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Lecture 21 Load-Bearing Walls

The ACI recognizes the Empirical Design Method for the design of loadbearing concrete walls having the following limitations:

Load-bearing Wall

1. Wall must be solid, with a rectangular cross-section


Lu 25

2. Minimum wall thickness tw = larger of

4 Interior walls only 7 Exterior walls

3. Applied load eccentricity e (including lateral load moments) < 4. Wall must be adequately anchored at top and bottom

tw 6

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5. Must have horizontal & vertical reinforcement, with 2 rows of reinforcing for walls with tw > 10 Vert. bars As = 0.0012(tw)(12) #3, #4, #5 grade 60 bars Horz. bars As = 0.0020(tw)(12) Vert. bars As = 0.0015(tw)(12) #6 and bigger grade 60 bars Horz. bars As = 0.0025(tw)(12) 3tw Maximum bar spacing = smaller of or 18 6. Effective length of wall for beam reaction = Leff Center-to-center spacing of beams Leff = smaller of Width of bearing + 4tw 7. Design factored axial strength of wall = Pn
KL 2 u Pn = 0.55f ' c Ag 1 32t w

where: = 0.70 fc = specified concrete strength, PSI K = end fixity of walls = 1.0 for pinned-pinned = 0.70 for fixed-pinned Ag = Gross effective area of wall section, in2 = Leff x tw Lu = unbraced height of wall, inches tw = thickness of wall, inches

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Example GIVEN: A poured-in-place concrete wall supports W18x35 steel beams spaced 6-0 apart and rests on 10 wide steel bearing plates. Use the following: Beam end reaction = 22 KIPS Service Dead Load (Not incl. wall wt.) = 15 KIPS Service Live Load Wind pressure on wall = 25 PSF (service load) Concrete fc = 4000 PSI Use #5 grade 60 vertical and horizontal bars Assume K = 1.0 for wall end fixity

REQUIRED: Design the wall using the Empirical Design Method. PDEAD = 22 KIPS PLIVE = 15 KIPS

Steel beam Wind = 25 PSF 10 bearing plate Wall Slab on grade Lu = 13-0 Fin. Grade

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Step 1 Determine Trial thickness of wall, tw:


Lu 13'0" (12" / ft ) = = 6.24 25 25

Minimum wall thickness tw = larger of

4 7 Largest

TRY tw = 8 which is > 7 Step 2 Determine maximum SERVICE wind moment Mwind on wall: Assume a 1-0 wide strip of wall: Mwind = wL2 8

(25PSFx1'0" )(13' ) 2 = 8 Mwind = 528 Ft-Lb per 1-0 length of wall = 528 Ft-Lb(6-0) for beam spacing = 3168 Ft-Lb per 6-0 length of wall Step 3 Determine the maximum SERVICE vertical load on wall Ptotal: Ptotal = PDEAD + PLIVE = (PDEAD + wall weight) + PLIVE 8" = (22 KIPS + (6-0 12" / ft 0.150 KCF ) 13'0" )) + 15 KIPS = 29.8 KIPS + 15 KIPS Ptotal = 44.8 KIPS

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Step 4 Determine if eccentricity is acceptable for Empirical Design: e = eccentricity M Service wind load moment = P =

3.168Kip Ft (12" / ft ) 44.8KIPS

Service axial load (see above)


tw 6

= 0.85 inches The empirical design method dictates that e <


tw 8" = 6 6

Wall thickness

tw = 1.33 > 0.85 OK to use Empirical Design Method 6

Step 5 Determine applied factored axial load, Pu: Pu = 1.2(PDEAD) + 1.6(PLIVE) = 1.2(29.8 KIPS) + 1.6(15 KIPS) = 59.8 KIPS Step 6 Determine factored bearing strength of concrete: A1 = bearing contact area from beam, in2 = (bearing plate width)(tw) = (10)(8) = 80 in2 Concrete bearing capacity = 0.9(0.85fcA1) = 0.9(0.85(4000 PSI)(80 in2)) Concrete bearing capacity = 244,000 Lbs > 59.8 KIPS OK

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Step 7 Determine design axial strength of wall Pn: Leff = smaller of Center-to-center spacing of beams = 6(12/ft) = 72 Width of bearing + 4tw = 10 + 4(8) = 42 USE

Ag = Gross effective area of wall section, in2 = Leff x tw = (42)(8) = 336 in2
KL 2 u Pn = 0.55f ' c Ag 1 32t w

(1.0)(13' x12" / ft ) 2 = 0.55(0.70)(4000 PSI )(336in ) 1 32(8" )


2

Pn = 325,300 Lbs. > 59.8 KIPS wall is acceptable Step 8 Determine vertical and horizontal bars: #3, #4, #5 grade 60 bars Vert. bars As = 0.0012(tw)(12) Horz. bars As = 0.0020(tw)(12) a) Vert. bars As = 0.0012(8)(12) = 0.115 in2 per 1-0 length of wall
0.31in 2 _ per _#5 _ bar spacing = 12 0.115in 2

= 32.3

32.3 or 3tw = 3(8) = 24

Maximum bar spacing = smaller of

or 18 USE

USE #5 vertical bars @ 18 o.c.

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b) Horizontal bars As = 0.0020(tw)(12) = 0.0020(8)(12) = 0.192 in2


0.31in 2 _ per _#5 _ bar spacing = 12 0.192in 2

= 19.4
19.4 or

Maximum bar spacing = smaller of

3tw = 3(8) = 24 or 18 USE

USE #5 horizontal bars @ 18 o.c.

Step 9 Draw Summary Sketch:

W18x35 Steel beam 10 bearing plate

18 Lu = 13-0 #5 @ 18 ea. way Fin. Grade

8 thick concrete Wall Slab on grade

NOTES:
1) Conc. fc = 4000 PSI. 2) All bars grade 60 3) Footing dowels and keyway not shown

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