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2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.

Tensile Testing, Second Edition (#05106G)

Tensile Testing
Second Edition

Edited by
J.R. Davis
Davis & Associates

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002


www.asminternational.org

www.asminternational.org

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


Tensile Testing, Second Edition (#05106G)

Copyright 2004
by
ASM International
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
written permission of the copyright owner.
First printing, December 2004
Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this book, but it should be made clear
that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is
believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained
from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having
technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use
are outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any
use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this
publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase
price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY
HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER,
AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM
THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under
end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual
conditions is recommended.
Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale,
use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition,
or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters
patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.
Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.
Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Book Committee (20042005),
Yip-Wah Chung, Chair (FASM).
ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of
Product and Service Development; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; Carol Polakowski,
Production Supervisor; and Pattie Pace, Production Coordinator.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Tensile testing / edited by J.R. Davis.2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-87170-806-X
1. MaterialsTesting. 2. Brittleness. 3. Tensiometers. I. Davis, J. R. (Joseph R.)
TA418.16.T46 2004
620.1126dc22
2004057353
ISBN: 0-87170-806-X
SAN: 204-7586
ASM International
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org
Printed in the United States of America

www.asminternational.org

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


Tensile Testing, Second Edition (#05106G)

www.asminternational.org

Contents
Preface ............................................................................................... vii
Section 1

Tensile Testing: Understanding the Basics

Chapter 1

Introduction to Tensile Testing ............................................. 1


Tensile Specimens and Testing Machines .................................. 1
Stress-Strain Curves .............................................................. 3
True Stress and Strain ........................................................... 7
Other Factors Influencing the Stress-Strain Curve ...................... 7
Test Methodology and Data Analysis ....................................... 8

Chapter 2

Mechanical Behavior of Materials under Tensile Loads ........ 13


Engineering Stress-Strain Curve ............................................ 13
True Stress-True Strain Curve ............................................... 18
Mathematical Expressions for the Flow Curve ......................... 20
Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature .................................... 21
Instability in Tension .......................................................... 22
Stress Distribution at the Neck .............................................. 23
Ductility Measurement in Tensile Testing ............................... 24
Sheet Anisotropy ................................................................ 25
Notch Tensile Test .............................................................. 28
Tensile Test Fractures .......................................................... 28

Chapter 3

Uniaxial Tensile Testing ..................................................... 33


Definitions and Terminology ................................................ 34
Stress-Strain Behavior ......................................................... 36
Properties from Test Results ................................................. 40
General Procedures ............................................................. 47
The Test Piece ................................................................... 47
Test Setup ......................................................................... 54
Test Procedures .................................................................. 56
Post-Test Measurements ...................................................... 58
Variability of Tensile Properties ............................................ 59

Chapter 4

Tensile Testing Equipment and Strain Sensors ..................... 65


Testing Machines ............................................................... 66
Principles of Operation ........................................................ 68
Load-Measurement Systems ................................................. 74
Strain-Measurement Systems ................................................ 77
Gripping Techniques ........................................................... 83
Environmental Chambers ..................................................... 84
iii

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


Tensile Testing, Second Edition (#05106G)

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Force Verification of Universal Testing Machines ..................... 85


Tensile Testing Requirements and Standards ........................... 87
Chapter 5

Tensile Testing for Design .................................................. 91


Product Design .................................................................. 91
Design for Strength in Tension ............................................. 92
Design for Strength, Weight, and Cost ................................... 93
Design for Stiffness in Tension ............................................. 95
Mechanical Testing for Stress at Failure and Elastic Modulus ..... 97
Hardness-Strength Correlation .............................................. 99

Chapter 6

Tensile Testing for Determining Sheet Formability ..............101


Effect of Material Properties on Formability ..........................101
Effect of Temperature on Formability ...................................106
Types of Formability Tests ..................................................107
Uniaxial Tensile Testing .....................................................107
Plane-Strain Tensile Testing ................................................111

Section 2

Tensile Testing of Engineered Materials and Components

Chapter 7

Tensile Testing of Metals and Alloys ..................................115


Elastic Behavior ................................................................115
Anelasticity ......................................................................116
Damping ..........................................................................118
The Proportional Limit .......................................................119
Yielding and the Onset of Plasticity ......................................119
The Yield Point .................................................................122
Grain-Size Effects on Yielding ............................................123
Strain Hardening and the Effect of Cold Work ........................124
Ultimate Strength ..............................................................126
Toughness ........................................................................127
Ductility ..........................................................................129
True Stress-Strain Relationships ...........................................130
Temperature and Strain-Rate Effects .....................................131
Special Tests ....................................................................133
Fracture Characterization ....................................................134
Summary .........................................................................136

