Table 4.14 Material Properties of NEFMAC (Glass)
Table 4.15 Physical Properties of ROTAFLEX
Table 4.16 Geometric/Mechanical Properties of LEADLINE
Table 4.17 Physical Properties of LEADLINE
Table 4.18 Geometric Properties of ISOROD
frp
CFRP 0.8
AFRP 0.6
GFRP 0.4
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
5.4
5.4.1 Load Combinations
All combinations of factored loads specified in Table 5.2, using the dead load factor D, and
earth load factor E, as given in Table 5.3.
1
Use Table 5.3 for values of D and E.
2
For luminary sign, traffic signal supports, barriers and slender structure elements.
Table 5.2 Table 5.2 Table 5.2 Table 5.2 Load Combinations for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code) Load Combinations for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code) Load Combinations for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code) Load Combinations for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code)
Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent
Loads Loads Loads Loads
1 11 1
Transitor Transitor Transitor Transitory Loads y Loads y Loads y Loads
Exceptional Loads Exceptional Loads Exceptional Loads Exceptional Loads
(use one only) (use one only) (use one only) (use one only)
Loads Loads Loads Loads D DD D E EE E L LL L K KK K W WW W V VV V S SS S Q QQ Q F FF F A AA A H HH H
FATIGUE LIMIT STATES FATIGUE LIMIT STATES FATIGUE LIMIT STATES FATIGUE LIMIT STATES
Combination 1 1.00 1.00 0.80 0 1.00
2
0 0 0 0 0 0
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES
Combination 1 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.80 0.70
2
0 1.00 0 0 0 0
ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES
Combination 1
D
E
1.40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Combination 2
D
E
1.25 1.15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Combination 3
D
E
1.15 1.00 0.40 0.40 0 0 0 0 0
Combination 4
D
E
0 1.25 1.30 0 0 0 0 0 0
Combination 5
D
E
0 0 0.70
2
0 0 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.40
Tabl Tabl Tabl Table 5.3 e 5.3 e 5.3 e 5.3 Load Factors for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code) Load Factors for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code) Load Factors for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code) Load Factors for Bridges (Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code)
Dead Load Dead Load Dead Load Dead Load Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum
D DD D
Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum
D DD D
Factoryproduced components excluding wood 1.10 0.95
Castinplace concrete, wood and all nonstructural components 1.20 0.90
Wearing surfaces, based on nominal or specified thickness 1.50 0.65
Earth fill, negative skin friction on piles 1.25 0.80
Water 1.10 0.90
Earth Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure Earth Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure Earth Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure Earth Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum
E EE E
Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum
E EE E
Passive earth pressure (when considered as load) 1.25 0.50
Atrest earth pressure 1.25 0.80
Active earth pressure 1.25 0.80
Backfill pressure 1.25 0.80
Hydrostatic pressure 1.25 0.90
The Design Process
5.5
5.4.2 Resistance Factors
The material resistance factor for concrete is c = 0.75. The material resistance factor for
FRP reinforcement is that given in Section 5.3.4.
5.5 Constitutive Relationships for Concrete
5.5.1 Tensile Strength
Before cracking, concrete is assumed to behave as an elastic material. The modulus of
rupture, fr, MPa, can be found from the following equation
Equation 5.3
modification factor for density of concrete (1.0 for normal density concrete)
f
c = f
c/o
Eo tangent stiffness at zero strain (Equation 5.8), MPa
k stress decay factor, taken as 1.0 for (c/o<1.0) and as a number greater than 1.0 for
(c/o>1.0)
These factors are given in Table 5.4, or can be calculated using Equations 5.5 to 5.7.
'
6 . 0
c
f
r
f =
+
=
o
c
nk
n
o
c
n
c
f
c
f
1
'
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
5.6
Figure 5.1 Stressstrain relationship for concrete
Table 5.4 Table 5.4 Table 5.4 Table 5.4 Compressive Stress Compressive Stress Compressive Stress Compressive Stress  Strain Coefficients for Normal Strain Coefficients for Normal Strain Coefficients for Normal Strain Coefficients for Normal  Density Concrete Density Concrete Density Concrete Density Concrete
f ff f
c c c c
[MPa] [MPa] [MPa] [MPa] 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 25 30 30 30 30 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65
E
c
[GPa]
21.7
5
23.5
0
25.0
8
26.5
4
27.9
0
29.1
7
30.3
8
31.5
2
32.6
2
33.6
7
o
x10
6
1860 1900 1960 2030 2100 2170 2250 2320 2390 2460
n 1.97 2.27 2.56 2.85 3.15 3.45 3.74 4.04 4.33 4.62
k 0.99 1.07 1.15 1.23 1.31 1.39 1.48 1.56 1.64 1.72
The Design Process
5.7
Curvefitting factor n
For normal density concrete, the following equation is used to estimate the value of n (all
units are MPa):
Equation 5.5
Strain o at peak stress
Equation 5.6
Ec can be calculated according to Equation 5.8.
Stress decay factor, k
The value of the decay factor k is calculated according to the following equation where f c is
in MPa:
Equation 5.7
This factor is taken as 1.0 for (c/o<1.0) and as a number greater than 1.0 for (c/o>1.0).
5.5.3 Modulus of Elasticity
For concrete with density between 1500 and 2500 kg/m
3
, the modulus of elasticity may be
taken as either of:
Equation 5.8(a)
CSA A23.394
Equation 5.8 (b)
' 5 . 1
043 . 0
c c c
f E =
CSA S688
The modulus of elasticity of normal density concrete with compressive strength between 20
to 40 MPa may be taken as either of:
Equation 5.9(a)
CSA A23.394
Equation 5.9(b)
'
5000
c
f
c
E =
CSA S688
'
4500
c
f
c
E =
17
8 . 0
'
c
f
n + =
1
'
=
n
n
E
f
c
c
o
0 . 1
62
67 . 0
'
> + =
c
f
k
5 . 1
'
2300
) 6900 3300 (
+ =
c
c c
f E
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
5.8
5.6 Constitutive Relationship for FRP
5.6.1 Tensile Strength and Modulus of Elasticity
The stressstrain relationship for FRP in tension is linear up to failure. The ultimate tensile
strength of FRP, ffrpu, used in design calculations may be obtained from the manufacturer or
from tests in accordance with ACI 440, CHBDC, or CSA.
Due to shear lag, fibres near the outer surface are stressed more than those near the centre
of the bar (Faza 1991). Therefore, tensile strength is dependent on bar diameter. Smaller
diameter bars are more efficient.
The values of tensile strength vary with fibre type, fibrevolume ratio, manufacturing
process, etc. Generally, glass and PVA fibre polymers achieve the lowest strength, and
carbon fibre polymers and aramid fibre polymers achieve the highest strength. Figure 5.2
illustrates the strength and modulus of elasticity of various FRP materials. Table 4.4 includes
typical values of tensile strength of FRP materials. Detailed information on FRP reinforcing
bars currently available can be found in Section 4.
0
2550
0
770
0
1300
0
600
0
1500
0
1400
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
Strain
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
[
M
P
a
]
CFRP Leadline tendon
CFRP ISOROD bar
CFRP NEFMAC grid
AFRP NEFMAC grid
GFRP Cbar
HFRP NEFMAC grid
Figure 5.2 Stressstrain relationship of FRP materials
Modulus of elasticity of FRP is dependent on the type of fibre. It can vary from 30 GPa for
GFRP to 300 GPa for CFRP. Modulus of elasticity of FRP can be obtained directly from
tensile tests according to test methods in Appendix C. Most manufacturers provide this
information in their specifications. Typical values of the modulus of elasticity can be found
in Section 4.
The Design Process
5.9
5.6.2 Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity
The compressive strength of FRP is relatively low compared to its tensile strength.
Compressive strength is dependent on the fibre type, the fibre volume ratio, manufacturing
process, etc. It has been reported that aramid bars do not behave well in compression
(Bedard 1992, Chaallal and Benmokrane 1993). Higher compressive strengths are expected
for bars with higher tensile strength (ACI 1995).
The compressive modulus of elasticity depends on lengthtodiameter ratio, bar size and
type, as well as on other factors, such as boundary conditions. In the reported results from
compression tests, it is generally agreed that the compressive stiffness ranges from 77 to 97
percent of the tensile stiffness (Bedard 1992, Chaallal and Benmokrane 1993).
According to Kobayashi and Fujisaki (1995) the compressive strength of AFRP bars is in the
range of 10 percent of their tensile strength, for CFRP bars 30 to 50 percent of their tensile
strength, and for GFRP bars 30 to 40 percent of their tensile strength. Chaallal and
Benmokrane's (1993) tests on GFRP bar with 73 to 78 percent Eglass fibre showed the
compressive strength of GFRP bars to be approximately 80 percent of their tensile strength.
This appears to be rather high and is not in accordance with previous findings. This type of
disparity is quite usual for FRP because there are many types of products differing in
volumetric ratio of fibres, matrix type, and manufacturing process. A testing method for
FRP materials is given in Benmokrane et al. 1998.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
5.10
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
6.1
6.1 Definitions
Afrp area of FRP reinforcement, mm
2
Afrpb area of FRP reinforcement for balanced conditions, mm
2
Afrpmin minimum area of FRP reinforcement, mm
2
b width of compression face of member, mm
bw width of web, mm
C resultant of compressive stresses in concrete, N
Cn nominal resultant of stresses in concrete, N
c depth of neutral axis, mm
cb depth of neutral axis at balanced failure conditions, mm
d effective depth, mm
Efrp modulus of elasticity of FRP, MPa
fc compressive strength of concrete, MPa
ffrp stress in FRP, MPa
ffrpu ultimate tensile strength of FRP, MPa
fr modulus of rupture of concrete, MPa
It second moment of area of the uncracked section transformed to concrete, mm
4
Mcr cracking moment, Nmm
Mf moment due to factored loads, Nmm
Mr moment resistance, Nmm
nfrp modular ratio
T internal force due to tension in FRP reinforcement, N
Tn nominal internal force due to tension in FRP reinforcement, N
, stressblock factors for concrete
1,1 stressblock factors for concrete based on CSA A23.394
c strain in concrete
cu ultimate strain in concrete in compression
frp strain in FRP
c material resistance factor for concrete
frp material resistance factor for FRP
frp reinforcement ratio
frpb balanced reinforcement ratio
u curvature at ultimate
6.2 General
Failure of a section in flexure can be caused by rupture of the FRP or by crushing of the
concrete. Research has established that the ultimate flexural strength for both types of failure
can be calculated using the same approach whether the reinforcement technique utilizes steel
or FRP bars. Relevant equations for steel, given in several textbooks, are revised here and
used in this manual.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.2
Assumptions used in designing FRPreinforced sections
1
are summarized below.
Maximum strain at the concrete compression fibre is 3500 x 10
6
.
Tensile strength of concrete is ignored for cracked sections.
The strain in concrete and FRP at any level is proportional to the distance from the
neutral axis.
The stressstrain relationship for FRP is linear up to failure.
Perfect bond exists between the concrete and the FRP reinforcement.
6.3 Strain Compatibility
The design philosophy is based on the assumption that a plane crosssection before
deformation remains plane after deformation, leading to linear strain distribution over the
crosssection.
Strain compatibility analysis is used for the analysis of FRPreinforced members. If it is
shown by material testing that the maximum compressive strain in concrete is higher than
3500 x 10
6
, the higher value should be used for analysis. The value of maximum
compressive strain is important when calculating the balanced failure reinforcement ratio,
frpb, and assessing the failure mode of the member.
6.4 Modes of Failure
There are three possible modes of flexural failure of a concrete section reinforced with FRP
bars:
Balanced failure  simultaneous rupture of FRP and crushing of concrete;
Compression failure  concrete crushing while FRP remains in the elastic range
with a strain level smaller than the ultimate strain; and
Tension failure  rupture of FRP before crushing of concrete.
Compression failure is less violent and more desirable than tension failure and is similar to
that of an overreinforced concrete beam with steel reinforcing bars.
Tension failure, due to rupture of FRP while the strain in the extreme fibres of the
compression zone is less than the ultimate compressive strain of the concrete, is sudden. It
will occur when the reinforcement ratio is smaller than the balanced failure reinforcement
ratio, discussed in Section 6.4.1.
6.4.1 Balanced Failure Reinforcement Ratio
The balanced failure strain condition occurs when the concrete strain reaches its ultimate
value cu, while the outer layer of FRP reaches its ultimate strain frpu, as shown in Figure 6.1.
No lumping of FRP reinforcement is allowed. The term balanced failure strain has a very
different meaning for FRPreinforced concrete than does the term balanced strain for
steelreinforced concrete. Since the FRP does not yield at the balanced failure strain
condition, an FRPreinforced member will fail suddenly, without warning.
1
Throughout this Section, the term FRP reinforcement refers to a single layer of tensile FRP reinforcement,
unless stated otherwise.
Design for Flexure
6.3
Since balanced conditions for FRPreinforced concrete lead to sudden failure of a member,
this phenomenon will subsequently be referred to as balanced failure. At this condition,
the strain in concrete reaches its ultimate value cu=3500 x 10
6
while the FRP reinforcement
simultaneously reaches its ultimate strain frpu. From the strain compatibility in the cross
section (Figure 6.1), the ratio of the neutral axis to the effective depth is:
Equation 6.1
cb depth of neutral axis at balanced failure condition, mm
d effective depth, mm
cu ultimate strain in concrete in compression
frpu ultimate strain in FRP in tension
The stress distribution in the compressive zone of concrete is nonlinear, as indicated by the
shaded diagram in Figure 6.1. According to CSA A23.394, this stress distribution may be
replaced by an equivalent rectangular stress block with parameters 1 and 1,.
cu
frpu
c
b
b
d
A
frpb
T
n
C
n
1
c
b
1
f
c
(a) (b)
Figure 6.1 Nominal failure at balanced condition
frpu cu
cu b
d
c
+
=
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.4
+
=
frpu
cu
cu
frpu
c
frpb
f
f
'
1 1
n n
T C =
frpb frp frpu
b c
A E b c f =
1
'
1
The force equilibrium in the crosssection, without including the material resistance factors,
is given as follows:
Equation 6.2
The stress resultants are calculated as follows:
Equation 6.3 b c f C
b c n 1 1
=
Equation 6.4
frpb frp frpu n
A E T =
1 ratio of average concrete strength in rectangular compression block to the
specified concrete strength, given by the following, in which
f c compressive strength of concrete, MPa
1 ratio of depth of rectangular compression block to the depth of the neutral axis,
given as
67 . 0 0025 . 0 97 . 0
'
1
=
c
f
b width of compression face of a member, mm
Afrpb area of FRP reinforcement for balanced conditions, mm
2
Efrp modulus of elasticity of FRP, MPa
Thus,
Substituting Equations 6.1 into 6.2 and solving for the balanced failure reinforcement ratio
frpb :
Equation 6.5
( ) bd
A
frpb
frpb
=
Equation 6.6
f frpu ultimate tensile strength of FRP, MPa
67 . 0 0015 . 0 85 . 0
'
1
=
c
f
Design for Flexure
6.5
Table 6.1 gives balanced reinforcement ratios for a variety of FPRreinforced concretes.
Table 6. Table 6. Table 6. Table 6.1 11 1 Balanced Reinforcement Ratio for FRP Reinforced Concrete Balanced Reinforcement Ratio for FRP Reinforced Concrete Balanced Reinforcement Ratio for FRP Reinforced Concrete Balanced Reinforcement Ratio for FRP Reinforced Concrete
Fibre Type (f Fibre Type (f Fibre Type (f Fibre Type (f
frpu
[MPa], E [MPa], E [MPa], E [MPa], E
frp
[GPa]) [GPa]) [GPa]) [GPa]) Concrete Strength [MPa] Concrete Strength [MPa] Concrete Strength [MPa] Concrete Strength [MPa]
3 33 30 00 0 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 60 60 60 60
GFRP GFRP GFRP GFRP
CBAR (770, 42) 0.0045 0.0057 0.0068 0.0078
HUGHES BROS. (655, 40.8) 0.0059 0.0075 0.0089 0.010
ISOROD (635, 37) 0.0058 0.0073 0.0087 0.010
NEFMAC (600, 30) 0.0054 0.0068 0.0081 0.0093
CFRP CFRP CFRP CFRP
LEADLINE (2255, 147) 0.0018 0.0023 0.0027 0.0031
ISOROD (1596, 111.1) 0.0027 0.0034 0.0040 0.0046
NEFMAC (1200, 100) 0.0041 0.0052 0.0061 0.0070
AFRP AFRP AFRP AFRP
NEFMAC (1300, 54) 0.0021 0.0027 0.0032 0.0037
6.4.2 Failure Due to Crushing of Concrete
When flexural failure is induced by crushing of concrete without rupture of the
reinforcement, the section is said to be overreinforced. For a Tsection to be over
reinforced it must have a large amount of reinforcement, which is considered to be
impractical. Thus, only rectangular crosssections are considered in this case.
The strain profile with the top fibre strain equal to the ultimate compressive strain of
concrete in compression, 3500 x 10
6
, is constructed as shown in Figure 6.2 (a). Under this
strain distribution, the crosssection fails due to concrete crushing. The nonlinear
distribution of concrete stresses in the compression zone is replaced by an equivalent
uniform stress over a part of the compression zone, as shown in Figure 6.2 (b), according to
CSA 23.394.
