

----~
;::..

~l
"J

::
"J

... ...
11

oj-

::::..

~ ~

,~
::::..

~ ~ ~

-:: ~~

'"~
/

.___.
:::::.

===

"it

"it

"it

....
;-

~ '--...'!"

r
!":\

~
/':\

"1-

Ie)

,
;::..

::::..

a tempo

/':\

colla

:t

vo~

:1

~ qit
"1

I"~~

r
-

'''~ ;.

~
/':\
I

Gamme
II
I

chromatique.

Chromatic Scale.
~
r

Allegretto non presto.

16.
Ie.!
1'1 r
"@J

---,
..l

,,-;;;;:;-~

-hi/'

====~~

~ ...._.._..

1
II
t.J I

. .. .
I

71if. ,-7

...
,.--._

..
I

'--;
j_

'-Ji

~
I

~li

~,- .. -...=: f.-'"

... ...
.......-.-..
n-

.._....

II r
e;

-7I..J

.A!IfIilf"'I

:::::::.--7I_::_'
I

,.
f'-lf~
I
"1~~

::::::",

---

...

7I~

....

7I______/

-16

.-

'"--"

"':.____-*

q...

III

_=
~
<c:>

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

I~
.~ I

,- .
(':\

»>:

----=

.,-'----

=-==-,__,_
'-._* '-._*

---- .
"\'__*
I

~--.
~
11

17i".
(':\

..
r

C ..

· ·
4.' III

-~.

,.

~
1'1 L tJ

-..
~

,.

i
<:
~ ~

-?

...-:;:::::::

<:»

.....
'-......!"

----<:»

"'tii
~

'-.:#

. ,..
(':\

: 4
1'1 I
...--::::::::

,.


:-----.,

..
~

..
I

11

i. i·

~
1'1
I


-:::

...__

.,

'--

;_...

~,.~===(':\ (':\

~:

· ·
II , -----I-

..
I

'-._-

<:»

..
...............

....

..
~

~
~
4t.

--~

<->:

-------~

==-=---

- --........___ ~

· ·


'

-Z____"

~-,J

~i

..

"J

r"

..
...--;....-.._

rJ I

~
1'1
t.i I

-- .......
",,- ----"!t.
-,j____/

--- Y__J

-..-_
"-

~
17\

(':\

<:»
:
'-""

-,J

----

----

....
17

r.

'"it

..

r.-.

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Gamme chromatique.
11~

Andante grazioso

.
zz>:
t':\

Chromatic Scale.

-------------~

17.

~ I'I~
@,

.
~

'IIff~~
~:
<c::>

...______t':\
I

...______::
~
I

. ..
~~ ~ ~~
t

f-$

::
====--...___/

> ........l

-1 -;:--...___
~

~ ~
I

--~

--~ ~
J

:::::::--...__

::

· ·
~

.1.

....__....
»>:

~~ >_

,
<

-----

--::

----::::----.._
--..:

t.

'"--""'

l'loU
@,

,_
I

· r·
~~
@,

#~
...........
!!!!!!!

._....-"-----""
~l

..
11'


I

---.....-

• -----~

'--.:i
~

-------=
~

-----==
...__

,
<
\

~
@,

~.

... ..
· ·

..


-';'

,.:
r

.:~
r

it

.. ..

-...

"
-:JI

..

18

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

1'1",

rail. ~

t':\ a tempo

>,...."",

> ....... l

......-::::::::

e:
1'1", t:

~l

-colla voce

-:._

~ t':\ a tempo ~
I

~.
11

..__.-

..

- --- >-_

::

, :::

,~

:f"

-~

1'I,u

~
11'1",

~.
I

>-

....__"...

~.h

---- -~
...___ ...... ',..J.!---"'

I*"

t':\
.Ja

--.....
::-

IIe;

. .

-=.._____.

· :::
......

