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Give examples of polynomial p(x), g(x), q(x) and r(x), which satisfy the division algorithm and (i) deg p(x) = deg q(x) (ii) deg q(x) = deg r(x) (iii) deg r(x) = 0

Answer

According to the division algorithm, if p(x) and g(x) are two polynomials with g(x) polynomials q(x) and r(x) such that p(x) = g(x) x q(x) + r(x), where r(x) = 0 or degree of r(x) < degree of g(x). (i) Degree of quotient will be equal to degree of dividend when divisor is constant. Let us consider the division of by 3. Here, p(x) = and g(x) = 3 q(x) = and r(x) = 0 Here, degree of p(x) and q(x) is the same which is 2. Checking: p(x) = g(x) x q(x) + r(x) 0, then we can find

Thus, the division algorithm is satisfied. (ii) Let us consider the division of 2x4 + 2x by 2x3, Here, p(x) = 2x4 + 2x and g(x) = 2x3 q(x) = x and r(x) = 2x Clearly, the degree of q(x) and r(x) is the same which is 1. Checking, p(x) = g(x) x q(x) + r(x) 2x4 + 2x = (2x3 ) x x + 2x 2x4 + 2x = 2x4 + 2x Thus, the division algorithm is satisfied. (iii) Degree of remainder will be 0 when remainder obtained on division is a constant. Let us consider the division of 10x3 + 3 by 5x2. Here, p(x) = 10x3 + 3 and g(x) = 5x2 q(x) = 2x and r(x) = 3 Clearly, the degree of r(x) is 0. Checking: p(x) = g(x) x q(x) + r(x) 10x3 + 3 = (5x2 ) x 2x + 3 10x3 + 3 = 10x3 + 3 Thus, the division algorithm is satisfied. Concept insight: In order to answer such type of questions, one should remember the division algorithm. Also, remember the condition on the remainder polynomial r(x). The polynomial r(x) is either 0 or its degree is strictly less than g(x). The answer may not be unique in all the cases because there can be multiple polynomials which satisfies the given conditions.

Q: 1

Verify that the numbers given alongside of the cubic polynomials below are their zeroes. Also verify the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients in each case:

Answer

On comparing the given polynomial with the polynomial ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, we obtain a = 2, b = 1, c = 5, d = 2

Thus, the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients is verified.

On comparing the given polynomial with the polynomial ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, we obtain a = 1, b = -4, c = 5, d = -2.

Thus, the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients is verified. Concept insight: The zero of a polynomial is that value of the variable which makes the polynomial 0. Remember that there are three relationships between the zeroes of a cubic polynomial and its coefficients which involve the sum of zeroes, product of all zeroes and the product of zeroes taken two at a time. Q: 2 Find a cubic polynomial with the sum, sum of the product of its zeroes taken two at a time, and the product of its zeroes as 2, -7, -14 respectively.

Answer Let the polynomial be ax3 + bx2 + cx + d and its zeroes be . According to the given information:

If a = k, then b = -2k, c = -7k, d = 14k Thus, the required cubic polynomial is k(x3 - 2x2 - 7x + 14), where k is any real number. The simplest polynomial will be obtained by taking k = 1. Concept insight: A cubic polynomial involves four unknowns and we have three relations involving these unknowns, so the coefficients of the cubic polynomial can be found by assuming the value of one unknown and then finding the other three unknowns from the three relations.

Answer Let p(x) = x3 - 3x2 + x + 1 The zeroes of the polynomial p(x) are given as a - b, a, a + b. Comparing the given polynomial with dx3 + ex2 + fx + g, we can observe that d = 1, e = -3, f = 1, g = 1

Concept insight: When the polynomial and its zeroes are given then, remember to apply relationships between the zeroes and coefficients . These relations involve the sum of the zeroes, product of zeroes and the product of zeroes taken two at a time.

Answer

Therefore, x2 - 4x + 1 is a factor of the given polynomial. For finding the remaining zeroes of the given polynomial, we will carry out the division of

Hence, 7 and -5 are also zeroes of the given polynomial. Concept insight: If a is a zero of a polynomial p(x), where degree of p(x) is greater than 1, then (x - a) will be a factor of p(x) that is when p(x) is divided by (x - a), then the remainder obtained will be 0 and the quotient will be a factor of p(x) using division algorithm. Remember that if (x - a) and (x - b) are factors of a polynomial, then (x - a)(x - b) will also be a factor of that polynomial. Q: 5 If the polynomial x4 - 6x3 + 16x2 - 25x + 10 is divided by another polynomial x2 - 2x + k, the remainder comes out to be x + a, find k and a.