C
T
1
c
1 11 1
c
f
c
b
d
A
frp
c
frp
<
frpu
cu
(a) (b)
Figure 6.2 (a) Strain, and (b) Stress distribution at ultimate (concrete crushing)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.6
The ultimate moment resistance for such overreinforced section can be calculated as
follows:
Equation 6.7 cb f C
c c 1
'
1
=
c depth of neutral axis, mm
c material resistance factor for concrete
The tensile force in reinforcement is calculated as:
Equation 6.8 frp frp frp f A T =
Afrp area of FRP reinforcement, mm
2
frp material resistance factor of FRP reinforcement
ffrp stress in the FRP reinforcement at failure, which is smaller than the tensile strength,
MPa
Whence,
Equation 6.9
1
1
]
1


\

+ = 1
4
1 5 . 0
2
1
'
1 1
cu
frp
frp
c
cu frp frp
E
f
E f
where reinforcement ratio
bd
A
frp
frp
=
According to CSA A23.394, failure of concrete due to crushing is considered to have
occurred when cu = 3500 x 10
6
and the values of 1 and 1 are as defined in the balanced
failure case.
Alternatively, an iteration process may be used. For each iteration for an assumed depth of
neutral axis, the forces in the concrete and in the reinforcement are calculated and their
equilibrium is checked as follows:
If this equilibrium is not satisfied, a new value of depth of neutral axis, c, is chosen and C
and T are recalculated using the new values of c and frp.
When the equilibrium between Equations 6.7 and 6.8 is satisfied, as a means of verifying the
assumed value of c, the moment of resistance of the section is given by:
Equation 6.10
frp frp frp frp c c
E A cb f =
1
'
1
=
2
1
c
d C M
r
Design for Flexure
6.7
The curvature at ultimate is:
Equation 6.11
d
E
f
frp
frp
cu
u
+
=
6.4.3 Tension Failure
The theory for sections under reinforced with steel bars is well documented in textbooks.
Before failure, the steel yields and the curvature increases rapidly until the strain in concrete
in the extreme compressive surface reaches an ultimate value of 3500 x 10
6
, when failure
occurs. The rectangular stress block typically idealises the stress in concrete. However, when
a section is underreinforced with FRP, no yield occurs. Rather, the failure is caused by
rupture of the FRP. The strain in the reinforcement will be:
Equation 6.12
frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
=
The corresponding strain c at the extreme compressive fibre will be less than cu. Thus the
traditional rectangular block cannot idealize the distribution of compressive stress in the
concrete zone. In the following section, and will be derived for c varying up to 3500 x
10
6
because the coefficients 1 and 1, are valid only for c=cu.
c
c
<
cu
frpu
c
b
d
A
frp
(a) (b)
c
f
c
T
C
actual stress
diagram
c
Figure 6.3 (a) Strain, and (b) Stress distribution at ultimate (rupture of FRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.8
The process will start by specifying the strain in the reinforcement equal to the ultimate
tensile strain, frpu. An iterative approach will be used and an assumed value of the depth of
neutral axis, c, will be used for every iteration. The strain in the top fibres, c, will be
calculated using strain compatibility, and must be less than the ultimate strain of concrete in
compression, cu. The stressblock parameters and will be found for the strain c using
the tables in Appendix B, or using Figures 6.4 and 6.5. These parameters depend on the
strain in concrete; when this strain reaches 3500 x 10
6
they are identical to parameters 1and
1 of CSA A23.394. The resultant of the compressive stresses in concrete, C, is then
calculated as:
Equation 6.13
stressblock factor for concrete (Figure 6.4 and Tables B.1 to B.3)
stressblock factor for concrete (Figure 6.5 and Tables B.1 to B.3)
The equivalent stress block parameters and are tabulated in Appendix B for different
ratios of c/o and different concrete strengths. Figures 6.4 and 6.5 show the stress block
parameters and versus the strain in concrete for concrete strengths from 20 to 60 MPa.
Using the factors 1 and 1 specified by CSA A23.394 for given material values will provide
moment resistance values within 5 to 10 percent.
Figure 6.4 Equivalent stressblock parameter for concrete strengths of 20 to 60 MPa
cb f C
c c
'
=
Design for Flexure
6.9
Figure 6.5 Equivalent stressblock Parameter for Concrete Strengths of 20 to 60 MPa
The tensile force in reinforcement is calculated as:
Equation 6.14
Equilibrium in a crosssection is found by equating Equations 6.13 and 6.14
If these two forces are not in equilibrium, another iteration is made using a different value of
the depth of neutral axis, c, while the strain in FRP equals to frpu, until force equilibrium is
satisfied.
The moment of resistance of the member can be found using the following equation:
Equation 6.15
frp frpu frp frp
E A T =
frp frpu frp frp c c
E A cb f =
'
=
2
c
d T M
r
+
=
6.5 Cracking Moment
Cracking occurs when the stress in concrete at the extreme tension surface reaches the
tensile strength of concrete in tension, fr. The cracking moment value, Mcr, at which cracking
occurs is:
Equation 6.17
fr modulus of rupture, MPa
It second moment of area of the transformed uncracked section about its centroidal
axis, mm
4
yt distance from the centroidal axis of gross section to extreme surface in tension, mm
The transformed uncracked section is composed of the area of concrete plus (nfrp1)Afrp. To
avoid sudden failure by rupture, the amount of FRP reinforcement must be sufficient to
have a moment resistance Mr greater than Mcr.
6.6 Minimum Flexural Resistance
Failure of a member immediately after cracking should be avoided, and therefore the
moment of resistance, Mr, should be at least 50 percent greater than the cracking moment
Mcr.
Equation 6.18
If the above condition is not satisfied, the moment of resistance, Mr, should be at least 50
percent greater than the moment due to factored loads, Mf.
Equation 6.19
Alternatively, the following minimum of FRP reinforcement is recommended for a
rectangular section.
Equation 6.20 ( ) bd
f
f
A
frpu
c
frp
12
5
'
min
=
cr r
M M 5 . 1
Design for Flexure
6.11
For a Tsection with extreme tension surface in the web, Equation 6.20 applies with b
replaced by the width of the web bw. When the flange is in tension, the minimum
reinforcement is the smaller of the values given by Equation 6.20, with b set equal to the
width of the flange.
Equation 6.21 ( ) d b
f
f
A
w
frpu
c
frp
6
5
'
min
=
6.7 Beams with FRP Reinforcement in Multiple Layers
Design of FRPreinforced Tsections usually leads to the use of FRP reinforcement in layers.
The strain in the outer layer of the FRP reinforcement is the critical strain, and it may not
exceed the ultimate tensile strain at the ultimate load, or the maximum strain for
serviceability requirements, as discussed in Section 7.
Figure 6.6 Strain compatibility for section with multiple layers of FRP
6.8 Beams with Compression Reinforcement
FRP reinforcement can be used as compression reinforcement in continuous beams and
slabs. The compressive strength of such reinforcement should not, however, be accounted
for in the design. Therefore, the compressive reinforcement shall be ignored when
calculating flexural capacity of FRP reinforced members (Almusallam et al. 1997).
6.9 Examples
6.9.1 Analysis of a Rectangular Beam with Tension Reinforcement
The following outlines the computation for the moment resistance, Mr, for the rectangular
section shown. Flexural reinforcement is four 8 mm diameter Leadline bars and shear
reinforcement is 5 mm diameter Leadline stirrups.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.12
Concrete compressive strength is 35 MPa. Flexural Leadline reinforcement specifications
include: tensile strength 2250 MPa, tensile modulus of elasticity 147 GPa, and ultimate
tensile strain 15300x10
6
. The area of one 8mm diameter bar is 50 mm
2
.
1. Concrete cover: mm d
b
20 ) 8 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =
Minimum concrete cover of 40 mm governs (Section 12.3).
Calculate effective depth:
mm d 556
2
8
40 600 = =
2. Calculate reinforcement ratio:
3
10 03 . 1
556 350
50 4
=
=
frp
frp
frp
bd
A
The balanced reinforcement ratio is calculated using Equation 6.6:
Equation 6.6
frpu cu
cu
frpu
c
frpb
f
f
+
=
'
1 1
Where:
88 . 0
) 35 ( 0025 . 0 97 . 0
0025 . 0 97 . 0
79 . 0
) 35 ( 0015 . 0 85 . 0
0015 . 0 85 . 0
1
'
1
1
'
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
c
c
f
f
3
6 6
6
10 04 . 2
10 15300 10 3500
10 3500
2250
35
88 . 0 79 . 0
=
+
=
frpb
frpb
Hence,
frpb frp
< TENSION FAILURE
Design for Flexure
6.13
3. Find resultant forces in concrete and FRP using strain compatibility. The
reinforcement ratio is smaller than the balanced reinforcement ratio and, therefore,
this section will fail in tension. In other words, at ultimate, concrete compressive
strain is less than the ultimate value, cu, and the strain in FRP is equal to the
ultimate strain, frpu.
Figure 6.7 Strain compatibility analysis
Using an iterative approach, the depth of neutral axis c is assumed and the strain profile is
found as follows:
Assume c = 65 mm
6
6
10 2025
65 556
10 15300 65
=
c
c
frpu
c
c d c
The resultant compressive force in concrete, C, is calculated using Equation 6.13 and
coefficients and from Table B.2. The resultant force in FRP, T, is calculated using
Equation 6.14. Before the resultant concrete compressive force can be calculated, the
coefficients and must be determined.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.14
There are two ways of determining these coefficients: using Figures 6.4 and 6.5, or Tables
B.1 to B.3. In Figures 6.4 and 6.5, the parameters or are plotted on the vertical axis,
while the strain in concrete is on the horizontal axis. If Figures 6.4 and 6.5 are used, it is
necessary to interpolate between the curves to obtain the parameter equivalent to concrete
strength of 35 MPa.
In this example, Tables B.1 to B.3 will be used to determine the coefficients. First the strain
at maximum stress, o, needs to be determined from Table 5.4, or Equations 5.5 to 5.7.
From Table 5.4, o is found to be 2030x10
6
. In order to use Table B.2 to find the stress
block parameters, the fraction of c/o is determined:
99 . 0
10 2030
10 2025
6
6
=
o
c
o
c
Whence, = 0.92, and = 0.72
kN C
N
C
cb f C
c c
342
10 6 . 341
350 65 72 . 0 35 92 . 0 65 . 0
3
'
=
=
=
=
kN T
N
T
E A T
frp frpu frp frp
360
10 8 . 359
10 147 10 15300 8 . 0 50 4
3
3 6
=
=
=
=
C < T not OK
Further iteration is needed to find equilibrium between C and T.
Assume c = 67 mm
6
10 2096
=
c
03 . 1 =
o
c
From Table B.2 after interpolation = 0.93, and = 0.73.
kN T
N C
362
10 2 . 362
3
=
=
C = T; OK
Design for Flexure
6.15
Since the section is in equilibrium, the moment of resistance, Mr is found using Equation
6.15.
m kN M
mm N
M
c
d T M
r
r
r
=
=
=
191
10 3 . 191
2
67 73 . 0
556 10 362
2
6
3
Since this section will fail in tension, Section 6.6 is used to check if Equation 6.18 is satisfied.
mm N mm N M
mm N mm N M
mm N M
M
y
I f
M
M M
r
cr
cr
cr
t
g r
cr
cr r
> =
= =
=
=
=
6 6
6 6
6
3
10 112 10 191 that see we
10 112 10 5 . 74 5 . 1 1.5 so
10 5 . 74
300 12
600 350 35 6 . 0
5 . 1
OK
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
6.16
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES
7.1
7.1 Definitions
A effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement
and bearing the same centroid as that reinforcement, divided by the number of
rebars, mm
2
b width of crosssection, mm
c depth of neutral axis, mm
d distance from extreme compression surface to the tension reinforcement, mm
dc concrete cover measured from the centroid of tension reinforcement to the extreme
tension surface, mm
Ec modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
Efrp modulus of elasticity of FRP, MPa
Es modulus of elasticity of steel, 200x10
3
MPa
ffrp stress in FRP reinforcement, MPa
ffrps stress in FRP at service load, MPa
fr modulus of rupture of concrete, MPa
fy yield stress of steel, MPa
h member thickness, mm
h1 distance from the centroid of tension reinforcement to the neutral axis, mm
h2 distance from the extreme tension surface to the neutral axis, mm
Icr moment of inertia of cracked section, mm
4
Ie effective moment of intertia, mm
4
Ig gross moment of inertia, mm
4
It moment of inertia of uncracked section transformed to concrete, mm
4
kb bond dependent coefficient
length of member, mm
n clear span, mm
Ma applied moment, N
mm
Mcr cracking moment, N
mm
nfrp modular ratio
w crack width, mm
b bond dependent coefficient
d coefficient equal to 0.55 for Tsection and 0.40 for rectangular section reinforced
with FRP
b bond reduction coefficient
deflection, mm
frp strain in FRP
frps strain in FRP at service load
s strain in steel
curvature
frp reinforcement ratio
7.2 General
FRP bars have higher strength, ffrpu, than the specified yield strength, fy, of commonlyused
steel reinforcing bars. However, because the modulus of elasticity of FRP bars, Efrp, is
typically lower than that for steel, Es, the higher strength cannot be fully utilized in
reinforced concrete structures. Hence, the design is mainly to control deflection and crack
width.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.2
The concept of a transformed section applies for FRPreinforced concrete with the
transformed section being used for all calculations related to crack width and deflection. No
lower limit is superimposed on the modular ratio, nfrp (= Efrp/Ec). The value obtained from
the actual material properties should be used.
Steelreinforced concrete structures are generally designed for ultimate moment capacity and
checked for limiting deflection, or crack width. This is not the case for FRP reinforced
concrete. Requirements for limiting crack width and deflection are crucial in these types of
members since the large curvatures subsequent to cracking lead to large strain in the
reinforcement. The following Sections discuss different serviceability limits.
7.3 Cracking
The parameters that influence crack width are the crack spacing, the quality of bond between
the concrete and reinforcing bars and, above all, the strain in the bars. To control the width
of crack,s ACI 31899 (1999) limits the stress in steel reinforcement in service to 60 percent
of fy. When fy = 400 MPa (60 ksi), the allowable strain in steel bars in service, s, is:
Equation 7.1
6
10 1200
200000
400 6 . 0
=
=
s
The deterring of corrosion of steel is one motive for controlling the width of cracks. When
steel reinforcing bars are used, ACI 318 (1999) allows crack width of 0.4 mm (0.016 in.) and
0.3 mm (0.013 in.) for interior and exterior exposure, respectively. When FRP bars are
employed, there is no risk of corrosion. Thus, ACI 440 (2000) and CHBDC recommend
limiting the crack width to 0.7 mm (0.028 in.) and 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) for interior and exterior
exposure, respectively, while JSCE (1997) recommends maximum crack width of 0.5 mm
(0.020 in.) in both cases. From this, it is seen that the width of cracks allowed for FRP
reinforced members is 1.7 or 1.5 times the value allowed for steelreinforced members. In
the following discussion, it is assumed that the ratio between crack widths of FRP and steel
reinforced beams is 5/3. Furthermore, it is assumed that the width of cracks is proportional
to the strain in the reinforcement. Thus, the allowable strain and stress in the FRP
reinforcement at service may be assumed as:
Equation 7.2
6
10 2000
3
5
= =
s frps
Equation 7.3
frps frp frps
E f =
frps strain in FRP at service load
Efrp modulus of elasticity of FRP, MPa
ffrps stress in FRP at service load, MPa
Serviceability Limit States
7.3
Cracking is caused by many factors such as loads, temperature, and differential settlement.
Cracking induced by tensile stresses due to loads is addressed in this manual. Typically, in a
cracked FRPreinforced section subjected to bending, the depth of the neutral axis after
cracking is smaller than that in a steelreinforced beam. Thus the crack will propagate high
into the section immediately after its initiation. A number of researchers (Abdelrahman 1995,
Benmokrane et al. 1996, and Svecova 1999) have observed small movement of the neutral
axis between cracking and ultimate. The crack width is also much larger than the crack width
in steelreinforced concrete members.
7.3.1 Crack Width
If there is a need to calculate the crack width for special applications, the calculation can be
performed based on revised coefficients for the GergelyLutz equation (Gergely and Lutz
1968), widely used for steelreinforced concrete. These modifications have been developed
for a specific type of FRP reinforcement and therefore, their use is limited. The original
work by Gergely and Lutz (1968) reported problems in developing a formula to fit all
available data for steelreinforced concrete. Nevertheless, the GergelyLutz equation includes
the most important parameters: the effective area of concrete in tension, the number of bars,
the reinforcement cover, the strain gradient from the level of the reinforcement to the tensile
face, and the stress in the flexural reinforcement.
For FRPreinforced members, it is necessary to consider the bond properties of the bar
when calculating crack width. The following equation can be used when the bond properties
of the bar are known:
Equation 7.4
w crack width at the tensile face of the beam, mm
ES modulus of elasticity of steel, MPa
kb bond dependent coefficient. For FRP bars having bond properties similar to
concrete, kb=1.0. For FRP bars with inferior bond behaviour, kb>1.0. For FRP bars
with superior bond behaviour, kb<1.0.
ffrp stress in the tension FRP reinforcement at location of the crack, MPa
h2 distance from the extreme tension surface to the neutral axis, mm
h1 distance from the centroid of tension reinforcement to the neutral axis, mm
dc concrete cover measured from the centroid of tension reinforcement to the extreme
tension surface, mm
A effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement
and having the same centroid as that reinforcement, divided by the number of
rebars, mm
2
Using the test results from Gao et al. (1998), the values of kb coefficient were found for
three types of GFRP bars to be 0.71, 1.00, and 1.83. If the kb coefficient is not known, the
value of 1.2 may be used for calculations.