-----.......-.....----=---

· ::: ·
T'

L~:

.
.
.

t':\
__

,..

lI.:._....-"iI

Gamme mineure et majeure.


Con energia
11'1

18.
eJ flu

if#_j--

>--

~~

. .

..

..

---- .. ~

Major and Minor Scale.

r~r'
=:r

. .


t':\

=

JiJ"1

.
~

_l

~
I

-::----.

::==-

r~~
-

..._

..

~-----~-------~
jIJ"~
I

~:;.:

r~

.•
_l
"60' ___________

.
II
..

..
~


t1

..

..

r
.~*-

11'1

..
I ~

~-=

.I
if.
f

r
19

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Gamme majeure et mineure.


Allegretto. 19.

Major and Minor Scale.

/I

~ ~

~
l' -...__..-...__ , ~

It}
~
t

· ·
~
.~

'

....... ••

,'_, _,
r

.. . "'__"'1l~

---'

...::=:::--.:..
~
_lIIIIIII!IIIII

,....:::;;::

........

-~
,
...l

...

, ......
J......

.
~

q.....
r
I!!I!oo..

1. ~~ __

.c>.
1'4' .,

ate~

~l

j
t.

· I·
" I

,
:::::-..

t:\

--

.....
-=
~~
l'l.
111

t:\

===
j

..-

.
111-":_

~-

.
:I :#

~;;a tempo

t-

,e
I'l
tJ
I

- ===

- ====--'
l

<,

-......._

!4;;=
'

.._

. .

:.--=--

.... ,

..

......

---=

:t:

:# :I

20

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Notes
" Moderato.

repetees.
....
~
.......,

20.

"
tJ

/',

.. 1'1.

Repeated Notes.
~
I

->
I

_-;;;;.
I

~~

~
I

· ·

..

n...

7'?f •

- ft"" ....~ '7tt ...


I
I

"I'-z

...
I

1
Y

". 9-

...
.

/':'\~

'I.

" ~ Andante, 4luasi allegretto.

"
tJ

..-----------~. - ... .---------

-_ _.
-

....
~

.
I

....
. .
·t
::::::::=-

'-' -.Jt.....J . y.__/

1\ ~

tJ

.. · .
"
tJ

...
....
+-;

_....,

~ ~

·
~

.
tt~ ..

.
7

...

.
--f
I

T...-/

.
'-'

j'"

..
I

~ I

...
to

T
I

-.....
-.jt..........

to

.::-

_-:::---....

,.,
:

I _"~

,.
-....._"

.......-/ .

....

. .....

T_/

.s:
~

.... _y

....

mtl,_jJJ,olto

J".

Tempo I

,..
:

f
1

..
1'1

1I
I

::--.

~
I

1 rts?3!1-r>

~-...
~jl

t:\

~
I
I

_.I

fri.~oiut~""7J7f

. .

....
I

11if'
~

orese

ttl'" "*-7 '"' ...

,
21

"r·
v.

11!1 oresa

.
.

t:'\

- f.
\__~

t:\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Triolets.
1\

Triplets.

Tempo di Valse.

=r,/1'$:t:
I

21.
tJ

"
tJ

111ft :

,..
tJ

"
tJ

-~ --~~ ~ ~

~.

:t: ..

.......
I

.......................

..__..
7$

$:t: •

co •

..
.-'"

=-

:t:

.
~

<; _!'

<,
~

"!;/

$
:

:t:

...$

..........
~
=i

...

. =co •

..
~
~

.
.
I I

"
tJ

~~

"
i

- ---........
~
::>

=r- .....,....,
~

tJ

..
~

:t:

..
:f:
~

....
......

II

tJ II

-•
~

..
I

.. ..

-:«.

<c:»

....

...
1i

...
. ::>

=j
~ ~
=::>

""'ii--....

~
-.......!

.---;

tJ

===='
"if

===

~
"I

===

.."
..--~ ::>

II

tJ " tJ I

" ~

---~::

::::>

---..

