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# MECH466: Automatic Control

## Lecture 24 History of Control Engineering Course Summary

Dr. Ryozo Nagamune Department of Mechanical Engineering University of British Columbia

## Schedule from now on

3/20 (Tu): Gain margin, phase margin (HW8 given) 3/22 (Th): Freq. response. Design specs 3/27 (Tu): Freq. response. Loop shaping (HW8 due, HW9 given) 3/29 (Th): Freq. response. Lead-lag Lead4/3 (Tu): Freq. response. Matlab/Simulink (HW9 due) 4/5 (Th): History of control engineering, course summary Lab 4 report due: two weeks after your lab, 6pm due: (Hand in reports to the instructor.) 4/19 (Th): Final exam, 12:00pm, FSC1005 exam,

## History of Automatic Control

James Watt (1736-1819) (1736Scottish engineer Steam engine with flyball governor Year: 1788
The key innovation to Industrial Revolution Steam locomotive Steam boat Birth of Feedback Control and Control Engineering
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## Steam engine with flyball governor

Flyball governor forces the engine to operate at a constant speed.
Speed Metal ball Governor Lever Boiler Steam Valve

## Hunching problem. problem

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## History of Automatic Control

James Maxwell (1831-1879) (1831Scottish mathematician & physicist University of Cambridge A famous paper On governors governors Year: 1868
Analysis of stability for a 3rd-order differential equation Birth of Control Theory Special case of Routh-Hurwitz Routhstability criterion
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## History of Automatic Control

Edward Routh (1831-1907) (1831English mathematician (born in Quebec) University of Cambridge Routh stability criterion Year: 1877
Analysis of stability for ordinary differential equations Equivalent to Hurwitz criterion (What you learned is Rouths criterion.) Routh
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## History of Automatic Control

Adolf Hurwitz (1859-1919) (1859German mathematician ETH Zurich Hurwitz stability criterion Year: 1895
Analysis of stability for ordinary differential equations Equivalent to Routh criterion, but presented in a different form

## History of Automatic Control

Aleksandr Lyapunov (1857-1918) (1857Russian mathematician University of Saint Petersburg Stability analysis Year: 1892
Lyapunov method Applicable to nonlinear, timetimevarying systems, too. (Normally taught in Nonlinear Control Course.) Course.)
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## History of Automatic Control

Harold S. Black (1898-1983) (1898American electrical engineer Bell Telephone Laboratories Negative feedback amplifier Year: 1927
Long-distance telephone service Longby eliminating Distortions (disturbance rejection) (disturbance rejection) Noises (noise rejection) (noise rejection) It can be unstable. (Nyquist!) unstable (Nyquist!)
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## History of Automatic Control

Harry Nyquist (1889-1976) (1889American research engineer Bell Telephone Laboratories Nyquist stability criterion Year: 1932
Stability of feedback amplifiers Frequency domain (Earlier stability analyses are in time domain.) Cauchys theorem in complex Cauchy function theory
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## History of Automatic Control

Hendrik W. Bode (1905-1982) (1905American research engineer Bell Telephone Laboratories Bode plot (1938) Feedback amplifiers (1945)
Sensitivity Bode integral formula Frequency domain feedback design and analysis

## History of Automatic Control

John Ziegler (1909-1997) (1909American process control engineer Taylor Instruments Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule (1942) ZieglerNathaniel Nichols (1914-1997) (1914Mathematician Taylor Instruments, MIT Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule (1942) ZieglerNichols chart (1947)
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## History of Automatic Control

Walter R. Evans (1920-1999) (1920American engineer North American Aviation Root locus (1948)
Unstable plants in aerospace control problems Difficult to apply frequency response techniques Back to characteristic equation and closed-loop poles closedMECH466 : Automatic Control 13

## Categories of Automatic Control

Classical control (contents in this course)
Transfer function Frequency domain

## Post-modern control (1980-) Post(1980Robust control Hybrid control, etc.

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## Weak points of classical control

Single-input single-output (SISO) Singlesingle(Multivariable (MIMO) control theory) Linear time-invariant time(State-space, nonlinear control theory) (StateNo optimality in design (Optimal control theory) No robustness, except GM and PM (Robust control theory) Much more control theory has been, and is being, developed!
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## Systematic controller design process

Disturbance Reference Input Output

Controller

Actuator

Plant

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## Goals of this course

To learn basics of feedback control systems
Modeling as a transfer function and a block diagram Laplace transform (Mathematics!) Mechanical, electrical, electromechanical systems Analysis Stability: Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Nyquist criterion Routh Time response, frequency response Design Root locus technique, frequency response technique, PID control, lead/lag compensator Theory, simulation with Matlab, practice in laboratories Matlab,
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Modeling
Laplace transform Transfer function Models for systems mechanical electrical electromechanical Linearization, delay

Analysis
Stability Routh-Hurwitz Routh Nyquist Time response Transient Steady state Frequency response Bode plot

Design
Design specs Root locus Frequency domain PID & Lead-lag LeadDesign examples

## Matlab simulations & laboratories

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Summary
Automatic control supports various disciplines!
Mechanical engineering Electrical engineering Chemical engineering Civil engineering Aerospace engineering Environmental engineering Computer engineering Mechatronics Nanotechnology Medicine, Economics, Biology
Model

Announcements
Final exam
Date & time: April 19 (Thu), 12-2:30pm 12Place: FSC 1005 Closed book, no calculator, 1-page hand-written 1handcheat-sheet (You can use both-sides of the sheet.) cheatboth-

Automatic Control
Computer Physics Hardware (Sensors & actuators)
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Chemistry Mathematics

I will neither return your final, nor disclose your score individually. No fixed office hour. If you have questions, just drop by my office or make an appointment. GOOD LUCK ON YOUR FINAL!
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## Preparation for final exam

Read and understand the lecture slides. Solve exercise & HW problems and past exams. Read the textbook.
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (except Sections 2.3, 2.4, 2.11) Chapter 4 (except Section 4.5) Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 (except Sections 7.8, 7.11, 7.12) Chapter 8 (except Section 8.7) Sections 9.1-9.5, 9.7 9.1Appendix B

Teaching evaluation
On-line system for the Student Evaluation of OnTeaching (SEoT) (https://eval.olt.ubc.ca/apsc) (SEoT) (https://eval.olt.ubc.ca/apsc) Closing on April 10 This will be your only opportunity to complete an evaluation. This evaluation is important. It will be reviewed carefully both by myself and by the administration. It will be used for improving my teaching skill, as well as course contents. Please provide constructive remarks. remarks.
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Read A student's guide to classical control written by control Dennis Bernstein. (You can find it on the web.)
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