( )
6 3 / 1
1
2
10 11
= A d
h
h
f k
E
E
w
c frp b
frp
s
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.4
7.3.2 Permissible Crack Width
In steelreinforced concrete, it is necessary to reduce the crack width in order to deter the
corrosion of steel reinforcement. This is not a requirement for FRP reinforced concrete due
to the excellent corrosion resistance of FRP materials. Crack width limitations are introduced
only for aesthetic reasons, and to provide an environment that will not initiate concerns
about personal safety. Crack width must also be limited where leakage is concerned.
When maximum crack width is considered, the following issues need to be addressed:
Exposure type (internal or external)
Aggressiveness of the environment for GFRP
Type of structure (whether the intended use of the structure may be affected by
cracking)
Visibility of concrete surfaces
Anticipated life of the structure
If the structure is not occupied, as would be the case for a culvert structure, the crack limit
does not need to be considered; however, the maximum stress limits for the reinforcement
must be satisfied.
The maximum strain in FRP, 2000 x 10
6
, is the limiting factor for crack width. When
applicable, this strain may be increased up to 3000 x 10
6
.
7.4 Deflection
The modulus of elasticity of FRP is generally smaller than that of steel. Therefore, members
having the same concrete crosssection and the same loading typically exhibit larger
deflection when FRP is used. However, by appropriate choice of the minimum thickness
and by adopting an allowable stress in the FRP at service, the ratio of the span to the
deflection can be the same as with steelreinforced members.
7.4.1 Minimum Thickness of Members Reinforced with FRP
Reinforced concrete design codes specify spantothickness ratios in order to avoid excessive
deflection. For example, for simplysupported oneway slabs and Tbeams reinforced with
steel:
Equation 7.5
); (
); (
16
20
beams T for
slabs for
h
h
=
=
The codes specify other /h ratios for other end conditions.
FRP bars have relatively low modulus of elasticity, Efrp, compared to steel. Thus, members
reinforced with FRP are relatively more vulnerable to excessive deflection. Different FRPs
have different Efrp. Thus, the /h ratio to be used in design will depend upon the type of
FRP. Experience has shown that the values of ( /h)s specified by codes give satisfactory
ratios of span to deflection ( /) when the reinforcement is steel. The ( /h)frp for use with
FRP should give the same ( /) ratios.
Serviceability Limit States
7.5
Equation for span to depth ratio for members reinforced with FRP of any type:
Equation 7.6
d
frp
s
s
n
frp
n
h h
n member length, mm
h member thickness, mm
maximum strain allowed in the reinforcement in service
d dimensionless coefficient, 0.50 for rectangular section, 0.50 + 0.03 (b/bw)  b/(80hs)
for Tsection, where b and bw are width of flange and width of the web,
respectively; hs is the hypothetical minimum thickness required by CSA A23. 394 if
steel is used as reinforcement.
Subscripts frp and s refer to FRP and steel, respectively. When the ratio ( n/h)frp of length to
thickness of a member reinforced with FRP satisfies Equation 7.6, its length to deflection
ratio ( n/)frp will be approximately the same as that of a conjugate member having its length
to thickness equal to ( n/h)s. Equation 7.6 has been developed and verified by parametric
studies (Hall and Ghali, 2000). The ratio of length to minimum thickness ( n/h)s for
members reinforced with steel bars is specified in CSA A23.394 to control deflection.
Table 7.1 is a copy from this code.
Table 7. Table 7. Table 7. Table 7.1 11 1 Minimum Thickness of Steel Reinforced Concrete (CSA Minimum Thickness of Steel Reinforced Concrete (CSA Minimum Thickness of Steel Reinforced Concrete (CSA Minimum Thickness of Steel Reinforced Concrete (CSA  A 23.3 A 23.3 A 23.3 A 23.3  94) 94) 94) 94)
Thickness Below Which Deflections Must be Computed for Non Thickness Below Which Deflections Must be Computed for Non Thickness Below Which Deflections Must be Computed for Non Thickness Below Which Deflections Must be Computed for Non  prestressed Beams or One prestressed Beams or One prestressed Beams or One prestressed Beams or One  way Slabs Not Supporting or Attached to way Slabs Not Supporting or Attached to way Slabs Not Supporting or Attached to way Slabs Not Supporting or Attached to
Partitions or Partitions or Partitions or Partitions or Other Construction Likely to be Damaged by Large Deflections Other Construction Likely to be Damaged by Large Deflections Other Construction Likely to be Damaged by Large Deflections Other Construction Likely to be Damaged by Large Deflections
(See Clauses 9.8.2.1 and 9.8.5) (See Clauses 9.8.2.1 and 9.8.5) (See Clauses 9.8.2.1 and 9.8.5) (See Clauses 9.8.2.1 and 9.8.5)
Minimum Thickness, h
Simply Supported One End Continuous Both Ends Continuous Cantilever
Solid oneway slabs
n
/20
n
/24
n
/28
n
/10
Beams or ribbed
oneway slabs
n
/16
n
/18.5
n
/21
n
/8
Note: Values given shall be used directly for members with normal density concrete, where
c
> 2150 kg/m
3
, and Grade 400 reinforcement. For other
conditions, the values shall be modified as follows:
(a) for structural lowdensity concrete and structural semilowdensity concrete, the values shall be multiplied by (1.65 0.0003
c
), but not less than 1.00,
where c is the density in kg/m
3
; and
(b) for f
y
other than 400 MPa, the values shall be multiplied by (0.4 + f
y
/670).
The same standard also sets limits to the ratio / and requires that the deflection be
verified when the minimum thickness is less than the value specified in Table 7.1. For
members reinforced with FRP, Hall and Ghali recommend that the values of ( /h)s given by
the standard be adjusted according to Equation 7.6.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.6
The values ( n/h)s given by A23.394 are intended for steelreinforced members. To control
width of cracks, the same standard requires that the strain in steel at a cracked section does not exceed
60 percent of the specified yield stress fy corresponding to s = 1200 x 10
6
with fy = 400 MPa. Thus,
the value s = 1200 x 10
6
should be used in Equation 7.6 and frp selected by the designer. It
is recommended here to take frp = 2000 x 10
6
. The cracks to be expected with this strain
are (frp/ s) times wider. When frp is chosen greater than s, the minimum thickness hf
should be greater than hs for members of the same span.
7.4.2 Examples for Determining Minimum Thickness and
SpantoDeflection Ratio
7.4.2.1 Minimum Thickness of OneWay Slab Reinforced with FRP
Consider a oneway slab of clear span n = 4.00 m. Determine the minimum thickness
assuming GFRP with allowable strain at service frp = 2000 x 10
6
.
For the case considered, CSA A23.394 specifies ( n/h)s = 20. For the slab reinforced with
FRP, (Equation 7.6):
5 . 15
10 2000
10 1200
20
5 . 0
6
6
=
frp
n
frp
n
h
h
Minimum thickness for the considered slab:
mm h 258
5 . 15
4000
= =
7.4.2.2 Verification of the SpantoDeflection Ratio
Compare the span to deflection ratio for the slab of Example 7.4.2.1 with that of a conjugate
steelreinforced slab carrying the same service load intensity (q = 12 kN/m
2
) and having the
same thickness h = 245 mm and d = 215 mm, but with ( /h)s = 20. Additional data: fr =
2.0 MPa; Es = 200 GPa; Ec = 25 GPa; Efrp = 40 GPa.
The clear spans are: ( n)frp = 4.00 m
( n)s = 20
(0.245) = 4.90 m
Serviceability Limit States
7.7
The bending moments at service at midspan are:
m
m kN
M
frp
=
0 . 24
8
4 12
2
m
m kN
M
s
=
0 . 36
8
9 . 4 12
2
The crosssectional areas of the reinforcement corresponding to s= 1200 x 10
6
and
frp = 2000 x 10
6
are A5 = 750 mm
2
m and Afrp = 1500 mm
2
m
The mean curvatures at midspan are:
( )
1 6
10 7081
= m
frp m
; and ( )
1 6
10 6051
= m
s m
.
The deflection at midspan (Equation 7.15):
( )( )
mm
s
1 . 15
9 . 4 10 6051
48
5
2 6
=
=
;
325
1 . 15
4900
=
=
s
l
( )( )
mm
frp
8 . 11
4000 10 7081
48
5
2 6
=
=
;
339
8 . 11
4000
=
=
frp
l
7.4.3 Effective Moment of Inertia Approach
This Section is concerned only with reinforced concrete members without prestressing that
are subjected to bending without axial force. If the service load level is less than the cracking
moment, Mcr, the immediate deflection can be accurately evaluated using the transformed
moment of inertia, It. If the service moment exceeds the cracking moment, A23.394
recommends the use of the effective moment of inertia, Ie, to calculate the deflection of
cracked steelreinforced concrete members. The procedure entails the calculation of a
moment of inertia, which is assumed uniform throughout the beam. This value is used in
deflection equations based on linear elastic analysis.
The effective moment of inertia Ie, is based on empirical considerations. It has yielded
satisfactory results in applications when the maximum bending moment at service is greater
than 2Mcr, where Mcr is the value of the moment just sufficient to cause flexural cracking
(Ghali and Azarnejad, 1999).
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.8
Investigators initially applied the codebased effective moment of inertia concept to FRP
reinforced concrete members, but they discovered that predictions of deflections based on
this concept were not in agreement with experimental data. Accordingly, attempts were
made to modify the Ie expression in order to make it applicable to FRPreinforced concrete
members. The modified expressions were again based on the assumption that a uniform
moment of inertia can be substituted for the actual variable moment of inertia of the beam
along its length.
Benmokrane et al. (1996) and later Gao et al. (1998) used the following expression for Ie to
calculate the deflection of GFRPreinforced beams:
Equation 7.7
Ig moment of inertia of gross section, mm
4
Icr moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete with concrete in
tension ignored, mm
4
Mcr cracking moment,
t
t r
cr
y
I f
M = , Nmm
Ma maximum moment in a member at the load stage at which deflection is being
calculated, N
mm
fr modulus of rupture of concrete, MPa
yt distance from the centroidal axis of transformed uncracked section to extreme fibre
in tension, mm
b reduction coefficient obtained from the following expression
Equation 7.8
b bond dependent coefficient (until more data become available =0.5)
Es modulus of elasticity of steel (200 x 10
3
MPa)
However, since the latter correction factors were empirically derived from limited test data,
their applicability to other loading and boundary conditions is neither evident, nor assured.
For instance, Thriault (1998) introduced additional corrective terms in Equation 7.7 in
order to match her experimental data.
The following equation may be used for Ie:
Equation 7.9
( )
cr t
a
cr
cr
cr t
e
I I
M
M
I
I I
I
+
=
2
5 . 0 1
g cr
a
cr
g b
a
cr
e
I I
M
M
I
M
M
I
1
1
]
1


\

+


\

=
3 3
1
+ = 1
s
frp
b b
E
E
Serviceability Limit States
7.9
where It is moment of inertia of a noncracked section transformed to concrete. Equation
7.9 is derived from equations given by CEBFIP Model Code (1990). Hall (2000) has
verified that Ie calculated by Equation 7.9 and used in the same way as described above gives
good agreement with experimental deflections of numerous beams reinforced with different
types of FRP materials. The beams tested by the researchers mentioned above have been
included.
Moment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section
The cracked moment of inertia, Icr, is given by:
Equation 7.10
b width of crosssection, mm
c depth of neutral axis at cracking, mm
The depth c may be calculated by:
Equation 7.11 ( ) ) 2 (
2
frp frp frp frp frp frp
n n n d c + + =
nfrp modular ratio ) (
c
frp
E
E
=
frp reinforcement ratio ) (
bd
A
frp
=
d distance from extreme compressive surface to tension reinforcement, mm
Equations 7.10 and 7.11 apply to a rectangular section; they also apply to a Tsection when c
is less than the thickness of the flange and the top surface is in compression.
Appendix B contains tables for calculation of Icr according to the above equations for
different values of nfrp and frp. For a given value of frp and nfrp , coefficient k is determined
and the cracked moment of inertia is found as:
Equation 7.12 I
cr
= k x bd
3
7.4.4 Curvature Approach
When curvature is known, the virtual work method can be used to calculate deflection of
concrete frames under any load level with the integral being for all members of the structure:
Equation 7.13
= dx m
2
3
) (
3
c d A n
bc
I
frp frp cr
+ =
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.10
For a cracked reinforced concrete member without prestressing and subjected to bending
moment M without axial force, the curvature at any section can be calculated by:
Equation 7.14
The transverse deflection at midlength of a member, measured from the chord joining its
ends can be calculated by Equation 7.15, which can be derived by Equation 7.13.
Equation 7.15
end1,end2,mid curvatures at two ends and at the middle
This equation implies the assumption of parabolic variation of . For simply supported
beam:
Equation 7.16
96
10
2
mid
=
7.4.5 Deflection Under Sustained Load
Ghali and Favre (1994) and ElBadry and Ghali (1989) give a procedure for calculation of
longterm curvature at a reinforced concrete cracked or uncracked section with or without
prestressing. When the reinforcement is with FRP materials, the same procedure can be
applied with appropriate values of elasticity modulus and relaxation of the reinforcements.
Once the curvature at various sections is determined, the deflection can be calculated by
Equation 7.15. Hall and Ghali (20002) have verified the validity of the procedure when FRP
materials are used. Only limited experimental longtime deflection data are available in the
literature. On the other hand, extensive test data on immediate deflection of simple beams
are available. Using this data, Hall (2000) has shown that the procedure described in this
section gives a more accurate prediction of deflection compared to the use of any of the
methods which assume Ie to be constant over the member length.
The procedure described above is adopted in ACI 435 (2000) for concrete construction
reinforced with steel or with FRP. The codes ACI 31899 and CSA A23.394 allow the use
of the effective moment of inertia approach for nonprestressed members in flexure
(without axial force). The same codes also permit more comprehensive analysis. ACI 421
(2000) adopts the procedure described above as a comprehensive treatment for prediction of
the displacements of reinforced concrete frames with or without prestressing.
7.4.6 Permissible Deflection
Based on CSA A23.394, the deflection calculated according to the effective moment of
inertia, or the momentcurvature method must satisfy the following requirements. These are
the same as the requirements for steelreinforced concrete structures.
e c
I E
M
=
) 10 (
96
2 1
2
end mid end
+ + =
Serviceability Limit States
7.11
If the deflection calculated using the cracked moment of inertia satisfies the permissible
deflection limit, there is no need to find the deflection using effective moment of inertia.
Table 7. Table 7. Table 7. Table 7.2 22 2 Maximum Permissible Deflections Maximum Permissible Deflections Maximum Permissible Deflections Maximum Permissible Deflections
MEMBER TYPE MEMBER TYPE MEMBER TYPE MEMBER TYPE DEFLECTION TO BE CONSIDERED DEFLECTION TO BE CONSIDERED DEFLECTION TO BE CONSIDERED DEFLECTION TO BE CONSIDERED
DEFLECTION DEFLECTION DEFLECTION DEFLECTION
LIMITATION LIMITATION LIMITATION LIMITATION
Flat roofs not supporting or attached to non
structural elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections
Immediate deflection due to specified live load
n
/180 *
Floors not supporting or attached to non
structural elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections
Immediate deflection due to specified live load
n
/360
Roof or floor construction supporting or
attached to nonstructural elements likely to be
damaged by large deflections
n
/480
Roof or floor construction supporting or
attached to nonstructural elements not likely to
be damaged by large deflections
That part of the total deflection occurring after
detachment of nonstructural elements (sum of
the longtime deflection due to all sustained
loads and the immediate deflection due to any
additional live load)
n
/240
Longtime deflections shall be calculated under sustained load (these formulas are not
available for FRP members yet), but may be reduced by the amount of deflection calculated
to occur before the attachment of nonstructural elements.
* Limit not intended to safeguard against ponding. Ponding should be checked by suitable
calculations of deflection, including added deflections due to ponded water, and considering
longtime effects of all sustained loads, camber, construction tolerances, and reliability of
provisions for drainage.
Limit may be exceeded if adequate measures are taken to prevent damage to supported or
attached elements.
But not greater than the tolerance provided for nonstructural elements. Limit may be
exceeded if camber is provided so that total deflection minus camber does not exceed the
limit.
7.5 Example of Deflection Calculation
Find the service load moment for the beam from the example calculation in Section 6.9.1,
and check if deflection criteria are satisfied at that load. Assume the clear span of the beam
to be 5.0 m.
SOLUTION:
Find service load moment according to Section 7.3. At this moment, the maximum strain in
FRP reinforcement can reach 2000 x 10
6
.
Using strain compatibility, the section capacity will be found.
Using iterative approach, the final value for the strain in concrete, c, was selected
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.12
Figure 7.1 Depth of neutral axis
6
10 210
=
c
, and the depth of neutral axis, c, was calculated as
( )
mm
d c
frp c
c
3 . 53
561
10 2000 10 210
10 210
6 6
6
=
+
=
+
=
To determine the resultant forces for both concrete and FRP, first the coefficients and
are interpolated using Table B.2, for
1 . 0 =
o
c
; 600 . 0 ; 141 . 0 = = .
kN
N
cb f C
c
2 . 55
10 2 . 55
350 3 . 53 6 . 0 35 141 . 0
3
'
=
=
=
=
c
2000 x 10
6
561
c
Serviceability Limit States
7.13
kN
N
E A T
frp frp frp
8 . 58
10 8 . 58
10 147 10 2000 ) 50 4 (
3
3 6
=
=
=
=
. .K O T C
Find the service load moment
m kN
mm N
c
d T M
s
=
=
=
32
10 32
2
3 . 53 6 . 0
561 10 8 . 58
2
6
3
The maximum service load moment allowed for this beam is 32 kNm. From the strain
profile it is evident that the section is cracked, since the strain in the bottom fibres is larger
than 133x10
6
. Therefore, the cracked moment of inertia will be used to calculate the
deflection.