~ ~

::>

r-t-'I

$$

:t::S

:t:

.
..".

:t:$

:t:

22

r.
~

-----.,'''''''_'

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

,;;;;;;
~

:::>

-......::..--

Book 2, Opus 21

.--?"".--::

==>:

,... I

'1.-

::

:: ::

~:ft

....
~
:::;__

-4I

:
I

,... I

/--.._

~
I

J ,J
3
1

3
"

t:\

.J II
I •

..........

--,_ 4J r
~ colla voce

.. q...... ~...... .,---.--· ,~. l.--~' ·


r.:-..
t:\

1
i~

·
,... I

-=r- rr"1-

...
~
........

-:---...
>--

"_
·

1"::\

~"all.
~L

a tempo
"""3"--...
IiiiiiiIiiiiif

........
---=----:$

~~...... ........r
-.....:::;_./

~
:::>-

"


,... ~
/_---

a1tempo

:S

... =~

,...
~

II

'I I I I

'1-

.....
~

<,
~-i--

..

=- =~

_./

r
~

.._..

T I

-I
I

........
~

...

:::>----

-i-- ....
:
~ ~
3 3

:S ..
I

:S

-i-$

t:i • ~

"
It)

"
~

..
~

=r>-

...........

...
-i

~--------------------------._, ......_ -_ ====~

1":\

... ..
~

=$

..

-.

<sz:>

..:..

1":\

~f

[)
~ t:\

23

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Arp(>ggio. Moderato.

22.

"
tJ

,..
nif

71"---~
II'"

<c:» ~

- ..-~

f-J

~$"

il

tt' P'"

-a

'6

1-:-::::: r::::::,,_

..
(-

..l.

,.,
t}"'~
,",

f----r

tJ

..
·
:;

i<:»

.
I

f:__r:
...:::.,....;'


'--

f
:4
'!'

it.. ~

- ._ -...
~

.,
~ ~

tr-

,..
V

--

...
~..J

/J__L!_ r
I

, --..viF-

--

f"

..
~
-

t
f"

'J

.s>:

...._

_.
'!'

--

~
t.J

·
f'

tr
~

·1
'!'

_.
...
a~
f"

,.,
tJ

""
~

....-:::

_-...

...-

rn!l

,.,

tJ

..
"
~
.........::......-

I'.:I~

--

::::::---..,.
~

.. ...
=i

·
II

tJ

"
tJ

·
~

..
t-

---------- - -- ... .....


,

rail

a tt:11lPO

..
=_ .......

..
:4

,.,.,

$
\

c+-;

--...._..

_..,

- ===::::::--.-

(-

...
f':\
4..__.... ... .

..

-= ==-

f':\

...
=i

J
r

...l-:= U

f':\

~ 24

f~

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Arpt>ggio.
~

, fJ
t:

---*

.
I)

..
Te~

.,

c_

l=+::-....

...
l ,~

..

-I-.!!!.

...
'1

.,
~

,.
_L

..
..

.. colla

vole
1

....,

f.

..

.tt.

25

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Allegretto. 24.
Il~

Appogg-iatura e Acciaccatura.

/":\ P

...- ...PI\.

-I

~.u
t!

. .
1'J.u
t! I

... /1
.
~l
I

r.-..

--T
~

.....-

......
,
r

...
r

t\

...

ft...

...
r
.~

tr"

...
-'""""'~
.......

'-""'"
'W

Iiiiii;I

1'JlJ.
t!

· ·

...
.,.

...
l)

:;:;t; 'W

.... ~
IiiiiI

_~

_l

r
I..

...
Ii

--l

._
V

-_
V

J..

...

1iiiIiiiiiiiIiI

... ....
~
r

..

colla voce

/":\

....
ratl. motto

,
t!.

1'\lJ, ..--

--C\

Te~
,;

-~

-..

