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Summarizing

It is often necessary to rewrite lengthy composition in a condensed form, especially in connection with research projects. A precise summary from a piece of original writing is often called a prcis. This brief summary must be in different words from those of the original and must accurately state the main idea of the original. Generally, a summary is about one fourth to one third the length of the original. A long selection is often summarized paragraph by paragraph, but sometimes several paragraphs or even the entire selection may be condensed into one paragraph. The Guidelines for writing a Summary 1. Read the original selection carefully. 2. Search for the main idea. 3. Find the meanings of any unknown words. 4. Use a dictionary. 5. Read the selection again. 6. Determine which parts of the selection are essential and which parts serve only as transitions or nonessential development material. 7. Write down the key words or phrases. 8. Write the summary, using the notes and the meaning of the main idea.

Examples : Automation is a term which describes the use machines to control other machines. The process of automation is expected to increase production and improve our standard of living. Certain kinds of automatic equipment have been used by the auto industry for many years to move materials to the assembly line. The Ford Motor Company now uses some automatic controls. At its engine plant in Cleveland, rough cylinder blocks go through a series of 530 automatic operations and come out as finished products in just under fifteen minutes. While many labor leaders fear that automation will cause workers to lose jobs, scientists say it will require more workers to maintain and repair the automatic machines.

Automation is used in Cleveland to make cylinder blocks with 530 operations in less than fifteen minutes. Automation, the use machines to control machines, is expected to increase production and improve living standards. The auto industry has used it. Some feel it may cause unemployment, but others see many new jobs resulting. Automation, which is used in the auto industry, will raise standards of living. Workers fear unemployment, but scientists envision new jobs. Automation, the use machines to control machines, will raise production and living standards. The auto industry has used it. Workers feel it may cause unemployment, but scientists think it will create many new jobs.

Exercise
Over-eating

Over-eating is the one of the most wonderful practices among those who think that they can afford it. In fact, authorities say that nearly all who can get as much as they desire, over-eat to their disadvantage. This class of people could save a great more food than they can save by missing one meal per week and at the same time they could improve their health. A heavy meal at night, the so-called dinner, is the fashion with many and often it is taken shortly before retiring. It is unnecessary and could be forgone, not only once a week but daily without loss of strength. From three to five hours are needed to digest food. While sleeping, this food not being required to give energy for work, is in many cases converted into excess fat, giving rise to over-weight. The evening meal should be light, taken three or four hours before retiring. This prevents over-eating, conserves energy and reduces the cost of food.

Stamp-collecting A stamp is, to many people, just a slip of paper that takes a letter from one town or country to another. They are unable to understand why we stamp collectors find so much pleasure in collecting them and how we find the time in which to indulge in our hobby. To them it seems a waste of time, a waste of effort and a waste of money. But they do not realise that there are many who do buy stamps, many who find the effort worth-while and many who, if they did not spend their time collecting stamps, would spend it less profitably. We all seek something to do in our leisure hours and what better occupation is there to keep us out of mischief than that of collecting stamps? An album, a packet of hinges, a new supply of stamps, and the time passes swiftly and pleasantly. Stamp-collecting has no limits and a collection never has an end; countries are always printing and issuing new stamps to celebrate coronations, great events, anniversaries and deaths. And the fascination of collecting is trying to obtain these stamps before ones rivals. Every sphere of stamp-collecting has its fascination receiving letters from distant countries and discovering old stamps in the leaves of dusty old books. A stamp itself has a fascination all its own. Gazing at its little picture we are transported to the wilds of Congo, the homes of the Arabs, and the endless tracks of the Sahara desert. There is a history in every stamp. The ancient Roman Empire and the Constitution of America, Indias Independence and the Allied victory, are all conveyed to our minds eye by means of stamps. We see famous men, pictures, writers, scientists, soldiers, politicians and famous incidents. Stamps, so small and minute, contain knowledge that is vast and important.

To many people a stamp is merely something necessary for sending a letter. They regard stamp-collecting as a waste of time, effort and money. But there are many people who love buying stamps and find this hobby worthwhile and more profitable than other leisure pursuits. Collecting stamps helps to pass the time quickly and pleasantly. Stamp-collecting is limitless and endless. Countries are always issuing stamps to celebrate important eevents. It is fascinating to receive letters from distant countries and to discover stamps in old books. A stamp itself has a charm. Stamps show us geographical and historical pictures, famous people and incidents. These small things contain vast knowledge.