The cracked moment of inertia of the transformed cracked section can be calculated using
Equations 7.10 and 7.11, or Table B.4. Here, Equations 7.10 and 7.11 will be used.
( )
( )
4 8
3
2
2
3
10 02 . 3
5 . 56
10 02 . 1
52 . 5
2
3
mm I
mm c
E
E
n
n n n d c
c d A n
bc
I
cr
frp
c
frp
frp
frp frp frp frp frp frp
frp frp cr
=
=
=
=
=
+ + =
+ =
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
7.14
The deflection of the beam using cracked moment of inertia is
( )
mm
I E
M
cr c
s
5 . 10
10 02 . 3 35 4500 48
5000 10 32 5
48
5
8
2 6
2
=
=
=
Permissible deflection, Table 7.2
mm
n
e permissibl
8 . 13
360
5000
360
=
=
=
. .
8 . 13 5 . 10
K O
mm mm
e permissibl service
<
<
The beam satisfies both crack width and deflection requirements for service load moment of
32 kNm.
DEVELOPMENT, ANCHORAGE & SPLICING OF REINFORCEMENT
8.1
8.1 Definitions
Afrp area of FRP bar, mm
2
db bar diameter, mm
f
=
Equation 9.2
Equation 9.3
=
s s
u u
M
M
factor ity deformabil
s
u
M
M
factor moment =
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
9.2
Where M is the bending moment and is the curvature, the subscripts u and s refer to
ultimate and service states. The CHBDC ( 998) and Jaeger et al. ( 995) check the
deformability by a performance factor defined by an equation similar to the DF in
Equation 9.3, but with (uMu) replaced by the product of the curvature and the moment
corresponding to a maximum concrete strain of 0.00 . The CHBDC requires the
performance factor to be greater than four or six for rectangular and Tsections, respectively.
In this manual, the DF defined by Equation 9.3 is adopted. Furthermore, it is assumed that
s and Ms correspond to a strain in the FRP due to service loads, frps = 2000 x 0
6
. An
allowable deformability factor, DF 4, is adopted for all concrete sections in flexure because
there is no substantial difference between T and rectangular sections in terms of their
deformability. Newhook et al. (2000) have shown that both rectangular and Tsections will
have DF > 4, except when frp is impractically high. That is, when frp > frpmax where frpmax
is a proposed maximum allowable reinforcement ratio given by:
Equation 9.4
frps
c
frp
f
f
'
1
max
2 . 0
=
fc specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
fc an average stress used with the rectangular compressive stress block used to
calculate Mu in CSA A23.394, with given by:
67 . 0 0015 . 0 85 . 0
'
1
=
c
f
ffrps allowable stress in the FRP in service, MPa
Equation 9.5
frps frp frps
E f =
To control the width of cracks when steel is used as reinforcement, CSA A23.394 and ACI
3 899 limit the strain in steel in service to 200 x 0
6
corresponding to crack width about
0.4 mm. As there is no risk of corrosion when FRP is used, CHBDC, ACI 440 (2000) and
JSCE ( 997) recommend a maximum crack width of about .5 to .7 times the value allowed
for steelreinforced members. An allowable value for the strain at service in the FRP is
adopted here:
6
10 2000
=
frps
This design requirement governs the amount of reinforcement for a section for which the
concrete dimensions have been selected:
Equation 9.6
max min frp frp frp
<
Deformability
9.3
frpmax the maximum allowable reinforcement ratio to satisfy that DF > 4 (Eq.9.4)
frpmin = Afrpmin/(bd) is the minimum reinforcement ratio required to ensure that failure
occurs only when the moment exceeds the cracking moment with a sufficient
margin (see Section 6.6)
Afrpmin minimum area of FRP reinforcement, mm
2
b width of a crosssection, mm
d effective depth of crosssection, mm
Equation 9.7
bd
A
frp
frp
=
and
Equation 9.8
ct frps
s
frp
y f
M
A =
yct the distance between the resultants of compressive stress and the resultant of tensile
stress at service, assuming linear stress distribution, mm
Deformability is generally defined in terms of member deformations as the ratio of
deflection, or curvature at ultimate condition to the equivalent gross section deflection, or
curvature at a load equal to the service load, see Figure 9. .
eu
u
P
u
Figure 9.1 Deformability of FRP reinforced beams
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
9.4
For seismic design, the ductility of a section may be calculated using the deformability index,
expressed as follows (Abdelrahman et al. 995):
Equation 9.9
eu ultimate deflection calculated using uncracked section (Ig), mm
u ultimate deflection, mm
eu ultimate curvature calculated using uncracked section
u ultimate curvature (c/c)
However, it should be noted that there is limited knowledge on the use or the behaviour of
members reinforced with FRP subjected to seismic loading conditions.
eu
u
eu
u
or
=
;
CHARTS FOR FLEXURAL DESIGN
10.1
10.1 Definitions
b width of compression face of member, mm
d effective depth, mm
Efrp modulus of elasticity of FRP, MPa
fc compressive strength of concrete, MPa
ffrpu ultimate tensile strength of FRP, MPa
Mf moment due to factored loads, N.mm
Mr moment resistance, N.mm
wD dead load, N/mm
wL live load, N/mm
frp strain in FRP
reinforcement ratio
10.2 Design Aids for Rectangular Concrete Sections
The following design aids are developed for rectangular concrete sections with a specific
type of reinforcement in a single layer to satisfy the serviceability requirements, namely in
terms of not permitting the maximum strain level in FRP reinforcement at service load to
exceed 2000 x 10
6
, as shown in Figure 10.1. The internal resistance of the FRP at service
load is reduced by a material resistance factor, frp of 0.8 for CFRP, 0.6 for AFRP and 0.4 for
GFRP. The design charts, starting in Figure 10.7, may be used for the design of section
dimensions, as well as reinforcement, to satisfy both serviceability and ultimate limit states
requirements.
The design aids contain three groups of curves representing the moment of service, Ms,
moment of resistance, Mr, in stress units as
2
bd
M
s
,
2
bd
M
r
, and strain in FRP at ultimate, as a
function of the reinforcement ratio. Several types of FRP reinforcement are used with the
material properties identified directly on the following charts.
10.3 Concepts Used for the Design Charts
Three different groups of curves are given in each chart. These will briefly be discussed in
the following Subsections.
10.3.1 Group A Curves
The development of the charts is based on a strain compatibility analysis, as shown in Figure
10.1.
Group A curves were determined by calculating the service moments Ms corresponding to
parametric lines, and corresponding to strain values of 2000 x 10
6
and 3000 x 10
6
at the
level of reinforcement for each reinforcement ratio . The service moments were calculated
for concrete strength ranging from 30 to 60 MPa. The strain in FRP is low and therefore the
response of beams at service load is linear. Hence, the curves corresponding to different
concrete strengths are superimposed on each other and drawn as one line.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.2
f
c
(a) (b) (c)
b
d
A
frp,i
c
i
c i
cu
2000 2000 2000 2000x 0
6
c
i c
i
T
i
C
i
actual stress
diagram
Figure 10.1 (a) FRP reinforced crosssection; (b) Strain profile at service load;
(c) Stress resultants at service load
Figure 10.2 Group A curves
Note: Group A curves cannot be used to read strain on the righthand axis.
10.3.2 Group B Curves
Curves of Group B, as shown in Figure 10.3, represent the moment resistance, Mr, as a
function of reinforcement ratio, . The first linear segment denotes tension failure, and the
second nonlinear segment denotes compression failure. Figure 10.4 represents the strain
profile and the stress resultants for the initial segment or tension failure. A strain
compatibility analysis was carried out on a number of concrete beams. The strain in FRP was
constant,
frp
frpu
E
f
, while the strain in concrete was varied from 1000 x 10
6
to 3500 x 10
6
. The
Ms /bd
2
2000x10
6
3000x10
6
Charts for Flexural Design
10.3
c
f
c
(a) (b) (c)
b
d
A
frp,i
c
i
c I
<
cu
frpu
c
i c
i
T
i
C
i
actual stress
diagram
moment resistance curves were calculated for concrete strength ranging from 30 to 60 MPa,
and were denoted above some curves of Group B.
Figure 10.3 Group B curves
Figure 10.4 Tension failure
M
r / bd
2
60 MPa
30 MPa
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.4
10.3.3 Group C Curves
Group C curves, as shown in Figure 10.5, represent the level of strain in the FRP for the
moment of resistance, Mr, for each reinforcement ratio, . Strain can be found on the right
hand side of the chart. This strain is representative of the two stages described with Group B
curves, including compression and tension failures.
Figure 10.5 Group C curves
10.4 Use of Design Charts
The design charts can be used for given crosssection dimensions or to determine the overall
dimensions of the section needed to satisfy Ms and/or Mr requirements. The charts are
applicable to rectangular crosssections and one layer of FRP only.
(a) To determine the overall dimensions of the section:
Step 1:
For a given concrete strength, fc, and selected reinforcement ratio, , Group A curves
can be used to determine the ratio
2
bd
M
s from the lefthand side vertical axis.For a given
service load moment Ms, the effective depth, d, of the crosssection can be determined
using an approximate ratio of d/b of 1.5, typically accepted in practice.
Step 2:
Group B curves can be used to determine the moment resistance, Mr. For the selected
reinforcement ratio 1, and strength (fc)1, using the value of the ratio
2
bd
M
r which can be
read on the lefthand side vertical axis. It should be noted that the initial linear part of
the Group B curves represents failure caused by rupture of FRP. In this case, the
proposed design method requires that the moment resistance
f r
M M 5 . 1 >
. If this
condition is not satisfied, a larger reinforcement ratio should be selected, and the design
repeated.
frp
Tension
Failure
Compression
Failure
30 MPa
60 MPa
Charts for Flexural Design
10.5
Step 3 (optional):
Group C curves can be used to determine the strain in FRP at ultimate for any given
reinforcement ratio, and concrete strength, fc.
(b) For a given crosssection:
Step 1:
Group A curves can be used for a given
2
2
bd
M
s
and selected concrete strength (fc)2, to
determine the required reinforcement ratio, 2 which satisfies the requirement that the
strain level in FRP does not exceed 2000x10
6
at service load level.
Step 2:
Using the reinforcement ratio, 2, for the given concrete strength, (fc)2, Group B curves
can be used to determine Mr. These curves can also be used to identify the type of
failure as discussed before.
Step 3 (optional):
Group C curves can be used to determine the strain in FRP at ultimate. For the given
reinforcement ratio, 2, and concrete strength (fc)2, the strain at ultimate can be
determined.
10.4.1 Design Example
Concrete with an ultimate strength of 30 MPa is used for a simplysupported beam that will
carry a service live load of 4.0 N/mm and a superimposed dead load of 4.7 N/mm,
including self weight, over a span of 3350 mm. Determine the required beam dimensions
and the amount of reinforcement using ISOROD GFRP bars (ffrpu = 747 MPa, Efrp = 45 000
MPa). For deflection control, the effective depth to width ratio is 1.5.
SOLUTION:
wL = 4.0 N/mm; wD = 4.7 N/mm;
wf = 1.25 wD + 1.5 wL = 1.25 (4.7) + 1.5 (4.0) = 11.83 N/mm
Design chart in Figure 10.6 will be used. Using Group A curves, assume that the
reinforcement ratio is = 0.015 and the concrete strength 30 MPa, then the ratio
2
bd
M
s is
( )
mm N l w M
mm N l w w M
u f
L D s
= = =
= = + =
6 2 2
6 2 2
10 6 . 16 3350
8
83 . 11
8
1
10 2 . 12 3350
8
7 . 8
8
1
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.6
0.93 (Figure 10.6, arrows 1 and 2). Using a ratio of d/b of 1.5, the effective depth d can be
calculated as 270 mm. Based on the depth of neutral axis, d, and concrete cover of 40 mm, a
section of 180 x 310 mm can be used with a reinforcement ratio of 1.5 percent.
Using Group B curves for the selected ratio of 1.5 percent, the parameter
2
bd
M
r can be
determined as 2.93, see Figure 10.6 (arrows 3 and 4). Therefore, the moment resistance of
the section is:
This design satisfies the requirements that the strain level at service loads is 2000x10
6
and
that the ultimate resistance of the section is larger than that for factored loads.
Using the Group C curves, the level of strain in FRP at ultimate was determined for the
given concrete strength 30 MPa, and reinforcement ratio 0.015, as 12233x10
6
(Figure 10.6,
arrows 5 and 6).
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 10.6 Design chart for example 10.4.1
. . 10 6 . 16 10 4 . 38
10 4 . 38 270 180 93 . 2
6 6
6 2
K O mm N M mm N M
mm N M
f r
r
= > =
= =
Charts for Flexural Design
10.7
10.5 Design Charts
GFRP Bars
Figure 10.7 Design chart for ffrpu = 600 MPa and Efrp = 30 GPa (Nefmac, GFRP)
Figure 10.8 Design chart for ffrpu = 690 MPa and Efrp = 42 GPa (ISOROD, GFRP)
Figure 10.9 Design chart for ffrpu = 700 MPa and Efrp = 37 GPa (CBar, GFRP)
Figure 10.10 Design chart for ffrpu = 747 MPa and Efrp = 45 GPa (ISOROD, GFRP)
Figure 10.11 Design chart for ffrpu = 770 MPa and Efrp = 42 GPa (CBar, GFRP)
Figure 10.12 Design chart for GFRP, ffrpu = 760 MPa and Efrp = 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 9mm)
Figure 10.13 Design chart for GFRP, ffrpu = 690 MPa and Efrp = 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 12mm)
Figure 10.14 Design chart for GFRP, ffrpu = 655 MPa and Efrp = 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 16mm)
Figure 10.15 Design chart for GFRP, ffrpu = 620 MPa and Efrp = 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 19mm)
Figure 10.16 Design chart for GFRP, ffrpu = 586 MPa and Efrp = 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 22mm)
CFRP Bars
Figure 10.17 Design chart for CFRP, ffrpu = 1200 MPa and Efrp = 100 GPa (Nefmac)
Figure 10.18 Design chart for CFRP, ffrpu = 2250 MPa and Efrp = 147 GPa (Leadline)
Figure 10.19 Design chart for CFRP, ffrpu = 1596 MPa and Efrp = 111.1 GPa (ISOROD)
Figure 10.7 Design chart for f
frpu
= 600 MPa and E
frp
= 30 GPa (Nefmac, GFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.8
Figure 10.8 Design chart for f
frpu
= 690 MPa and E
frp
= 42 GPa (ISOROD, GFRP)
Charts for Flexural Design
10.9
Figure 10.9 Design chart for f
frpu
= 700 MPa and E
frp
= 37 GPa (CBar, GFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.10
Figure 10.10 Design chart for f
frpu
= 747 MPa and E
frp
= 45 GPa (ISOROD, GFRP)
Charts for Flexural Design
10.11
Figure 10.11 Design chart for f
frpu
= 770 MPa and E
frp
= 42 GPa (CBar, GFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.12
Figure 10.12 Design chart for f
frpu
= 760 MPa and E
frp
= 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 9mm, GFRP)
Charts for Flexural Design
10.13
Figure 10.13 Design chart for f
frpu
= 690 MPa and E
frp
= 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 12mm, GFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.14
Figure 10.14 Design chart for f
frpu
= 655 MPa and E
frp
= 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 16mm, GFRP)
Charts for Flexural Design
10.15
Figure 10.15 Design chart for f
frpu
= 620 MPa and E
frp
= 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 19mm, GFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.16
Figure 10.16 Design chart for f
frpu
= 586 MPa and E
frp
= 40.8 GPa (Aslan 100, 22mm, GFRP)
Charts for Flexural Design
10.17
Figure 10.17 Design chart for f
frpu
= 1200 MPa and E
frp
= 100 GPa (Nefmac, CFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.18
Figure 10.18 Design chart for f
frpu
= 2250 MPa and E
frp
= 147 GPa (Leadline, CFRP)
Charts for Flexural Design
10.19
Figure 10.19 Design chart for f
frpu
= 1596 MPa and E
frp
= 111.1 GPa (ISOROD, CFRP)
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
10.20
SHEAR DESIGN
11.1
11.1 Definitions
Afrpv area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to the axis of a member within a distance
s, mm
2
Aw cross sectional area assumed to resist shear, mm
2
bw minimum effective web width within depth d, mm
d distance from the extreme compression fibre to the centroid of the reinforcement,
mm
dct, dcb clear cover to the stirrups at the top and bottom of the beam, respectively, mm
db bar diameter, mm
de effective diameter
mm
A
d
b
e
,
4
=
Efrpl modulus of elasticity of flexural FRP reinforcement, MPa
Efrpv modulus of elasticity of FRP stirrup, MPa
Es modulus of elasticity of steel, 200x10
3
MPa
ffrpg guaranteed tensile strength, MPa
ffrpu ultimate tensile strength, MPa
ffrpvu ultimate strength of FRP stirrup, MPa
ld
*
tail length, mm
lfrpd development length, mm
N number of stirrups intersecting the shear plane
rb radius of bend, mm
s spacing of shear reinforcement measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
member, mm
Vc factored shear resistance attributed to concrete, N
Vd factored shear resistance, N
Vfrp factored shear resistance attributed to shear reinforcement, N
Vfrp1 shear force supported by one stirrup, N
Vser shear force at service load level, N
frpvser strain in FRP stirrup at service load level
frp resistance factor for FRP stirrups
c resistance factor for concrete
modification factor for density of concrete
factor determining stirrup contribution, usually taken as 0.4. This indicates that 40
percent of the ultimate strength of the stirrup is considered for design purposes.
angle of inclination of shear plane
11.2 General
Shear design of concrete beams reinforced with FRP stirrups is, to a large extent, based on
the results of extensive experimental work. The design should distinguish between beams
entirely reinforced with FRP for both flexure and shear, and beams reinforced with steel for
flexure and FRP stirrups for shear. Shear design of these types of structures can then take
into account differences in material properties of these two reinforcement types.
