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Pre-stress precast concrete The prestressing and precasting of concrete are inter-related features of the modern building industry.

Prestressing of concrete is the application of a compressive force to concrete members and may be achieved by either pretensioning high tensile steel strands before the concrete has set, or by post-tensioning the strands after the concrete has set. Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming the concrete's natural weakness in tension.It can be used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete.raditional reinforced concrete is based on the use of steel reinforcement bars, rebars, inside poured concrete. The advantages of prestressed concrete include: crack control and lower construction costs; thinner slabs - especially important in high rise buildings in which floor thickness savings can translate into additional floors for the same (or lower) cost and fewer joints, since the distance that can be spanned by post-tensioned slabs exceeds that of reinforced constructions with the same thickness. Increasing span lengths increases the usable unencumbered floorspace in buildings; Diminishing the number of joints leads to lower maintenance costs over the design life of a building, since joints are the major locus of weakness in concrete buildings.

i. Pre-tension prestress Pre-tensioning is the application, before casting, of a tensile force to high tensile steel tendons around which the concrete is to be cast. When the placed concrete has developed sufficient compressive strength a compressive force is imparted to it by releasing the tendons, so that the concrete member is in a permanent state of prestress. The procedures for pretensioning a concrete member: 1. The prestressing tendons are initially tensioned between fixed abutments and anchored. 2. With the formwork in place, the concrete is cast around the highly stressed steel tendons and cured. 3. When the concrete has reached its required strength, the wires are cut or otherwise released from the abutments.

ii. Post-tension prestress Post-tensioning is the application of a compressive force to the concrete at some point in time after casting. When the concrete has gained strength a state of prestress is induced by tensioning steel tendons passed through ducts cast into the concrete, and locking the stressed tendons with mechanical anchors. The tendons are then normally grouted in place.

Advantages of Precast Concrete Precast concrete has the greatest advantage when identical members are to be cast because the same forms can be used several times. Some other advantages are listed below. Control of the quality of concrete. Smoother surface and plastering is not necessary. Less storage space is needed. Concrete member can be cast under all weather conditions. Better protection for curing. Weather conditions do not affect erection. Faster erection time. Since precast is manufactured in a controlled casting environment it is easier to control the mix, placement, and curing Quality can be controlled and monitored much more easily Since a precaster can buy materials for multiple projects, quantity discounts can lower costs Less labor is required and that labor can be less skilled On site, precast can be installed immediately, there is no waiting for it to gain strength and the modularity of precast products makes installation go quickly Repeatability-it's easy to make many copies of the same precast product; by maximizing repetition, you can get plenty of value from a mold and a set-up