I!..ft ..

....___...
/":\

...~

;;;::::t:::j

1llJ.

=====
"it

-...._...-

..................
l\

/":\

...
r

...

tt...
r

ft.

....

... ,
r

26

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Grupetto et Mordant.
1I.u Canta~ (':\ _ ...._ f':\p ~

25.

Ie) ~~ Ie)

,
PI

L:/'
r

.,
~

_L

- .....,
I"~

Turn and Mordent.


~

<,

-~
«::

~
--.:;::;-

· ·
1I.u ----e)

g
I

...
::::---~ 1..::-----'

. .
I
-

--

«>

M
e)

~ ~

...--..;_.

............

~
.,

;;;

I t_:../
:

., I~
~~

...

... ~

'r

..
-;

.. "

"iiiiiIIioooi

=-

.___..... •

~.u
e)

----

IlJo1
e)

·• ·
~.u
'@I

-.
~

.......

...__-

===-~

...__..........

--

~
<:»

'rr

..
..__..

====-

...
I

~
.~

...___,

'---.

,
~

____:...,.-'

.,
11

---

..

..
~

(":\ad lib. ~

a te'lllpo

Il.u
e)

l:!_-......
~

..__.

-----

(':\

<:::

--.....;....--

· ·

colla voce

f#: It:'\

., a~:?
r

---

11

--........_____
T

~"

..... -~
I~
ftt'

.,
-==IT

..

~iL:7 B

27

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

26.

lEI

"
II

DeCISO rna .
I~

Syncope. non 'J)r~sto •

Syncopation.
::::r--

......

---....._
I0..o.0oI

>

>

#'

I~

1Jif

..

_}t:

I_ _}
~
:>-

t:

~
1I~1
____


I
I

I~
1'1

~
<,

'eJ

· ·
II


~ ~ ~

-j: ~

,,
"'--'
I

--->

..
::::r--


~

.....--r

::>

....
I

....
I

t_ y
'<.

~-=----

~ ".-.....--......:>

-::::::::::.._..
~ ~
I

----....._
j,i

.~,."

eJ

_,
~

:I
4

J
4
> ~~

t
i

j,j'

!Jj
I

II.~-"~
II

---> ~


>
.....-..._

1".0IIII

---

> ---------T

-___....-

I~

·
I


't'

lit<II

• Syncope.

~.•
1

..
..

.1:\
~

t:\

t:\ I~'

----r

tJ

Deciso.

____-;;
r

I
:>-

Syncopation.
>::>

....-....

::>

::>

27.
eJ

II r

71fT.

..

.
~~

..

'-"'

.. ..
'--

J....I

...,

~ '.-4

'---'

..

28

..

'---'

..

'---"

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

'"~
eJ

--.. .._

">

.....-.. ...•

~
'_./

-=------:::::.. ~'_./ ~

~ ~

'~

..---~

'_./

· ·
~I
tI

..
...---

.....,
U
=:::::::"

-:::::..

~ 'eJ

:::::..

""""'

.....

.....

-.....
~ ...__...-

..
I

q".,-,,~

~~ ...._..,

'I

h.

U
-

~J
"""'-

~~ .__..

..

.~
I.

::::::=--

••

...

.,

••

~I
4t

Con brio _...:--

I
i

A '-

:::::::::,..,

,

I. I
'!'

.....
,

t-

""
~

_.

eJ


:
I

'!"

b.

A 1 ___

A.

-,

.--.,

f r.-..
P.
1":\

...*-!-7

'!'

Tempo I.
~

t:::::..

e:
:
-,

...
-r:
I

1":\
JI":\

..
L

~----J

..

1'1 ,---::

...
I

>-

>-

~>-

>-

>r

ralt.-------..._,
'-'

· ·

<c:>

"it

'_./

~ .._..... 4!"

~ it .._.....

it it
'_./

...
29

ratl.