During the shear design process, contributions of both concrete and stirrup reinforcement
must be determined. This Section will discuss the process of calculation of the contributions
from both concrete and stirrups, and determine the shear resistance of members reinforced
with FRP shear reinforcement.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
11.2
11.3 Modes of Failure
Shear failures are brittle and, therefore, should be avoided. Due to the mechanical properties
of FRP, the following issues need to be addressed in the design of FRP stirrups:
tension capacity of FRP stirrup bent
required tail length for FRP stirrup
minimum radius of bend of FRP stirrup
Shear failure is initiated by either reaching the tensile capacity of stirrups or by crushing of
the web concrete. As a solution for the latter problem, a conservative approach has been
taken by the latest draft of ACI 440, and it is suggested to keep the same limits as for steel
reinforced concrete. For the former problem, only 40 percent of the strength of the FRP
stirrup is considered. Since studies have not revealed enough information at this stage, it is
appropriate to be conservative with the shear design of FRPreinforced concrete members at
this time.
11.4 Beams Without Web Reinforcement
For some members which do not contain shear reinforcement, such as slabs and footings,
and beams with the effective depth not greater than 250 mm, the factored shear resistance
attributed to concrete, Vc, is calculated according to the same principles as for steel
reinforced concrete (CSA A23.394).
Equation 11.1
f
s
frpl
w c c c
V
E
E
d b f V 5 . 0 2 . 0
'
=
Vc factored shear resistance attributed to concrete, N
Vf factored shear force, N
modification factor for density of concrete
c resistance factor for concrete
bw minimum effective web width within depth d, mm
d distance from the extreme compression surface to the centroid of the
reinforcement, mm
Efrpl modulus of elasticity of flexural FRP reinforcement, MPa
Es modulus of elasticity of steel taken as 200 x 10
3
MPa
For sections with an effective depth greater than 300 mm the concrete resistance, Vc, is
taken as:
Equation 11.2
s
E
frpl
E
d
w
b
c
f
c
s
E
frpl
E
d
w
b
c
f
c
d
c
V ' 10 . 0 '
1000
260
+
=
Shear Design
11.3
11.5 Beams With FRP Web Reinforcement
FRPs are widely used in round bars or rectangular shapes for flexural reinforcement and in
sheet configuration for strengthening. As shear reinforcement, this material is still in a
developmental stage. If steel stirrups are used, and the design is carried according to steel
reinforced concrete standards, no problems with shear capacity are expected. This section
will only deal with members reinforced entirely with FRP for both flexure and shear.
Several issues need to be addressed in discussing a member reinforced with FRP for flexure
and shear:
lower dowel resistance of bars
lower modulus of elasticity of bars
high tensile strength of straight bars with sufficient embedment length
dramatic decrease in tensile strength of bent bars
11.5.1 Types of FRP Stirrups
Two factors affecting the performance of FRP stirrups are the radius of the bend and the
embedment length. Research indicates the strength of a stirrup can be reduced to 54 percent
of the tensile strength of a straight bar due to stress concentrations at the bend (Morphy et
al. 1997). These stress concentrations occur during manufacturing, and depend on the
manufacturing process. All FRP stirrups are bent in the manufacturing plant and then
shipped to the site.
According to Ehsani et al. (1995), the minimum ratio of radius of bend to the stirrup
diameter is three, and FRP stirrups should be closed with 90degree hooks. Shehata (1999)
recommends using only 40 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of FRP when calculating
the capacity of a stirrup.
The tensile force in the stirrup leg is transferred through the bond between the concrete and
the tail of an FRP stirrup. The tail length has been investigated by Ehsani et al. (1995) and by
Morphy et al. (1997). Noticeable differences have been found among different types of FRP,
as well as different stirrup configurations. According to Ehsani et al. (1995), the tail length of
GFRP stirrups should be at least 12times the bar diameter. The tail length of CFRP stirrups
was found to be 35times the bar diameter for Leadline stirrups, and 15 and 20times the bar
diameter for CFCC stirrups with continuous anchorage and standard hook, respectively
(Morphy et al.1997).
11.5.2 Detailing of FRP Stirrups
The development length of hooked bars was studied by Morphy et al. (1997). Based on
research on a number of bent stirrups with different embedment length and bend diameter
for rectangular Leadline CFRP bar, the embedment length to diameter ratio (lfrpd/de)
sufficient to develop the full guaranteed strength is 40. For the embedment length to
diameter ratio less than the limiting value, the strength can be found using the following:
Equation 11.3
e
frpd
frpg
frpu
d
l
f
f
015 . 0 4 . 0 + =
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
11.4
Equation 11.4
ffrpu ultimate tensile strength, MPa
ffrpg guaranteed tensile strength, MPa
rb radius of bend, mm
db bar diameter, mm
de effective diameter ] [
4
mm
A
d
b
e
=
lfrpd development length, mm
For CBar stirrups, the embedment length to diameter ratio should be at least 15. It was
found by Morphy (1999) that CBar stirrups could develop only 80 percent of their full
capacity regardless of their tail length. The bend radius, rb, should range from 4.0de for C
bars to 7.0de for rectangular Leadline bars (Morphy 1999). FRP stirrups may be designed
using Figure 11.1 (Shehata 1999).
Figure 11.1 Stirrup configurations (Shehata 1999)
11.5.3 Minimum Amount of Shear Reinforcement
Failure of a beam without shear reinforcement is sudden and brittle. Therefore, a minimum
amount of shear reinforcement is required when the factored shear force, Vf, exceeds 0.5Vc.
This reinforcement is not necessary for slabs, footings, and beams with a total depth not
greater than 250 mm. The minimum area of FRP shear reinforcement can be found from
Equation 11.5 based on experimental work of Shehata (1999).
frpg
b
b
frpu
f
d
r
f
+ = 3 . 0 05 . 0
Shear Design
11.5
Equation 11.5
Afrpv area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to the axis of a member within a distance
s, mm
2
s spacing of shear reinforcement measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
member, mm
ffrpvu ultimate strength of FRP stirrup, MPa
factor determining stirrup contribution, usually taken as 0.4. This indicates that 40
percent of the ultimate strength of the stirrup is considered for design purposes.
The minimum reinforcement ratio for shear reinforcement is derived directly from Equation
11.5 as:
Equation 11.6
frpvu
c
w
frpv
v
f
f
s b
A
'
min
06 . 0
> =
The use of FRP may result in the concrete contribution Vc being less than Vcr. Therefore,
FRPreinforced beams with minimum shear reinforcement are required to provide shear
resistance according to Equation 11.7 as follows:
Equation 11.7
=
s
frpl
w c c frp
E
E
d b f V 1 2 . 0
'
min
11.5.4 Maximum Strain in FRP Stirrups
To control the shear crack width in FRPreinforced concrete beams, the strain in the stirrups
at service load is limited to 0.002.
Equation 11.8
frpvser strain in FRP stirrup at service load level
Vser shear force at service load level, N
Efrpv modulus of elasticity of FRP stirrup, MPa
11.6 Shear Resistance of FRP Reinforced Beams
The shear design of FRPreinforced beams is based on the simplified method of CSA23.394
(1995). The method, as developed by Shehata (1999), accounts for contributions of concrete
and stirrups as follows:
frpvu
f
s
w
b
c
f
frpv
A
'
06 . 0 =
002 . 0
) (
=
frpv frpv
c ser
frpv
dE A
V V s
ser
= 30 MPa
Flexural reinforcement: Afrp = 200 mm
2
, Efrp = 147 GPa
Shear reinforcement: ffrpv = 1596 MPa; Efrp = 111.1 GPa
frp c d
V V V + =
s
frpl
w c c c
E
E
d b f V
'
2 . 0 =
s
frpl
w c c
s
frpl
w c c c
E
E
d b f
E
E
d b f
d
V
' '
1 . 0
1000
260
+
=
s
frpv
w c c
frpvu frpv frp
frp
E
E
d b f
s
d f A
V
'
8 . 0
=
Shear Design
11.7
SOLUTION:
Design loads are calculated as follows:
dead load
mm
N
w
D
0 . 5
10 5 . 23 600 350
6
=
=
live load
mm
N
w
L
20 =
factored load
mm
N
w
f
25 . 36
20 5 . 1 0 . 5 25 . 1
=
+ =
Factored shear is calculated to be N
3
10 6 . 90
The factored shear resistance provided by concrete (Equation 11.11):
N
E
d b f
d
V
frpl
w c c c
3
3
3
3
'
10 99
10 200
10 147
556 350 35 6 . 0 0 . 1
556 1000
260
10 200 1000
260
=
+
=
+
=
N
E
d b f
frpl
w c c
3
3
3
3
'
10 2 . 59
10 200
10 147
556 350 35 6 . 0 0 . 1 1 . 0
10 200
1 . 0
=
3 3
10 59 10 99 > = c V
Hence N V
c
3
10 99 =
DESIGN OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT:
ZONE I
2
c
f
V
V <
In FRP reinforced beams, when
2
c
f
V
V < , no shear reinforcement is required.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
11.8
Therefore, in ZONE I, where factored shear is less than 49.5x10
3
N, no shear reinforcement
will be provided. This zone extends to 2600 mm in the centre of the beam.
ZONE II
d b
f V and
V
V
w
c f f
c
f
'
06 . 0
2
N
V
f
3
10 138
4 . 0
556 350
35 8 . 0 0 . 1 06 . 0
=
=
For
3 3
10 138 10 5 . 49
f
V minimum reinforcement is required.
6
'
min
10 556
1596 4 . 0
35 06 . 0
06 . 0
=
=
frpvu
c
f
f
Using a 3/8 inch CFRP ISOROD bar with the following geometric properties:
area 71 mm
2
diameter 9.5 mm
1596 4 . 0
350
35 06 . 0 71 2
06 . 0
'
=
=
s
f
s b
f A
frpvu
w
c frpv
mm s 6 . 729 =
The maximum stirrups spacing based on CSA A23.394 is:
600 mm or 0.7d if
( )
'
1 . 0
c c
w
p p f
f
d b
V V
<
( ) governs mm mm or d r
e b
50 50 4 max
CHECK MAXIMUM STRAIN AT SERVICE LOAD:
Since service load is 26.2x10
3
N, and Vc=99x10
3
N, there is no need to do this check.
11.8 Shear Resistance of FRP Reinforced Beams Using Shear Friction
11.8.1 Fundamentals
The shear design of FRPreinforced beams using shear friction follows from that for steel
reinforced beams (Loov 2000).
The total shear resistance is taken as the sum of the contributions of the concrete and the
stirrups. See Equation 11.9.
The factored shear resistance provided by the concrete is calculated using Equation 11.13.
Equation 11.13
tan
45
V V
c
=
3x50 3x350 1300
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
11.10
Equation 11.14
Equation 11.15
A
w
crosssectional area assumed to resist shear, mm
2
(Figure 11.3)
= b
w
h for rectangular sections
= b
w
h +h
ft
2
for Tbeams
angle of inclination of the shear plane
Figure 11.3 Definition of beam crosssection
The factored shear resistance provided by the shear reinforcement is calculated using
Equation 11.16.
Equation 11.16
N number of stirrups intersecting the shear plane
A
frpv
crosssectional area of one stirrup, mm
2
f
frp
stress in shear reinforcement taken equal to (usually taken as 0.4) times the
ultimate tensile strength of FRP, f
frpvu
, MPa
11.8.2 Design Procedure for Use in Regions of Uniform Stirrup Spacing
(i) Calculate:
Vf factored shear force acting on a shear plane, N
Vfrp1 shear force supported by one stirrup, N
frp frpv frp frp
f A N V =
w c c c
A f V
=
45
where
25 . 0
25 . 0
400 30
35 . 0 and
=
h
f
c
c
frp
A
frpr
f
frp
=
frp
A
frpr
(Xf
frpvu
)
Shear Design
11.11
(ii) Determine the number of stirrups intersecting the shear plane
(round down to the nearest integer)
(iii) Determine the number of stirrup spaces intersected by the shear plane
(iv) Compute the total shear supported by the stirrups
(v) Estimate the effective stirrup length d
s . This allows for limited anchorage when a shear
failure plane crosses a stirrup close to its end.
For CFRP: d
s
= h  (d
ct
+ d
cb
+ 10d
b
)
For GFRP: d
s
= h  (d
ct
+ d
cb
+ 4d
b
)
d
ct
, d
cb
clear cover to the stirrups at the top and bottom of the beam
respectively, mm
d
b
bar diameter for the stirrups, mm
Note:
(a) The formulae for d
s
are based on limited test data for CFRP Leadline and GFRP CBar
stirrups.
(b) For noncircular stirrup cross sections, the effective bar diameter d
e
defined in Section
11.1 may be used.
(vi) Compute the stirrup spacing s required to obtain the required slope of the shear failure
plane. The shear plane must be sufficiently steep that the concrete can support all of the
shear not supported by the stirrups.
Setting results in:
Equation 11.17
A lower bound continuous equation can be used to determine s when details such as N and
m are not required:
Equation 11.18
1
5 . 0
frp
f
V
V
N =
1 + = N m
1 frp frp
NV V =
ms
d V
V V V V
s
c frp f
45
45
tan = = =
( )
frp f
s
V V m
d V
s
45
( )
2
1
45 1
4
frp f
s frp
V V
d V V
s
+
c
( f
c
)A
w
= 0.337(1)(0.65) (25)(83700) = 91672 N
Adopt stirrup spacing s = 100 mm
( ) ( )
mm
V V m
d V
s
frp f
s
103
83529 180000 4
) 432 ( 91672
45
=
PLACEMENT OF REINFORCEMENT AND CONSTRUCTABILITY
12.1
12.1 Definitions
db bar diameter [mm]
12.2 Spacing of Longitudinal Reinforcement
The minimum spacing of longitudinal reinforcement in a beam should be the maximum of
the following:
1.4 db
1.4 times the maximum aggregate size
30 mm
concrete cover obtained from Figures 12.1 and 12.2
This maximum value will assure that concrete can be placed properly, and that temperature
cracking will be avoided. The maximum spacing for minimum slab reinforcement is the
smallest of five times the slab thickness or 500 mm (CSA A23.394, 1995).
fc' = 30 MPa
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Concrete cover / Bar diameter
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
a
t
s
p
l
i
t
t
i
n
g
c
r
a
c
k
,
o
C
CTE = 20E6/oC CTE = 30E6/oC CTE = 40E6/oC
CTE = 50E6/oC CTE = 60E6/oC
Figure 12.1 Selection of concrete cover based on bar diameter and coefficient of thermal expansion
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
12.2
CTE = 40E6/
o
C
10
30
50
70
90
110
130
150
170
190
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Concrete cover / Bar diameter
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
a
t
s
p
l
i
t
t
i
n
g
c
r
a
c
k
,
o
C
fc'=30 MPa fc'=40 MPa fc'=50 MPa fc'=60 MPa
Figure 12.2 Selection of concrete cover based on bar diameter and concrete strength
12.3 Concrete Cover
Concrete cover in FRPreinforced concrete members should be determined from Table 12.1.
Table 12. Table 12. Table 12. Table 12.1 11 1 Cover of Flexural Reinforcement Cover of Flexural Reinforcement Cover of Flexural Reinforcement Cover of Flexural Reinforcement
Type of Exposure Type of Exposure Type of Exposure Type of Exposure Beam Beam Beam Beam Slab Slab Slab Slab
Internal maximum (2.5 d
b
, or 40 mm)
maximum (2.5 d
b
, or 20 mm)
External maximum (2.5 d
b
, or 50 mm)
maximum (2.5 d
b
, or 30 mm)
When selecting a concrete cover, the type of FRP reinforcement, type of member, final use
of the member, and environmental conditions should be considered. Some types of GFRP
expand under increased temperatures, or swell in water. Since these properties depend highly
on the type of matrix used for bar manufacturing, no generalization can be made in this
respect. The manufacturer should be contacted if the designer is concerned.
12.4 Constructability
The following are tips for construction of FRP reinforcement cages.
All FRP bars must be protected against UV radiation during storage.
Always check with the manufacturer regarding storage and handling requirements,
as they may differ depending on fibre type used.
FRP reinforcement should not come into contact with steel. Therefore, cages must
be tied with plastic ties.
Due to the lightweight of FRP, the cages must be tied to the form.
Use a plastic vibrator to compact the concrete.
Even if the bars are seated in chairs and tied, they may float up to 10 mm, according to
Rizkalla (1997).
CASE STUDIES
13.1
13.1 Crowchild Bridge, Alberta
Many of Canadas bridges require upgrading because they were not built to handle the
weight of todays increased traffic loads. Calgarys Crowchild Bridge is one such case. The
90m long, 11m wide, new bridge carries two lanes of traffic over its three continuous
spans. While the deck slab itself is free of reinforcing, it is supported by five steel girders and
external steel straps. GFRP Cbars were used to provide the continuity and to minimize the
transverse cracks of the steelfree deck over the intermediate bridge piers.
Based on the results of a fullscale model test at the University of Manitoba, GFRP Cbars
were also used to reinforce the cantilever slabs of the bridge. On a tendered basis, it proved
to be the least costly option.
The deck has cantilevers on either side, reinforced with GFRP rods. In order to reduce
surface cracks, the bridge deck concrete contains short random polypropylene fibres. The
completed bridge is stronger, more resistant to corrosion and less expensive to maintain than
if it had been constructed using traditional methods and materials.
