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9. COOLING AND PREHEATING SYSTEM The cooling system is of a liquid , closed circuit , coolant forced circulation type .

communication with atmosphere is possible only with the air-and-system relief valve (mounted in the vehicle cooling system) being open , when the system pressure exceeds the air-and-stream relief valve spring tightening force or when it becomes lower than the atmosphere pressure .

The cooling system is designed to draw away the heat from the engine parts being in contact with hot gases and for maintaining such a temperature of the parts, which is tolerable for proper operation of the engine. Through the system, the liquid is delivered into radiator where in it is the cooled and again fed into engine. The cooling system includes the following accessories and the parts of the engine: water pump, outside water tubes and inner cavities of the cylinder jackets and cylinder heads .Mounted outside the engine are a water radiator with tubes, a drain cock, a thermometer and air-and-stream relief valve. The preheating is used for warm-up the engine and it system before starting it. The preheating system comprises a preheater, oil tank coils heated cavities of the engine units, with the jacket of tubes.

The preheater is mounted in the vehicle and this is the part of the vehicle accessories .operation of the preheating system and the use of the preheater are dealt with in the vehicle technical description. The water pump is of a centrifugal type. The coolant pressure is built up by the rotating impeller blades of the pump. The pump is intended for providing the coolant circulation inside the system .it is mounted on right hand side of the crankcase lower half and is put into operation from the lower drive through the spring. To increase the water pump capacity, the impellers the blades are enlarged in height, coolant by pass holes are eliminated in the impeller and impeller blade surface is improved. The water pump incorporates anodized housing, bellmouth ; shaft with impeller and shaft packing .the housing and bellmouth are made of alluminium alloy .the shaft rotates in to ballbearings press fitted in the housing recesses . distance bushing is placed between the bearings a six blade impeller is attached to the shaft flange ; at the other end , splined bushing is secured by nut .the shaft packing consist of collar ,stainless steel holder , and corrugated oil seal with a spring and metallographite washer . During the engine operation, the coolant is delivered from the radiator into the centrifugal pump. From the pump, the coolant is forced through the tubes into the distribution passages of the LH and RH cylinder blocks. Through the differentiated drillings, the coolant flows from the

distribution passages to all the cylinders of the cylinder block simultaneously; it washes the liners over, goes upward and through the by-pass tubes it flows into the cylinder heads. The coolant comes out of the cylinder heads through branch pipes mounted on the head end faces on the crankshaft flywheel end. The branch pipes are interconnected by a central tube. From the right-hand branch pipe , the coolant is delivered through a tube into a radiator . Some part of the liquid comes into the preheater through the upper and and lower preheating tubes. To provide the steam outlet from each cylinder head, two holes with stem relief tubes are available fopr the steam discharging into the expansion tank.