Chapter 8

Tensile Testing of Plastics .................................................137


Fundamental Factors that Affect Data from Tensile Tests .........138
Stipulations in Standardized Tensile Testing ...........................144
Utilization of Data from Tensile Tests ...................................150
Summary .........................................................................152

Chapter 9

Tensile Testing of Elastomers ............................................155


Manufacturing of Elastomers ...............................................155
Properties of Interest ..........................................................155
Factors Influencing Elastomer Properties ...............................156
ASTM Standard D 412 ......................................................158
Significance and Use of Tensile-Testing Data .........................159
Summary .........................................................................161

Chapter 10

Tensile Testing of Ceramics and Ceramic-Matrix


Composites ....................................................................163
Rationale for Use of Ceramics ...........................................163
Intrinsic Limitations of Ceramics ........................................163
iv

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


Tensile Testing, Second Edition (#05106G)

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Overview of Important Considerations for Tensile Testing of


Advanced Ceramics .........................................................164
Tensile Testing Techniques ................................................165
Summary .......................................................................179
Chapter 11

Tensile Testing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites .................183


Fundamentals of Tensile Testing of Composite Materials ........183
Tensile Testing of Single Filaments and Tows .......................185
Tensile Testing of Laminates .............................................185
Data Reduction ...............................................................191
Application of Tensile Tests to Design .................................192

Chapter 12

Tensile Testing of Components .........................................195


Testing of Threaded Fasteners and Bolted Joints ...................195
Testing of Adhesive Joints ................................................204
Testing of Welded Joints ...................................................206

Section 3

Tensile Testing at Extreme Temperatures or High-Strain


Rates

Chapter 13

Hot Tensile Testing .........................................................209


Equipment and Testing Procedures .....................................210
Hot Ductility and Strength Data from the Gleeble Test ...........215
Isothermal Hot Tensile Test Data ........................................220
Modeling of the Isothermal Hot Tensile Test ........................226
Cavitation during Hot Tensile Testing .................................230

Chapter 14

Tensile Testing at Low Temperatures ...............................239


Mechanical Properties at Low Temperatures .........................239
Test Selection Factors: Tensile versus Compression Tests .......241
Equipment ......................................................................243
Tensile Testing Parameters and Standards ............................246
Temperature Control ........................................................248
Safety ............................................................................248

Chapter 15

High Strain Rate Tensile Testing ......................................251


Conventional Load Frames ................................................251
Expanding Ring Test ........................................................254
Flyer Plate and Short Duration Pulse Loading .......................255
The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique .......................257
Rotating Wheel Test .........................................................260

Section 4

Reference Information

Glossary of Terms ...............................................................................265


Reference Tables .................................................................................273
Room-temperature tensile yield strength comparisons of
metals and plastics ........................................................273
Room-temperature tensile modulus of elasticity comparisons
of various materials ......................................................275
Index ................................................................................................279

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


Tensile Testing, Second Edition (#05106G)

www.asminternational.org

Preface
In the preface to the first edition of Tensile Testing, editor Patricia Han wrote Our
vision for this book was to provide a volume that could serve not only as an introduction
for those who are just starting to perform tensile tests and use tensile data, but also as
a source of more detailed information for those who are better acquainted with the
subject. We have written this reference book to appeal to laboratory managers, technicians, students, designers, and materials engineers. This vision has been preserved
in the current edition, with some very important new topics added.
As in the first edition, section one opens with an introduction that discusses the
fundamentals and language of tensile testing. Subsequent chapters describe test methodology and equipment, the use of tensile testing for design, and the use of tensile
testing for determining the formability of sheet metals.
The second section consists of five chapters that deal with tensile testing of the major
classes of engineering materialsmetals, plastics, elastomers, ceramics, and composites. New material on testing of adhesively bonded joints, welded joints, and threaded
fasteners has been added.
The third section contains chapters that review testing at elevated and low temperatures and special tests carried out at very high strain rates. Although these subjects were
introduced in the first edition, they have been substantially expanded in this book.
In the fourth and final section, a glossary of terms related to tensile testing and
properties has been compiled. Comprehensive tables provide tensile yield strengths of
various materials and compare the elastic modulus of engineering materials.
In summary, this edition retains much of the flavor of the first edition while introducing readers to a number of additional topics that will extend their knowledge and
appreciation of the tensile test.
Joseph R. Davis
Davis & Associates
Chagrin Falls, Ohio

vii

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information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be
obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having
technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are
outside of ASM's control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this
information. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to
specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.
Nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale,
use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or
system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this
publication shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent,
copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.