The bridge is also outfitted with remote monitoring technology: 81 strain gauges, 19
embedded gauges, five thermisters, three smart glass rebars and two fibre optic gauges.
Owner: City of Calgary
General Contractor: PCL Contractors
Suppliers: Marshall Industries Composites Ltd.
Consultant: Stantec Consulting Ltd., CAN/ACM Consultants Ltd.
13.2 Halls Harbour Wharf, Nova Scotia
Halls Harbour Wharf is Canadas first wharf utilizing lightweight, noncorroding GFRPs
and a steelfree deck.
Following the failure of a 40metre section of wharf timber piles, the need to rehabilitate the
1904 structure took on an even higher level of urgency than had already been allotted. Like
many east coast communities, Halls Harbour had assumed responsibility for its marine
infrastructure from the federal government.
In preliminary design work with Vaughan Engineering, ISIS Canadas team in Halifax
showed that the cost of using innovative materials and technologies was only slightly more
than the cost associated with conventional methods. The additional cost of the GFRP
reinforcements and steelfree deck over conventional steel reinforced concrete was $20,000
or 4.5 percent.
The longterm benefits, however, were substantially more attractive because the absence of
steel reinforcements extend the life of the wharf from approximately 30 years to between 60
and 80 years with minimal maintenance. This is a critical factor given that communities like
Halls Harbour are solely responsible for maintaining their wharfs. The inclusion of fibre
optic monitoring technology embedded in glass rods (a newly patented Canadian
technology) adds solid data to support the application of FRPs in other marine environment
structures.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
13.2
The wharf incorporates five innovative technologies. It is constructed with concrete deck
panels on deep concrete beams or pile caps spaced at approximately 4 m intervals. The
transverse beams are supported on steel piles at both the front face and back. The pile caps
contain a unique design where an outer layer of GFRP reinforcement under low stress
protects an inner layer of minimum steel reinforcement. The deck panels contain synthetic
fibre reinforced concrete and utilize an internal compressive arching technology. The panels
also contain GFRP rods to reinforce against uplift force created by wave action during
severe storms.
Owner:
Harbour Authority of Halls Harbour
Funding Organizations:
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA)
Fisheries and Oceans/Small Craft Harbours
Friends in Support of Halls Harbour (FISHH)
ISIS Canada
Kings County Community Economic Development
National Research Council
 Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRCIRAP), Province of Nova Scotia
Consortium:
CAN/ACM
Forta Corporation
JMBT Structures Research, Inc.
Maritime Tel & Tel
Intelligent Structures and Innovative Materials Group of
Nova Scotia CAD/CAM Centre at Dalhousie University
Pultrall, Inc.
RocTest, Inc.
Shaw Pipe
St. Lawrence Cement Company
Synthetic Industries
Vaughan Engineering Associates Limited
Waterworks Construction
13.3 Joffre Bridge, Qubec
Early in August of 1997, the Province of Qubec accepted the challenge of constructing an
innovative bridge using CFRP. By opening day on December 6, 1997, the Joffre Bridge,
spanning the Saint Francois River, was another significant contribution to the ever
increasing collection of polymerreinforced bridges in Canada.
A portion of the Joffre Bridge concrete deck slab is reinforced with CFRP, as is a portion of
the traffic barrier and sidewalk. The bridge is outfitted extensively with different kinds of
monitoring instruments including FOSs embedded in the FRP reinforcement (smart
reinforcements). Over 180 instruments (FOSs, vibrating wire strain sensors and electrical
strain gauges) are installed at critical locations in the concrete deck slab and on the steel
girders to monitor the behaviour of the FRP reinforcement under realtime conditions. The
instrumentation also provides valuable information on longterm performance of the
concrete deck slab reinforced with these new materials, in that all the sensors transmit data
to a telephone line for remote monitoring of the structures behaviour.
Case Studies
13.3
Owner: City of Sherbrooke
General Contractor: Grandmont et Fils Lte
Suppliers: Autocon Composites Inc., RocTest Lte., Pultrall Inc., Marshall Industries
Composites Inc., ETEK ElectroPhotonics Solutions, Intertechnology Inc.
Consultant: Le Groupe Teknika
13.4 Taylor Bridge, Manitoba
A significant international research breakthrough was achieved when the Manitoba
Department of Highways and Transportation opened the Taylor Bridge in Headingley. It is
one of Canadas elite few to include composite material reinforcements and a fibre optic
structural sensing system for remote monitoring. It is also the prestigious winner of the
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institutes Harry H. Edwards Award for Industry
Advancement.
This award was established for companies who use precast concrete in a design that results
in a significant advancement in the precast industry. The application of ISIS Canada
technology to the provincial structure is what secured the award for Wardrop Engineering
Inc., the Engineer of Record.
The twolane, 165.1 metrelong, structure has four out of 40 precast girders reinforced with
CFRP stirrups. These girders are prestressed with CFRP cables and bars. GFRP reinforces
portions of the barrier walls. As a demonstration project, it is vital that the new materials be
tested under the same conditions as conventional steel reinforcement, thus only a portion of
the bridge is designed using FRP. The bridge boasts a complex embedded fibre optic
structural sensing system that will allow engineers to compare the longterm behaviour of
the two materials. This remote monitoring is the key to acquiring data on FRP that will
ultimately help it gain widespread acceptance through national and international codes of
practice.
Funding for the design and implementation of the new technology used in the Taylor Bridge
came from Industry, Science and Technology Canada through the Japanese Science and
Technology Fund, and from the Industrial Research Assistance Program.
Two types of CFRP reinforcements were used in the Taylor Bridge. Carbon fibre composite
cables produced by Tokyo Rope, Japan, were used to pretension two girders while the other
two girders were pretensioned using indented Leadline bars produced by Mitsubishi
Chemical Corporation, Japan.
Two of the four girders were reinforced for shear using CFRP stirrups and Leadline bars in a
rectangular cross section. The other two beams were reinforced for shear using epoxy
coated steel rebars.
The deck slab was reinforced by indented Leadline bars similar to the reinforcement used for
prestressing. GFRP reinforcement produced by Marshall Industries Composites Inc. was
used to reinforce a portion of the Jerseytype barrier wall. Doubleheaded, stainless steel
tension bars were used for the connection between the barrier wall and the deck slab.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
13.4
Using 64 single FOSs to monitor the bridge is not, in itself, a new procedure. What is new
and significant in the Taylor Bridge is the use of two experimental, multiplexed, FOSs called
Bragg Gratings that measure strain, loading and temperature. The sensors are not only
immune to electromagnetic interference, they also have longterm stability in advanced
materials.
Owner: Province of Manitoba
General Contractor: Saras Enterprises Ltd.
Suppliers: Tokyo Rope, Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Marshall Industries Composites Inc.
Consultant: Wardrop Engineering Inc.
NOTATION
14.1
14.1 Notation
A effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension
reinforcement and bearing the same centroid as that reinforcement,
divided by the number of rebars, mm
2
Afrp area of FRP reinforcement, mm
2
Afrpb area of FRP reinforcement for balanced conditions, mm
2
Afrpmin minimum area of FRP reinforcement, mm
2
Afrpv area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to the axis of a member
within a distance s, mm
2
b width of compression face of member, mm
bw minimum effective web width within depth d, mm
c depth of neutral axis, mm
C resultant of compressive stresses in concrete, N
cb depth of neutral axis at balanced failure conditions, mm
Cn nominal resultant of stresses in concrete, N
d effective depth or distance from the extreme compression fibre to the
centroid of the reinforcement, mm
db bar diameter, mm
dc concrete cover measured from the centroid of tension reinforcement
to the extreme tension surface, mm
de
effective diameter
mm
A
d
b
e
,
4
=
c
modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
Efrp modulus of elasticity of FRP, MPa
Efrpl modulus of elasticity of flexural FRP reinforcement, MPa
Efrpv modulus of elasticity of FRP stirrup, MPa
Es modulus of elasticity of steel, 200x10
3
MPa
f c specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
fr modulus of rupture of concrete, MPa
ffrp stress in FRP reinforcement, MPa
ffrpg guaranteed tensile strength, MPa
ffrps stress in FRP at service load, MPa
ffrpu ultimate tensile strength of FRP, MPa
ffrpvu ultimate strength of FRP stirrup, MPa
h member thickness, mm
h1 distance from the centroid of tension reinforcement to the neutral
axis, mm
h2 distance from the extreme tension surface to the neutral axis, mm
Icr moment of inertia of cracked section, mm
4
Ie effective moment of intertia, mm
4
Ig gross moment of inertia, mm
4
It moment of inertia of uncracked section transformed to concrete, mm
4
k stress decay factor
kb bond dependent coefficient
length of member, mm
ld
*
tail length, mm
frpd development length, mm
frpdh development length of a hooked bar, mm
n clear span, m
Ma applied moment, N
mm
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
14.2
Mcr
cracking moment, Nmm
Mf
moment due to factored loads, Nmm
Mr
moment resistance, Nmm
Ms
service load moment, Nmm
Mu
ultimate moment, Nmm
n curve fitting factor
nfrp modular ratio
rb radius of bend, mm
Rn nominal resistance
s spacing of shear reinforcement measured parallel to the longitudinal
axis of the member, mm
Sn nominal load effect
T internal force due to tension in FRP reinforcement, N
Tn nominal internal force due to tension in FRP reinforcement, N
Vc factored shear resistance attributed to concrete, N
Vd factored shear resistance, N
Vfrp factored shear resistance attributed to shear reinforcement, N
Vser shear force at service load level, N
w crack width, mm
yct distance between the resultants of compressive stress and the resultant
of tensile stress at service, assuming linear stress distribution, mm
load factor
b
bond dependent coefficient
d
coefficient equal to 0.55 for Tsection and 0.40 for rectangular section
,
stressblock factors for concrete
1,1
stressblock factors based on CSA A23.394
b
bond reduction coefficient
importance factor
c
density of concrete, kg/m
3
deflection, mm
eu ultimate deflection calculated using uncracked section (Ig), mm
u ultimate deflection, mm
c
strain in concrete
cu
ultimate strain in concrete
frp
strain in FRP
frps
strain in FRP at service load
frpvser
strain in FRP stirrup at service load level
o
strain in concrete at peak stress
s
strain in steel
modification factor for density of concrete
frp
bond strength, MPa
frp
reinforcement ratio
frpb
balanced reinforcement ratio
frpmax
the maximum allowable reinforcement ratio to satisfy that DF > 4
(Equation 9.4)
Notation
14.3
frpmin
minimum reinforcement ratio required to ensure that failure occurs
only when the moment exceeds the cracking moment with a sufficient
margin (see Section 6.6)
resistance factor
c
material resistance for concrete
frp
material resistance for FRP
factor determining stirrup contribution, usually taken as 0.4. This
indicates that 40 percent of the ultimate strength of the stirrup is
considered for design purposes.
curvature
load combination factor
eu
ultimate curvature calculated using uncracked section
u
curvature at ultimate with FRP or ultimate curvature (c/c)
angle of inclination of shear plane
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
14.4
GLOSSARY
15.1
A
Aggregate, Low Density Aggregate, Low Density Aggregate, Low Density Aggregate, Low Density
Aggregate conforming to the requirements of ASTM Standard C330.
Alkaline Alkaline Alkaline Alkaline
Containing hydroxyl (OH) ions
Aramid Aramid Aramid Aramid
Highly oriented organic material derived from polyamide incorporating an
aromatic ring structure. Used primarily as highstrength, highmodulus fibre.
B
Bar, Braided Bar, Braided Bar, Braided Bar, Braided
Bar with surface prepared by intertwining fibres in an organized fashion.
Bar, FRP Bar, FRP Bar, FRP Bar, FRP
Resinbound reinforcing bar, made mostly of continuous fibres and resin,
used to reinforce concrete uniaxially.
Bridge Bridge Bridge Bridge
Structure which provides a roadway or walkway for passage of vehicles and
pedestrians across an obstruction, gap or facility and which is greater than 3
m in span.
C
Coefficient of Therm Coefficient of Therm Coefficient of Therm Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Longitudinal al Expansion, Longitudinal al Expansion, Longitudinal al Expansion, Longitudinal
Linear dimension change along the longitudinal axis of the bar, per unit
length per degree of temperature change. Expansion is positive, and
contraction is negative.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Transverse Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Transverse Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Transverse Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Transverse
Linear dimension change perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar, per
unit length per degree of temperature change.
Composite Composite Composite Composite
A combination of one or more materials differing in form or composition on
a macroscale. The constituents retain their identities; that is, they do not
dissolve or merge completely into one another, although they act in concert.
Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an
interface between one another.
Concrete Cover Concrete Cover Concrete Cover Concrete Cover
Distance from the concrete surface to the nearest surface of reinforcement.
Continuous Fibre Continuous Fibre Continuous Fibre Continuous Fibre
Fibre that is made by spinning or drawing into one long continuous
entity.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
15.2
D
Deformability Deformability Deformability Deformability
The ratio of energy absorption (area under the momentcurvature
diagram) at ultimate to the energy absorption at service level.
Development Length Development Length Development Length Development Length
Length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design
strength of reinforcement.
Durability Durability Durability Durability
The ability of a system to maintain its properties with time.
E
Effective Depth of a Section Effective Depth of a Section Effective Depth of a Section Effective Depth of a Section
Distance measured from the extreme fibre in compression to the
centroid of tension reinforcement.
E EE E  Glass Glass Glass Glass
A family of glass with a calcium alumina borosilicate composition
and a maximum alkali content of 2.0 percent. A general purpose
fibre that is used in reinforced polymers.
Embedment Length Embedment Length Embedment Length Embedment Length
Length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical
section.
Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resin
A resin formed by chemical reaction of epoxide groups with
amines, alcohols, phenols, and others.
F
Fabric Fabric Fabric Fabric
An arrangement of fibres held together in two dimensions. The
fabric can be woven, nonwoven, or stitched.
Fabric, Non Fabric, Non Fabric, Non Fabric, Non  Woven Woven Woven Woven
A material formed from fibres or yarns without interlacing. This can
be stitched, knit or bonded.
Fabric, Woven Fabric, Woven Fabric, Woven Fabric, Woven
A material constructed of interlaced yarns, fibres, or filaments.
Factored Resistance Factored Resistance Factored Resistance Factored Resistance
The product of the unfactored resistance and the applicable
resistance factor.
Glossary
15.3
Failure Failure Failure Failure
A state in which rupture, severe distortion, or loss of strength has
occurred as a result of the loadcarrying capacity of a component or
connection having been exceeded.
Fibre, Aramid Fibre, Aramid Fibre, Aramid Fibre, Aramid
Highly oriented organic fibre derived from polyamide incorporating
an aromatic ring structure.
Fibre, Carbon Fibre, Carbon Fibre, Carbon Fibre, Carbon
Fibre produced by the heating of organic precursor materials
containing a substantial amount of carbon, such as rayon,
polyacrylonitrile (PAN), or pitch, in an inert environment.
Fibre Content Fibre Content Fibre Content Fibre Content
The amount of fibre present in a composite, usually expressed as a
percentage volume fraction or weight fraction of the composite.
Fibre, Glass Fibre, Glass Fibre, Glass Fibre, Glass
Fibre drawn from an inorganic product of fusion that has cooled
without crystallizing.
Fibre Fibre Fibre Fibre  reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforced Polymer (FRP)
Composite material formed from continuous fibres impregnated
with a fibre binding polymer, then hardened and molded in many
forms (barsround, rectangular; sheets; plates; grids, and shapes).
Fibre Fibre Fibre Fibre  volume Fraction volume Fraction volume Fraction volume Fraction
The ratio of the volume of fibres to the volume of the composite.
Filament Filament Filament Filament
Smallest unit of a fibrous material.
G
Grid Grid Grid Grid
A twodimensional or threedimensional rigid array of
interconnected FRP bars that form a continuous lattice that can be
used to reinforce concrete. The lattice may be manufactured with
integrally connected bars or may be made of mechanically
connected individual bars.
I
Impregnate Impregnate Impregnate Impregnate
To saturate fibres with resin.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
15.4
L
Limit States Limit States Limit States Limit States
Those conditions of a structure in which it ceases to fulfil the
function for which it was designed.
Load, Dead Load, Dead Load, Dead Load, Dead
Specified dead load as defined in the National Building Code of
Canada.
Load Facto Load Facto Load Facto Load Factor r r r
Factor applied to a specified load which, for the limit state under
consideration, takes into account the variability of the loads and
load patterns and analysis of their effects.
Load, Factored Load, Factored Load, Factored Load, Factored
Product of a specified load and its load factor.
Load, Live Load, Live Load, Live Load, Live
Specified live load as defined in the National Building Code of
Canada.
Load, Specified Load, Specified Load, Specified Load, Specified
Load specified by the National Building Code of Canada.
Load, Sustained Load, Sustained Load, Sustained Load, Sustained
Specified dead load plus that portion of the specified live load
expected to act over a period of time sufficient to cause significant
longtime deflection.
M
Matrix Matrix Matrix Matrix
Material which serves to bind the fibres together, transfer loads to
the fibres, and protect them against environmental attack and
damage due to handling.
Member Member Member Member
An element or group of elements, which may or may not require
individual design.
Modular Ratio Modular Ratio Modular Ratio Modular Ratio
Ratio of modulus of elasticity of reinforcing material to that of
concrete.
P
PAN PAN PAN PAN Carbon Fibre Carbon Fibre Carbon Fibre Carbon Fibre
Carbon fibre made from polyacrylonitrile fibre.
Pitch Pitch Pitch Pitch
A residue of distillation of petroleum.
