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The ITU-T Recommendations (Standards)

International Regulatory Bodies ITU-T

Is to fulfil the purposes of the Union relating to telecommunication standardization by studying technical, operating and tariff questions and adopting Recommendations on them with a view to standardizing telecommunications on a world-wide basis.

Performance Objectives and availability objectives Dimensioning of network connection is based on the required availability objective and performance Dimension a network must meet the standard requirements recommendations by ITU

The performance objectives are separated from availability objectives Factors to be considered radio wave propagation hardware failure Resetting time after repair Frequency dependant interference problems ITU-T Recs for Transmission in GSM Net All BTS, BSC and MSC connections in GSM network are defined as multiples of the primary rate if 2 Mbps, ITU-T Rec G.821 applies as the overall standard for GSM network. ITU-T Rec G.826 applies for SDH.

The ITU-T target standard are based on two recommendations: ITU-T Recommendation G.821,intended for digital connection with a bit rate of 64 kBit/s. Even used for digital connection with bit rates higher than 64kBit/s. G.821 will successively be replaced by G.826.

ITU- T Recommendation G.826, used for digital connection with bit rates of or higher than 2,048 kBit/s (European standard) or 1,544 kBit/s (USA standard).

The main difference between G.826 and G.821 is that G.826 uses Blocks instead of bits in G.821

ITU-T G.821 some definitions

HRX : hypothetical Reference Connection This a model for long international connection, 27,500 km Includes transmission systems, multiplexing equipment and switching

HRDP: Hypothetical Reference Digital Path The HRDP for high grade digital relay systems is 2500 km Doesnt include switching

HRDS: Hypothetical Reference Digital Section It represents section lengths likely to be encountered in real networks Doesn't include digital equipments, such as multiplexers/demultiplexers.

ITU-T G.821 some definitions (course contents)

SES : Severely Errored Seconds A bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 is measured with an integration time of 1 second.

DM : Degraded Minutes A bit error rate (BER) of 10-6 is measured with an integration time of 1 minute.

ES : Errored Seconds Is the second that contains at least one error

RBER: Residual Bit Error Rate The RBER on a system is found by taking BER measurements for one month using a 15 min integration time, discarding the 50 % of 15 min intervals which contain the worst BER measurements, and taking the worst of the remaining measurements

Digital Systems and BER

Performance of digital transmission system can be evaluated by BER, Bit Error Rate Telephony BER degradation versus audible degradation:

10-6: Noise not audible 10-5: Barely audible 10-4: audible, understandable 10-3: disturbing More than 10-3: sync loss, link loss Data and in particular multimedia media application require a very low BER

ITU-T G.821 some definitions

The system is considered unavailable when one or both of the following conditions occur for more than 10 consecutive seconds The digital signal is interrupted The BER in each second is worse than 103 Unavailable Time (UAT) Begins when one or both of the above mentioned conditions occur for 10 consecutive seconds Available Time (AT) A period of available time begins with the first second of a period of 10 consecutive seconds of which each second has a bit error ratio (BER) better than 10-3

ITU-T G.821 Availability

Route availability equals the sum of single link availabilities forming the route. Unavailability might be due to Propagation effect Equipment effect

Note: Commonly used division is to allocate 2/3 of the allowed total unavailability to equipment failure and 1/3 to propagation related unavailability

ITU-T G.821 Performance Objectives

SES : Severely Errored Seconds BER should not exceed 103 for more than 0.2% of one second intervals in any month The total allocation of 0.2% is divided as: 0.1% for the three classifications The remaining 0.1% is a block allowance to the high grade and the medium grade portions DM : Degraded Minutes BER should not exceed 106 for more than 10% of one minute intervals in any month The allocations of the 10% to the three classes ES : Errored Seconds Less than 8% of one second intervals should have errors The allocations of the 8% to the three classes