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Coke Analysis Project: Phase Two

Stats 1510 Day Brian Jean By: Briana Lemmons

ABSTRACT In this experiment, we compared the weight of three different sodas to see which

soda was the closest to staying true to the amount of soda they advertise on their can. Each can was labeled as containing 12 uid ounces. By taking a random sample of 15 cans from each of the three brands, we found that there was more diversity between individual cans than the brands themselves. We weighed a total of 45 cans and our results ranges from 363.01 grams to 375.48 grams. We found that Diet Pepsi contained the least amount of product in the can, whereas Diet Coke contained the most amount of product in the can. What can be learned from this experiment is that if this study is truly representative of the population, Diet Coke should be the more preferred beverage to buy, since there's more product in the can.

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... i LIST OF SYMBOLS ...................................................................................................... iii INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1 Hypothesis .......................................................................................................... 1 Methods .............................................................................................................. 1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ................................................................................... 2 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 5 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................... 5

ii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Alpha

Theta

iii

INTRODUCTION In this experiment, we will conduct tests and compare the weight of three

different brands of sodas to see which brand is the closest to staying true to the amount of soda they advertise on their can. This information is important to know because we want to make sure we are getting our money's worth when we buy a product.


Hypothesis: Our hypothesis is that Diet Pepsi will weigh the least and Diet Coke will weigh the most. We hypothesize that Diet Pepsi will weigh the least because it's highly carbonated, meaning that there's more air and less product in the can. We hypothesize that Diet Coke will weigh the most because Coke Zero is advertised as a lighter and more dietconscious beverage.


Methods: In order to gure out which brand of soda is the closest to the advertised amount, we had to gather all necessary information such as population size and sample size of the sodas. Our population of interest consisted of 85 cans of Diet Coke, 96 cans of Diet Pepsi, and 72 cans of Coke Zero. The cans from each population were numbered. From each population, we took a random sample of 15 cans to represent each population. Using this process of simple random sampling decreased the possibility of bias in our experiment because it gave us more of a random based sample that could be representative of our populations. After collecting our representative samples, we 1

measured the weight of the cans that had the random numbers we generated on it. The data was collected by using a balancing scale to obtain the weight of each can that was sampled. We repeated the process for each of the cans in each of the categories (Diet Coke, Diet Pepsi, & Coke Zero). Once we obtained our data, we proceeded with the necessary tests to see if our hypothesis was correct. We started with making a Normplot of all of our data.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS To see if our hypothesis was correct, we started by making a Norm-plot of all of

our data. Figure 1.1 shows the results.

you can see, both Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke have abnormalities (circled in red). Coke As
FIGURE 1.1 (Norm-Plot) Zero looks fairly normal. To be sure, I've also made a box-and-whicker plot to compare the three, which you can see in Figure 1.2. 2

FIGURE 1.2 (Box-and-Whisker-Plot)

Looking at this graph, we see that Diet Coke is bell shaped, Diet Pepsi is heavily skewed left, and Coke Zero is slightly skewed left. This graph also shows that Diet Coke is the heaviest and Diet Pepsi is the lightest. Unfortunately, that is basically the limitations of this graph, so the Summary Statistics Table would be a more appropriate graph to display. You can see this display in Figure 1.3. FIGURE 1.3 (Summary Statistics)

Like the box plots shown in Figure 1.2, Figure 1.3 shows the ve number

summary. However, it is easier for the human eye to understand since it is in chart form

and the numbers aren't displayed in graph form. This table can be a more valuable piece of information than the box plot because we can clearly see the standard deviation which makes it easier to calculate the range and variance.
sodas are as follows: Diet Pepsi(366.5000, 370.3800) Diet Coke(370.8700, 373.2700) Coke Zero (370.0500, 372.7000)

After determining the normality of our data, we used TC-Stats to obtain the

condence intervals for each of our sodas. The condence intervals for each of our

These condence intervals show us that approximately 95% of the soda cans in this experiment weighed between the values shown on each condence interval. Because we had abnormal data (Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke), we decided against

using the ANOVA test, and instead we performed the Kruscal-Wallis test to compare the different brands of soda. For this test, our null hypothesis was satised by p = c = z (where = theta, p = Diet Pepsi, c = Diet Coke, and z = Coke Zero). Our alternative hypothesis was satised by one of the medians being different. The value for alpha () is 0.05. The p-value we calculated from the Kruscal-Wallis test is 0.0001. Since the pvalue obtained from the Kruscal-Wallis test is less than , we rejected the null hypothesis. This means that at least one of the medians are different and, as shown by Figures 1.1 and 1.2, Diet Pepsi differs greatly from Diet Coke and Coke Zero.

CONCLUSION According to the following data, there's enough evidence to prove that our

hypothesis was correct--Diet Coke weighed the most, whereas Diet Pepsi weighed the least. Even though the medians of each brand of soda were very close, by performing the Kruscal-Wallis test we were able to determine that at least one of the medians were different. The medians shown that Diet Pepsi was the most different.


Diet Coke Weight 371.14 370.76 371.18 373.6 371.8 373.27 370.87 372.93 373.16 368.25 373.69 371.22 372.16 373.33 375.48 Diet Pepsi Weight 366.16 370.43 369.15 371.36 370.38 370.69 370.19 369.25 369.36 367.87 363.01 366.5 369.01 371.71 369.36

APPENDIX

Coke Zero Weight 373.04 372.7 373.51 372.87 370.73 373.46 372.01 369.72 371.41 371.83 370.05 368.83 372.6 371.93 370.4