Glossary
15.5
Polymer Polymer Polymer Polymer
High molecular weight organic compound, natural or synthetic,
containing repeating units.
Precursor Precursor Precursor Precursor
Rayon, pitch or PAN fibres from which carbon fibres are derived.
Pultrusion Pultrusion Pultrusion Pultrusion
A continuous process for manufacturing composites that have a
uniform crosssectional shape. The process consists of pulling a
fibre reinforcing material through a resin impregnation bath then
through a shaping die, where the resin is subsequently cured.
R
Resin Resin Resin Resin
Polymeric material that is rigid or semirigid at room temperature,
usually with a melting point or glass transition temperature above
room temperature.
Resistance Factor Resistance Factor Resistance Factor Resistance Factor
Factor applied to a specified material property for the limit state
under consideration, which takes into account the variability of
dimensions, material properties, workmanship, and uncertainty in
prediction of resistance.
Resistance, Factored Resistance, Factored Resistance, Factored Resistance, Factored
Resistance of a member, connection, or cross section calculated in
accordance with the provisions and assumptions of this Design
Guide including the application of appropriate resistance factors.
Resistance, Nomi Resistance, Nomi Resistance, Nomi Resistance, Nominal nal nal nal
Resistance of a member, connection, or cross section calculated in
accordance with the provisions and assumptions of this Design
Guide, without the inclusion of any resistance factors.
S
Serviceability Limit States Serviceability Limit States Serviceability Limit States Serviceability Limit States
Those limit states that restrict the intended use of a structure,
including vibration, permanent deformation and cracking.
Span Span Span Span
The horizontal distance on a longitudinal bridge centre line between
the bearing centre lines of individual piers or abutments of an
articulated superstructure, or the horizontal distance between centre
lines of individual column bents or individual columns of a framed
structure.
Splitting Tensile Strength Splitting Tensile Strength Splitting Tensile Strength Splitting Tensile Strength
Tensile strength of concrete determined by a splitting test.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
15.6
St St St Stirrup irrup irrup irrup
Reinforcement used to resist shear stresses in a structural member.
Strength of Concrete, Specified Strength of Concrete, Specified Strength of Concrete, Specified Strength of Concrete, Specified
Compressive strength of concrete used in the design.
Stress Concentration Stress Concentration Stress Concentration Stress Concentration
On a macromechanical level, the magnification of the level of an
applied stress in the region of a bend, notch, void, hole, or
inclusion.
T
Thermoplastic Thermoplastic Thermoplastic Thermoplastic
Resin that is not crosslinked, and which can generally be remelted
and recycled.
Thermosetting Thermosetting Thermosetting Thermosetting
Resin that is crosslinked which cannot be remelted and recycled
because the polymer chains form a threedimensional network.
U
Ultimate Limit States Ultimate Limit States Ultimate Limit States Ultimate Limit States
Those limit states which concern structural safety including failure,
overturning, sliding and other instability.
V
Vinyl Ester Vinyl Ester Vinyl Ester Vinyl Ester
Thermosetting resin containing ester of acrylic and/or methacrylic
acids, many of which have been made from epoxy resin.
Y
Yarn Yarn Yarn Yarn
A group of fibres held together to form a string or rope.
REFERENCES
16.1
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Reinforcing Concrete Structures
16.2
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Gerritse, A. (1992). Durability Criteria for NonMetallic Tendons in an Alkaline Environment,
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References
16.3
Hall, T.S., and Ghali, A., (2000). Minimum Thickness of Concrete Members Reinforced with Fibre
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Hall T.S., and Ghali A., (20002). Longterm Deflection Prediction of Concrete Members
Reinforced with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Bars, To be published in the October
2000 issue of the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.
Jaeger, L.G., Tadros, G., and Mufti, A.A. (1995). Balanced Section, Ductility and Deformability
in Concrete with FRP Reinforcement, Research Report No. 21995, The Nova Scotia CADCAM
Centre, 29 p.
JSCE (1993). StateoftheArt Report on Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials, Research
Committee on Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials, Japan Society of Civil Engineers,
Tokyo.
Katz, A., Berman, N., and Bank, L.C. (1998). Effect of Cyclic Loading and Elevated
Temperature on the Bond Properties of FRP Rebars, International Conference on the Durability of
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Construction, Sherbrooke, Qubec, pp.
403413.
Katz, A., Berman, N., and Bank, L.C. (1999). Effect of High Temperature on the Bond Strength
of FRP Rebars, Journal of Composites for Construction, May 1999.
Kobayashi, K. and Fujisaki, T. (1995). Compressive Behaviour of FRP Reinforcement in Non
prestressed Concrete Members, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Non
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Conference of The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, London, Ontario, June 2000.
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for Concrete Structures, M.Sc. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, Manitoba.
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Sapporo, Japan, pp. 1926
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FRP: Design for Serviceability and Deformability, 31 pp, submitted for publication.
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Reinforcing Concrete Structures
16.4
Parkyn, B. (1970). Glass Reinforced Plastics, Iliffe, London.
Phillips, L.N. (1989). Design with Advanced Composite Materials, SpringerVerlag.
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for MarshallVega Corporation, Marshall, Arkansas, Civil Engineering Department,
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Advanced Composite Materials in Civil Engineering Structures, Proceedings of the Specialty
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Porter, M.L., Mehus, J., Young, K.A., ONeil, E.F., and Barnes, B.A. (1997). Aging of
Fiber Reinforcement in Concrete, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non
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Institute, Sapporo, Japan, V. 2, pp. 5966.
Porter, M.L., and Barnes, B.A., (1998). Accelerated Durability of FRP Reinforcement for
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TM
Reinforcing Rods, Progress Report
submitted to Rechold Chemicals, Inc., Published by ISIS Canada, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, Manitoba.
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TM
Reinforcing Rods, Technical Report
produced for Marshall Industries Composites Inc., Published by ISIS Canada, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
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Halifax, Nova Scotia, pp. 571582.
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Infrastructure Applications, Edited by Hosny, Mahfouz and Sarkani, pp. 8093.
Shehata, E.F.G. (1999). FibreReinforced Polymer (FRP) for Shear Reinforcement in Concrete
Structures, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
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Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University,
Ottawa, Ontario, 304 p.
Tadros, G. (1999). Personal conversation, ISIS Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
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Concrete, FiBRA.
References
16.5
Thriault, M. (1998). "Flexion, ductilit et design de poutres et de dalles en bton arm de barres en
composites," Ph.D. Thesis, Universit de Sherbrooke, Qubec.
Vijay, P.V., GangaRao, H.V.S., and Kalluri, R. (1998). Hygrothermal Response of GFRP
Bars under Different Conditioning Schemes, Proceedings of the First International Conference on
Composites for Construction (CDCC 1998), Sherbrooke, Qubec, pp. 243252.
Yagi, K., Hoshijima, T., Ando, T., Tanaka, T. (1997). The Durability Tests of Carbon Fiber
Reinforced Plastics Rod Produced by Pultrusion Method, Proceedings, International Conference on
Engineering Materials, Edited by AlManaseer, Nagataki and Joshi, CSCE/JSCE, Ottawa,
Ontario, Volume 2, pp 327340.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
16.6
RESOURCES
A.1
Appendix
A.1 Resources
Autocon Composites Inc.
203 Toryork Drive, Weston, Ontario, Canada M9L 1Y2
Ph: (416) 7465002 Fax: (416) 7436383
NEFMAC Distributor
Hughes Brothers, Inc.
210 North 13
th
Street, Seward, Nebraska, USA 68434
Ph: (402) 6432991 Fax: (402) 6432149 Web: www.hughesbros.com
Hughes Brothers Bars Distributor
Pultrall Inc.
1191, Rue Hupp, Thetford Mines, Qubec, Canada G6G 7Y6
Ph. (418) 3353202 Fax. (418) 3355117
ISOROD Distributor
Structural Composites, Inc.
P.O. Box 1463, Waller, Texas, USA 774841463
Ph: (409) 3723511 Fax: (409) 3729897
S&P Laminate Distributor
Specialty Construction Products Ltd.
77 Paquin Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2J 3V9
Ph: (204) 6616625 Fax: (204) 6634703
Leadline & Rotaflex Distributor
Marshall Industries Composites Inc.
5991 Chester Avenue, Suite 212, Jacksonville, Florida, USA 32217
Ph: (904) 4436022 Fax: (904) 4436028
CBar Distributor
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
A.2
DESIGN TABLES
B.1
Appendix
B.1 Design Tables
Table B. Table B. Table B. Table B.1 11 1 Stress Stress Stress Stress  Block Factors for 20 to 30 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 20 to 30 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 20 to 30 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 20 to 30 MPa Concrete
f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=20 MPa =20 MPa =20 MPa =20 MPa f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=25 MPa =25 MPa =25 MPa =25 MPa f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=30 MPa =30 MPa =30 MPa =30 MPa
c cc c
/ // /
o oo o
0.1 0.184 0.602 0.111 0.163 0.600 0.098 0.150 0.600 0.090
0.2 0.325 0.639 0.208 0.293 0.636 0.186 0.271 0.634 0.172
0.3 0.455 0.657 0.299 0.418 0.650 0.272 0.390 0.647 0.252
0.4 0.569 0.672 0.382 0.533 0.661 0.353 0.503 0.656 0.330
0.5 0.666 0.686 0.457 0.636 0.672 0.428 0.609 0.664 0.404
0.6 0.746 0.700 0.522 0.724 0.684 0.495 0.702 0.674 0.473
0.7 0.810 0.714 0.578 0.796 0.697 0.555 0.781 0.685 0.535
0.8 0.860 0.728 0.626 0.853 0.711 0.606 0.844 0.698 0.589
0.9 0.897 0.743 0.666 0.894 0.726 0.649 0.890 0.713 0.635
1.0 0.923 0.757 0.699 0.923 0.742 0.685 0.921 0.729 0.671
1.1 0.941 0.772 0.726 0.940 0.758 0.713 0.938 0.747 0.700
1.2 0.952 0.786 0.748 0.948 0.775 0.734 0.942 0.766 0.722
1.3 0.958 0.800 0.766 0.949 0.791 0.751 0.938 0.785 0.736
1.4 0.959 0.813 0.780 0.943 0.808 0.762 0.926 0.805 0.745
1.5 0.956 0.827 0.791 0.934 0.825 0.770 0.909 0.825 0.750
1.6 0.951 0.840 0.798 0.921 0.841 0.774 0.887 0.846 0.750
1.7 0.944 0.852 0.804 0.905 0.857 0.776 0.864 0.866 0.748
1.8 0.935 0.864 0.807 0.888 0.873 0.775 0.839 0.885 0.743
1.9 0.924 0.876 0.809 0.870 0.888 0.773 0.813 0.905 0.736
2.0 0.913 0.887 0.810 0.851 0.903 0.769 0.787 0.924 0.727
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
B.2
Table B. Table B. Table B. Table B.2 22 2    Stress Stress Stress Stress  Block Factors for 35 to 45 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 35 to 45 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 35 to 45 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 35 to 45 MPa Concrete
f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=35 MPa =35 MPa =35 MPa =35 MPa f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=40 MPa =40 MPa =40 MPa =40 MPa f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=45 MPa =45 MPa =45 MPa =45 MPa
c cc c
/ // /
o oo o
0.1 0.141 0.600 0.085 0.134 0.600 0.080 0.129 0.600 0.077
0.2 0.255 0.634 0.161 0.243 0.633 0.154 0.23 0.633 0.148
0.3 0.368 0.645 0.238 0.352 0.645 0.227 0.339 0.645 0.218
0.4 0.479 0.653 0.313 0.459 0.651 0.299 0.443 0.651 0.288
0.5 0.584 0.660 0.385 0.564 0.657 0.370 0.546 0.655 0.358
0.6 0.681 0.667 0.454 0.662 0.663 0.438 0.644 0.660 0.425
0.7 0.765 0.676 0.518 0.750 0.670 0.503 0.735 0.666 0.489
0.8 0.834 0.688 0.574 0.823 0.680 0.560 0.812 0.675 0.548
0.9 0.885 0.702 0.621 0.879 0.694 0.610 0.872 0.687 0.599
1.0 0.918 0.719 0.660 0.915 0.710 0.650 0.911 0.703 0.641
1.1 0.934 0.738 0.689 0.931 0.730 0.679 0.926 0.724 0.671
1.2 0.936 0.759 0.710 0.929 0.753 0.699 0.920 0.749 0.689
1.3 0.926 0.781 0.723 0.912 0.778 0.710 0.898 0.777 0.697
1.4 0.907 0.804 0.729 0.885 0.805 0.713 0.863 0.808 0.697
1.5 0.881 0.828 0.730 0.852 0.833 0.710 0.821 0.840 0.690
1.6 0.852 0.853 0.726 0.814 0.862 0.702 0.776 0.874 0.678
1.7 0.820 0.877 0.719 0.775 0.891 0.691 0.730 0.907 0.662
1.8 0.788 0.901 0.710 0.736 0.920 0.677 0.686 0.940 0.645
1.9 0.755 0.925 0.699 0.698 0.948 0.662 0.643 0.973 0.626
2.0 0.723 0.948 0.686 0.662 0.976 0.646 0.604 1.005 0.607
Design Tables
B.3
Table B.3 Table B.3 Table B.3 Table B.3    Stress Stress Stress Stress  Block Factors for 50 to 60 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 50 to 60 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 50 to 60 MPa Concrete Block Factors for 50 to 60 MPa Concrete
f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=50 MPa =50 MPa =50 MPa =50 MPa f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=55 MPa =55 MPa =55 MPa =55 MPa f ' f ' f ' f '
c cc c
=60 MPa =60 MPa =60 MPa =60 MPa
c cc c
/ // /
o oo o
0.1 0.125 0.600 0.075 0.122 0.600 0.073 0.119 0.600 0.071
0.2 0.226 0.633 0.143 0.220 0.633 0.141 0.216 0.633 0.136
0.3 0.328 0.644 0.211 0.320 0.644 0.206 0.313 0.644 0.202
0.4 0.430 0.650 0.280 0.419 0.650 0.272 0.410 0.650 0.266
0.5 0.531 0.654 0.347 0.518 0.654 0.339 0.507 0.654 0.331
0.6 0.629 0.658 0.414 0.615 0.657 0.404 0.603 0.656 0.396
0.7 0.721 0.663 0.478 0.708 0.661 0.468 0.696 0.660 0.459
0.8 0.802 0.670 0.537 0.791 0.667 0.528 0.781 0.665 0.519
0.9 0.866 0.682 0.590 0.859 0.677 0.581 0.852 0.674 0.574
1.0 0.907 0.697 0.632 0.902 0.693 0.625 0.898 0.688 0.618
1.1 0.921 0.719 0.662 0.917 0.715 0.655 0.912 0.711 0.648
1.2 0.912 0.746 0.680 0.902 0.744 0.671 0.892 0.742 0.662
1.3 0.882 0.777 0.685 0.865 0.779 0.673 0.847 0.781 0.662
1.4 0.839 0.812 0.681 0.813 0.818 0.665 0.788 0.825 0.650
1.5 0.789 0.849 0.670 0.756 0.860 0.650 0.723 0.871 0.630
1.6 0.737 0.887 0.654 0.698 0.902 0.630 0.661 0.918 0.607
1.7 0.686 0.925 0.634 0.643 0.945 0.608 0.603 0.965 0.582
1.8 0.637 0.963 0.614 0.593 0.986 0.584 0.552 1.009 0.557
1.9 0.593 0.999 0.592 0.547 1.026 0.561 0.507 1.052 0.533
2.0 0.552 1.035 0.571 0.506 1.064 0.539 0.467 1.092 0.510
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
B.4
Table B.4 Table B.4 Table B.4 Table B.4 Coefficient K for Calculation of Cracked Moment of Inertia of Rectangula Coefficient K for Calculation of Cracked Moment of Inertia of Rectangula Coefficient K for Calculation of Cracked Moment of Inertia of Rectangula Coefficient K for Calculation of Cracked Moment of Inertia of Rectangular Section r Section r Section r Section