Answer By division algorithm, Dividend = Divisor x Quotient + Remainder Divisor x Quotient = Dividend - Remainder

10 - a - 8 x 5 + 25 = 0 10 - a - 40 + 25 = 0 -5-a=0 a = -5 Thus, k = 5 and a = -5. Concept insight: When a polynomial is divided by any non-zero polynomial, then it satisfies the division algorithm which is as below: Dividend = Divisor x Quotient + Remainder Divisor x Quotient = Dividend - Remainder So, from this relation, it can be said that the result (Dividend - Remainder) will be completely divisible by the divisor.

Linear equation in two variable: An equation in the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are real numbers, and a and b are not both zero (a + b 0), is called a linear equation in two variables x and y. Solution of a linear equation in two variables: Every solution of the equation is a point on the line representing it. Each solution (x, y) of a linear equation in two variables, ax + by + c = 0, corresponds to a point on the line representing the equation, and vice versa. General form of pair of linear equations in two variables: The general form for a pair of linear equations in two variables x and y is a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, Where a1, b1, c1, a2, b2, c2 are all real numbers and a1 + b1 0, a2 + b2 0. Geometrical representation of pair of linear equations in two variables The geometrical representation of a linear equation in two variables is a straight line. Pair of linear equations in two variables: If we have two linear equations in two variables in a plane, and we draw lines representing the equations, then:

2 2 2 2 2 2

Result The pair of equations has a unique solution. The pair of linear equations is consistent No solutions. The pair of linear equations is inconsistent. Infinite number of solutions. The pair of linear equations is consistent and dependent.

=> =>

Algebraic interpretation of pair of linear equations in two variables The pair of linear equations represented by these lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0

1.

If

2.

If

3.

If

S. No. 1

Pair of lines

a1/a2

b1/b2

c1/c2

a 1x + b 1y + c 1 = 0 a 2x + b 2y + c 2 = 0

a1/a2

b 1/ b 2

c1/c2

a1 / a2 b1 / b 2

a 1x + b 1y + c 1 = 0 a 2x + b 2y + c 2 = 0 a 1x + b 1y + c 1 = 0 a 2x + b 2y + c 2 = 0

a 1/ 2

b1/b2

c1/c2

a 1/ a 2 = b1 / b 2 = c 1/ c 2 a1 / a2= b1 / b2 c 1/ c 2

Coincident lines

a1/a2

b 1/ b 2

c1 / c2

Parallel lines

(a) Substitution method: Following are the steps to solve the pair of linear equations by substitution method: a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 (i) and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 (ii) Step 1: We pick either of the equations and write one variable in terms of the other y = -a1 / b1 x - c1 / b1 (iii) Step 2: Substitute the value of x in equation (i) from equation (iii) obtained in step 1. Step 3: Substituting this value of y in equation (iii) obtained in step 1, we get the values of x and y. (b) Elimination method: Following are the steps to solve the pair of linear equations by elimination method: Step 1: First multiply both the equations by some suitable non-zero constants to make the coefficients of one variable (either x or y) numerically equal. Step 2: Then add or subtract one equation from the other so that one variable gets eliminated. (i) If you get an equation in one variable, go to Step 3. (ii) If in Step 2, we obtain a true statement involving no variable, then the original pair of equations has infinitely many solutions. (iii) If in Step 2, we obtain a false statement involving no variable, then the original pair of equations has no solution, i.e., it is inconsistent. Step 3: Solve the equation in one variable (x or y) so obtained to get its value. Step 4: Substitute this value of x (or y) in either of the original equations to get the value of the other variable. (c) Cross multiplication method: By cross multiplication method, the value of x and y is as follows:

Equations Reducible to a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables: We have several situations which can be mathematically represented by two equations that are not linear, but we change them so that they are reduced to a pair of linear equations. 1. 2. Five years ago, Neeta was trice as old as Reeta. Ten years later, Neeta will be twice as old as Reeta, How old are Neeta and Reeta now? Solve the following pair of equations graphically : x + 2y =5 2x +3y = -4 Also find the points where the lines meet the x-axis. 3. Solve the following pair of linear equation graphically: 3x-2y-1 =0 2x-3y+6=0 4. Solve the following pair of linear equations graphically: 2x+3y=8 x +4y=9 5. Solve the following pair of linear equation graphically: x-2y=4 x-y =3 6. 7. 8. 9. 4 chairs and 3 tables cost Rs 2100 and 5 chairs and 2 tables cost Rs 1750. Find the cost of 1 chair and 1 table separately. Five years ago, A was thrice as old as B and 10 years hence A shall be twice as old as B. what are the present ages of A and B? In a two digit number, units digit is twice the tens digit. If the digits are reversed, new number is 27 more that the original number. Find the number. A and B are friends and A is elder to B by 2 years. As father D is twice as old as A and B is twice as old as his sister C. if the ages