~~ '-./

it

... ..

_l

JI":\

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Sauts.

Long Intervals.

h
eJ

~-------..
-5

an ale

...
-i!Y

~-

~I

e egato.
r .....

-....._

rr
-6

...-;::::::::.

::::::::..... ..

f.:

-!ii

;: ;:J;

••••

#,j"

-r

'IT

r~

...........

•••••
'

a t_C7!p..::.,-o

11
tJ

--~~~~

....

i?" ~
1'-9-'

.
r

J~ ~, h J K-,

Tempo I .

---

.!;>

11

rr V

~~
~(.\

...
-5

--....,

. .

....

~~1t,-~ If:_3 ......__.......


~'!f •

-:»
::
~

Uf:
(.\

.
Tempo 1.

fJ ....---.......
IV ...

..
-5

....

--- - .. ..
r

~.
~

y'

::

.
,r--

---..

.t ~_

....
?; -6
c:.o

11
"!:

r
'7

r.:..
(.\

<J

f7

~v: ~

:3

-e

-IS

-s

'IT

30

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Picchettato e Mareato,
d

c on grazia

e1 eggtero.

29.
.eJ

~
t!J

~ ~
~.~.~ c:........
~.

f.,

~~

.
"I

~ ~

'- -... "

....

.i:
~

~SS~

~-_
$

.:::...:::..

PI



.:::..

..
..
.

......
r.

VV

........ •
. > 3_ __

~
II
t!J

====--

.s.

-- .. f
1f•

r_

· ·
I\~

I_ ..
~r



11

..
:::; ~
.:::..~

p
P

jJ

..

j7

.
~
k

11

. .:::..~q'

r~
..

.:::..

.:::..

~
~.

r r-

•~ I

--_/

r~
c..

V
.

.~

·
I

.. J ~

.. J
I

jj
~
I

jj
"-

..
I

lif~
~

~~

UJ..J
~~

t___-/

raIl. motto a tempo

31

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

Trille.
Chant. Melody.
,., J e.;

Trill.

Andante

tLI

Exec'ution.

30.

Pi....
,., I

I"
~I

Andante.

I'"

-.
t/r
I

&

eJ
~I
eJ ,., I

----

- .. -- ... ..
.
...

. -.

,_....

L,..-II

"""""

t~
,.
rIr ___

...
-~
/"'

-....

/-

~
r

-..._

----..

---

eJ

._.
'ir
~l~

---- ~

j",;,.;:J
»:

~
r

I'~

;--.....

;i

.,..,
T
~I

:
__..-:::

,.,

;;;;-I
z.... ...

...
~ I -::::

~
~l--

--

~
...::::::---_

~
--,I

~"_,, n

r-r-T-I
~

eJ

'--l:..-I

=EIBII
'j:

---

tz>:

1\
-.J

.
I

t:
I

...

..
I '"-

"-L../

~"4 ,.n

,.
l

...
I

.~

~ ~

n.,-

-,
.,
T

'I

~~

.,

~I~
eJ

....--..-.........
Iti'fl

1I1~
eJ

............
__..::::.......

"'"
-....:.:..:
:..-' -...;,;.:__

iti"f

II,
tJ

'"I

I"

,,'_'

q.

..

.........

.,.. • ~ ~
32

M. Marchesi -

The Art of Singing -

Book 2, Opus 21

1\

<tr

""_
-:----1

.......,,_~:
~ ~

. I

:::::,.

tIr~
.s: I

i"
eJ

1"1 I

---

~I eJ
-&

: ~
1'\ 1--eJ 111'eJ f't eJ
I

1:\

I..-'

~-&_'"""--

:::.e
_y

0
ir

~. .....__...
~

--J. ...---._
_J

-..,

/-

.
.

~
r

ir __

~ ~ ~

~
r

....::;;::::

~
~ ~

. .

......
I

........___.,.

jIJ-


I

...

33