3
bd K I
cr
=
n nn n
1 11 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 22 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 33 3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0002 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003
0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0009 0.0012 0.0014 0.0016
0.0010 0.0009 0.0014 0.0018 0.0023 0.0027 0.0031
0.0020 0.0018 0.0027 0.0036 0.0044 0.0052 0.0060
0.0030 0.0027 0.0040 0.0052 0.0064 0.0075 0.0087
0.0040 0.0036 0.0052 0.0068 0.0083 0.0098 0.0112
0.0050 0.0044 0.0064 0.0083 0.0102 0.0119 0.0137
0.0060 0.0052 0.0075 0.0098 0.0119 0.0140 0.0161
0.0070 0.0060 0.0087 0.0112 0.0137 0.0161 0.0183
0.0080 0.0068 0.0098 0.0127 0.0154 0.0180 0.0206
0.0090 0.0075 0.0109 0.0140 0.0170 0.0199 0.0227
0.0100 0.0083 0.0119 0.0154 0.0187 0.0218 0.0248
0.0110 0.0090 0.0130 0.0167 0.0202 0.0236 0.0268
0.0120 0.0098 0.0140 0.0180 0.0218 0.0254 0.0288
0.0130 0.0105 0.0151 0.0193 0.0233 0.0271 0.0308
0.0140 0.0112 0.0161 0.0206 0.0248 0.0288 0.0327
0.0150 0.0119 0.0170 0.0218 0.0263 0.0305 0.0345
0.0160 0.0127 0.0180 0.0230 0.0277 0.0321 0.0363
0.0170 0.0133 0.0190 0.0242 0.0291 0.0337 0.0381
0.0180 0.0140 0.0199 0.0254 0.0305 0.0353 0.0399
0.0190 0.0147 0.0209 0.0266 0.0319 0.0369 0.0416
0.0200 0.0154 0.0218 0.0277 0.0332 0.0384 0.0433
0.0210 0.0161 0.0227 0.0288 0.0345 0.0399 0.0449
0.0220 0.0167 0.0236 0.0299 0.0358 0.0413 0.0465
0.0230 0.0174 0.0245 0.0310 0.0371 0.0428 0.0481
0.0240 0.0180 0.0254 0.0321 0.0384 0.0442 0.0497
0.0250 0.0187 0.0263 0.0332 0.0396 0.0456 0.0512
0.0260 0.0193 0.0271 0.0343 0.0408 0.0470 0.0527
0.0270 0.0199 0.0280 0.0353 0.0421 0.0483 0.0542
0.0280 0.0206 0.0288 0.0363 0.0433 0.0497 0.0557
0.0290 0.0212 0.0297 0.0374 0.0444 0.0510 0.0571
0.0300 0.0218 0.0305 0.0384 0.0456 0.0523 0.0585
0.0310 0.0224 0.0313 0.0394 0.0468 0.0536 0.0599
0.0320 0.0230 0.0321 0.0404 0.0479 0.0548 0.0613
0.0330 0.0236 0.0329 0.0413 0.0490 0.0561 0.0627
0.0340 0.0242 0.0337 0.0423 0.0501 0.0573 0.0640
0.0350 0.0248 0.0345 0.0433 0.0512 0.0585 0.0654
0.0360 0.0254 0.0353 0.0442 0.0523 0.0597 0.0667
0.0370 0.0260 0.0361 0.0451 0.0534 0.0609 0.0679
0.0380 0.0266 0.0369 0.0461 0.0544 0.0621 0.0692
0.0390 0.0271 0.0376 0.0470 0.0555 0.0633 0.0705
0.0400 0.0277 0.0384 0.0479 0.0565 0.0644 0.0717
Design Tables
B.5
Table B.4 Table B.4 Table B.4 Table B.4    Continued Continued Continued Continued
n nn n
4 44 4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 55 5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 6 66 6 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
0.0001 0.0004 0.0004 0.0005 0.0005 0.0006 0.0006
0.0005 0.0018 0.0021 0.0023 0.0025 0.0027 0.0029
0.0010 0.0036 0.0040 0.0044 0.0048 0.0052 0.0056
0.0020 0.0068 0.0075 0.0083 0.0090 0.0098 0.0105
0.0030 0.0098 0.0109 0.0119 0.0130 0.0140 0.0151
0.0040 0.0127 0.0140 0.0154 0.0167 0.0180 0.0193
0.0050 0.0154 0.0170 0.0187 0.0202 0.0218 0.0233
0.0060 0.0180 0.0199 0.0218 0.0236 0.0254 0.0271
0.0070 0.0206 0.0227 0.0248 0.0268 0.0288 0.0308
0.0080 0.0230 0.0254 0.0277 0.0299 0.0321 0.0343
0.0090 0.0254 0.0280 0.0305 0.0329 0.0353 0.0376
0.0100 0.0277 0.0305 0.0332 0.0358 0.0384 0.0408
0.0110 0.0299 0.0329 0.0358 0.0386 0.0413 0.0440
0.0120 0.0321 0.0353 0.0384 0.0413 0.0442 0.0470
0.0130 0.0343 0.0376 0.0408 0.0440 0.0470 0.0499
0.0140 0.0363 0.0399 0.0433 0.0465 0.0497 0.0527
0.0150 0.0384 0.0421 0.0456 0.0490 0.0523 0.0555
0.0160 0.0404 0.0442 0.0479 0.0514 0.0548 0.0581
0.0170 0.0423 0.0463 0.0501 0.0538 0.0573 0.0607
0.0180 0.0442 0.0483 0.0523 0.0561 0.0597 0.0633
0.0190 0.0461 0.0503 0.0544 0.0583 0.0621 0.0657
0.0200 0.0479 0.0523 0.0565 0.0605 0.0644 0.0681
0.0210 0.0497 0.0542 0.0585 0.0627 0.0667 0.0705
0.0220 0.0514 0.0561 0.0605 0.0648 0.0689 0.0728
0.0230 0.0532 0.0579 0.0625 0.0668 0.0710 0.0750
0.0240 0.0548 0.0597 0.0644 0.0689 0.0731 0.0772
0.0250 0.0565 0.0615 0.0663 0.0708 0.0752 0.0793
0.0260 0.0581 0.0633 0.0681 0.0728 0.0772 0.0814
0.0270 0.0597 0.0650 0.0699 0.0746 0.0791 0.0834
0.0280 0.0613 0.0667 0.0717 0.0765 0.0811 0.0854
0.0290 0.0629 0.0683 0.0734 0.0783 0.0830 0.0874
0.0300 0.0644 0.0699 0.0752 0.0801 0.0848 0.0893
0.0310 0.0659 0.0715 0.0768 0.0819 0.0866 0.0912
0.0320 0.0674 0.0731 0.0785 0.0836 0.0884 0.0930
0.0330 0.0689 0.0746 0.0801 0.0853 0.0902 0.0948
0.0340 0.0703 0.0762 0.0817 0.0869 0.0919 0.0966
0.0350 0.0717 0.0777 0.0833 0.0886 0.0936 0.0984
0.0360 0.0731 0.0791 0.0848 0.0902 0.0953 0.1001
0.0370 0.0745 0.0806 0.0863 0.0918 0.0969 0.1018
0.0380 0.0758 0.0820 0.0878 0.0933 0.0985 0.1034
0.0390 0.0772 0.0834 0.0893 0.0948 0.1001 0.1050
0.0400 0.0785 0.0848 0.0908 0.0964 0.1016 0.1066
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
B.6
EXAMPLE
C.1
Appendix
C.1 DESIGN OF A RECTANGULAR BEAM WITH TENSION REINFORCEMENT
Design the rectangular beam of 5 m span shown in Figure C.1 for a service load moment Ms
= 90 kNm and factored moment of Mf = 400 kN.m. Use normal density concrete with fc =
35 MPa, and maximum aggregate size of 19 mm. Use CFRP Leadline reinforcement.
Figure C.1 Crosssection
SOLUTION:
1. ESTIMATE EFFECTIVE DEPTH, d.
Assume 12 mm bars for flexural reinforcement and 5 mm bars for transverse
reinforcement. Select a clear cover of 2.5db=2.5(12)=30 mm. According to Table 12.1,
40 mm cover will govern.
2. REQUIRED AREA OF TENSION REINFORCEMENT
Determine required tension reinforcement from Figure 10.8, using Curve A for service
load moment.
mm d 549
2
12
5 40 600 = =
85 . 0
549 350
10 90
then
2
6
2
=
=
bd
M
s
6
0
0
m
m
350 mm
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
C.2
From Figure 10.8, for Ms/bd
2
=0.85, reinforcement ratio = 4.4 x 10
3
.
Using = 4.4 x 10
3
, and material properties of Leadline: ffrpu = 2250 MPa, Efrp = 147 x
10
3
MPa, A#12 bar = 109 mm
2
Use eight #12 bars
65 44 44 44 44 44 65
Figure C.2 Bar layout
The exact reinforcement ratio for eight #12 bars is
3. DETERMINE MOMENT RESISTANCE
Find moment of resistance using strain compatibility. From Figure 10.8, Curves B for
= 4.54x10
3
and 35 MPa concrete, it is evident that the section will fail in compression
(point is placed on the nonlinear part of the curve).
2
3
3
842
549 350 10 4 . 4
10 4 . 4
mm A
bd A
frp
frp
=
=
=
3
10 54 . 4
549 350
109 8
Example
C.3
6
0
0
m
m
c
A
frp1
frp1
3500x10
6
A
frp2
frp2
d
1
d
2
Figure C.3 Strain distribution on section
Try c = 157 mm:
( )
6
1
6
6
1 2
10 8404
10 8739
157 549
157
10 3500
) (
=
=
=
=
frp
cu
frp
c d
c
Force resultants are calculated using Section 6.
CONCRETE:
cb f C
c c 1
'
1
=
where
88 . 0
0025 . 0 97 . 0
797 . 0
0015 . 0 85 . 0
'
1
'
1
=
=
=
=
c
c
f
f
N
C
3
10 78 . 876
350 157 88 . 0 35 65 . 0 797 . 0
=
=
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
C.4
FRP:
Resultant forces in FRP will be calculated for both layers separately.
frp frp frp frp
E A T =
kN
N
T
45 . 215
10 45 . 215
10 147 10 8404 8 . 0 ) 109 2 (
3
3 6
1
=
=
=
kN
N
T
12 . 672
10 12 . 672
10 147 10 8739 8 . 0 ) 109 6 (
3
3 6
2
=
=
=
N
T T T
3
2 1
10 57 . 887 =
+ =
. .K O T C
The moment resistance is
m kN
mm N
c
d T
c
d T M
r
=
=
=
+ =
73 . 422
10 73 . 422
2
157 88 . 0
549 10 12 . 672
2
157 88 . 0
534 10 45 . 215
)
2
( )
2
(
6
3 3
1
2 2
1
1 1
. .K O M M
f r
>
4. CALCULATE DEFLECTION AT SERVICE LOAD
Using Section 7.4.3, deflection will be calculated using the effective moment of inertia,
Ie, Equation 7.7
( )
cr g
a
cr
cr
cr g
e
I I
M
M
I
I I
I
+
=
2
5 . 0 0 . 1
Example
C.5
where
( )
4 9
2
2
3
10 22 . 1
8 . 107
2
) (
3
mm I
mm
n n n d c
c d A n
bc
I
cr
frp frp frp frp frp frp
frp frp cr
=
=
+ + =
+ =
4 9
3
3
10 3 . 6
600 350
12
1
12
1
mm
bh I
g
=
=
=
The cracking moment was calculated as 74.54x10
6
Nmm, and moment Ma=90x10
6
Nmm. The effective moment of inertia is
4 9
10 686 . 1 mm I
e
=
.
Deflection is calculated at service load moment 90x10
6
Nmm.
mm
I E
Ml
e c
22 . 5
10 686 . 1 35 4500
5000 10 90
384
5
384
5
9
2 6
2
=
=
=
Permissible deflection, using Table 7.2 is
mm
l
n
e permissibl
8 . 13
360
5000
360
=
=
=
. .
8 . 13 22 . 5
K O
mm mm
<
Beam satisfies deflection criteria at service load level.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
C.6
5. DESIGN SHEAR REINFORCEMENT
Factored shear is 80 kN. Section 11 will be used to design shear stirrups.
The factored shear resistance provided by concrete (Equation 11.11):
N
E
d b f
d
V
frpl
w c c c
3
3
3
3
'
10 98
10 200
10 147
549 350 35 6 . 0 0 . 1
549 1000
260
10 200 1000
260
=
+
=
+
=
N
E
d b f
frpl
w c c
3
3
3
3
'
10 5 . 58
10 200
10 147
549 350 35 6 . 0 0 . 1 1 . 0
10 200
1 . 0
=
3 3
10 5 . 58 10 0 . 98 >
Use N V
c
3
10 98 =
ZONE I
2
c
f
V
V <
In FRPreinforced beams, when
2
c
f
V
V < , no shear reinforcement is required.
Therefore, in ZONE I, where factored shear is less than 49x10
3
N, no shear
reinforcement will be provided. This applies in the central 3000 mm zone.
ZONE II
d b
f V and
V
V
w
c frp frp
c
frp
'
06 . 0
2
N
V
frp
3
10 136
4 . 0
549 350
35 8 . 0 0 . 1 06 . 0
=
=
For
3 3
10 136 10 49
f
V minimum reinforcement required.
Example
C.7
6
'
min
10 395
2247 4 . 0
35 06 . 0
06 . 0
=
=
frpvu
c
f
f
Using CFRP Leadline bar, 5 mm diameter with the following geometric properties:
area .....................................18 mm
2
strength..............................2247 MPa
modulus of elasticity........147 GPa
2247 4 . 0
350
35 06 . 0 18 2
06 . 0
'
=
=
s
f
s b
f A
frpvu
w
c frpv
mm s 260 =
The maximum stirrups spacing based on CSA A23.394 is:
600 mm;
0.7d=384 mm; if
( )
'
1 . 0
c c
w
p p f
f
d b
V V
<
; or
whence s=260 mm
s=260 mm governs.
STIRRUP ARRANGEMENT:
Figure C.4 Stirrup layout
4x55 3x260 1500
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
C.8
STIRRUP DETAILING:
Using Figure 11.2, the following geometry of stirrup will be used:
governs mm mm or mm
mm or d l
e d
70 70 30
70 6
( ) governs mm mm or d r
e b
50 50 4 max
CHECK MAXIMUM STRAIN AT SERVICE LOAD:
Since service load is 18x10
3
N, and Vc=98x10
3
N, there is no need to do this check.
6. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
The basic development length of a straight bar can be calculated using Equations 8.3
and 8.4.
Development length of a straight bar is the maximum of:
mm
f
f A
l
c
frpu frp
frpd
1163
35
2250 109
028 . 0
028 . 0
'
=
=
=
mm
f d l
frpu b frpd
1450
2250 12 054 . 0
054 . 0
=
=
=
mm
d
b
240
12 20 20
=
=
380 mm
hence 1450 mm governs
Example
C.9
Determine the available length of the bar. Using CSA A23.394, the available length of
the bar is the smaller of half of the span, or
a
f
r
l
V
M
+
.
mm
l
2500
2
=
la is the larger of
d, or
12db,
where d=549 mm, and 12db=144 mm. Therefore, 549 mm governs and, hence
mm
l
V
M
a
f
r
5549
549
10 4 . 84
10 422
3
6
=
+
= +
mm mm 5549 2500 < therefore
mm
l
2500
2
=
governs
sufficient is bar straight mm mm > 1450 2500
7. DEFORMABILITY
Using Section 9, check deformability factor, DF.
=
s s
u u
M
M
DF
From part 3 of this example, Mu=422 kNm, and the curvature at ultimate is found using
Equation 6.11, as 22.29x10
6
.
Service load moment is calculated using strain compatibility, with the strain in the
bottom layer of FRP equal to 2000x10
6
. This moment was found to be 126 kNm.
Curvature at service load level is 4.987x10
6
. Therefore,
. . 0 . 4 0 . 15
10 126 10 99 . 4
10 422 10 29 . 22
6 6
6 6
K O
M
M
DF
s s
u u
> =
The beam satisfies all design requirements.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
C.10
CONVERSION FACTORS
D.1
Appendix
D.1 Conversion Factors
Table D.1 Table D.1 Table D.1 Table D.1    SI Units/US Customary Units SI Units/US Customary Units SI Units/US Customary Units SI Units/US Customary Units
To Convert From To Convert From To Convert From To Convert From To To To To Multiply By Multiply By Multiply By Multiply By
mm in. 0.039370
m ft 3.280839
mm
2
in.
2
0.001550
mm
4
in.
4
0.002403
N lbf 0.224809
kN kip 0.224809
Nm in.lbf 8.850732
Nm ftlbf 0.737562
MPa =N/mm
2
ksi 0.145038
Reinforcing Concrete Structures
D.2
Installation, Use and Repair of Fibre Optic Sensors
Prepared as an installation and repair resource primarily for civil engineering applications,
this manual covers the use of fibre optic sensing technology in structures. In Canada,
innovative remote monitoring field applications have been demonstrated with sensors
imbedded in new concrete structures, in reinforcing tendons, and attached to existing
structures in composite fibre overwraps. Drawing on expertise gained in the research
laboratory and several field installations, the manual provides an overview of basic FOS
concepts and goes into the finer details of specific applications in composite laminates,
concrete repair and new structures.
Guidelines for Structural Health Monitoring
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is used to accurately and efficiently monitor the insitu
behaviour of a structure, to assess its performance under various service loads, to detect
damage or deterioration, and to determine the structures conditions or health. While this
manual focusses primarily on bridge applications, (case studies of nine bridges and one
wharf are covered), the concepts are applicable to civil engineering structures in general.
This manual covers the benefits of SHM for those who are not fully initiated. It also
serves as a guide for engineers who wish to become more knowledgeable and involved with
the various aspects of SHM.
Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)
This manual provides guidelines and equations to be used in designing new FRPreinforced
concrete structures. While the equations are not part of national or international codes, they
are based on research carried out in Canadian and international university laboratories and
institutions and validated in several operational field applications, of which four are
described in the manual. An introduction to FRP reinforcing products and their material
properties is included for the uninitiated while the detailed design process is covered for those
wishing to apply this new technology.
Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures
with ExternallyBonded Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)
FRP rehabilitation projects in Canada have included column and beam strengthening,
seismic retrofitting, repairing corrosiondamaged beams and columns, as well as numerous
structural components. This manual presents the varied design procedures that have been
developed and validated through several field applications. The basic equations and
methodology are presented and case studies used to illustrate the procedures. Before FRPs
become routinely employed as everyday solutions for structural strengthening and repair
challenges, codes of practise must be readily available. The guidelines and design equations
contained in this manual are the result of extensive investigation, and as such, are the
Canadian contribution to the global effort to formulate appropriate codes.
ISIS Canada DESIGN MANUALS
ISIS Canada was established in 1995 to provide civil engineers with smarter ways to build, repair, and monitor
structures using highstrength, noncorroding fibre reinforced polymers and fibre optic sensing systems. It was created
by the federal Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) program and encompasses 15 universities, 30 Project Leaders
250 researchers, 100 associated organizations, and 36 multidisciplinary demonstration projects.
Manual No.1
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