of D and C differ by 40 years, find the age of A. 10. Ten years ago, father was twelve time as old as his son and ten years hence he will be twice as old as his son will be. Find their present ages. 11. A man has only 20 paisa coins and 25 paisa coins in his purse. If he has 50 coins in all totaling Rs 11.25, how many coins of each kind does she has? 12. The age of two girls are in the ratio 5:7 Eight years ago their ages were in the ratio 7:13. Find their present ages. 13. The taxi charges in a city comprise of a fixed charge together with the charge for the distance covered. For a journey of 10km, the charges paid are Rs 75 and for a journey of 15km, the charge paid are Rs 110. What will a person have to pay for travelling a distance of 25 km? 14. A man travels 600km partly by train and partly by car. If he covers 400km by train and the rest by car, it takes him 6 hours and 30 minutes. But if he travels 200 km by train and rest by car, he takes half an hour longer. Fine the speed of the train and that of the car. 15. The sum of a two digit number and the number obtained by reversing the order of its digits is 99. If the digits differ by 3, find the number. 16. Two years ago a father was five times as old as his son. Two years later, his age will be 8years more than three times the age of the son. Find the present ages of father and son. 17. The monthly incomes of A and B are in the ratio of 9:7 and their monthly expenditures are in the ratio of 4:3. If each saves Rs 1600per month, find the monthly incomes of each. 18. A number consisting of two digits is equal to 7 times the sum of its digits. When 27 is subtracted from the number, the digits interchange their places. Find the number. 19. The present age of a father is equal to the sum of the ages of his 5 children. 12 years hence the sum of the ages of his children will be twice the ages of their father. Find the present age of the father. 20. A man travels 600 km partly by train and partly by car. If he covers 400 km by train and the rest by car, it takes 6 hours and 30 minutes. But if he travels 200 km by train and rest by car, he takes half an hour longer. Find the speed of the train and that of car.

21. Two places A and B are 80 km apart from each other on a highway. A car stats from A and another from B at the same time. If they move in the same direction, they meet in 8 hours and if they move in opposite directions the meet in 1hour and 20 minutes. Find the seed of the cars. 22. A train covered a certain distance at a uniform speed. If the train would have 6 km/hr. faster it would have taken 8 hrs. less than the scheduled time. And if the train were slower by 6 km/hr. it would have taken 12 hours more than the scheduled time. Find the length of the journey. 23. A motorboat, whose speed is 9 km / hr in still water, goes 12 km downstream and comes back in a total time of 3 hrs. Find the speed of the stream. 24. For what values of p and q, the following system of linear equations will have infinite number of solutions? 2x (p 4)y = 2q + 1 4x (p 1)y = 5q 1. 25. If twice the fathers age is added to the sons age, the sum is 77. Five years ago, the father was 15 times the age of his son, then. Find their present ages. 26. Solve the following system of equations: 3 ( 2u + v) = 7 u v 3 ( u + 3 v) = 11 u v 27. The sum of a two-digit number and the number obtained by reversing the order of digits is 132. If 12 is added to the number, the new number becomes 5 times the sum of the digits. Find the number. 28. Solve graphically: x + y = 4, 3x - 2y = -3 Shade the region bounded by the lines and x- axis. Write the vertices of and find its area. 29. A certain number of students planned a picnic. The budget for food was Rs 3600. But 15 of these students failed to go and thus the cost of food for each student increased by Rs 8. How many students attended the picnic? 30. An express train takes 4 hours less for a journey of 1200 km if its speed is increased by 15 km/hr from its usual speed. Find its usual speed. 31. Solve for x and y (by cross multiplication method): 5mx + 6ny = 28 3mx + 4ny = 18. 32. Solve the equation by quadratic formula: 5x 16x + 3 = 0. 33. A man can row 40 km upstream and 24 km downstream in 7 hours. He can also row 32 km upstream and 36 km downstream in 7 hours. Find his speed of rowing in still water and the speed of the stream.

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